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ABSTRACT:

Existing system uses the following method, such as direction finding and tracking antenna and array of antenna. This system for direction finding RSNS is used .for direction finding :light house concept which cost us more power consumption . Next target tracking technique which they are tracking antenna and array ,which cost us power and other problem. Existing system technique alsoface the multipath fading, ghost images, interference etc. Cognitive radio help to overcome the problem. cognitive radio functions such as spectrum sensing, transmitter detection, power control, spectrum management. The objective of this project to solve spectrum scarcity and localize the source in cognitive radio In this project an Localization, scheme is proposed to accomplish this task. The proposed scheme estimates the position of a cognitive radio using the collaborative spectrum sensing results of a Wireless radio frequency sensor network in a cognitive radio environment. The proposed scheme is capable of estimating the frequency band of operation and the Location of a cognitive radio, and is thus capable of accounting for both frequency and Spatial mobility inherent in the cognitive radio environment. This project proposes a solution based on sensing interference and data queue back-pressure to solve the spectrum scarcity.

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PROBLEM DEFINITION AND SCOPE: The military services of the United States, along with many civilian and public safety agencies of the federal, state, and municipal governments, have embraced modern communications network technology in an effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their core operations. Concepts such as net-centricity, and networkcentric operations are currently subjects of intense study in government-sponsored think tanks. Most of the anticipated benefits of net-centric operation are expected to come from improvements in the location and coordination of highly mobile assets (e.g., soldiers,police, firefighters and long-haul trucks), each of which would ideally have access to sufficient information (often called situational awareness) to accomplish the missionwhile minimizing casualties. While the precise nature of the relationship between information availability and tactical performance remains a matter of continued analysis and debate, there is general agreement that given the current state of operations more is better. The imperatives of mobility and situational awareness drive defense and public safety operations to ever increasing dependence on wireless networks, which in turn leads to increased demands for radio-frequency (RF) spectrum to support advanced network applications. Normally, increased demand for a commodity induces suppliers to produce more to meet the demand. The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is a special commodity, in that "Mother Nature" through the laws of physics produces the available spectrum. EM spectrum is a truly scarce resource. Current / historic methods of spectrum allocation assign the available spectrum bands to individuals and groups, without regard to their actual rate of use on a moment by moment basis. Creating a market mechanism that would allow underutilized spectrum to be accessed by individuals and groups who greatly desire to communicate will increase the efficiency of the commodity's utilization. While the laws of physics determine the available spectrum, the efficiency of the market system determines the effective spectrum available for communications. As the network becomes more critical to the success of future deployments, the potential impact of network failure has gained significant attention. For example, J. Pehas testimony before the FCC (Peha, 2005) alleges that problems with interoperability between radio networks contributed to first-responder casualties during the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001. The worst failure occurred in the World Trade Centers north Tower. At 9:59AM on September 11, 2001, the first of several announcements was transmitted to emergency responders ordering them to evacuate the north Tower. Police inside the building heard the order on their radios, and most left safely. However, firefighters were using incompatible communications equipment that could not receive the order. People watching television at home knew that the unimaginable had already occurred - that the World Trade Centers South Tower had collapsed - but many firefighters inside the north Tower would never learn of this. When the north tower fell 29 minutes after that first evacuation order, 121 firefighters were still inside. none survived. At the same time, two hundred miles away, more communications failures were making it harder to contain fires at the Pentagon, where another plane had crashed. These failures put more lives at risk. The inadequacy of the current U.S. government approaches for allocating and managing radio spectrum for public safety applications has been the subject of expert testimony over nearly a decade, yet debate continues regarding the nature of the needed change. The FCC and DHS have different perspectives on radio technology and infrastructure. DHS policies favor reliability and familiarity in their requirements and guidelines for technology and in their emphasis on training and repeated use of equipment. Spectrum policy at the FCC promotes spectrum efficiency and competition among commercial license-holders. _either the FCC nor the DHS agencies that support public safety communications appear to have considered preparing public safety communications for the coming generations of wireless technology. (Moore, 2009)

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The military services face a similar array of communication resource issues. The U.S. Army estimates that without significant technological advancement in efficient spectrum usage, it will soon face a bandwidth shortage that could significantly hamper future operations. In response, the outgoing Army procurement chief has commissioned studies to estimate the extent of the projected shortfall and to evaluate the benefits of technological and regulatory strategies. Battlefield radio networks that allow friendly forces to exchange voice, data and video signals will be key to an Army equipped with 27-ton Future Combat Systems vehicles instead of 70-ton Abrams tanks. Even with Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS) that move bits hundreds of times faster than earlier radios, the needs of an information powered force are poised to overwhelm the available bandwidth. We have enough to do the job today, but I am not convinced we have enough to do the job I see coming five years from now, Claude Bolton, the outgoing assistant Army secretary for acquisition, logistics and technology, said in an exit interview. Beginning in 2010 and continuing for several decades, the Army will introduce elements of an ever-more-networked force that moves vast amounts of data from soldier mounted sensors, aerial and ground robots, manned vehicles and more. (Osborn, 2008) There are documented instances from the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan where physical-layer communications problems such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) from friendly sources, or spotty connectivityoutrunning the nethave compromised the advantage of U.S. and allied combat units. One Army battalion commander describes a network capacity reduced to low rate text and locating his adversary the old-fashioned way, by running into him: As night fell, the situation grew threatening. [Lieutenant Colonel Ernest]Marcone arrayed his battalion in a defensive position on the far side of the bridge and awaited the arrival of bogged-down reinforcements. One communications intercept did reach him: a single Iraqi brigade was moving south from the airport. But Marcone says no sensors, no network, conveyed the far more dangerous reality, which confronted him at 3:00 a.m. April 3. He faced not one brigade but three: between 25 and 30 tanks, plus 70 to 80 armored personnel carriers, artillery, and between 5,000 and 10,000 Iraqi soldiers coming from three directions. This mass of firepower and soldiers attacked a U.S. force of 1,000 soldiers supported by just 30 tanks and 14 Bradley fighting vehicles. The Iraqi deployment was just the kind of conventional, massed force that's easiest to detect. Yet "We got nothing until they slammed into us," Marcone recalls. (Talbot, 2004) This increase in institutional demand has unfortunately coincided with a steady decrease in the amount of spectrum allocated to military and public safety applications due to commercial occupation or statutory restriction of technically advantageous bands. In the regulatory scheme employed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) the rights to a particular band are awarded to a license holder or limited to a particular set of applications. All secondary users of the band have subordinate rights, if any, and must operate on a not-to-interfere basis with the primary users. The rationale for this approach is rooted in the relatively embryonic radio technology of the 1930s. One notable consequence is that spectrum planning and resource management remains a very labor intensive process in the 21st century, even for public safety agencies and expeditionary military units. Consider the battlefield spectrum management process as depicted in Figure 1, excerpted from a (recently superseded) U.S.Army field manual on spectrum management (FMI 6-20.70 (FM 24-2) , 2006).

