You are on page 1of 5

,

.
, , , , ,
, , , , , (Robertson, 1986, 1989;
Moncure et al., 1992; Schlottmann and Breit, 1992; Frost et al., 1993; Das et al., 1994, 1995;
Chatterjee et al., 1995).
Hering and Elimelech (1995).
- ,
.
(Craig, 1986).
-
.
, - ,
(Craig,
1986).
(Stoepper, 1992).

. As(V), As(III), As(0) As(-III). Sb
(V), Sb(III), Sb(0) Sb(-II). Se(VI), Se(IV), Se(0) Se(-II).
, -
(Cutter, 1992).
. As(III) Sb(III) -
(Berman, 1980; Gesamp, 1986). ,
Cr(III) e , Cr(VI) .

.
- .
-,
, , ,
- (Russeva, 1995). ,
( ) -
. , ,
(Prange and Jantzen, 1995).
,

. >
> () > () (Penrose, 1974; Lewis and
Tatken, 1978; Strugeon et al., 1989).
.
As(III), As(V)
- (Braman and Foreback, 1973; Andrae, 1977;
Shaikh and Tallman, 1978).

.
, (Brewstar, 1994; Chatterjee, 1994).

(Rubio et al., 1992).
- (Robertson,

1989; Hering and Elimelech, 1995).


,
(Bhattacharya et al., 1996, 1997).

- ,
, , (Welch et
al., 1988; Korte and Fernando, 1991).
,
(Bhattacharya et al., 1997).


(Bhattacharya et al., 1995a).
, -

(Bhattacharya et al., 1995b).

(Robertson, 1986).

, . ,
- ( ,
????? )
, . Robertson
(1989) ,
/, /,
/, ,
. Mok and Wai (1989)

, . ,

.
. - - .


. -
,
.

.
(acute subacute). ,
, ()
.
, , , , .
,
(Done and Peart, 1971).
(sub-acute toxicity) -
, -, -, . , ,

, , , , ,
. , ,
, (Holmquist, 1951; Pinto
and McGill, 1953).
(Sullivan, 1969;
USEPA(United States Enviromental Protection Agency), 1971; Fairchild et al., 1977).
Chatterjee (1994) , .
-
(NAS National Academy of Sciences, 1977).
As(III) As(V)
. 60 -
(Ferguson and Gavis, 1972).
100 - (DMMA MMAA) (Nagy and
Korom, 1983).
, (Vahter nad
Marafante, 1988).
.
,
.
(Web et al., 1978).
, ,

(Colbourne et al., 1975; Abrahams and Thornton, 1987).
,
. Thoresby Thornton (1979) ,
. Abrahams
(1983). ,
. ,
, ,
(Thornton, 1995).
Esser (1996)
. ,

. ,
, ,
, (Esser et al., 1991a),

, , (Esser et al.,
1991b). ,
,
.


(Hotta, 1989). ,
50% (Das, 1995; Das et al., 1995),
, , , . ,
, , ,

(Borgono and Greiber, 1971; Goldshmith et al., 1972; Yamamura


and Yamauchi, 1980).
, , ,
, , , .
(, ,
,
, , , , ,
) (Kiping, 1977; WHO(World Health Organisation), 1981; Pershagen, 1983).
, , -
.

(Csanady and Straub, 1995).
(Lu, 1990a,b)
.
(Chem et al., 1988).
12% ,
(Borgono and Greiberg, 1972).
(Cebrian
et al., 1983).
. , (Astolfy et
al., 1981). , , .
, (Chatterjee et al., 1994; Das et al., 1994; Chatterjee et al., 1995;
Mandal et al., 1996). , -
, , (), , ,
, , , , Chatterjee (1994).

.

1954 . Goldberg(1954)
, -
.
,
..
1982.
- ,
.
(1990)
, -
. (1989) ,
, ,
.

.
.
-
. ,

.
.

,
. ,
, ,
. ,

, .
- , ,
, .
,

,
. ,
.
,