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Chapter 1: Introduction to PSoC


From the free online book Architecture and Programming of PSoC Microcontrollers Introduction 1.1 System Overview 1.2 CPU 1.3 Frequency generator 1.4 Microcontroller power consumption 1.5 Reset 1.6 Digital inputs and outputs 1.7 Analog inputs and outputs 1.8 Accessing programmable digital blocks 1.9 Global input lines 1.10 Digital programmable blocks 1.11 Analog programmable blocks 1.12 Referent voltage generators 1.13 Switch mode pump 1.14 MAC 1.15 Decimator 1.16 I2C controller 1.17 Interrupt controller 1.18 Address space

Introduction
When developing more complex projects, there is often a need for additional peripheral units, such as operational and instrument amplifiers, filters, timers, digital logic circuits, AD and DA convertors, etc. As a general rule, implementation of the extra peripherals brings in additional difficulties: new components take space, require additional attention during production of a printed circuit board, increase power consumption... All of these factors can significantly affect the price and development cycle of the project. The introduction of PSoC microcontrollers has made many engineers dream come true of having all their project needs covered in one chip.

PSoC: Programmable System on Chip


PSoC (Programmable System on Chip) represents a whole new concept in microcontroller development. In addition to all the standard elements of 8-bit microcontrollers, PSoC chips feature digital and analog programmable blocks, which themselves allow implementation of large number of peripherals. Digital blocks consist of smaller programmable blocks that can be configured to allow different development
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options. Analog blocks are used for development of analog elements, such as analog filters, comparators, intrumentational (non)inverting amplifiers, as well as AD and DA convertors. Theres a number of different PSoC families you can base your project upon, depending on the project requirements. Basic difference between PSoC families is the number of available programmable blocks and the number of input/output pins. Number of components that can be devised is primarily a function of the available programmable blocks. Depending on the microcontroller family, PSoC chips have 416 digital blocks, and 312 analog programmable blocks.

Characteristics of PSoC microcontrollers


Some of the most prominent features of PSoC microcontrollers are: MAC unit, hardware 8x8 multiplication, with result stored in 32-bit accumulator, Changeable working voltage, 3.3V or 5V, Possibility of small voltage supply, to 1V, Programmable frequency choice. Programmable blocks allow you to devise: 16K bytes of programmable memory, 256 bytes of RAM, AD convertors with maximum resolution af 14 bits, DA convertors with maximum resolution of 9 bits, Programmable voltage amplifier, Programmable filters and comparators, Timers and counters of 8, 16, and 32 bits, Pseudorandom sequences and CRC code generators, Two Full-Duplex UARTs, Multiple SPI devices, Option for connection on all output pins, Option for block combining, Option for programming only the specified memory regions and write protection, For every pin there is an option of Pull up, Pull down, High Z, Strong, or Open pin state, Possibility of interrupt generation during change of state on any input/output pin, IC Slave or Master and Multi-Master up to speed of 400KHz, Integrated Supervisory Circuit, Built-in precise voltage reference.

Is PSoC good enough for my project?


Perhaps the best way to recognize the true value of PSoC microcontrollers is through comparison with other options. Major advantages of PSoC microcontroller include the following: There is no other microcontroller that has programmable voltage, instrumentational, inverting, and non-inverting amplifiers; Hardware generators of pseudorandom and CRC code, as well as analog modulators, are unique to PSoC families;
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MAC (Multiply-accumulate) is an essential part of digital signal processors, which allows implementation of digital signal processing algorithms. Its worth noting that hardware accumulator multiplication is not a common feature of 8-bit microcontrollers; Having the advantage of changeable working voltage doesnt really need a comment. This feature is particularly important for development of new devices as it eliminates the need for redesigning the PCB and implementing the level translator; Option for low voltage supply (~1V) is a tremendous advantage in battery operated systems; Timers, counters, and PWM units are more flexible than the usual implementation; Automatic code writing for accessing all the peripherals in use; In case you need a larger array of components, there is an option for dynamic reconfiguration, allowing you to change peripherals during run-time. In this way, its possible to minimize the processor workload at an time, leaving the largest part of the job to the specialized hardware. On the other hand, there are certain limitations of PSoC that could influence the choice of microcontroller for your design. In systems which require highly precise or fast measurement, problems may occur with analog device characteristics. In this case, you should analyze if speed of AD convertors and offset/noise of analog amplifiers are able to satisfy the project demands. Analog components do not have the ability to work with usual negative supply voltage. For example, zero voltage for inverting amplifiers is taken to be the analog ground AGND (usually 2.5V). All voltages above AGND are taken as positive, while voltages below AGND are taken as negative. Most PSoC microcontrollers have 256 bytes of RAM, which could prove to be insuficient for some projects.

1.1 System overview


PSoC microcontrollers are based on 8-bit CISC architecture. Their general structure with basic blocks is presented in the following image:

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CPU unit is the main part of a microcontroller whose purpose is to execute program instructions and control workflow of other blocks. Frequency generator facilitates signals necessary for CPU to work, as well as an array of frequencies that are used by programmable blocks. These signals could be based on internal or external referent oscillator. Reset controller enables microcontroller start action and brings a microcontroller to regular state in the case of irregular events. Watch Dog timer is used to detect software dead-loops. Sleep timer can periodically wake up microcontroller from power saving modes. It could be also used as a regular timer. Input-Output pins enable communication between the CPU unit, digital and analog programmable blocks and outside world. Digital programmable blocks are used to configure digital programmable components which are selected by user. Analog programmable blocks are used to configure analog components, like AD and DA converters, filters, DTMF receivers, programmable, instrumental, inverting, non-inverting and operational amplifiers. Interrupt controller handles necessary operations in the case of interrupts. I2C controller Enables hardware realization of an I2C communication. Voltage reference is vital for the work of analog components that reside inside of analog programmable blocks.
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MAC unit is used for operations of hardware signed multiplication of 8-bit numbers. SMP is a system which can be used as a part of a voltage regulator. For example, it is possible to supply power to a PSoC microcontroller from a single 1.5V battery. [back to the top]

1.2 CPU
During the programming, instructions are stored in program (FLASH) memory in a way which is familiar to microcontroller. CPU fetches one instruction at a time from program memory, decodes it and executes appropriate operations. CPU unit has internal registers PC, SP, A, X and F, as well as ALU unit and instruction decoding unit, that are associated to instruction execution process.

