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Textile applications for medical and hygienic dosage

MOL-9906 Intelligent Textiles and Smart Garments 07.10.2011 Cigdem AKDUMAN Cigdem.akduman@ege.edu.tr

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Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6

INTRODUCTION MEDICAL AND HYGIENIC DOSAGE ACTIVE AGENTS AND APPLICATION METHODS
ANTIMICROBIAL FIBERS AND TEXTILES

SLOW RELEASE SYSTEMS CONCLUSIONS


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MEDICAL AND HYGIENIC DOSAGE Medical and Hygienic dosage covers medical or hygienic active agents released or transferred at any time.
active agents can be integrated into textile structures and products by some application also textile structures or fibers can be produced with these agents

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MEDICAL AND HYGIENIC DOSAGE

Considering medical and hygienic dosage most important application is antimicrobial applications. All kind of socks, Bandages, wound care items, Bedding; pillow cases or bed linens, Sportswear, Workwear, Underwear, Carpets, Nursery products Filtration, Baby wear Outdoor equipment, Shirts Towels, bathrobes,

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Beside Antimicrobials;
Moisture management systems are complementary systems for antimicrobial application.

anti-allergens anti-insects anti-static applications scent microencapsulation technology

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ACTIVE AGENTS AND APPLICATION METHODS


Considering the antimicrobial agents chemical structures

Synthetic compounds;
quaternary ammonium compounds, Nhalamines, polybiguanides, triclosan, nanoparticles of noble metals and metal oxides

Natural compounds
bioactive plantbased products

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ACTIVE AGENTS AND APPLICATION METHODS


According to their mechanism of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, durability and ecological acceptability, these agents can be divided into
Antimicrobials

Biocides

Biostats

leaching

barrier- forming agents controlled-release

bound antimicrobials

good washing resistance

Poor Washing resistance

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Structures of Antimicrobial Agents


Biocide

Synthetic compounds

Silver

Fibre Polyester Polyamide Wool Regenerated cellulose Cotton Polyester Polyamide Wool

MIC

Toxicity

Fibre interaction and side-effects Slow Release; durable but Ag can be depleted

0,05-0,1 mg/L Against E.coli

Little to nontoxic

QACs

10-100 mg/L Against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria 0,5-10 mg/L against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Less than 10 mg/L Against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Moderate to highly toxic

Covalent bonding; very durable: possible bacterial resistance

PHMB (Vantocil)

Cotton Polyester Polyamide

Moderate Large amount acute aquatic needed; potential bacterial toxicity resistance

Polyester Polyamide Triclosan Cellulose acetate Acrylic fibre Cotton Polyester N-Halamines Polyamide Wool

Breaks down into toxic Moderate to highly toxic

Large amount needed; potential bacterial resistance Needs regeneration odour from residual www.themegallery.com chlorine

Na

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Metals and Metal Salts


Copper, zinc and cobalt, are also effective antimicrobial agents for textiles, silver ions and its compounds are the most widely used in textiles. Silver metal alone, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and silver protein all have antimicrobial effect

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Silver sulfadiazine

The antimicrobial effect may be summarized by below mechanism of silver ions on textile surfaces; Stopping the oxygen supply by blocking oxygen-transporting enzymes Stopping the multiplication of bacteria by inactivating sulphur-containing bacterial proteins Stopping the nutrient supply by blocking the cell membrane

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Quaternary Ammonium Compounds;


Quaternary ammonium compounds are membrane-active agents. These compounds carry a positive charge at the N atom in solution and cause microorganism cell membrane damages, interruption of protein activity and destruction of the cell structure

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Polybiguanides PHMB
most important antimicrobial agents among Polybiguanides is poly(hexamethylenebiguanide) PHMB Reputex 20 is a special grade PHMB developed by Arch Chemicals for textile treatments These days it can be applied to polyester and nylon as well, under the trade name Purista

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Regenerable N-halamine and Peroxyacid


N-halamines are heterocyclic organic compounds containing one or two covalent bonds formed between nitrogen and a halogen (NX), in which the latter is usually chlorine N-halamine compounds antimicrobial properties are based on the electrophilic substitution of Cl in the N-Cl bond with H.

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Halogenated Phenols (Triclosan)


Among halogenated phenols, triclosan is the most widely used biocide; it is present in many contemporary consumer and personal health-care products, detergents and household objects, including textiles and plastics.

Chemical structure of triclosan

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Natural compounds

Chitosan

Sericin Neem
Aloe vera

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Natural compounds

Chitosan
Chitosan is a deacetylated derivate of chitin, non toxic, resistant to microorganisms, biodegradable and biocompatible.

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Natural compounds

Sericin
It is a biomolecule of great value since it has antibacterial properties, UV resistance, resists oxidation and has hydrating properties

Neem
The extract of neem has been used in pesticide formulations that due to their pesticide repellent properties have the potential to inhibit the growth of Grampositive and Gram-negative

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Natural compounds

Aloe vera
It is a natural plant gives aloe gel, which has antimicrobial activity against various Aloe vera also has antibacterial and microbes antifungal properties that can be exploited in applications for medical textiles such as bandages, sutures, bioactive textiles, etc.

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Natural compounds
Eucalyptus oil has cleaning properties, Prickly chaff flower (Achysanthus aspera) is a herbs, Clove oil (eugenol) is the main product of Syzygium aromaticum and they all present antimicrobial activity. But their applications in textile substrates are still being explored

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ANTIMICROBIAL FIBERS AND TEXTILES

Silver has been directly absorbed into pre-formed SeaCell Active, is a lyocell fiber made of cellulose from certain seaweeds with a large capacity for absorbing mineral Sauquoit Industries, Inc is producing a silver coated nylon fibre called X-Static Coolmax freshFX.is produced by ADVANSA by incorporating a silver-based additive to Coolmax

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ANTIMICROBIAL FIBERS AND TEXTILES An antibacterial polyester fiber that incorporates an inorganic bioactive additive to flame retardant Trevira fibers called Trevira CS Bioactive fiber

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ANTIMICROBIAL FIBERS AND TEXTILES


Thomson Research Associates manufactures UltraFresh and Silpure products CrabyonR is a development of a composite fibre of chitosan and viscose with durable antimicrobial activity from natural resources Milliken has developed a silver-based antimicrobial agent, AlphaSan, which is a zirconium phosphatebased ceramic ion-exchange resin containing silver and is added during the extrusion process of synthetic fibers

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SLOW RELEASE SYSTEMS


Slow release systems are cyclodextrins, aza-crown ethers or fullerenes, as well as onexchange fibres, drug-loaded hollow fibres, textiles treated with nanoparticles and fibres with bioactive compounds Most important point is that the delivery systems are mainly discussed in terms of features such as biocompatibility and controllability
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CONCLUSIONS
In case of antimicrobial agents they should be effective against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal species Medical and hygiene agents should have low toxicity to consumers, e.g. not cause toxicity, allergy or irritation to the user Should be durable to laundering, dry cleaning and hot pressing

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CONCLUSIONS
The finishing should not negatively affect the quality (e.g. physical strength and handle) or appearance of the textile, they should be applied easily should preferably be compatible with textile chemical processes such as dyeing, be cost effective and environmental friendly, during their production stage they should not produce harmful substances to manufacturer

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