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The division network planners design the network, and the spectrum manager uses this design to determine the spectrum requirements necessary for the communications network. In the emerging force structure there are two spectrum managers per division. Normally, one spectrum manager will be responsible for the network to include satellite requirements while the other spectrum manager will handle combat net radio (CNR) and other systems requirements to include fires, EW, radar, and other systems. The brigade spectrum manager performs all of these functions and is located at the S-6 in order to have visibility of all spectrum related matters at the brigade. On an organizational chart this arrangement more closely resembles the structure of a commercial firm preparing to defend itself against a lawsuit than an army prepared for rapidly changing conditions in network-centric operations. Yet the entire spectrum regulatory infrastructure cannot be thrown to the winds, with all radio spectrum declared to be unlicensed. Certain critical safety applications e.g., air traffic control radar) and commercial enterprises (broadcast or satellite radio) rely on guaranteed spectrum availability and widespread technical compatibility, and thus would have nothing to gain by adopting agile radio technology. On the other hand, few if any terrestrial license holders need or can afford to project a persistent, omnipresent signal. This fact, coupled with regulatory provisions for unlicensed and multipurpose bands, allows for the existence of local spatial-temporal pools of available spectrum, the so called white spaces, which can and should be exploited for national defense and public safety applications. Despite the necessary technical content that follows, this thesis is primarily a feasibility study for potential improvements to the spectrum management process under conditions where the timeliness and quality of the solution will translate into lives rather than money saved. It is intended as an engineering-based resource management treatise rather than a design document for a new radio protocol.

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INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is working on specifying the system requirements towards next generation mobile communication systems, called International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-A). The deployment of IMT-A systems is believed to take place at mass market level around year 2015 and will realize what has been a buzzword for almost a decade, namely 4G. The 4G radio network concept (Cognitive Radio, CR) covers the full range of operability scenario from Wide Area (WA) over Metropolitan Area (MA) to Local Area (LA). IMT-A systems are expected to provide peak data-rates in the order of 1 Gpbs in LA. Such data-rates require usage of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology to achieve high spectral efficiency and a very wide spectrum allocation in the range of 100 MHz . In MIMO communications systems, multiple antenna are used at both sides of the link. An important research topic is the study of Multi-User (MU) MIMO systems. With a high number of users it will become even more difficult to identify exclusive spectrum for all user. To solve this problem, together with the MIMO technology, users are needed also to coexist in the same spectrum in an efficient way. This is possible considering a Flexible Spectrum Use (FSU). The major advantage of FSU is a better spectral scalability of the system compared to classic spectrum management techniques. In this way, in a LA scenario with one cell and one Home Node B (HNB), different users can coexist on the on the same frequency-time domain. This is possible considering as multiple access scheme the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) . It has been chosen as multiple access for downlink in Long Term Evolution (LTE). Such systems have the potential to combine the high capacity achievable with MIMO processing with the benefits of SDMA. SDMA is an advanced transmission technique, where MU are signalled on the same time and same frequency resource; it is used to enhance the spectral efficiency. So, a large number of User Equipments (UEs) share the whole spectrum. In this scheme HNB prepares a number of directional beams to cover the UEs area. Beamforming (BF) concentrates transmit power to a desired direction and reduces power emissions to undesired directions; this way BF eliminate Multi-User Interference (MUI) caused by all others UEs. BF and power control (PC) algorithms for MIMO-OFDM/SDMA LTE advanced systems in the FSU context are investigated and implemented in MATLAB. To implement downlink BF algorithm, HNB need the knowledge of the Channel State Information (CSI). CSI are obtained by a Time-Division Duplexing (TDD) systems. In TDD system, uplink and downlink transmission are time duplexed over the same frequency bandwidth. Using the reciprocity principle it is possible to use the estimated uplink channel for downlink transmission. We consider two algorithms for downlink BF: i)Successive Minimum Mean Square Error (SMMSE) ii)Zero Forcing (ZF) . SMMSE transmits beamforming treats; each receive antenna separately, and it has the advantage that the total number of receiving antennas at the users terminals may be greater than the number of antennas at the HNB. In ZF, the signal of each user is pre-processed at the transmitter, using a modulation matrix that lies in the null space of all other users channel matrices; so, the MUI in the system is forced to zero. PC is also investigated, its considered a Dominant Eigenmode Transmission (DET) algorithm which transmits just on the dominant eigenmode of each UE. It provides to maximize the Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receivers and to minimize the Bit Error Rate (BER).