Internal Registers of CPU


Program counter (PC) is used as a pointer to the next program instruction that should be executed. With each new instruction value of program counter is being set to point on the next instruction in program memory, which is going to be decoded and executed. Stack pointer (SP) points to the address of SRAM memory where data is written to or read from in case of PUSH and POP instructions respectively. When these instructions occur value stored in SP is internally incremented or decremented. Accumulator register (A) is the main register which handles all arithmetical, logical or data transfer operations. Index register (X) could behave as register A in large number of instructions. Also, register X is used in the case of index addressing. Flag register (F) contains bits which describe result of a previously executed instruction. It also has a role during selection of a RAM memory page in case when PSoC microcontroller has more than 256 bytes of RAM. Bit Flag Zero (Z) marks that accumulator stores a zero, while Carry (C) marks that there has been carrying during arithmetic or logic operations. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a standard part of a CPU, which is used for arithmetic operations like addition, subtracting and shifting (left or right), as well as logic operations. Data handled by instructions could be stored in internal registers A and X, or in RAM data memory [back to the top]

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1.3 Frequency generator


Frequency generator is vital to CPU unit functioning, as well as programmable blocks. Each of programmable components has certain demands regarding speed. PSoC microcontrollers have a system for generation of different frequency signals, which is done by graphically selecting appropriate parameters. Picture shows two independent systems for generating signals SYSCLK and CLK 32k.

SYSCLK is the main internal clock signal with a speed of 24MHz. It is used as a reference clock for most of other signals. SYSCLKx2 is a clock signal with double frequency (48MHz) of SYSCLK signal. 24V1 is a signal derived by dividing frequency SYSCLK with parameter N1, which varies in range from 1 to 16. 24V1 frequency equals SYSCLK/N1, with a frequency from 1.5MHz (N1=16) to 24MHz (N1=1). 24V2 is a signal derived by dividing 24MHz frequency with parameter N1, which varies in range between 1 and 16. 24V2 signal frequency equals SYSCLK/N1N2., which means that possible frequency ranges from 93.75kHz (N1,N2=16) to 24MHz (N1,N2=1). 24V3 signal is derived by dividing frequency of one of the signals 24V2, 24V1, SYSCLK or SYSCLKx2, with number N, in the range from 1 to 256. CPU_CLK is used as a CPU unit frequency which has a direct impact on instruction execution speed. CPU_CLK can have any of eight frequencies that are in range from 93.75MHz to 24MHz. Frequency 24V1, 24V2, 24V3 and CPUCLK selection is done easily, by setting appropriate parameters in Device Editor or during program runtime by selecting three lower bits of OSCCR0 register. CLK32K is a slow signal with a frequency of 32kHz. It can be used as a programmable component input. It can also be used for Sleep timer wake-up operation in the case when other SYSCLK derived signals are inactive.

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Signal SYSCLK can be acquired using internal main oscillator (IMO), while CLK32K signal is acquired through internal local oscillator (ILO). Fault tolerance of 2.5% in the case of internal frequency generation, is the limit factor in a precise timing applications. In such case external SYSCLK clock reference should be used. External frequency ranges from 1 to 24MHz. It connects to PSoC through pin P1[4]. Similar situation is in the case of CLK32K, which also can be generated by internal local oscillator (ILO), as said before, or more precise external 32kHz oscillator. In the both cases microcontroller starts with internal frequency generators, after which is necessary to satisfy appropriate procedure. [back to the top]

1.4 Microcontroller power consumption


Processor signal frequency CPUCLK is directly connected with the instruction execution speed of the microcontroller. Doubling the frequency, program executes approximately twice faster. On the other hand, higher frequency doesnt necessary always mean better overall performances. Main disadvantage in rising the frequency is its unwanted effect on microcontroller power consumption, which is one of the main problems it the case of battery supply. Other disadvantage of higher frequency is more intensive generation of electromagnetic interference, which may affect on surrounding devices. Because of these problems general rule should be applied, which says that lowest possible satisfactory frequency should be used. Default value of PSoC microcontroller signal frequency is 3MHz, which is a compromise between speed and consumption. To maintain the longest possible uninterrupted work time, it is an imperative to bring power consumption to its lowest satisfactory functional level in battery operated devices. Most of microcontrollers operate only periodically, while being in the idle state for the most of their time. Major power saving can be achieved by bringing microcontroller to sleep mode while microcontroller does no important role. Saving is achieved because of all the frequencies, except CPU32K and SLEEP become inactive, while processor stops instruction execution. Microcontroller could be woken up from sleep mode only by reset or a interrupt. Interrupt could be generated by a sleep timer or some digital block which use CPU_32k frequency. Also GPIO pin or analog column interrupts can be used for CPU waking-up. Sleep timer represents a special counter whose main role is to generate periodic interrupts which enable waking microcontroller from power saving mode. Sleep timer frequency interrupt ranges from 1 to 512Hz. After waking microcontroller does all needed operations after which its being switched back to sleep mode and waits for another sleep timer interrupt. There is a appropriate type of interrupt needed to wake the microcontroller from sleep mode. Because of possibility for various irregularities to occurs during the work of microcontroller there is a need to reset it in those cases, or in other words, brought to beginning state. Begin state means all internal registers are initialized and program continues its execution from beginning.

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1.5 Reset
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POR
During the work of microcontroller, supply voltage variations occurs. It is very dangerous if voltage drops beneath certain limit, because microcontroller can make some unpredictable actions. In the case of such voltage drop detection, microcontroller is switched into Power on Reset mode in which it remains until voltage stabilizes above critical limit which is defined by Trip Voltage parameter.

XRES
External reset allows user to bring microcontroller to start state by switching a button. Reset is achieved when XRES pin reads logic ONE. Simplest reset circuit can be made with pull-down resistor and one switch.

WDR
Watch dog reset (WDR) is used for avoiding software dead-loops or other irregularities, bringing the system in the start state. Using WDR, it is watch dog timer (WDT) is periodically restarted inside of a main program, after which appropriate subprograms are executed. In normal mode after certain time WDT is being restarted once again and subprogram cycle continues. But, if program blocks in one of the subprograms WDT is not reset, and WDR occurs. [back to the top]

1.6 Digital Inputs and Outputs


Connection between a PSoC microcontroller with an outside world is achieved over input-output pins. Eight pin group which could be accessed simultaneously are parts of one port. Although port number differs from the type of the microcontroller, write and read operations are done in the same way in any case. Port access registers are stored inside of register address space noted as PRT0DR, PRT1DR, PRT2DR, PRT3DR, PRT4DR or PRT5DR.

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Writing to port
Writing value to PRTxDR initializes register which through init circuit drives the state of pins. Init circuit can pass the signal from PRTxDR register directly (strong), over pull-up or pull-down resistors or through open drain output. Beside that, there is a possibility to isolate value of register from pin state (Hi-Z).

