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Volume4

Issue 47

CONTENTS Modern

light Vehicles
922 922
923

M3Tlightvehicle MSSlightvehicle Fast AttackVehicle MISl lightvehicle

924
925 926

Consultant Editor: Major General Sir Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman. der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

Hummerftmpetition land Rover l-Tonne light vehicle


L,urdRoverinAction 0peration'Protea'
Citrodn M6hui Arm6e light vehicle
Peugeot P4 light vehicle

Distribution and marketing offices:


Orbis Publishing Ltd Orbis House 20-22 Bedfordbury London WC2N 4BT Telephone: 01-379 6711

927
932 934 934 935 936 936 937 937 938 938 939 940

Hotchkiss M 201light vehicle

Girculation Oirestor: David Breed Marketing Director: Michael Joyce


WAR MACHINE Price UK 80p. lR f 1 . Aus
Canada $1.95
$1 .95. NZ $2.25.

of difficulty write to wAR MACHINE


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any branch of Central News Agency. ln case Bin-

ders, lntermag. PO Box 57394. Springfield

Step-puch

700 AP

Haflinger light vehicle

Mercedes-Beru light vehicle Volkswagen Iltis light vehicle


UAZ-4698 light vehicle

SA F1.95. Singapore $4.50. USA and

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AD light vehicle
126

DAFYA

weapons canier

Japanese light vehicles

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Armed Forces of the World


USAirForce(Part3)
Published by Orbis Publishing Ltd @ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1984

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Back Numbers

iii
Design: Rod Teasdale
Colour Origination: lmago Publishing Ltd. Thame, Oxon Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd Film work: Precise Litho Ltd

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Editorial Oflices
War Machine Aerospace Publishing Ltd 10 Barley Mow Passage London W4 4PH Managing Editor: Stan Morse Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop

Artists:
Peter Sarson & Tony Bryant 26a47 Printed in Great Britain byTheArtisan Press Ltd

Pichrre aclanowledgements
Cover photognDh: US Any. 921: Brice R:cerscUS Meine Corps. 922: RF..E.F./R.F. 923r Emersor Electdc ruS AnnyruS Amy. 924: US Acy]jS nny. 925: US Amy,RF./RF./RF./US AmytuS tumy/US Army. 926: US Amy,/]!,IoD. 92?r Bnce Rcber$EMcD. 928: Bruce Robefison/RF./R.F./Bruce Robertsr 929: BBC. 9323: (aI) Hemil Potgierer. gil+gil?: (c.I) RF 938: R.FruS Army. 939: R.F. 940r R.P./R.F./R.F. (iii): US Air Force. (iv): US Atr Force4JS Air Force.

Jon Lake
Chris Chant

tlodern LigH
Light utility vehicles have become an essential item in the inventories of the world's armed, forces, ever since the Jeep proved its worth in World War IL They are used for an astonishing vaiety of pu4toses both in combat and rear echelon duties, and without them it woald be diIficuht for armiesto carryoutthe most routine oftasks,
The Jeep developed in the USA durrng World War II has probably become the most famous wheeled vehicle ever produced, and there are many who firmly believe that thls light vehicle was a decisive factor in the eventual outcome of World War II. Since then light vehicles of one type or another have become an essential part of every army in the world. It is interesting to note that the French Hotchkiss M 201 light vehicle, a direct descendant of the Jeep, is still in active service with a number of armies, Light vehicles are used in every conceivable role ranging from general runabouts for offlcers and NCOs to command vehicles, forward ambulances, forward air control vehicles, cargo carriers, reconnaissance vehicles and (fitted with recoilless rifles or anti-tank gniided weapons) highly potent tank destroyers, They have seen actron in every corner of the world, from the dense jungles of South East Asia to the arid deserts of North A-frica and the Middle East. Every tlme they have proved themselves to be capable of almost continuous operations wrth little or no marntenance. Of all the vehicles covered ln this study, it is the Land Rover, M37 M38, Mi51, Hotchkiss M 201 and the two Soviet vehlcles that have seen the most widespread service, Some, such as the Peugeot P4 and the Volkswagen Iltis, have only recently entered service and so have not yet been deployed operationally,
first-aid Land Rover of 4 I Commando awaits a helicopter lift from the carrier HMS He:rmes durrhg a deployment to Cyprus.
The advent of the helicopter has enabled the light vehicle to makes its presence felt in many areas. Here a