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As a starting point, assuming perfect channel state information at the transmitter, single-user (SU) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) downlink beamforming is implemented to evaluate the link performance of the system. As a case study, a link-level simulator complying UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard is considered. Moreover, two multi-user (MU) MIMO downlink with OFDM/SDMA access scheme, beamforming algorithms zero-forcing (ZF) and successive minimum mean square error (SMMSE) are investigated to evaluate performance of the system at link-level by averaging the bit error rates (BERs) and throughputs (THs) of all the candidate users. Dominant eigen transmission (DET) power algorithm is to applied to both to maximize the SNR at the receiver and to minimize the BER. BF and PC eliminate the MUI and minimize the total transmitted power and this is exactly the problem that will be considered here, i.e. how to choose the transmit BF vectors so that the total transmitted power is minimized while the system provides an acceptable Quality of Service (QoS) to as many users as possible.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Presently, a growing conflict is emerging between the low utilization and increasing scarcity of electromagnetic spectrum around the globe. Cognitive radio is considered the primary solution to this problem as a cognitive radio is capable of opportunistically seizing underutilized portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., white spaces) by adapting the radios attributes to match the available resources. With such communication advancements rapidly developing, it is critical for to remain aware of the positioning techniques being utilized within these networks. Furthermore, in the context of cyber warfare, it is crucial to develop and enhance cognitive radio source localization techniques as cognitive radio can be adopted for military applications by adversaries and pose potential security risks if used internally. Given these concerns, an effective solution to cognitive radio source localization is needed. The objective of this project is to estimate the position of a cognitive radio using the collaborative spectrum sensing results of a wireless radio frequency (RF) sensor network in a cognitive radio environment. In the context of cognitive radio, the environment consists of two types of users. First, a primary user has principle rights to the frequency spectrum but may not completely exhaust the resources available in the area. Therefore, a secondary user network may also exist which can opportunistically use the available frequency spectrum leftover from the primary user network by employing cognitive radio technology. An extension of the semi range-based localization algorithm is proposed in this project to accomplish the proposed objective. Semi range-based localization, originally proposed for primary user source localization in cognitive radio networks, is extended to secondary user source localization in this thesis. The proposed semi range-based (SRB) localization scheme utilizes n-bit spectrum sensing in the spectrum sensing process and semi range-based localization in the localization process. Cognitive radio and the closely related technologies of policy-based adaptive radio, software defined radio, software controlled radio and reconfigurable radio enabling technologies to implement these new spectrum management and usage paradigms. A more efficient use of the spectrum has a benefit associated with cognitive radio and the closely related technologies, like policy-based adaptive radio. To be able to achieve this benefit, it is necessary for these advanced radios to be controlled in such a way that underutilized portions of the spectrum can be utilized more efficiently. This has been called opportunistic spectrum management. The methods of control needed to achieve opportunistic spectrum management are a network issue as well as a radio issue. Network control of these advanced radios includes control of the configuration of the radio, the RF operating parameters, and also regulatory policies.

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CHAPTER-III

INTRODUCTION: Presently, a growing conflict is emerging between the low utilization and increasing scarcity of electromagnetic spectrum around the globe. The popularity of unlicensed bands has proven to be an effective solution to development and deployment of new wireless networks but has not decrease the increasing demand for wireless spectrum . Cognitive radio is considered the primary solution to this problem as a cognitive radio is capable of opportunistically seizing underutilized portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., white spaces) by adapting the radios attributes to match the resources available. This is accomplished through two primary means: 1) spectral sensing of the environment. 2) informed decision making . The combination of awareness and decision making is the foundation for cognition in the system and distinguishes a cognitive radio from any other type of communications technology . Given these concerns, an effective solution to cognitive radio source localization is needed. Wireless radio frequency (RF) sensor networks offer a promising solution to the problem. In the context of cognitive radio, the environment consists of two different types of users . As shown in Figure , the present primary user has principle rights to the frequency spectrum in that geographical area . The primary user network operates without knowledge or coordination with any other type of user in the environment but may not completely exhaust the resources available in the area . Therefore, a secondary user network also exists which can opportunistically use the available frequency spectrum leftover from the primary user network by employing cognitive radio technology . The secondary user has the responsibility to prevent interference with the primary user .

Figure: Overall scenario using a wireless RF sensor network to determine the frequency bands and location of a cognitive radio.

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CHAPTER-Iv I. LITERATURE SURVEY:

In recent operations, there has been an increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for real-time missions. UAVs used in these missions transmit the real time data back to tactical field headquarters (HQs) for battlefield situation awareness and decision making. To continuously receive the signal from the UAV, the ground control station (GCS) will have to accurately track the aircraft using the antenna on the station. When the signal is received at the GCS, techniques are then applied to the signal to retrieve the imagery sent by the UAV. RF systems and antennas, especially in the area of antenna arrays. In addition, digital technology, many processing tasks previously done via hardware are now done in the software domain. Design techniques of Robust Symmetric Numeric System (RSNS) to accurately track a UAV . A six-element antenna array and direct-conversion receiver were developed to build a digital tracking array. The digital tracking array was also tested to retrieve a FM-modulated video signal encoded using the NTSC format. This addresses system-level design tradeoffs, as well as hardware and software design, development and testing. The focus on the hardware portion was to integrate all hardware modules developed for the complete system to work at optimum performance levels. Calculation for the system power budget was done to work out the required power levels. This required the careful calibration of the power levels provided across all modules, taking into account the optimum levels required by the inputs such as the demodulator LO drive power level.