Reading port
Reading value from address PRTxDR digital state of voltage on pins is stored to register A. In case that voltage is dictated by some external device, read value could differ from voltage on PRTxDR register.

Drive Mode
Selection of the way in which init register PRTxDR is connected to pins can be set inside of Device Editor or during runtime initializing registers PRTxDM2, PRTxDM1 and PRTxDM0. There is eight methods to initialize pins in total, which enables connection to different types of devices, with considerate smaller amount of external components. Pin work modes are defined according to the following table depending on contents of appropriate bit from registers DM2, DM1 and DM0. DM2 bit DM1 bit DM0 bit Mode 0 0 0 Resistive Pull Down 0 0 1 Strong Drive 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Data = 0 Resistive Strong Data = 1 Strong Strong Hi-Z Resistive Strong (Slow)

High Impedance Hi-Z Resistive Pull Up Strong Open Drain, Drives High Hi-Z

Slow Strong Drive Strong (Slow) Strong (Slow) High Impedance Analog Hi-Z Hi-Z

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DM2 bit DM1 bit DM0 bit Mode Data = 0 Data = 1 1 1 1 Open Drain, Drives Low Strong (Slow) Hi-Z Strong mode is used when it is needed to connect the state on PRTxDR register directly to pins. This way of connection is applied when pin is used as an input.

Analog Hi-Z mode is used when connecting analog signals, like AD converter input. In this case, all internal connections between PRTxDR register and pin are disconnected, so not to interfere with value of brought voltage.

Pull-up or pull-down resistors are used when connecting with buttons or some other devices which demand this type of components. These resistors are defining the state on input when button is not pushed. Open drain mode is used when it is needed to bring several devices to the same line, when it is needed to add one external pull-up or pull-down resistor. This mode is convenient for realization of a line which signals if there has been a mistake to one of the microcontrollers. For example, when used pull-up resistor version when zero (error) occurs on any of output pins state of this line will be zero. Pins on PSoC microcontroller allow user to generate interrupt on any pin, when signal changes, or on signal rising or falling edge.

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1.7 Analog inputs and outputs


Some of input-output pins, beside their standard use can perform analog input or output operation. Any pin of

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port P0 as well as lower four pins of port P2 can be used as analog input. Inputs of port P0 are connected to analog blocks over analog multiplexers, while in case of port P2 they are connected directly to programmable SC blocks. Pins P2[4] and P2[6] can serve as external referent voltage inputs. Outputs from analog blocks can be connected to 4 output buffers, which are connected to P0[2],P0[3],P0[4] and P0[5] pins.

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1.8 Accessing programmable digital blocks


Digital components, which are stored inside of programmable blocks, arent connected directly to input or output pins. It is done in a way shown on following picture, which depicts group of four digital programmable blocks. As it could be seen, pin connection is established using global connection lines, multiplexer and lines of programmable blocks. PSoC microcontrollers can have one, two or four digital programmable block groups like this one depending on their family.

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1.9 Global input lines


Global input lines establishes connection between the pins and input multiplexers. Global input lines are divided in two groups, depending on weather they can connect to ports with odd (GIO) or even (GIE) index. Rule of connection is that it is possible to connect only between a line and a pin which have the same index. For example, line GIO_0 can connect only to zero pin of some of the odd index ports (P1[0],P3[0],P5[0]).

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Input multiplexers of block lines


Input multiplexer selects one of global lines and connects it to signal carrying line which leads to programmable blocks. Picture shows that input block lines can be connected to GIO or GIE lines with same index, or with index with offset four.

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1.10 Digital programmable blocks


Inside of digital programmable blocks user can configure components like timers, counters, PWM, PRS, CRC generators and devices for SPI, IrDA and UART communication, which enables custom hardware adjustment of the system for specific uses. The process of setting and connecting using PSoC Designer is very simple to understand, but at first is necessary to understand the way those components function. Most components, like counters, PRS and CRC generators can be stored inside of any free block. On the other side, communication components like Rx, Tx, UART and SPI can be set on the right side of the programmable blocks.

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The number of necessary blocks which are used for component configuration shown in the table: Number of blocks Components 1 Counter8, Timer8, PWM8, PRS8, RX8/TX8, SPIM/SPIS 2 Counter16, Timer16, PWM16, PRS16, PWMDB8, CRC16, UART, IrDARx/IrDATx 3 4 Counter24, Timer24, PWMDB16 Counter32, Timer32

Frequency signal (CLK)


Frequency signal is needed for digital components to work. Depending on wanted speed there is a range of several built-in frequencies to choose from: internal signal frequency VC1, VC2, VC3, SYSCLKx2, CPU_32 output from adjacent blocks common Broadcast line (BC) input (RI) or output (RO) block lines

Most common internal signals are VC1, VC2 and VC3, because when used with different prescalers, they offer broad range of possible frequencies. In case that signals VC1,VC2 and VC3 could not offer specified frequency, outputs from Counter, Timer or PWM, which can be used like like additional prescalers. Picture above shows in dotted line direct way to connect output of previous block with the input of the next block. In case that signal needs to be routed across several blocks, connection is done over common frequency line BC.

Component input signal


Most of the components, beside frequency signal, has one or two digital inputs. For example, in the case of a counter and PWM generator input is used for enabling counting. There are different possibilities in selection of the component input signal:

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block input lines (RI), which is a case of external signal block output lines (RO), in the case of component cascading analog block comparator lines signal of logic one(high) signal of logic zero (low)

Component output signals


Digital outputs of the component are used for connecting programmable blocks with output lines RO. Signal could be routed from output lines further toward output of the microcontroller or input of some other component. Output multiplexers are used for connecting lines of programmable blocks with global output lines.

Multiplexer
Depending on the state of multiplexer, output (RO) or input (RI) line of programmable block could be connected.

Logic circuit
Selected signal can be brought to the output of logic circuit. As other input could be used some of adjacent lines of programmable blocks (RO). Logic circuit can: pass one of two signals invert input signals do logic operations AND, OR or XOR over input signals which could be inverted previously.

Output drivers
Logic circuit output can be routed to four output drivers, which can make connection to one, or more, global output lines. Line of programmable blocks with some index can be connected to GOO or GOE lines with same or by four higher index. Global output lines makes connection between drivers and pins. They are separated in two groups, depending on where they can be connected to ports with odd (FGIO) or even (GIE) index. Rule of connection says that only lines and pins with the same index can be interconnected. Beside that there is a possibility to establish a connection between input and output lines, which enables additional processing of the input signal.