In the near future a new type of

lierht vehicle

although by its carrying capability of just over one tonne it is aimcs: a truck, This is the American Hiqh-Mobility Multr-purpose Wheeled Ve:_cle (HMM\A|V), now more commonly knoum as the Hummer, for v;:.1:: the US armed forces have a requirement of at least S0,000. The Hurnne: wlll replace the M151 (4x4) light vehrcle and some heavier vehicles .s these do not have the required payload, performance or protectioi -c: use in future high-intensity conflicts, Many of the tight vehicles at prese:-: in service were desrgned to mount only machine-gnrns but have :recent years, been pressed into use carrying anti-tank weapons a:-: therr ammunition that have overloaded the chassis. With the ever-increasing costs of defence, many countries are nc',',issuing iight 4 x 2 vehicles to many units as these are more than adequa:: for many of the roles normally carried out by 4x4 hght vehrcles ut *;e rear areas. These 4x2 vehicles are not only cheaper to purchase in:= first place, but are less costly to run and maintain, a valuable asse: There is no doubt that ligrht vehlcles (4x4, 4x.Z or new-genera-*.:vehicles such as the Hummer) will be wrth us for a long time yet,
US Marines were notable in patrolling the streets of Betrat during the ill-fated peacekeeping effort in Lebanon. With more than I 00,000 produced, the M I5I is in worldwide use, but will be replaced in American service by the H igh Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle.

will enter sen.:=

M I5I vehicles of the

===fl:

itigz tisrht vehicle


AnM37 (4x4) cargotruck, complete with bows and a tarpaulin cover over the rear compailment. The latter is providedwitha drop ta@ate and fold-up troop seats down each side.

give its official desigmation, the T214, was vndely used as a command/radlo vehicle and forward ambr:Iance dwing World War II, and was placed back in production to meet Korean War requirements, This was replaced by the M3?, also produced by Dodge, who built over 125,000 vehicles between 1950 and 1970 for the US Army and many other countdes around the world. The M37 was replaced in many units in the 1970s by the M7l5 series, but insufficient of these were built to

The Beep (4x4) light vehicie, or to

replace the M37 on


basrs.

one-for-one

The basic M37 truck was desigmed to carry 907 kg (2,000 lb) of cargo on roads or 68Okg (1,5001b) of cargo across country, and can also tow a trail-

er

weighrng 2722k9 (6,000 ]b) on roads or tBlSkg (4,000Ib) across


country, In layout the M37 is srmilar to a standard commercral pick-up, with the en-

gine at the front, the driver and ftvo

passengers in the centre, and the cargo area at the rear. The last has a drop tailgate, folding troop seats dourn each side, removable ftont rack bows and a tarpaulin cover, The cab has a windscreen that can be folded forward onto the bonnet, on each side a door whose top can be removed, and a removable tarpaulin cover. Some vehicles were fitted with a front-mounted wrnch for

recovery operations, and


(7 ft).

a deep-

fording kit can be fitted which enables the M37 to ford to a depth of 2,133 m There are a number ofvariants ofthe M37, including the M43 ambulance which has a fully enclosed steel body and can carry eight seated or four

