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You are on page 1of 83

Open-Loop Process

Observe process behavior as a result of specific input signals

Closed-Loop System

In study and design of control systems, we are concerned with the dynamic behavior of a controlled or Closed-loop Systems

Feedback Control

Control is meant to provide regulation of process outputs about a reference, , despite inherent disturbances

Controller

System

The deviation of the plant output, ,from its intended reference is used to make appropriate adjustments in the plant input,

Feedback Control

Process is a combination of sensors and actuators Controller is a computer (or operator) that performs the required manipulations

Computer Actuator

+ Process

Sensor

5

Block Diagram of Closed-Loop Process

Computer Actuator

+ Process

Sensor

- Open-Loop Process Transfer Function - Controller Transfer Function - Sensor Transfer Function - Actuator Transfer Function

6

For analysis, we assume that the impact of actuator and sensor dynamics are negligible

Two inputs The reference signal The disturbance signal Two outputs The manipulated (control) variable signal The output (controlled) variable signal We want to see how the inputs affect the outputs Transfer functions relating , and

They arise from three so-called sensitivity functions Highlights the dilemma of control system design Only one degree of freedom to shape the three sensitivity functions

9

Sensitivity functions:

The sensitivity function:

10

SERVO RESPONSE

REGULATORY RESPONSE

Servo response is the response of the output to setpoint change Regulatory response is the response of the output to disturbance changes

11

Since

12

Note that

or

is large

13

PID Controller

Most widespread choice for the controller is the PID controller

The acronym PID stands for: P - Proportional I - Integral D - Derivative PID Controllers: greater than 90% of all control implementations dates back to the 1930s very well studied and understood optimal structure for first and second order processes (given some assumptions) always first choice when designing a control system

14

PID Control

PID Control Equation Proportional Action Derivative Action

Kc Proportional gain Integral Time Constant Derivative Time Constant Controller Bias

Controller Bias

15

PID Control

PID Controller Transfer Function

or:

Note:

numerator of PID transfer function cancels second order dynamics denominator provides integration to remove possibility of steady-state errors

16

PID Control

Controller Transfer Function:

or,

Note:

Many variations of this controller exist Easily implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK each mode (or action) of controller is better studied individually

17

Proportional Feedback

Form:

Closed-loop form:

18

Proportional Feedback

Example:

Given first order process:

19

Proportional Feedback

Final response:

Note:

for zero offset response we require

Tracking Error

Disturbance rejection

Possible to eliminate offset with P-only feedback (requires infinite controller gain) Need different control action to eliminate offset (integral)

20

Proportional Feedback

Servo dynamics of a first order process under proportional feedback

21

Proportional Feedback

High-order process e.g. second order underdamped process

increasing controller gain reduces offset, speeds response and increases oscillation

22

Proportional Feedback

Important points:

proportional feedback does not change the order of the system started with a first order process closed-loop process also first order order of characteristic polynomial is invariant under proportional feedback speed of response of closed-loop process is directly affected by controller gain increasing controller gain reduces the closed-loop time constant in general, proportional feedback reduces (does not eliminate) offset speeds up response for oscillatory processes, makes closed-loop process more oscillatory

23

Integral Control

Integrator is included to eliminate offset

provides reset action usually added to a proportional controller to produce a PI controller PID controller with derivative action turned off PI is the most widely used controller in industry optimal structure for first order processes

PI controller form

24

PI Feedback

Closed-loop response

25

PI Feedback

Example

PI control of a first order process

26

PI Feedback

Example (contd)

effect of integral time constant and controller gain on closed-loop dynamics (time constant) natural period of oscillation

damping coefficient

integral time constant and controller gain can induce oscillation and change the period of oscillation

27

PI Feedback

Effect of integral time constant on servo dynamics

28

PI Feedback

Effect of controller gain on servo dynamics

29

PI Feedback

Effect of integral action of regulatory response

reducing integral time constant removes effect of disturbances makes behavior more oscillatory

30

PI Feedback

Important points:

integral action increases order of the system in closed-loop PI controller has two tuning parameters that can independently affect speed of response final response (offset) integral action eliminates offset integral action should be small compared to proportional action tuned to slowly eliminate offset can increase or cause oscillation can be de-stabilizing

31

Derivative Action

Derivative of error signal

Used to compensate for trends in output measure of speed of error signal change provides predictive or anticipatory action P and I modes only response to past and current errors Derivative mode has the form

if error is increasing, decrease control action if error is decreasing, decrease control action Usually implemented in PID form