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[back to the top]

1.11 Analog programmable blocks


Analog programmable blocks are grouped in columns of three programmable blocks. Depending on family of microcontroller, there could be 1, 2 or 4 analog columns. Each column has input multiplexer, one frequency line, output analog and a comparator line.

Analog multiplexers of port P0


Signals from port 0 are connected to analog ACB blocks over appropriate input multiplexers. Multiplexers can select even (Port0_even) or odd (Port0_Odd) pins, while two middle columns have the ability to choose either pins of port P0.

Analog inputs of port P2


Beside port P0, as analog inputs could be used four lower pins of port P2. This pins can be connected directly

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to analog programmable blocks.

Analog columns
One column of analog blocks is made of three types of blocks: ACB, ASC i ASD. Outputs of these blocks can be routed to some of adjacent blocks, output analog line or comparator line.

ACB blocks are used to store amplifiers with rail-to-rail inputs and outputs, digital controlled resistors and internal multiplexers. Depending on interconnections made inside of ACB blocks, it is possible to implement inverting, noninverting, instrument amplifier or comparator. As input to ACB blocks can be used analog multiplexer or output signal of some of adjacent blocks. ASC and ASD blocks are of switched capacitor (SC) type. They contains amplifiers with rail-to-rail input and outputs, condensators and internal multiplexers. AD, DA and analog filters could be implemented depending on configuration inside of these blocks. As inputs to SC blocks, input from some adjacent block could be used. It should be noted, that signals from analog multiplexers couldnt be brought directly to SC blocks, but over ACB blocks.

Analog outputs
For every analog column is common to have an AnalogOutBus line. Analog output lines can be are connected, through a buffer, to four middle pins of port A.

Comparator outputs
Every analog column has one comparator line, to which could be connected digital output from one of analog blocks. Comparator output could be connected to digital blocks (most common way of doing it is as counter signal, or timer). Before connecting, there is a possibility to modify or combine comparator output of some column (A) with next comparator line (B), using some logic operation.

Frequency signal
Many components, such as AD, DA convertors and filters, need to have a frequency signal in the specific range, which affects the components speed. Frequency signal selection done over appropriate multiplexers.

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For each of the columns it is possible to select: internal frequency VC1 internal frequency VC2 output over some of the digital blocks, most commonly counter timer and PWM generator, which is selected through the multiplexer.

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1.12 Referent voltage generators


There are three stable voltage generators in PSoC microcontroller: AGND RefH RefLo AGND is ground voltage for analog components. Voltage values higher than AGND are considered as positive, while less are negative. PSoC microcontrollers have one-side power supply, so value of analog ground is somewhere in between GND and VDD. AGND value is selected by user.

RefHi and RefLo represent referent higher and lower voltage, for AD and DA components. PSoC microcontrollers have a system that can generate several referent signal values AGND, RefHi and RefLo. This enables simple adjustment to different types of voltage sensors. Referent voltages are made from internal temperature stabilized bandgap voltage reference Vbg = 1.3V, supply voltage VDD or external signal as shown in the following table. PSoC microcontrollers are well adjusted to work with battery supply.

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Ref Mux Vdd/2 Vbg Vdd/2 Vdd/2 Vbg Vbg 1.6Vbg 1.6Vbg 2Vbg Vbg 2Vbg P2[6] P2[4] Vbg P2[4] P2[6]

AGND [V] RefLo [V] RefHi [V] 2.5/1.65 1.2/0.35 3.8/2.95 2.5/1.65 1.3 2.08 2.6 2.6 2.2 2.2 0 0 0 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.2 5.0/3.3 2.6 4.16 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.2

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1.13 Switch Mode Pump


In the case of battery suply Switch Mode Pump (SMP) system can be used. Its operation is based on principle of BOOSTDC/DC convertor. This type of convertor gives voltage supply value higher than battery voltage, which makes possible power suplly with 1.5V battery. For SMP to function properly, it is necessary to connect, beside battery, a diode, inductivity and a capacitive.

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1.14 MAC
MAC unit is a device that implements operation of hardware multiplication of 8-bit signed numbers, as well as sum of product. For execution of these operations there is no special instruction, but all of the work is done by writing to and reading from certain registers.

Hardware multiplication
Multiplication operation is done by writing 8-bit inputs X and Y into registers MUL_X and MUL_Y, and reading output from 16-bit result from registers MUL_DH and MUL_DL.

;file: main.asm ;project: MAC mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov reg[MUL_X],0x64 reg[MUL_Y],0x0C A,reg[MUL_DH] A,reg[MUL_DL] reg[MUL_X],0xFE reg[MUL_Y],0x03 A,reg[MUL_DH] A,reg[MUL_DL] ;Initialize X = 100 ;Initialize Y = 12 ;Read high byte of result (0x04) ;Read low byte of result (0xB0) ;Initialize X = -2 ;Initialize Y = 3 ;Read high byte of result (0xFF) ;Read low byte of result (0xFA)

Sum of products
During multiplication, result can be added to previously stored value inside of 32-bit accumulator. In that way is made sum product operation, which represents most important operation of digital signal processing for correlations, convolutions and filtering. Beside that MAC unit allows simple implementation of multibyte multiplication.

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Summing products is done when data X and Y are initialized by writing into registers MAC_X or MAC_Y. Input data X and Y could also be initialized by writing into registers MUL_X and MUL_Y, in which case operation of product summing does not take place. Result of product summing operation is stored inside of registers ACC_DR3, ACC_DR2, ACC_DR1 i ACC_DR0. Starting value of accumulator is set to zero by writing any value to register MAC_CL1 or MAC_CL0. In the next example shows method of initializing input data, as well as operation of summing products. [back to the top]

1.15 Decimator
Decimator component is component that is used for digital data processing during sigma delta, as well as some types of incremental AD conversion.
;file: main.asm ;project: MAC mov reg[MAC_CL0],0 ;(Acc = 0) ;Clear Accumulator

mov reg[MUL_X],5 ;Initialize X mov reg[MAC_Y],4 ;Initialize Y and execute MAC ;(Acc = 0 + 5 * 4 = 20) mov reg[MUL_X],6 ;Initialize X mov reg[MAC_Y],5 ;Initialize Y and execute MAC ;(Acc = 20 + 6 * 5 = 50) mov reg[MUL_X],3 ;Initialize X mov reg[MAC_Y],2 ;Initialize Y and execute MAC ;(Acc = 50 + 3 * 2 = 56) mov reg[MAC_Y],2 ;Initialize Y and execute MAC ;(Acc = 56 + 3 * 2 = 62) mov reg[MAC_X],4 ;Initialize X and execute MAC ;(Acc = 62 + 4 * 2 = 70) mov A,reg[Acc_DR0] ;(0x46 = 70dec) ;Read low byte of result