MIS2CDN fully enclosed panel truck, One of the more unusual Canadian models was an M37CDN with a pedesta1 mount to the cab rear for launching anti-tank gurded weapons, In the i950s Japan produced two vehicles very simrlar to the M37. These were the Nissan Q4W73 (4x4) 750-kg (1,653{b) truck and the Toyota zFQlsl (4x4) with a similar carrying capabtllty. Both of these are used by the Japanese Ground Self-Defence Force, and the Nissan vehrcle has also been built under licence in India for the Indian army, The Toyota model was also used by United States forces in the Far East, South Vietnam and South Korea, The South Vietnamese fitted many of their vehicles vnth additional armour protection for convoy escort work and for the patrol ofar bases and

dant, The rear compartment ts provided with a heater and a light, The command post model rs simrlar to the basic cargo model but has side curtains with windows, and internally has a folding table and map light, and can be fitted wrth communications equip-

stretcher patients and a medtcal atten-

other targets,

Above: Between 1950 and 1970 Dodge built more than I 34,000 of these M37 (4x4) cargo trucks for the US armed forces. This particular vehicle h as a front-m ounte d winch.

elow : T he am bul ance mem her of thefamily is desigmated theM43, and can carry lour stretcher patients plus an attendant, or eight seated patienls and an attendant.

Specification
M37 Crew: i + 2 (plLrs 6/8 in rear) Weight: empty 2585 ks (5,699 1b) and loaded 3493 kg (7,700 lb) Powerplant: one Dodge T245 6cylinder petrol engrine developing 78 bhp (58 kW) Dimensions: length 4,Bl m (15 ft 9 in); width 1,784 m (5 ft 10 in); height

ment, The telephone maintenance

truck is the M20l which has an all-steel body with compartments for tools and spare equipment, The M37 was also made under

cence in Canada in the I950s by Chrysler at Windsor, Ontario, these


being called the M3?CDN cargo vehi-

l!

2,279m(7ft6in)
Performance: maxrmum road sPeed BB.5 kr/h(55 mph); maximumrangte 362 wn (225 mrles); grradient 68 per cent; fordins i,066 m(3 ft6 in)

cle,

M43CDN ambulance

and

ittga Hsrhtvehicle
The M38 was in production from
1950

At the outbreak of the Korean War in

1950, the standard American light vehicle was still the Jeep. But the rapld expansion of the US Army meant that there were insufficient Jeeps, even when units in Europe and elsewhere were robbed of their vehicles. To meet this urgent need the civilian WiIlys CJ3A was fitted with a 24-volt electncal system (to enable it to be fitted with radios), semi-floating rear axle and a deep-fording kit (to enabie it to ford to a depth of LB79 m/6 ft 2 in), and this was standardized as the M38, In appearance it was simrlar to the Jeeps

the M38A1, whrch is powered bY a icur-cylnder petrol engine developing 72bhp (53.69kW) has a longer wheelbase, possesses e[eater oper-

to 1952, when it was replaced by

ational range thanks to the provrsion of a larger-capacity fuel tank, and has the same payload capability as the basic M3B. The M3BAI is distingnrishable from the M3B as the former has distinct curved sides to the bonnet, while the latter has a flat bonnet fhat is almost

identical to that of the World War II

of World War II, and could carry a


payload of544 kg
363
(

Jeep,

1,200 ]b) on roads

or

Continued on page 924


An M38A
1 (4 x 4) Iight vehicle of the Spankh marines, fitted with radios for use in the command role.

Ib) across country, and could tow a traller weighing 907 kg


(800

kq

(2,000 lb) on roads or 680 kg (1,500 ]b) across country. It could also be fitted with a front-mounted winch,

?22

Fcsf Attack Vehicle


One of the most unusual of the many developments contributing to the new American irmy of the lgg}s is theFast AttackVehicle concept, currenily under test with the gth I nfantry Division in W ashington state.