32

PID Feedback

Transfer Function

33

PID Feedback

Example:

PID Control of a first order process

34

PID Feedback

Effect of derivative action on servo dynamics

35

PID Feedback

Effect of derivative action on regulatory response

increasing derivative action reduces impact of disturbances on controlled variable 36 slows down servo response and affects oscillation of process

PD Feedback

PD Controller

Arise in application for systems with an integrating behaviour

37

PD Feedback

Transfer Function

38

PD Feedback

DC Motor example:

In terms of angular velocity (velocity control)

39

PD Feedback

Simplifying

Notice that

40

Derivative Action

Important Points:

Characteristic polynomial is similar to PI derivative action does not increase the order of the system adding derivative action affects the period of oscillation of the process good for disturbance rejection poor for tracking the PID controller has three tuning parameters and can independently affect, speed of response final response (offset) servo and regulatory response derivative action should be small compared to integral action has a stabilizing influence difficult to use for noisy signals usually modified in practical implementation

41

Closed-loop Stability

Every control problem involves a consideration of closed-loop stability General concepts: Bounded Input Bounded Output (BIBO) Stability:

An (unconstrained) linear system is said to be stable if the output response is bounded for all bounded inputs. Otherwise it is unstable. Comments: Stability is much easier to prove than instability This is just one type of stability

42

Closed-loop Stability

Closed-loop dynamics

Let then,

43

Closed-loop stability

General Stability criterion:

A closed-loop feedback control system is stable if and only if all roots of the characteristic polynomial are negative or have negative real parts. Otherwise, the system is unstable. Unstable region is the right half plane of the complex plane. Valid for any linear systems.

44

Closed-loop Stability

Problem reduces to finding roots of a polynomial (for polynomial systems, without delay)

Easy (1990s) way : MATLAB function ROOTS (or POLE) Traditional: 1. Routh array: Test for positivity of roots of a polynomial 2. Direct substitution Complex axis separates stable and unstable regions Find controller gain that yields purely complex roots 3. Root locus diagram Vary location of poles as controller gain is varied Of limited use

45

Closed-loop stability

Routh array for a polynomial equation

is

where

Elements of left column must be positive to have roots with negative real parts 46

Characteristic polynomial

2.36s5 + 149 s4 ! 0.58s3 + 121s2 + 0.42 s + 0.78 = 0 . .

Polynomial Coefficients

a5 = 2.36, a4 = 149, a3 = !0.58, a2 = 121, a1 = 0.42, a0 = 0.78 . .

Routh Array

a5 (2.36) a3 ( !0.58) a1(0.42) a4 (149) a2 (121) a0 (0.78) . . b1( !2.50) b2 ( !0.82) b3 (0) c1(0.72) c2 (0.78) d1(189) . d 2 (0) e1(0.78)

47

Direct Substitution

Technique to find gain value that de-stabilizes the system. Observation: Process becomes unstable when poles appear on right half plane Find value of that yields purely complex poles

Strategy:

Start with characteristic polynomial

Solve for

and

48

Characteristic equation

Substitution for

Real Part

Complex Part

System is unstable if

49

Old method that consists in plotting poles of characteristic polynomial as controller gain is changed e.g.

Characteristic polynomial

50

Given plant model, we assume a stable closed-loop system can be designed Once stability is achieved - need to consider performance of closedloop process - stability is not enough All poles of closed-loop transfer function have negative real parts - can we place these poles to get a good performance S

51

Controller Tuning

Can be achieved by

Direct synthesis : Specify servo transfer function required and calculate required controller - assume plant = model Internal Model Control: Morari et al. (86) Similar to direct synthesis except that plant and plant model are concerned Pole placement Tuning relations: Cohen-Coon - 1/4 decay ratio designs based on ISE, IAE and ITAE Frequency response techniques Bode criterion Nyquist criterion Field tuning and re-tuning

52

Direct Synthesis

From closed-loop transfer function

Isolate

, controller is

not necessarily PID form inverse of process model to yield pole-zero cancellation (often inexact because of process approximation) used with care with unstable process or processes with RHP zeroes

53

Direct Synthesis

1. Perfect Control

For 1st order open-loop process, For 2nd order open-loop process,

requires again, 1st order leads to PI control 2nd order leads to PID control

54

55

1. Process model factored into two parts

where to 1. 2. Controller

where

The constant is chosen such the IMC controller based on pole-zero cancellation

is proper

56

Example

PID Design using IMC and Direct synthesis for the process

57

Example

1.