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1.16 I2C Controller


I2C controller implements hardware serial I2C communication, and in that way minimizes usage of CPU units resources. Most important operations of I2C controller are: Master or Slave, sending or receiving data Byte level data processing Connected to CPU over interrupts or polling mode. Transfer speed: 50K, 100K and 400K Frequency synching in case of larger number of masters 7or 10-bit addressing of I2C unit [back to the top]
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1.17 Interrupt Controller


Interrupts are mechanisms inside of a microcontroller that allow responding to some event immediately after its detection. Events could be internal (timer overrun, end of AD conversion) or external (character receiving over serial connection, pin state change). When interrupt occurs program execution is interrupted (hence the name) by jumping to part of the program that is called interrupt routine. Upon ending of that routine program continues from place in program where interruption took place. Interrupt controller makes hardware interrupt detection, program flow interruption by jumping to interrupt routine, as well as returning to interruption point from the routine. These operations are executed in several steps: 1. When event that triggers interruption takes place, interrupt controller stores interrupt type. 2. End of current instruction is awaited. 3. If interrupt is allowed and if global interrupt permit is set to 0ne (GIE = 1), interrupt processing begins. For later continuing of instructions execution, stack holds values of PCH, PCL and F registers. 4. New interrupt occurrence is disabled by setting values of register F to zero (GIE = 0). 5. Program counter is set to address of interrupt routine, which is same as interrupt type, after which execution jumps to interrupt routine address. 6. Program executes interrupt routine instructions. 7. When it gets to instruction reti, which marks return from main program, values of F register are restored from stack, and program counter is reset to old value before interrupt occurred.

Register PRTxIF is used as indication of GPIO interrupt on certain port, while PRTxIC1and PRTxIC0 are appropriate control registers. Every interrupt type can be masked or deleted, which is done with help of INT_MSK and INT_CLR registers, which will be discussed in more detail in examples part. [back to the top]

1.18 Address space


PSoC microcontrollers have three address spaces: ROM RAM registers As in all Harvard architecture processors access to ROM memory is done with special lines, so microcontroller is able to acquire instructions and access data at the same time.

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Program memory
Program memory is the part of ROM, which is used for storing program code, which is written in this part of memory written by programming hardware. Program memory is implemented in FLASH technology, which allows simple development time change of the program inside of microcontroller. Program memory size depends on the family of PSoC microcontrollers and is 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kB.

Supervisory ROM
Supervisory ROM is part of ROM which is used during start of PSoC microcontroller, as well as for calibration of components. With special instruction SSC, it is possible access this part of memory.

RAM
RAM enables storing of variables and stack which are used during work of microcontroller. Size of RAM, in most PSoC microcontrollers, is 256 bytes. When microcontrollers have more than 256 bytes of RAM (series CY8C29xx and CY8C21x34), memory is organized in 256 byte pages, with stack residing on the last page. To access some variable, user apart from 8-bit address must state appropriate page.

Register
Register address space contains registers used for peripheral's global parameters and programmable blocks of a PSoC microcontroller. PSoC microcontrollers have 512 registers, which are grouped in two 256 bytes banks. To access some register, beside stating its name, what is needed is to also state the name of the bank in which resides wanted register. Access to certain bank is done by using macros M8C_SetBank0 and M8C_SetBank1, which delete or set bit XIO in CPU_F register. [back to the top] Previouos chapter | Table of Contents | Next chapter 19982005 mikroElektronika. All Rights Reserved. PSoC, PSoC Designer, and PSoC Pros are trademarks of Cypress MicroSystems, Inc. All other trade and/or services marks are the property of the respective owners. If you have any questions, please contact our office.

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Chapter 2: PSoC Designer


From the free online book Architecture and Programming of PSoC Microcontrollers Introduction 2.1 Programmable Component Selection 2.2 Interconnection View 2.2 Application Editor

Introduction
PSoC Designer is program package that leads user through all stages of developing project. Version discussed here will be 4.2, but this book will still remain competent in case of newer versions, because differences are shown only in addition of new programmable components and some minor improvements. The most important for user is is to get familiar with two main parts of PSoC Designer: Device Editor Application Editor Beside these two, there is also a debugger part, but during the course of this book it is only mentioned as an option, because it demands additional hardware. Device editor consists of two windows. First one is for selection and is called User Module selection View. Other, is called Interconnection View. It is used for setting and connecting components and parameter adjustment. Transfering from one to the other part of the PSoC Designer is done easily by clicking appropriate icon. To open Interconnection View or User Module Select windows, Device Editor icon must be selected first. Lower image shows look of the programmable component choice window.

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2.1 Programmable Component Selection


Most important part of the programmable component selection window is placed on the left side. Components sorted in several groups, like AD converters, amplifiers, analog communications, counters, etc. After group selection, necessary component for project should be selected with double-click, or right-click on select. In the case of successful selection, appropriate graphical symbol would be shown in selected components slot.

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The rest of the window offers some other useful information. Resource Meter shows how much space is left for new programmable blocks. For example, 16-bit counter takes two programmable blocks, so it is possible to place 4 counters like this one altogether. During selection of each of the components, in lower side of the window is opened detailed instruction, which gives information about block characteristics, usage and code example. User does not have to know by heart all details about the component he uses, because this part holds all necessary information.

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2.2 Interconnection View


Previously selected components are still unusable, until they are placed in digital or analog programmable blocks, and until appropriate parameters are set. This important part of work can be done in Interconnection View window. Central part of this window is graphical representation of programmable blocks and connection lines. In the case of microcontroller of CY8C27xxx series, eight digital and twelve analog programmable blocks can be used. In the place between blocks there are internal lines for interconnection, and global purpose input/output lines. Although this scheme looks complicated at first sight, you can be sure that it isnt hard to master the way it is all connected. In some way it resembles PCB routing, but really much simpler.

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Global Parameters
On the upper left side can be found Global Resources window. It is used for general parameters selection.This method of setting is similar to configuration words on other microcontrollers, but with more versatility. Click on any of the parameters opens pull-down menu with given options.

All global parameters have default values, which means that even without setting microcontroller will be able to work. For example supply voltage can be 5V or 3,3V, depending on selection in parameter Supply Voltage. If user does not make selection, Supply Voltage parameter would be set on it's default value of 5V. When higher frequency precision is necessary it is possible to add external oscillator on lower two pins of port 1, and choose external as option in mentioned parameter. Most important parameters for our examples are

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internal frequency prescaler values of V1, V2 and V3. Signals V1, V2 and V3 are used by various analog and digital programmable blocks. V1 signal frequency value can be derived by dividing system frequency of 24MHz with prescaler N1. V2 signal frequency value is aquired by dividng signal V1 with N2. Acquiring signal V3 is done in similar fashion, by dividing some signal with value in N3, with possibility to choose from several different signals the one that will be divided. CPU_Clock represents frequency value, based on who are processed instructions of microcontroller.