Care was also taken during the integration of the antenna array and receivers into a single chassis to ensure that high levels of workmanship is achieved so that failure should be attributed to workmanship
problems such as a loose cable connection or insufficient power level during testing. This resulted in time savings as failures or inconsistencies in the test results can be seen , spending additional effort to include the hardware during troubleshooting. Based on data obtained from antenna measurements and power budget calculations, calculation of the performance envelope for the system was presented. The software for the antenna array was developed using a modular approach to facilitate testing and development, and to create avenues for future extension. Three separate modules were developed: NTSC Decoding, FM Demodulation and Tracking. The NTSC Decoding module was successfully implemented for a single channel array, with the module able to decode incoming video signals and display the generated output video in monochrome on a terminal. The Beamforming and Tracking Module used on RSNS and combined it with additional research conducted in monopulse DBF to form a module capable of using both these techniques to acquire and track a UAV using the sixelement antenna array. So it require workmanship, bulk load of material installation of antenna.

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Figure: UAV system From this figure, we seen consist of GCS (ground control station) , data processing center, these are static facilities. Soldier in battlefield theater, he gets information from GCS .GCS gets data from data processing center after demodulate FM video signal these gets some delay in getting information to soldier in battlefield, these delay cost lives of our valuable soldier. In these project omit these system ,and go through cognitive radio technique soldier get data from direct satellite without directing signal to GCS or DPC through hand held device, compare to installation cost, these cost are comparatively less endorse with high advance technology.

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cognitive radio help in to sense spectrum whether it is free or not, from above figure user A want to communicate to user B through cognitive radio technology ,whenever user A initiate communication CR sense the free spectrum avoid interference find out the free path, this figure represent advantageous characteristic of cognitive radio technology .

II.

OPERATION SEQUENCE FOR PROJECT PHASE-I: a. Source localization in a cognitive radio environment:

Cognitive radio presents a unique challenge to source localization in that the radio has the ability to adapt to the environment, thus rendering current localization techniques ineffective due to a shifting combination of spatial, frequency, and temporal parameters. For any localization scheme to be effective, it must be able to adapt over time as a cognitive radio adapts to its surroundings. REVIEW OF COGNITIVE RADIO: DEFINING Cognitive Radio Concept: The term Cognitive Radio appeared for the first time in 1999 defined by Joseph Mitola III in Cognitive Radio for Flexible Multimedia Communications as A radio that employs model based reasoning to achieve a specified level of competence in radio-related domains. The Federal Communication Commission, as the entity that regulates the operations of transmitters, has defined cognitive radio as A radio that can change its transmitters parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. From the international spectrum regulatory community in the context of the ITU Wp8A document, defines cognitive radio as A radio or system that senses and is aware of its operational environment and can dynamically and autonomously adjust its radio operating parameters accordingly. The IEEE USA defined cognitive radio as A radio frequency transmitter/ receiver that is designed to intelligently detect whether a particular segment of the radio spectrum is currently in use, and jump into the temporally-unused spectrum very rapidly, without interfering with the transmissions of the other authorized users. There are several general points or capabilities from the definitions that can be extracted for the Cognitive Radio concept:

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1. Observation: Cognitive Radio system can acquire information of the environment where it is operating. 2. Adaptability: Cognitive Radio system can change its parameters automatically, depending of the environment.

3. Intelligence: Cognitive Radio has enough intelligence to make decisions in a certain moment.
Nowadays there is many research and investigation by many industrial organizations and national administrations on the closely related topics of dynamic spectrum management, flexible spectrum use, dynamic channel assignment, and opportunistic spectrum management. Cognitive radio and the closely related technologies of policy-based adaptive radio, software defined radio, software controlled radio and reconfigurable radio enabling technologies to implement these new spectrum management and usage paradigms. A more efficient use of the spectrum has a benefit associated with cognitive radio and the closely related technologies, like policy-based adaptive radio. To be able to achieve this benefit, it is necessary for these advanced radios to be controlled in such a way that underutilized portions of the spectrum can be utilized more efficiently. This has been called opportunistic spectrum management. The methods of control needed to achieve opportunistic spectrum management are a network issue as well as a radio issue. Network control of these advanced radios includes control of the configuration of the radio, the RF operating parameters, and also regulatory policies.

THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN:


The cognitive domain is based on what is called a Cognitive Engine, which controls the Software Defined Radio (SDR) and receives feedback from it. The Cognitive Engine works according to a series of rules, these consist in monitoring diverse aspects of its environment, making decisions about what changes have to be made and evaluating the results. Since this is the main part, it has been placed in the centre of the schematic but noting that the model that is shown is functional, and has no relation to the physical modularity of the system.

Figure: Cognitive domain

OPERATIONS:
Performance: The performance parameter takes into account the equipment capabilities and current operating variables, like battery condition and buffer availability. The Cognitive Engine uses the information of these characteristics for optimizing system performance. For example, a status of low battery might lead to a decision to operate slower to