to project power to anv part of the world. This has led to ihe build-uo of

ln the past

fewyears the United States has placed greater emphasis on its ability
it6

The chassis is essentially a tubular frame with an inteqial roll-over caqe to protect the occupants should the vehicle turn over. The d'river is seated i"n the centre of the vehicle on the left with the gunner/passenger/commander to his right, both crew members being provided with seat belis which are essential when the vehicle is travelling at speed across country. Mounted at the rear is the air-cooled petrol engine which develops g4 hp (70 kW) and is coupled to a manual gearbox with four forward and two reverse gears. There is n6 transfer box as power is on the rear wheels only. Each fiont wheel has two hiahperformance shock absorbers while the r6ar wheels, which take the qreaier weight, have three each. Maximum road speed is almost 129 km/h (80'moh). The FAV can be fitted with a variety of weapons which would normally be mounted on the integral roll bar; thede include the 40-mm Mk 19 autoniatic g.renade-launcher, 7.62-mm_(0.3-in) or 12.7-mm (0.b-in) machine-guns, Hughes Helicopters 30-mm Chain Gun 1as fitted to the Advanced Atta;k Helicdpter already in production for the US Army) or the Hughes Aircraft TOW 2 wireguided anti-tank weapon. ,Obviously the Fast Attack Vehicle would not be able to stop a head-on advance by enemy units equipped with main battle tanks and mechanized

country. ln 1 982 Emerson Electric was awarded a contract worth $2 million for B0 Fast Attack Vehicles and all were delivered by December of the same year. The FAV has no armour protection and relies for its survival on its speed ahd small size.

and it would need thousands of sorties to airlift it to a different th6atre oi operations; indeed. some of it is so heaw that it could only be canied by sea. The 9th lnfantry Division at Fort Lewis. Washington, has recently'been carrying out trials with a wide range of equipment capable of rapid depl6yment by air to any pgl.nt in the world.-This ec]uipment has ranged Trom the West German.Wiesel_.light tracked armoured vbhicle and Unimo"g trucks to the Fast Attack Vehicle, The last is the well-known Chenowth Racin6 products lncoroorated dune buggy, which has been available on the civilia"n market for sohre years and has already established a reputation for its exceptional speed across

ly checked for immediate-use capability. The programme js called POMCUS (Pre-positioning Of Materiel Configured to Unit Sdts). For political and economic reasons it is impossible for the United States to store military equipment in every area of possible conflict. lt is therefore expected that in some cases the units would have to fly direct from the United States direct to the risk area. The main drawback is that the equipment for the armoured and mechanized divisions based in the United Statds is very heavy

and the existing Lockheed C-1 41 Starlifter fleet being 'stretched'. li Europe the US Army has stockpiled massive amounts of tanksl armoured personnbl carriers, trucks, artillery and other essential stores so that in the evdnt of war only the manpower has to be f lown in to crew vehicles already in place and constant-

strategic transport forces with the Lockheed C-5B Galaxy entering probuction

showing its integr al roll cage and anned wi th a 30-mm Hughes Helicopters Chain Gun as installed in tie Advanced Attack H_elicopter. These vehicles are now being tested by the gth nfanti Oiiiiion's High Technologry Test Bed at Fort Lewis, Washingion.
infantry vehicles and supported by massive artlllery fire, but they could be used to strike f rom the sides and rear where the enemy would not exbect or even be prepared for such an attack. Using hit and run tactics, the FastAttack Vehicie could play a valuable part in ope-rations in the Middle East, where its hign

A F a s t A ttac k Vehic le (FAV)

survive long in high-intensity gperations likely to be found in Europe. lt also lacks the space to carry sufficient fuel, ammunition and other esseniial suoolies fo. extended operations. and in such circumstances would have to be supitbrteo or other vehicles. Like any equipment developed today, if it is used for the role for which it was design.ed the FAV would probably prove to be a major success, but if used in ar operatronal envtronment such as Europe would probably fail.

power-to-weight ratio, low overall weight and small size would make it En elusive target; and at close quarters a-tank turret would not have sufficlent speed even to traverse onto the vehicle. The FAV concept does have limitations, however, and the vehicle would no:

Above : The F as t Attack Ve hicle is based on the highly su cce ssfuI Chenowth off-road racing vehicle, s Lig htly m odifi ed to meet military requirements such as the additionof radios and armament.