IMC Tuning:

a) Taylor Series: Filter Controller (PI)

58

Example

Servo Response

59

Example

Regulatory response

60

IMC Tuning

Must modify IMC filter such that the value of Usual modification

at

is 1

Strategy is to specify

such that

61

Example

Let

Yields a PI controller

62

Example

Servo response

63

Pole placement

Under what condition does there exist a unique controller pair and such that

64

Pole placement

Result:

Assume that and are (co) prime. Let be an arbitraty polynomial of degree . Then there exist polynomials and of degree such that

65

Pole Placement

Example

This is a second order system The polynomials and are prime The required degree of the characteristic polynomial is The degree of the controller polynomial and are

Controller is given by

66

Pole Placement

by equating polynomial

67

Pole Placement

System of equations

68

Tuning Relations

Process reaction curve method:

based on approximation of process using first order plus delay model

Manual Control

1. Step in U is introduced 2. Observe behavior 3. Fit a first order plus dead time model

69

Tuning Relations

Process response

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4. Obtain tuning from tuning correlations Ziegler-Nichols Cohen-Coon ISE, IAE or ITAE optimal tuning relations

70

Ziegler-Nichols Tunings

Controller P-only PI PID

- Note presence of inverse of process gain in controller gain - Introduction of integral action requires reduction in controller gain - Increase gain when derivation action is introduced

Example:

PI: PID:

71

Example

Ziegler-Nichols Tunings: Servo response

72

Example

Regulatory Response

Z-N tuning

Oscillatory with considerable overshoot Tends to be conservative

73

Designed to achieve 1/4 decay ratio

fast decrease in amplitude of oscillation

Controller P-only

PI

Kc

Ti

Td

(1 / K p )(! / " )[1 + " / 3! ] (1 / K p )(! / " )[ 0.9 + " / 12! ] 3" + 16! (1 / K p )(! / " )[ ] 12!

4" 11 + 2(" / ! )

PID

74

Tuning relations

Cohen-Coon: Servo

More aggressive/ Higher controller gains Undesirable response for most cases

75

Tuning Relations

Cohen-Coon: Regulatory

76

1. Integral of absolute error (IAE)

IAE = ! e(t ) dt

0 "

ISE = ! e(t ) 2 dt

0 "

ITAE = ! t e(t ) dt

0 "

77

ITAE Relations

Choose Kc, I and d that minimize the ITAE:

For a first order plus dead time model, solve for:

! ITAE ! ITAE ! ITAE = 0, = 0, =0 ! Kc !" I !" d

Design for Load and Setpoint changes yield different ITAE optimum

Mode P I P I D P I P I D

A 0.859 0.674 1.357 0.842 0.381 0.586 1.03 0.965 0.796 0.308

B -0.977 -0.680 -0.947 -0.738 0.995 -0.916 -0.165 -0.85 -0.1465 0.929

78

ITAE Relations

From table, we get

Load Settings:

B Y = A ! " = KKc = " " = " d " I

( )

Setpoint Settings:

B Y = A ! " = KKc = " d " ,

( )

"

! "I = A+ B "

( )

Example

79

ITAE Relations

Example (contd) Setpoint Settings

KKc = 0.965 9 30 = 2.6852 Kc = 2.6852 K = 2.6852 0.3 = 8.95

( )

!0.85

9 . ! I = 0.796 " 01465 30 = 0.7520 ! I = ! 0.7520 = 30 0.7520 = 39.89 0.929 !d = 0.308 9 30 = 01006 . ! ! d = 01006! = 3.0194 .

( )

( )

Load Settings:

( )

!0.947

"0.738 = 0.842 9 30 = 2.0474 !I ! I = ! 2.0474 = 30 2.0474 = 14.65 0.995 !d = 0.381 9 30 = 01150 . ! ! d = 01150! = 3.4497 .

( )

( )

80

ITAE Relations

Servo Response

design for load changes yields large overshoots for set-point changes

81

ITAE Relations

Regulatory response

82

Tuning Relations

In all correlations, controller gain should be inversely proportional to process gain Controller gain is reduced when derivative action is introduced Controller gain is reduced as ! " increases Integral time constant and derivative constant should increase as increases In general, !

d

"

! I = 0.25

Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon tuning relations yield aggressive control with oscillatory response (requires detuning) ITAE provides conservative performance (not aggressive)

83

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