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keep critical data following longer. The performance levels have to be known by the system to be able to adjust its operation parameters such as power and buffer size, and also optimize that performance. Spectrum: To improve spectrum utilization is one of the most promising capabilities of Cognitive Radio. Unused spectrum has proven to be a good treat due to fixed and inflexible allocations. Cognitive Radio offers the potential to monitor spectrum and also to configure the radio to make use of available spectrum, avoiding interference with others systems or services, and accessing when it is needed by higher priority traffic. There are several rules applied to licensed channels and unlicensed spectrum, and these rules permit Cognitive Radio to operate in either. Location: A different feature of Cognitive Radio is maintaining information about where the system is located. Location is known by terrestrial applications in relation to other communication nodes or networks, and keeping in mind political considerations of the country of operation, local jurisdictions, and relevant regulatory authority. Interoperability: Communications systems in the previous time were a number of incompatible radio systems, because they were designed for specific requirements or user communities. SDR's on the other hand, offer the possibility of joining two incompatible radio systems with different waveforms to be able to operate together, as a bridge across them. Cognitive Radios have the capability of making decisions about the operating details of interoperability, and to diffuse information needed for secure operation between different systems. Network routing There is a new capability that permits a group of radio systems to organize themselves into ad-hoc networks and optimize the follow of information between network members. The Cognitive Engine plays an important role in organizing the communication needed to maintain good performance, capacity optimization, and assured connectivity in these systems. MISSION/GOALS/OBJECTIVES: The goal of a radio system is to achieve some objective or service which radio system is set to work on.This element of the Cognitive Radio domain considers the objective or mission aspect of Cognitive Engine utilization. User: Users are both sources and sinks from the information point of view. Source data varies from voice communication to the state of a fireman's breathing gas supply. Sink behavior of the user ranges from passive television watching to Issuance of military orders during combat. User needs are constantly changing, in other words dynamic; therefore they may change rapidly during operation. Cognitive Radio has the purpose to support the user by instantiating connectivity and by providing certain levels of flexibility and functionality so that the user interface ends up being easier to use. It should provide the information needed by the user in a timely fashion and a noncomplex to use form, therefore the user interface is of primal concern. In normal operation the user interface is unobtrusive, but it can give feedback to the user regarding the actual state of the system. The user can also conveniently request to receive more or less information, or to be regularly updated on the state of a particular parameter or variable of special interest.

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Application : The application is the context within which the Cognitive Radio understands what the user wants and needs, and operates to develop and present needed information. There are mainly two aspects of Cognitive Radio operation: One of them is functionality, which is associated with the operation of the radio itself, and the other one is the execution of the application programs to provide support desired by the user. Multiple applications will frequently coexist in a Cognitive Radio. The radio responds to both the input from the user and changes in the environment to activate applications. QoS: If several application programs are in operation, the Cognitive Radio will often lead to a mixture of data with needs of all sorts. Voice and streaming video need to have continuity of service with consistent information follow. If it's too slow it will lead to gaps in the picture, while too much speed could lead to buffer overflow. Data transfer has a small need for a consistent rate of transferring in which case it can often be prioritized and some elements postponed if circuits are too busy. To reserve capacity is needed to handle peak loads and maintain response time. The Cognitive Engine requires knowing the operating mix and how much operating margin exists. It can also choose alternative routing if the case of overloading and congestion are encountered. IMPOSED CONSTRAINS: Some constraints are established by the external environment, regulatory considerations, financial factors, technological limits, and decisions made during the system design. Regulatory: To maintain order in the use of spectrum, any emitted RF energy is subject to restrictions that are imposed by government agencies. This operation could require a license. Usually the operation is subject to radiated power restrictions. The rule base contains information derived from currently imposed operational constraints. Cost: Radio systems are built taking into account costs that may limit the performance of the unit. During the design period, tradeoffs are made between the range of available reactions and system cost. The need of controlling equipment cost may result in choices that compromise certain aspects of performance or functionality. Cognitive Radio systems also frequently interact with other networks, commercial services for instance, that oblige other charges for traffic. The total cost of alternative routings can be included as part of the optimization criteria. Technology: Something to keep in mind at the time a design is finalized is the technological evolution. The design cannot easily be modified in the field for a particular radio model, but will almost surely be different for the following generations. In occasions design modularity can be used to make storage for technological developments, and the rate of appearance of new technology often influences when engineering for a new version is carried out. COGNITIVE ENGINE: The Cognitive Engine is the core of this Cognitive Radio model. During system initiation it starts with current Operations information, Constraints, and Objectives uses that information to update the Rule database. During operation mode, the Engine iterates frequently through its cycle, and generates control information to change the state of the radio.

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Monitor: The Cognitive Engine gathers information from the radio, auxiliary transducers, environment, and the user. It keeps information of the current state, and is also aware of state changes. Optimize: At standard intervals, or when activated by a state change, the Cognitive Engine develops updated solutions for radio configuration. At this point it tests to verify if the objective function values can be improved. The solution is done within the rules available in the Rules database, and at each iteration some of the data stored there may change. Control: Taking the differences between current radio state and the new optimization as a starting line, the Cognitive Engine creates control data to advance in the direction of the desired state. Control data is then taken in its broadest sense; it may include information shown to the user through the user interface, changes in SDR performance, notification to a remote authority of status changes, or input to operational application programs. Evaluate : The influence of the control information is evaluated as an intrinsic part of each iteration, and could involve additional state evaluation or changes to the rule base to gain knowledge. The concepts of control theory are called upon to maintain constant radio operation and avoid hunting, inappropriate feedback, or other pathological behavior. Adapt/learn Possible changes to the rule base are made in a rather slower manner than the main control loop to be able to avoid unreliable behavior. Response from the user is very important in learning; especially user interface feedback that indicates what information elements the user does or does not want to receive.

Figure: cognitive operation

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Cognitive Operation: By performing the iteration through the five steps of this loop, the Cognitive Engine is now ready for generating controls for the Software Defined Radio to optimize its performance, improve execution of the user's application objectives, and to fine-tune its own operation. In this stance, the reach of the cognitive mission is not limited to any subset of the benefits set forth in the list in before mentioned sections. It can be applied to any part of the domain. If, however, the Cognitive Engine is not involved with the RF performance of the associated Software Defined Radio, then the term Cognitive Radio is probably not the best suited, it should be, in any case, a cognitive system. COGNITIVE RADIO BENEFITS: Following list indicates functional advances enabled by Cognitive Radio: . Find spectrum that is currently available for use . Decide what waveform to instantiate . Broker for service among competing suppliers . Monitor the local area and the radio's own operation for regulatory compliance . Adapt radio operation for radio state and environmental conditions . Learn from actions taken in the current context to adapt and improve future operation . Provide location awareness . Avoid contention with known licensed users in a given geographical area.