Right : F ast Attack V ehicle (FAV), fitted with 40-mm automatic grenade Iauncher ( top) and 7. 6 2 -m m machine-gan ( bottom) to give suppressivefire. Sofar more than 80 vehicles have been delivered.

M38 light vehicle (continued) The layout of the M38 is convention-

a| with the engine at the front, the driver and one passenger in the centre,
and a bench seat for a further two passengers at the rear, The wrndscreen

which wlli soon be replaced by the West German Volkswagen Iltis light
vehicle built under licence, In the early 1960s Willys-Overland became Kaiser Jeep, which later be-

foids forward onto the bonnet and a canvas top, stowed at the rear when not required, can be quickly erected

when the windscreen rs raised.

Variants of the later M3BAI lncluded the M38AIC, which carried a 106-mm (4,17-in) recoiliess rifle in the rear that could be fired from the vehrcle or dismounted for grround use and also had a

split windscreen so that the barrel


could be locked alonq the centre ofthe vehicle for travelhng, The ambulance model of the M3BA] was the MI70, which could carry three stretcher or six seated patients, The M3B and M3BA1 were replaced in the US Army by the M151 light vehic1e,

came the Jeep Corporation, a substdiary of the American Motors Corporation, which manuJactures a wide ranqte of 4 x 4 vehicies for the civtlian market, Military versions of some of these vehicles are aiso produced for the export market including the AM7, AM8 and AMl0, which a1l have diilerent wheelbases and payloads, although they are all powered by the same Model 258
engTrne.

Specification
M38 Crew: l+ 1 (plus 2inrear) Weight: empty 1247 ks (2,749 lb) and loaded I791 kq(3,948 Ib) Powerplant: one Willys MC 4-cylinder petrol engrne developing 60 bhp Dimensions: lenqth 3,377 m (l I ft I in); width 1,574 m (5 ft 2 in); helsht 1,879 m
(44 7

but they remarn in sewice with many other countries around the world, and the type was also made under licence in Canada as the M38CDN and M38AICDN, both of

kW)

(6 ft 2 in) Performance: maximum road speed 88.5 lcr/h (55 mph); maxrmum range 362 lan (225 miles); gnadient 65 per cent; fording 0.939 m (3 ft I in)

The forward ambulance version oI the M 38 is the M I 70, which has a longer wheelbase and can carry

three stretcher or six seated pafr'ents.

ffi

itirsl fisrhtvehicle
An M 1 5 I (4 x 4) light vehicle with the

The MlSl is at present one of the most wrdely used light vehicles in the world,

but its development can be traced back to a requirement issued in 1950


for a new /+-ton vehicle to repiace the M3B which was then entedng production at Willys, Development of the new

canopy erected. Al/l General is still producing thisvehicle to meet foreign military sa/es as flte Unjted States armed forces have not fiveyears.

purchased any M I 5 I series for some

vehicle was undedaken by the Ford Motor Company, the flrst prototypes being completed in 1952 and further
prototypes in 1954 under the designa-

tion XMISI, Further development of the latter resulted in the XMlSlEl of


steel construction, and in the XMlSlE2 of aluminium construction. The former was eventually selected for production, and the first vehicles came offthe

productlon line at Ford's Highland

Park Plant in 1960 under the designation M151, In 1984 the vehicie was in service with some l0O armies in almost every corner ofthe world, but production:s now undertaken by AM General Corporation at its Sound Bend Facilities. This company has produced over 100,000 vehicles, though none of the

type have been ordered by the US Army in recent years as the enqine

does not meet stringent emission standards, Thus all production is now for export, The M51 has seen action wlth

American forces in Vietnam, where


the vehicle was used for a wide range of roles, some even being fitted with armour protection.

roads or 680 kq (1,499 lb) across country, A variety of klts can be fitted including a heater, fully enclosed hard top, searchlight, front-mounted winch, I0O-amp altemator and a kit to enable the vehicle to ford to a depth of 1,524 m (5 ft), the last kit being widely used by the US Marine Corps when driving the

