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THAFSEER IBN KASEER, 9:36 Explanation

(Every man who does not pay t he Zakah due on his money, t hen on t he Day of Resurrect ion, his side, forehead and back will be branded wit h rods made of fire on a Day t he lengt h of which is fift y t housand years, unt il when t he servant s will be j udged; t hat man will be shown his dest inat ion, eit her t o Paradise or t he Fire.) aIn t he Tafsir of t his Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Zayd bin Wahb said, "I passed by Abu Dharr in t he area of Rabadhah and asked him, ` What made you reside in t his area' He said, ` We were in Ash-Sham when I recit ed t his Ayah,


(And t hose who hoard up gold and silver and spend t hem not in t he way of Allah, announce unt o t hem a painful t orment .) Mu` awiyah said, ` This Ayah is not about us, it is only about t he People of t he Book.' So I (Abu Dharr) said, ` Rat her, it is about us and t hem.''


(36. Verily, t he number of mont hs wit h Allah is t welve mont hs (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on t he Day when He creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h; of t hem four are sacred. That is t he right religion, so wrong not yourselves t herein, and fight against t he Mushrikin idolat ers collect ively as t hey fight against you collect ively. But know t hat Allah is wit h t hose who have Taqwa.)

The Year consists of Twelve Months


Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Bakrah said t hat t he Prophet said in a speech during his Haj j ,

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(The division of t ime has t urned t o it s original form which was current when Allah creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h. The year is of t welve mont hs, out of which four mont hs are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa` dah, Dhul-Hij j ah and Muharram, and (t he fourt h is) Raj ab of (t he t ribe of) Mudar which comes bet ween Jumada (At h-Thaniyah) and Sha` ban.'' The Prophet t hen asked, (What is t he day t oday') We said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er. He kept quiet unt il we t hought t hat he might give t hat day anot her name. He said (Isn't it t he day of Nahr) We replied, "Yes.'' He furt her asked, (Which mont h is t his) We again said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er,'' and he kept quiet and made us t hink t hat he might give it anot her name. Then he said,(Isn't it t he mont h of Dhul-Hij j ah) We replied, "Yes.'' He asked, (What t own is t his) We said, "Allah and His Messenger know bet t er,'' and he kept quiet unt il we t hought t hat he might change it s name. He asked, (Isn't t his t he (Sacred) Town) We said, "Yes.'' He said,

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(Verily! Your blood, propert y and honor are sacred t o one anot her like t he sanct it y of t his day of yours, in t his mont h of yours and in t his cit y of yours. Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will quest ion you about your act ions. Behold! Do not revert t o misguidance aft er me by st riking t he necks of one anot her. Have I conveyed It is incumbent upon t hose who are present t o inform t hose who are absent , because t hose who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) bet t er t han some who are present .) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collect ed t his Hadit h. In a small book collect ed by Shaykh ` Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, ent it led, Al-Mashhur fi Asma' Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he ment ioned t hat Muharram is so named because it is a sacred mont h. To me, it was so named t o emphasize it s sacredness. This is because t he Arabs would swit ch it around. One year t hey would say it was a sacred mont h, t he following year t hey would say t hat it was not . The aut hor said, "...and Safar is so named because t hey used t o leave t heir homes during t hat mont h for fight ing and t raveling. When saying ` Safir' a place, it means t o leave it ... Rabi` Al-Awwal is called t hat because t hey used t o do Irt iba` in it , t hat is t o maint ain one's propert y... and Rabi` Al-Akhir, was so named for t he same reasons. Jumada is called t hat because t he wat er would dry up (Jamud) t hen....They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah. Raj ab comes from Tarj ib, meaning t o honor. Sha` ban because t he t ribes would separat e and ret urn t o t heir homes. Ramadan was so named because of t he severit y of t he Ramda' - t hat is - t he heat , and t hey say t hat t he branch Ramadat when it is

t hirst y...And t he saying t hat it is a Name of Allah is a mist ake, for t here is no proof or support for t hat ...''

The Sacred Months


Allah said,


(of t hem four are sacred). The Arabs used t o consider t hese mont hs sacred during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of t hem called Al-Basl, who held eight mont hs of t he year t o be sacred as way of exaggerat ion in religion. The Prophet said,

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(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa` dah, Dhul-Hij j ah and Muharram, and (t he fourt h is) Raj ab of (t he t ribe of) Mudar which comes bet ween Jumada (At h-Thani) and Sha` ban). The Prophet said "Raj ab of Mudar'' t o at t est t o t he cust om of Mudar, in saying t hat Raj ab is t he mont h t hat is bet ween Jumada and Sha` ban, not as t he t ribe of Rabi` ah t hought , t hat it is bet ween Sha` ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in t he present calendar. The four Sacred Mont hs were made four, t hree in succession and one alone, so t hat t he Haj j and ` Umrah are performed wit h ease. Dhul-Qa` dah, t he mont h before t he Haj j mont h, was made sacred because t hey refrained from fight ing during t hat mont h. Dhul-Hij j ah, t he next mont h, was made sacred because it is t he mont h of Haj j , during which t hey performed Haj j rit uals. Muharram, which comes next , was made sacred so t hat t hey are able t o go back t o t heir areas in safet y aft er performing Haj j . Raj ab, in t he middle of t he lunar year, was made sacred so t hat t hose coming from t he fart hest areas of Arabia are able t o perform ` Umrah and visit t he House and t hen go back t o t heir areas safely. Allah said next ,


(That is t he right religion), t hat is t he St raight Law, requiring implement ing Allah's order concerning t he mont hs t hat He made sacred and t heir t rue count as it was originally writ t en by Allah. Allah said,


(so wrong not yourselves t herein) during t hese Sacred Mont hs, for sin in t hem is worse t han sin in ot her mont hs. Likewise, sins in t he Sacred Cit y are writ t en mult iplied,

Sura Juma 62:09 Explanation; IBN Kaseer

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(9. O you who believe! When t he call is proclaimed for t he Salah on Al-Jumu` ah (Friday), t hen hast en (Fas` aw) t o t he remembrance of Allah and leave off business. That is bet t er for you if you did but know!) (10. Then when t he Salah is complet e, you may disperse t hrough t he land, and seek t he bount y of Allah, and remember Allah much, t hat you may be successful.)

Al-Jumu` ah (Friday), and the Orders and Etiquette for Friday


Friday is called Al-Jumu` ah because it is derived from Al-Jam` , lit erally, gat hering. The people of Islam gat her weekly, on every Friday in t he maj or places of worship. It was during Friday when Allah finished t he creat ion, t he sixt h day, during which Allah creat ed t he heavens and eart h. During Friday, Allah creat ed Adam, and he was placed in Paradise, and ironically, it was a Friday when he was t aken out of Paradise. It will be on a Friday when t he Last Hour will commence. There is an hour during Friday, wherein no fait hful servant asks Allah for somet hing good, but Allah will give him what he asked for. All of t his is based upon Hadit hs in t he aut henic collect ions. In t he ancient language Friday was called, ` Arubah. It is a fact t hat previous nat ions were informed about Friday, but t hey were led ast ray from it . The Jews chose Sat urday for t heir holy day, but Adam was not creat ed on Sat urday. The Christ ians chose Sunday, which is t he day t he creat ion was init iat ed. Allah chose Friday for t his Ummah, because it is t he day t he creat ion was finished.Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,