COGNITIVE RADIO ARCHITECTURE:

Flexible
A/D/A

RF Flexible

A
A/D/A

Network Processor

Flexible Antenna

RF

Flexible Baseband

(MAC+) CR Strategy (host)

Flexible
A/D/A

(SDR) A
A/D/A

RF

Antenna & RF Board Board (Georgia Tech.) (Rutgers)

Baseband & Network Processor Board (Rutgers & Lucent)

Figure: Architecture of network-centric cognitive radio platform

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Cognitive Radio Architecture & Design: The network-centric cognitive radio architecture under consideration at providing a high-performance platform for experimentation with various adaptive wireless network protocols ranging from simple etiquettes to more complex ad-hoc collaboration. The basic design provides for fast RF scanning capability, an agile RF transceiver working over a range of frequency bands, a software-defined radio modem capable of supporting a variety of waveforms including OFDM and DSSS/QPSK, a packet processing engine for protocol and routing functionality, and a general purpose processor for implementation of spectrum etiquette policies and algorithms.

Kyocera TCXO S S S TXQ S TXI S S MAX2247EVKIT 2.4GHz Antenna

PA

S S Centurion WTS2450RP-SMA @2.5dBi S S

2.4GHz Transceiver (MAX2825EVKIT)

2.4G

RXENA TXENA

S RXQ S RXI S Hittite HMC484MS8G

Separate AC

902-928MHz Antenna

GND +3.3V -5V +5V GND

900MHz Baseband Controller

900MHz Transceiver
(ML2722RD-02)

Kyocera TCXO TXENA RXENA

S S S TXQ S TXI S

Hittite HMC408LP3 5GHz Antenna S Centurion WTS2450RP-SMA @3.4dBi

5G

PA

5GHz Transceiver (MAX2827EVKIT) S S RXQ S RXI S

Hittite HMC224MS8

Figure: layout of cognitive radio prototype

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Inspired architecture of cognitive radio:

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COGNITIVE RADIO FUNCTION:

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Functions: The main functions of cognitive radios are: i.Spectrum sensing: Detecting unused spectrum and sharing it, without harmful interference to other users; an important requirement of the cognitive-radio network to sense empty spectrum. Detecting primary users is the most efficient way to detect empty spectrum. Spectrum-sensing techniques may be grouped into three categories: ii. Transmitter detection: Cognitive radios must have the capability to determine if a signal from a primary transmitter is locally present in a certain spectrum. There are several proposed approaches to transmitter detection: Matched filter detection Energy detection Cyclostationary-feature detection

iii.Cooperative detection: Refers to spectrum-sensing methods where information from multiple cognitive-radio users is incorporated for primary-user detection. iv.Interference-based detection v.Power Control: Power control is used for both opportunistic spectrum access and spectrum sharing CR systems for finding the cut-off level in SNR supporting the channel allocation and imposing interference power constraints for the primary user's protection respectively. In [21] a joint power control and spectrum sensing is proposed for capacity maximization. vi.Spectrum management: Capturing the best available spectrum to meet user communication requirements, while not creating undue interference to other (primary) users. Cognitive radios should decide on the best spectrum band (of all bands available) to meet quality of service requirements; therefore, spectrum-management functions are required for cognitive radios. Spectrum-management functions are classified as: Spectrum analysis Spectrum decision

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COGNITIVE CYCLE:

LOCALIZATION ON COGNITIVE RADIO: A brief introduction to the problems encountered with source localization of a cognitive radio was provided . Two broad areas were identified as part of the solution to the problem: 1) spectrum sensing and 2) localization using a wireless RF sensor network. Background on each of these areas and an implementation of these techniques in a specific application. A. SPECTRUM SENSING: In general, spectrum sensing is the process of gaining awareness of the frequency usage and presence of users within a geographical area . Typically, this involves examining a portion of the frequency spectrum through a selected method over an interval of time to identify whether or not the frequency spectrum is in use . In the context of cognitive radio, such awareness can be obtained through local measurements performed by the cognitive radio or through external resources independent of the radio itself . 1. Spectrum Sensing Methods: Several methods have been proposed to perform local spectrum sensing . The following section highlights three of the most relevant methods from the literature : 1) energy detection based spectrum sensing 2) cyclo stationary-based spectrum sensing 3) matched filtering. A brief overview of each technique is provided below along with the relative advantages and disadvantages of each. a. ENERGY DETECTION BASED SPECTRUM SENSING: Due to its low complexity and computational cost, energy detection based spectrum sensing is the most common spectrum sensing method . It is performed by comparing the received energy of the signal against a predefined energy detection threshold to determine the presence or absence of the user in the frequency band of interest . The energy of the received signal is determined by squaring and integrating the received signal strength (RSS) over the observation time interval .

