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Math 480 Proposal Elif Az 2003102278 Title Lebesgues Dierentiation Theorem: An Elementary Proof Supervisor Burak Grel u Abstract

The fact that a continuous monotone function is dierentiable almost everywhere was established by Lebesgue in 1904. In 1911, W. H. Young proved this result without continuity assumption. However, Riesz gave a completely elementary proof of this theorem in 1932 by using his Rising Sun Lemma. Other than Rieszs, all the proofs of this theorem utilize Lebesgue Density Theorem, measure theory and Vitali Covering Theorem. Also a geometric proof which involves measure theory, sets of measure zero and measurability of Dini derivatives was given by D.Austin. The purpose of this work is to give an easier alternative proof of this theorem that can be presented in an elementary analysis course. This proof removes geometric considerations and uses no measure theory beyond the sets of measure zero. Instead of Dini derivatives, upper and lower derivatives are used without the restriction being measurable. We will use Heine-Borel Theorem and an elementary covering lemma to show that a nondecreasing function f dened on [a, b] has derivative almost everywhere in this interval. References [1] M.W.Botsko. An Elementary Proof of Lebesgues Dierentiation Theorem, The American Mathematical Monthly, 110 (9), (Nov 2003): 834-838. [2] R.P.Boas. A Primer of Real Funtions, (Rahway, New Jersey: Mathematical Association of America, 1960). [3] G.Temple. The Structure of Lebesgue Integration Theory, (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1971). [4] D.Austin. A geometric proof of the Lebesgue Dierentiation Theorem, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 16 (1965): 220-221. Aim During the last three years of our undergraduate education we have used some of the conclusions that Lebesgue had discovered. During this period I have never had the chance to learn Lebesgues fascinating world. Before I nish my undergraduate education I decided to study on the paper by Michael W. Botsko, hoping to learn something new about Lebesgue Dierentiation Theorem and its contribution to mathematics.