Component Parameters
Central window on the left side is designated as User Module Parameters. Peripherals in PSoC microcontroller are very flexible, so it is required to set the way of their operation. Typically this is done by selecting frequency of the signal, connecting it with some other blocks and internal connection lines. Also, component specific parameters can be set. Such parameters are component specific, and it will be more discussed in chapter 5. In the picture below example for setting up component PWM16 is represented. In this case frequency signal is VC2. Time interval of impulse and pause is 32000 and 16000, respectively, of chosen frequency signal. Obligatory part of parameter are signals that are entering, and exiting programmable components. This operation can also be done in graphical mode, clicking inputs and outputs on set component. Picture holds example of adjusting signal frequency on component PWM16. Click on black triangle, which represents signal input, enables selection of possible clock signals. Specific parameters like impulse and pause interval, enable and similar are not obligatory to be set in this window, but is however desired. At a later point, while writing program in Application Editor, there is possibility for changing these values by calling specific procedures.

Pin Parameters
Lower left side holds pin parameter options. In order to protect external devices from unexpected signals, default pin state of PSoC microcontrollers is Analog Hi-Z, in which microcontroller cannot change pin states. Pin drive mode selection can be done graphically by selecting appropriate parameters in column Drive or software by setting appropriate registers. Option select is used for choosing the way pins are driven. If selected option is StdCPU, then pin have standard input/output function, and is disconnected from programmable blocks. If pin is supposed to be connected to appropriate global lines over which is established connection with peripherals it is expected to be done by user. Easiest way to do it is graphical, as it will be explained in next section of the book. Column Drive is used for pin drive mode settings. Options pull-up or pull-down activate internal resistors, which set default logic state of pin to ONE, or ZERO, respectively. This is of importance while working with devices like push-button switches, because they allow direct connection to PSoC microcontroller without need for external resistors. Pull-up or pull-down resistors must not be used on analog inputs, like input of AD convertor because they can have impact on input voltage level. In such case state of high impedance, marked

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with Hi-Z Analog, should be chosen. Third column is used when in the case of pin interrupts. It is possible to to select interrupt on rising edge, falling edge or state change depending on previous readout. For example, one of efficient ways to measure signal interval could be allowing interrupt on rising edge of signal. In interrupt routine is then started a timer, and following that, is allowed interrupt on falling edge, where timer is stopped in interrupt routine.

Placement
Free locations for setting programmable blocks are represented by grey rectangles. Clicking some of selected components, marks placement space in graphical part. In case that communication from selected block, and intended pin could not be established, next available location could be selected, using icon Next Allowed Placement. Component placement is done by selecting component, and then right-clicking on Place, or shorter, using icon Place. During the placement of analog and digital components, general rule applies, that components that are to be connected should be placed in adjacent blocks. Components of upper four digital blocks are more easily connected among themselves, than with components from lower four blocks. Similarly, it is easier to connect analog components that are placed inside of one column.

Digital Components Interconnection


For start, the most important thing is to get to know the basic elements of programmable blocks. Digital blocks are grouped in two entireties of four blocks, as shown on picture.

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On the upper side of each row there are four input lines to digital blocks, marked in red, and from the lower side of each block are four output lines marked in blue. Digital blocks arent connected directly to output pins, but over multiplexer and global input or output lines. Global lines are marked in green. Second letter in name tells about direction of the line I - input, O - output. Last letter in name gives information if lines could be connected only to E - even or O - odd ports. For example, GIE represents global input line that can only be connected to ports with even index (i.e. Port 0, Port 2...).

Global input lines are placed on the left side, while global output lines are placed at the right side. Procedure of connection global lines to pins is very simple. When certain line is clicked on, a external pin name, or interconnecting input and output global lines, is shown. Selecting option Pin, pins of ports with according index will be offered. For example, global line GIO4 can be connected only with fourth pin of odd number ports. Global lines are connected with digital lines from programmable components over the multiplexer.

Multiplexer has a function to choose one input signal that will be connected with his output. Graphically, it is represented with a small square. There are input and output multiplexers, depending on connecting input or output lines. Clicking on some of input lines of digital programmable blocks, opens window with possible choice of connection. Connectiong on global output lines is a little bit more complicated than in previous case. The selected output line is taken, which is routed to output buffers. On upper left side is positioned multiplexer, which can select optionally connecting shown input line. Connection to global lines is established

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by clicking on appropriate buffer, which is represented in shape of triangle.

If this step is done correctly, buffer will be painted blue as well as line that goes out from it. As additional element there appears a possibility for implementing logic functions with adjacent lines. Selection of logical functions is done by clicking on small square, and by choosing one of the options, after which is shown appropriate symbol. All digital components have input for frequency. Frequency signal is marked with black triangle. With left-click menu with possible selection of signal frequencies is shown. Some of possibilities are 48MHz, 32kHz, V1, V2, V3, as well as signals from some of global lines, BC lines or adjacent blocks. There are two groups of common lines marked as BC1 and BC0. Beside frequency input, other input/output lines could be found, depending on component type.

Analog Components Interconnection


Analog blocks are placed on lower side of the graphic part of the window. Four analog columns and several

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multiplexers can be noticed. In every of columns, upper block ACB is used for analog amplifiers realization, while lower two are used for AD and DA convertors. Routing is done graphically, by connecting frequency signal, and input signal to the same analog column. Pins with analog input/output of ports 0 and 2 are shown on the left side, which could serve as analog inputs or outputs. Columns on far left or right side could be connected only to odd or even pins of port 0, respectively. With help of two additional multiplexers there could be connected two middle analog columns to any pin of port 0. Each of analog columns can have one output that leads to one of four pins of port 0. Connection is established by using buffer that resides on bottom of every column.

[back to the top]

2.3 Application Editor


Application Editor is used for writing programs, which can be done using assembly or C. Application Editor itself, bears much resemblance to IDE-s of other standard 8-bit microcontrollers. Left side window holds list of files that are contained in current project. Most important file for users is called main.