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The energy detection threshold is determined using the noise variance of the environment . Thus, small errors in the noise variance estimation can cause significant performance degradation . Energy detection based spectrum sensing is the optimal detection method for zero-mean constellation signals when no information is known in advance about the user occupying the channel . However, energy detection based spectrum sensing cannot distinguish the type of user occupying the frequency band . In addition, under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, energy detection performs poorly . B. CYCLOSTATIONARY-BASED SPECTRUM SENSING: Given the disadvantages of energy detection based spectrum sensing, cyclostationary-based spectrum sensing offers an attractive alternative . By exploiting the cyclostationary features of the received signal [2], cyclostationary-based spectrum sensing is capable of discriminating which type of user is present , and detecting the presence of a user under low SNR conditions . Such benefits come at the cost of additional hardware complexity and a lengthier detection process when compared to energy detection based spectrum sensing . Cyclostationary features are the result of periodicity in the received signal or its statistical properties. As such, detection is accomplished by finding the unique cyclic frequency of the spectral correlation function of the received signal . The spectral correlation function is determined by taking the Fourier transform of the cyclic autocorrelation function. The spectral correlation function is given by, Under cyclo stationary-based spectrum sensing, a priori knowledge of the cyclo stationary features of the received signal is required for successful detection. However, if complete knowledge of the received signal is known in advance, matched filtering based spectrum sensing provides the optimal solution . c. MATCHED FILTERING: Matched filtering is the optimal solution when complete a priori knowledge of the received signal is available . It is achieved by correlating the received signal with the known signal to be detected . In this way, the SNR of the received signal is maximized . An additional benefit is the short time period necessary to achieve a specific probability of false alarm or probability of missed detection relative to energy detection or cyclostationary-based spectrum sensing . However, the requirement for complete a priori knowledge of the signal is a significant drawback to this method given this information may not always be available in advance . Further, to detect a large number of different signals, a separate matched filter must be used for each different signal. Thus, hardware complexity is a significant factor in implementation when detecting a large number of different signals . 2. COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING: Local spectrum sensing methods using distributed sensor nodes are limited in their effectiveness due to irregularities in the environment . Multipath fading and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions can significantly reduce the probability of detecting whether or not a user is present in the frequency band of interest at a single sensor node . Most damaging to the spectrum sensing process is the problem of the hidden node , which occurs when a particular sensor node suffers from NLOS conditions or severe multipath fading . The two sensor nodes experiencing multipath fading and NLOS conditions may not detect the presence of the user. However, if the sensor nodes were to share their information with each other through a central decision node as illustrated in the figure, a more accurate global result may be achieved . Such collaboration among the sensor nodes to overcome local environmental effects is the essence of cooperative spectrum sensing . Cooperative spectrum sensing can be summarized in three primary steps. a) each sensor node performs local spectrum sensing at its position and determines whether or not the frequency band of interest is occupied .

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b) all sensor nodes transmit their spectrum sensing decisions to a central decision maker . c) decision maker aggregates the individual local spectrum sensing decisions and makes a final global decision as to the presence or absence of a user based on a decision rule .

Figure: cooperative spectrum sensing under shadowing and multipath fading. LOCALIZATION USING WIRELESS RADIO FREQUENCY SENSOR NETWORKS To date, numerous propagation model-based localization schemes have been proposed to enable a wireless device to find its own position or the position of other devices. Such schemes can be broken down into two main categories: 1) range- based 2) range-free ,The means by which position estimation is achieved distinguishes these two categories from one another . 1. RANGE-BASED LOCALIZATION SCHEMES: Position estimation occurs in two phases under range-based localization schemes: 1) ranging and 2) localization . In the ranging phase, point-to-point ranging estimations are made between a transmitter and receiver using metrics such as time-of-arrival (TOA), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), angle-of-arrival (AOA), RSS, and others . During the localization phase, the distances obtained in the ranging phase are translated into position through the intersection of three or more estimated distances from known positions. TOA is obtained from the internal clock of the receiver when the signal of interest arrives at its terminals . Therefore, the degree of precision in the receivers clock is one of the greatest factors which can create error in TOA observations. To convert TOA into distance, the receiver and transmitters clock must be perfectly synchronized. The estimated TOA at the receiver is the sum of the transmission time, the propagation delay, and the error in the transmitter and receivers clock synchronization. Distance is obtained from the propagation delay between the transmitter and receiver. To alleviate the requirement for clock synchronization between the transmitter and receiver, TDOA-based methods utilize the difference between multiple TOA measurements . This may be the difference in TOA for a single signal to reach multiple receivers, or the difference in TOA for multiple signals from one transmitter to reach one receiver. Thus, TDOA-based methods require synchronization between receivers but not between transmitter and receiver.

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AOA-based schemes utilize the angle at which the transmitters signal arrives at the receiver to estimate distance. To this end, directional antennas are required which can significantly increase cost and complexity. AOA-based methods are also strongly susceptible to adverse environmental effects such as multipath fading and shadowing. As a low cost solution, RSS-based methods offer an effective alternative to the disadvantages of AOA-based methods . Its low cost is attributed to the fact that most receivers are capable of performing RSS measurements, and it is simple to implement in hardware . Given an accurate propagation model, the RSS can be used to estimate the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. The RSS is a measurement of the magnitude of the signal power observed by the receiver. This measurement is also subject to significant deviations due the aforementioned environmental effects. 2. RANGE-FREE LOCALIZATION SCHEMES: In the context of wireless sensor networking, range-free schemes are used to determine the position of the sensor nodes within the network. Multiple anchor nodes with known positions are used as the basis to determine the position of other sensor nodes. This is accomplished through such metrics as hop count or proximity vice triangulation or tri late ration as in range-based localization schemes . As a result, less hardware is required for individual devices to be positioned. However, this also degrades the overall accuracy in the position estimate . Range based schemes require more hardware in the sensor node in order to deliver precise measurements for position estimation . Ultimately, both classes of schemes fall short in cognitive radio source localization because they lack the ability to adapt as the cognitive radio would . Specifically, as the cognitive radio utilizes different portions of the frequency spectrum over time, the localization scheme must account for frequency mobility to continue position estimation. When spatial mobility is additionally considered, the problem extends beyond what standard localization techniques can offer. Therefore, source localization of a cognitive radio demands some level of adaptation in the localization process to accurately estimate position [21]. One potential solution to this problem is semi-range based localization. 3. SEMI-RANGE BASED LOCALIZATION SCHEMES: Semi-range based localization has recently been proposed for primary user source localization via a cognitive radio network. Positioning information about the primary users is essential to identify which frequency bands are available for use and to prevent interference between the secondary user and primary user networks . In this scenario, the secondary users act as a wireless RF sensor network by performing spectrum sensing to identify unused portions of the frequency spectrum for opportunistic usage . The positions of the primary users are determined using only the local spectrum sensing decisions from the secondary user network . In this way, frequency awareness is maintained throughout the localization scheme, which is also a desirable property for source localization of a cognitive radio. The central idea behind semi range-based localization is exploiting the relationship between the distance of the secondary user to the primary user and the probability of the secondary user detecting the primary user. Thus, spatial awareness is also inherent in semi-range based localization. Given these two characteristics, semi-range based localization is extended. In this project for cognitive radio, source localization using a wireless RF sensor network. a. Semi-Range Based Iterative Localization Algorithm (ISRB): Semi-range based localization was originally introduced by Ma et al. Their distinct contribution is the introduction of a hybrid localization algorithm that takes advantage of key features from both range-based and range-free

