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Answer Tutorial 2: 1.

Solution 3000 = 13 A 230 Current rating for protective devices I N = 15 A From table 4B1, BS 7671 or well known as IEE Regulation, temperature correction factor at 40C is Ca = 0.87. and table 4C1for grouping factor of five circuits is C g = 0.6 Design current I b = So, the minimum tabulated current rating IN 15 I , min = = = 28.74 A Ca C g 0.87 0.6 From table 4D2A IEE Regulation column 6 a 4mm2 tabulated current 36A is selected although the design current is only 13A. 2. Solution Design current I b = 15 1000 = 30.07 A 0.8 0.9 400 3

Frequent start/stop is suggested that the minimum circuit rating be selected . Select 1.4 as the multiple value of current rating Ib, 1.4 x 30.07 = 42.10A. From table 4C1, IEE Regulation temperature correction is 0.94, so the minimum tabulated circuit rating is: IN 42.10 I , min = = = 44.79 A Ca C g 0.87 1 From table 4D2A of IEE Regulation column 5, cable 10mm2, 4 cores with tabulated current i46A is selected. 3. Solution I , min = IN 15 = = 57.47 A Ca C g Ci 0.87 0.6 0.5

From table 4D2A of IEE Regulation column 6, a twin cable of 10mm2 which has tabulated current of 63A is selected. 4. Solution Assume the design Ib be motors full load current. From Table 4D1A of IEE Regulation, column 7, a 25mm2 cable with a current rating 104A is initially selected, and the voltage drop is calculated as:

Vdrop =

( TVDr cos + TVD x ) I b length


1000 1000

(1.5 0.8 + 0.175 0.6) 102 75 = 9.983V or 2.496% =


The calculated Vdrop is 2.496% exceed 2% of 400V. The next higher size of cable is selected 35mm2. Then recalculate voltage drop. Vdrop =

(1.1 0.8 + 0.17 0.6) 102 75 = 7.512V or1.88%


1000

5.

Solution For the 10mm2 cable, the tabulated reactive component TVDx is zero and the voltage drop can be calculated as: Vdrop = Vdrop =

( TVDr cos + TVD x ) I b length


1000

( TVDr cos + TVDx ) 50 30 = 3.8 0.8 50 30 = 4.56V


1000 1000

6. a. i. ii.

Solution This circuit satisfies the two overload requirements: From table 4D1A of IEE Regulation Iz=50A. Since IN = 50A, it satisfied IN Iz. Since I2 = 1.30 x 50 = 65A ( I2 = 1.45 for MCCB) 1.45Iz = 72.5A, it satisfies I2 1.45Iz. Thus, according to IEE Regulation this circuit provided adequate protection for overload. b. In this particular case, there is a range of small overloads for which it is not protected. Since the breaker will only trip at a current higher than 65A and the cable rating is 50A, the range is not protected is from higher than 50A and less than 65A. c. The current rating of the 4 x 25mm2 cable is 89A. As this circuit protected by 50A MCCB, which will trip at any current higher than 65A, this circuit can only load up to:

65 100% = 73% 89 7. a. Solution For no load protection, the minimum tabulated current rating is: IN 188 I , min = = = 200 A Ca C g Ci 0.94 1 1 To provide adequate protection against overload IN 350 I , min = = = 372 A Ca C g Ci 0.94 1 1 From table 4D2A, column 5, a 4 x 400mm2 cable which has tabulated current rating 0f 402A is selected. 8. Solution I b = 45 A, I N = 100, I z = 46 A From column 5 table 4D2A f IEE Regulation This circuit does not provide overload protection since IN is not Iz and I2 is not 1.45Iz. For PVC insulated cable Q1=70C, Qf=160C and k=115. To ovoid thermal damage to the cable during fault condition, the MCB must operate and isolate the short circuit current within the critical time tc. tc = k 2 s 2 1152 10 2 = = 0.0529 s 2 5000 2 IF

b.

Since the maximum critical time of the MCB is 0.1s which is larger than the critical time of 0.0529s, this circuit is therefore not protected adequately for short circuit condition. 9. a. Solution Two parts i. From table 4D2A of IEE Regulation, column 7, the current rating of 10mm2 circuit is 59A . Since IN=60A and Iz=59A, thus IN is not Iz ii. I2=1.30 x 60=78A 1.45Iz=1.45 x 59=86A Its satisfies I21.45Iz.

This circuit is considered as not fully protected by overload as it does not satisfy condition (i), although it does satisfy condition (ii). To provide adequate overload protection including small overload, the minimum tabulated current rating of the circuit should be I z , min = 1.30 60 = 78 A From table 4D2A of IEE Regulation column 7, the conductor size should be 4x16mm2 which rated at 79A. b. k 2 s 2 1152 10 2 tc = = = 0.0827 s 2 4000 2 IF Since the maximum operating time of MCCB is 0.15s which is larger than the critical time of 0.0827s, the circuit does not provide adequate protection for thermal damage during short circuit conditions. The conductor size should be increased from 10mm2 to a larger cross section as follows: S min = I t max 4000 0.15 = = 13.47 mm 2 k 115

Thus, if adequate short circuit protection is required, the conductor size should be equal to or greater than 13.47mm2 and 16mm2 is recommended. c. For both the conductor size and the breaker operating time remain unchanged, the maximum short-circuit that this circuit can withstand is kS 115 10 I F , max = = 2969 A t 0.15