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This is the place of user code start. Include files are generated automatically based on selected programmable blocks in Device Editor, clicking on icon Generate Application. For example, if set programmable blocks are adcinc12, pga, and lcd, PSoC Designer automatically generates files with data and subprograms for their usage. So in the case of AD conversion, programming is done as simply as calling subprogram with start instruction call ADCINC12_Start and result readout with call ADCINC12_GetSamples. File Boot.asm is should not be changed because it is automatically rewritten during each new configuration. Names of available subprograms in part Library Source are in file with according name. When process of programming is done, compiling is started by clicking icon Build. In case of succesful compiling there will be shown message in lower window 0 Errors. At the same time, in folder output of the current project, .hex file will be shown which can be programmed into microcontroller.

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Chapter 3: Quick Start


From the free online book Architecture and Programming of PSoC Microcontrollers Introduction 3.1 Creating a Project

Introduction
Every beginning is the hardest part of every job. Because of that, it is very important to write complete project that works, as soon as possible. What else could be in a microcontroller world than LED blinking? Basic idea is that we implement LED blinking by using PWM16 component, with the same signal/pause ratio. It is done in a very simple way, by selecting frequency of 32kHz with period set to 32000, and impulse to 16000, for base frequency of PWM16. User just should connect output of PWM component to output pin Port_1_0 to where is LED connected, and write simple code to start PWM component. All the steps are similar in more complex projects. [back to the top]

3.1 Creating a Project


Click on the New Project icon opens a New project Wizard, where user should specify name, and location of the project.

Left side of the window is used to choose the way that new project will be formed. Most common choice is to start new project by click on Create New Project icon. If there was a need to modify already existing project, or change of microcontroller type of some previous design, one of lower two choices should be selected.

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Click on the Next, new window with assembler or C selection is opened. Option Assembler is available to all users, while for C one needs license. For this example, microcontroller CY8C27643 and Assembler should be selected.

Button Finish opens Device Editor window where user can select programmable components. Component PWM16 can be found in PWMs section. Importing it to the project is done simply, by marking its icon, and right-click selection. As a result of this operation, graphical simbol of PWM16 block will appear in selected components slot, automatically named as PWM16_1. This name can be changed by user.

Note that resource window shows that component PWM16 takes two digital blocks, which means that it is possible to place a maximum of three blocks like this. After component selection, we go to interconnection window by click on the icon Interconnect View.

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Component placement in a marked free locations is simply done by right click on the component.

Next step is to adjust parameters of PWM16 component. Period and width of PWM impulse is set in window User Module Parameters. Parameter value of 32000 with input frequency CPU_32_KHz results in one second period. For equal length of signal and pause, Pulse Width is set to half of period, e.g. 16000. Final view of the User Module Parameter window is illustrated in the figure below.

PWM16 output signal CompareOut is connected to output pin P1[0] in three steps. As a first, since LED has been connected to pin Port_1_0, PWM16 output CompareOut should be connected to digital output line with index 0, in this case Row_0_Output_0. Click on this line opens output digital multiplexer settings, where should be done connection to a global output line by enabling appropriate buffer.

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Since LED is placed on odd Port_1_0, it is necessary to make connection trough Odd buffer line GOO_0 as it was illustrated in a figure above. Final link with output pin is accomplished by click on Global_OUTOdd_0 linije and selecting pin Port_1_0.

When component is placed, and connected to output pin user can start to write code. Before that, Generate Application icon should be clicked, which starts automatic generation of files for PWM16 component.

Application editor selection is done by appropriate icon click, which is shown in the figure below.

On the left side of Application Editor, list of all automatic generated files can be found. Click on file main.asm from Source Files section, opens the main program window. For PWM16 to start working, all necessary is to call Start procedure PWM16_1_Start. List of all other subprograms that could be used for given component is found by opening .asm file with the same name as the component in Library Source section, or in appropriate component manual. Click on pwm16_1.asm opens a window with all subprograms. All available subprograms from this file are declared with directive extern.

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After code is written, compiling should be started by clicking on icon Build. In case when code does not contain any mistakes, compiling will be succesfully, and blink.hex file will be generated in the folder output.

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Chapter 4: Assembly Language


From the free online book Architecture and Programming of PSoC Microcontrollers

Introduction 4.1 Instruction types 4.2 Operators 4.3 Constants 4.4 Instruction set 4.5 Directives 4.6 Addressing modes

Introduction
Complete set of 37 basic instructions, which makes with their sub-variants total number of 136 instructions, are explained in this chapter. Reason for such large number of instructions lies in the fact that this is a CISC architecture microcontroller, whose instructions allow pretty much conform programming. One disadvantages is that instructions are not optimized for speed, because their execution takes several instruction cycles.

4.1 Instruction types


Data transfer
Data transfer is done by instructions MOV, MVI and SWAP. MOV represents basic transfer instruction, which offers large number of arguments. First argument is destination location, while second source location. There are 21 types of MOV instruction in total, in dependence of data types. Shortest execution time is in the case when data is transferred trough internal registers A and X, while it is the longest when transferring contents of two variables. Instruction MVI is optimized for data transfer between accumulator A and array of sequential data locations. Aside from transferring data, at the same time initialization, which is needed for acquiring next element, takes place. One of the arguments is register A, and other is the value of variable that has a role of pointer to array, i.e. which holds address of the first array element. Instruction SWAP is used for direct exchange between registers A,X and a value of some variable Beside that, theres also a possibility of exchange of values in registers A and SP.

Arithmetic and logic


PSoC as well as other microcontrollers has built-in support for arithmetic operations, like addition or subtraction. Instructions ADD and SUB are two basic operations. Value of the first argument is added or subtracted with other argument, and result is stored in the first value Beside basic operations of adding and subtracting, there are also existing their modifications. There are instructions INC and DEC, which
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implements increment (add 1) or decrement (subtract 1) operations. ADC and SBB makes addition or subtraction operation, while Carry Flag is added to the result, which allows simple multi-byte operations. MAC unit allows operation of hardware multiplication. There are no special instructions for this operation, since all the work is done in special multiplication registers. Values that are multiplying are transferred to registers MUL_X and MUL_Y with MOV instruction, and then high end, and low end bytes are read from registers MUL_DH and MUL_DL. Logic unit of PSoC microcontroller has ability to handle standard logical operations AND, OR, XOR, negation (CPL), shifting (ASL, ASR) and rotation (RLC, RRC). For operations that have two arguments holds rule that operation is executing on according bits of both arguments, and the result is stored in first argument. In case of CPL instruction content of accumulator is completed bit by bit, so that every zero is replaced by one, and opposite. Instructions of shifting and rotation moves bits one space to the left (toward bit 7) or one space to the right (toward bit 0), while the bit that exits register is written into Carry Flag of F register. There are differences in the way how are set bit 0 or bit 7. ASL and ASR instructions are used for signed multiplication and dividing by number 2. In the case of ASL zero bit is set to 0, and in the case of ASR, bit seven is not changed. Rotation instructions RLC and RRC are writing bit exiting register Carry Flag into which is later written to bit on opposite side of register.