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localization schemes in a cognitive radio environment. This is accomplished in two ways. First, the local binary spectrum sensing decisions of all secondary users in range of one specific primary user are used to estimate the probability of detection at all secondary users. All positions of the secondary users are assumed to be known in advance as each secondary user acts as an anchor node to calculate the final position estimate. Second, the probability of detection is used to estimate the distance from each secondary user to the primary user. similar to the way range-based schemes utilize a specific metric to estimate point-to-point distance. In these two ways, Mas localization algorithm behaves in a range-based as well as range-free manner. Therefore, because of its hybrid nature, Ma et al. have appropriately entitled their technique a semi-range based iterative localization algorithm (ISRB). b. Practical Semi-Range Based Localization Algorithm (PSRB): One shortfall of ISRB is the requirement for advance knowledge of the primary users transmission power given that one of the fundamental goals of a cognitive radio is no explicit cooperation from the primary user of that frequency spectrum. As such, there can be no expectation of knowing the primary users exact transmission power in advance. Wang et al. has sought to correct this deficiency by proposing a practical semi range-based localization algorithm (PSRB) which does not require the primary users transmission power to be known in advance . Rather, it becomes an additional parameter to be estimated during the localization process . This is accomplished by approximating the primary users power through the iterative non-linear least squares method (NLSM) . However, both ISRB and PSRB rely on the local binary spectrum sensing decisions obtained by the secondary users in the cognitive radio network. APPLICATION AREA OF COGNITIVE RADIO, SPECTRUM SENSING, AND LOCALIZATION : IEEE STANDARD 802.22 WIRELESS REGIONAL AREA NETWORKS(WRAN) :The most immediate application of cognitive radio technology comes from the IEEE 802.22 Working Group (WG), which aims to provide last mile rural broadband wireless access through Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) operating in television (TV) white spaces . Completed earlier this year, the IEEE 802.22 WRAN standard employs cognitive radio technology in an unlicensed fashion on top of legacy TV broadcasting networks. As such, the cognitive radio network cannot interfere with the operation of the existing legacy TV broadcast network. Having rights to the allocated spectrum, those radios within the legacy TV broadcast network are identified as primary users. Those cognitive radios operating within the WRAN are secondary users because they have limited or no rights to the allocated spectrum and must perform spectrum sensing to prevent incumbent interference. It is important to note that the 802.22 WG is not alone in their ambition for the development of cognitive radio technologies . Multiple other technologies, such as IEEE standard 802.11af for wireless local area networks in the TV whitespaces, are also being developed to take advantage of cognitive radio. The network topology of the IEEE 802.22 WRAN is shown in Figure. The 802.22 WRAN is a point-to-multipoint system where a single base station (BS) manages all consumer premise equipment (CPE) within its cell. The average cell is intended to cover a 33 kilometer radius but may extend up to 100 kilometers if power is not restricted. A maximum of 255 CPEs are supported per BS per TV channel . The BS controls medium access and communicates in the downstream direction to all CPE, while the CPE respond in the upstream direction to the BS. The 802.22 physical (PHY) layer is based on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) with support for data rates of 1.5 Mbps in the downstream direction and 384 kbps up stream . To facilitate medium access control (MAC), a super frame structure is introduced at the MAC layer as shown in Figure . Super frames are used to facilitate incumbent protection, synchronization with adjacent 802.22 WRAN cells, and self-coexistence .

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Such actions are coordinated through super frame control headers (SCH) and MAC frame control headers (FCH) at the beginning of each frame . One super frame consists of 16 MAC frames, which are further divided into downstream and upstream sub-frames . The duration of one MAC frame is 10 milliseconds, which implies that one super frame lasts 160 milliseconds .

Figure: IEEE 802.22 WRAN topology

Figure : IEEE 802.22 MAC and super frame structure

Figure: IEEE 802.22 intra-frame and inter-frame quiet periods PROBLEM IN COGNITIVE RADIO: problem with the cognitive radio is that the secondary user do not know if any primary user thats in its range are already listening to another primary user outside the listening range. At this point the secondary user would just start transmitting and thus interfering with the primary user.

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One approach to protect the primary user is to set up a sensor that listens on the secondary user as well as the primary user, and we solve the problem with interference at the sensor. Since the secondary user does not know of the primary user transmitting, he thinks it is okay for him to transmit, thus interfering for the primary user. The sensor should then give feedback to the secondary user that it should lower the transmission power. PROPOSED SYSTEM : overcome the existing system

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