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Air pollution : Air pollution may be defined as the presence in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or more contaminants

or combinations thereof in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business. 1. Pollutants : It is a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air , which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people. 1.1 Major Pollutants:

1..) Carbon Monoxide 2.) Sulfur Dioxide 3.) Nitrogen Dioxide 4.) Particulate Matter 5.) Ground Level Ozone 2. i) ii) Sources of Air Pollution : The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, this happens because of Deforestation and fossil fuel burning Sulfur dioxide is another air polluter and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels. Sulfur oxides are very dangerous to humans at a high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is responsible for acid rain Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also contribute to air pollution by reducing the amount of ozone the stratosphere. CFCs come from a variety of places such as: the burning of plastic foam items leaking refrigerator equipment spray cans iv) Natural Air Pollutants : Natural air pollutants can include: Smoke from wild fires

iii)

Methane released from live stock Volcanic eruptions

3.Health Effects of Nitrogen Oxides Short-term exposure at concentrations greater than 3 parts per million (ppm) can measurably decrease lung function. Concentrations less than 3 ppm can irritate lungs. Concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm cause lung irritation and measurable decreases in lung function in asthmatics. Long-term lower level exposures can destroy lung tissue, leading to emphysema. Children may also be especially sensitive to the effects of nitrogen oxides. 3.1Other Effects Seriously injure vegetation at certain concentrations. Effects include: Bleaching or killing plant tissue. Causing leaves to fall. Reducing growth rate.

Deteriorate fabrics and fade dyes. Corrode metals (due to nitrate salts formed from nitrogen oxides). Reduce visibility. Oxides of nitrogen, in the presence of sunlight, can also react with hydrocarbons, forming photochemical oxidants or smog.

3.2 These effects include: Health problems, such as episodes of bronchitis requiring hospitalization associated with lower-level acid concentrations. Self-reported respiratory conditions, such as chronic cough and difficult breathing, Increased respiratory tract infections Subjective symptoms, such as headaches and nausea.

3.3 Health Effects of Ozone

Ozone acts as a powerful respiratory irritant at the levels frequently found in most of the nation's urban areas during summer months. Ozone exposure may lead to: Shortness of breath. Chest pain when inhaling deeply. Wheezing and coughing.

4. WAYS TO STOP POLLUTION; Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room Tell your friends and family about pollution Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars Driving a car that gets at least 35 mpg Walking, biking, and using public transportation Using CFL bulbs over incandescent bulbs Buying only energy efficient appliances Recycling newspaper, aluminum, and others Planting trees! Avoid purchasing products that contain CFCs

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