Comparation instructions
Because of need to compare arguments, there are two instructions CMP and TST. These instructions have two comparing arguments that don't change their value. Result of these instructions represents state of Z and C flags in F register. Instruction CMP is used to compare two values. If both arguments are equal, Z flag will be set to one. If first argument is lower than the other C flag will be set to one, in every opposite case C and Z flags will be set to zero. TST instruction is doing AND operation between the first argument, and eight-bit constant, during which the result is not written in first argument, like in case of AND operation. If result of AND operation is zero, then flag Z will be set to one. TST instruction gives possibility to test if certain bit of some register is set to zero or one. As eight-bit constant should be taken mask value, which has all zeroes, and one in position where are test bits. In this case, flag Z shows that bit is set to one. PSoC microcontrollers support conditional, unconditional and subprogram jumps.

Decision and Control statements


Instructions of relative jumps allow us to continue program execution from given label if condition for that jump is met, which means that appropriate flag is set - C, for jumps JC and JNC, and Z for JZ and JNZ jumps. If condition is not met, program continues to execute the next instruction. Unconditional jumps use two sets of instructions, depending on how far jump address is. For close jumps instructions JMP and JACC are used, while instruction LJMP is used for far jumps. Instructions JACC uses offset jump relative to given label, whose value is stored in register A. Calling routine (CALL) and return (RET) from subprogram, as well as returning from interrupt (RETI) are executed the same way as in other microcontrollers. Instructions for stack operations Instructions PUSH and POP are, in standard ways, allowing storing values of important registers inside of stack during procedure calling. PUSH instruction is copying value of register A and X, while instruction POP returns values in opposite order. Stack is LIFO ordered, which means Last In First Out, which explains a little bit more the way

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PUSH and POP instructions function. Stack is positioned in upper part of RAM, so it wouldnt overlap with defined variables. Beside holding important registers, these instructions allow transporting procedure parameters over stack, by storing parameter using PUSH before procedure call, and taking it from stack by calling PUSH instruction from inside of procedure. Instructions PUSH and POP with help of index addressing allow realization of local variables inside procedures, which will be discussed later in examples part. Accessing ROM Data that is stored in ROM can be accessed with help of instructions INDEX and ROMX. INDEX is of special importance during look-up table reading. Offset of the element that is being accessed is previously stored in accumulator A, while the label of look-up table is called as argument. Result of read value is stored in register A. Other instructions Of other instructions, most important one is NOP, which does no special operation, but is used for time delaying that lasts four instruction cycles.

4.2 Operators
Among instructions, where constants appear, it is possible to form statements with help of assembler operators for arithmetic and logic functions. Execution of operators has nothing with work of microcontroller, because that work is being done by compiler during program translation. Next table gives comprehensive list of assembly operators.

4.3 Constants
Decimal constants are written without any prefixes, while hexadecimal ones have prefix 0x or $, while binary ones have 0b or %. Constant character arrays are written inside of quotation marks.

4.4 Instruction set


(work in progress)

4.5 Directives
Directives represent useful elements in assembly that give various information of interest for program translation. Some of more important directives will be covered further.

DB
DB directive is convenient for look-up table forming where bytes are used as data. Binary values of constants are written inside of ROM memory at the address specified by label.
Table1: DB 1,2,3

DW, DWL
When it is needed to form look-up tables with word type elements, then it is possible to use directives DW and DWL, depending on which byte do they store first, lower then higher or contrary.
Table2: DW 0x1234,0x1235

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Table3: DWL 0x1234,0x1235

DS
During the work with serial communication or writing data on LCD, it is often needed to use ASCII values instead of binary. Directive DS writes to program memory ASCII values of constant array of characters that are written inside the quotes. In the case of character 0, in memory will be written character ASCII value 48.
Table4: DS 0123456789

When all elements of constant character array are loaded in memory, there is a need to somehow detect an end of array. Because of that it is common to add ASCII character NULL to an end of array, which is represented as binary 0.
Table5: DS HelloWorld DB 0

INCLUDE
include "filename" Directive include is used to insert content of given .asm or .inc files. In this way it is possible to combine several files which contain different parts of program, thus improving code readability and reusability. There is a directive in the beginning of main program include m8c.inc which enables access to microcontrollers registers. File PSoCAPI.inc is used as a connection towards files that contain procedures for working with selected programmable blocks.
; Assembly main line include "m8c.inc" // include "memory.inc" // Constants & macros for SMM/LMM and Compiler include "PSoCAPI.inc" // PSoC API definitions for all User Modules include "User.inc" export _main _main: call PWM16_1_Start .terminate: jmp .terminate

EXPORT
export procedure_name Directive EXPORT is being used to mark that the procedure written in current file can be used in other files. Directive Export is put before procedure implementation, usually in the begging of that file. As an example is given file with procedures for programmable component PWM16.

EQU
equ value Directive EQU enables giving constant name to some value Before compiling that name is automatically changed into according constant value.

4.6 Addressing modes

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There are several ways to fetch data during instruction execution, which are all called under one name addressing methods Depending on whether data is a constant, RAM variable or register variable, there are immediate, direct, index and indirect addressing method. Beside these complicated looking names, very simple procedures are hidden.

Immediate addressing
When data is a constant value, then it is considered as immediate addressing. For example: Data could be RAM variable, or a register. Easiest way to access value of that variable is by putting its name inside of brackets. If we didn't put those brackets, we would access address of that variable, instead of its value.

Register addressing
When accessing register, beside brackets, it is also needed to put registered word reg, which shows that it is done in register address space.

Index addressing
One other thing that also happens very often is the need to access continuous memory locations. In that case we could some help from register X, which has a possibility of index addressing. Index register X is used to store address of some variable. Incrementing and decrementing values of the index register it is possible, in a simple way, to access elements of an array.

Using instruction MVI, it is no longer needed to continuously increment register X. In this case variable which plays role of a pointers used instead of register X. Its value is previously initialized to hold address of the variable that is being accessed. MVI transfers values between accumulator A and value of the variable, with initialization of pointer-variable so it stores address of next variable in array. [back to the top] Previouos chapter | Table of Contents | Next chapter 19982005 mikroElektronika. All Rights Reserved. PSoC, PSoC Designer, and PSoC Pros are trademarks of Cypress MicroSystems, Inc. All other trade and/or services marks are the property of the respective owners. If you have any questions, please contact our office.

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