The layout of the vehicle is similar to

other vehicles of this type, with the


engine at the front, the driver and one passenger in the centre, and a bench seat at the rear, The engine is coupled to a manual gearbox with four forward and one reverse gear and a srnglespeed transfer box that enables the

Continued on page 926


Below: Since I 960 the M I 5 I has been the standard light vehicle of the US Army and many other armies in every corner of the world. From I I I 4 it will start to be replaced by the High M ob ility M ultip u r p os e W he e le d Vehicle, or Hummer.

vehicle out of landing craft durtng


amphibious operations.

The onginal MI51 was followed in production by the MISlAl, which had

driver to select either 4x4 or 4x2 drive The suspension, front and rear,

improved suspension, while the


M15IA2 that followed in 1970 had modified lqhting, two-speed wrpers, mod-

rfled rear suspension, collapsible

steering wheel and a dual brake sys-

tem, The MI5lAzlC has different

gearbox, transfer box and suspension. There are many varrants of the MlSi including the Ml07/IvII08 communications vehicles, M718 ambulance which can carry one stretcher and three seated patients (or various combinatiors of stretcher patients and sitting patients), and the M825 fltted with the M40 106-mm (4, 17-in) recoilless rifle.
(798

The basic MIS1 series can carry 554k9 (1,2211b) on roads or 362k9 trailer weighing 970kq (2,l38ib) on
924

lb) across country, and can tow a

Hurnmer Competition
lplering
service in 1984, the High MobitityMultlpurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or-'Hummer, ) witt rdtioialize US

armed forces' Iight utility vehicle procurement considerable extent.

to a

For many years the US Army has been operating a bewildering range of light vehicles including rheM2t4 {4x4) \4echan;cal Mule, ttrltst t+i+r Z-ton tidnt vehicle, M37 {4x4) ya-ton liqht vehicle and the M715 l4x41 1t/A-ton and M5l6t (6x6) Gama Goat vehicles. Many of tnese were well over lO years old and becoming increas:ngly difficult to ma:ntain. Moreover, ;n many casbsltLre *ete insuff icient vehicles to meet requirements: in I gB 1 , for example, the US Army

strength. The situation for the M15'l is even more acute: the US nimy has not pu rchased any such vehicles since 1 978 as its petrol engine no tonger #ee1s the government's stringent emission-control standards. Some 60.000 of these r,enicles remain in service, the maioritv bu;lt between 1966 and 1969. _ These veh;cles are be ng replaced by two main types, the Commercial Utilitv Cargo Vehicle (CUCV) and rhe Hiqh-Mobilitv Multilpurpose Wheeted Vehicle (HMMWV). To meet the requiremient for tfie CUCV, 2'6 commercial vehiclei were,put through an exhaustive series of trials at Aberdeen proving Ground, Maryland, whicn is just norrh of Washington, DC. The US Army rheriselected the General Motors Model K and placed ln order worth iust uncier $700 million
f

nad a requiremenr for some gO,bOO

M56i rypu u"i iif"r bur had onlv 1 1,000 on

or over 53.000 vehicles, the f irst of these beinq delivered in 1 983. This vehicle is a standard commercial vehicle with the minimum of modifications to suit i1 for

versions are being procured, nurety utirri,-Ca1C shelter carrier.

ro an automatic transm;ss.on anii two-speed transfer

military use. for example m i.rary paint, tow nooks, slave (it. 2B-volt eiectrical system and so on. Allversions are powered by the same 6.2-litre diesel couoled

"use. urfufun*,

fiu"Gii.-Ii+ il;ar;ij ;;g,;


61

approached) submitted proposals to the Tank Automotive Command in eartv '1 981, and in Jty the same year Alrl General Corporation, Chrysler (now th,6 Land Systems Divrsion of General DVnamics) and Teledvne Continentai were each awarded a contract for the supply of 1 prototype vehicles. After tnese vehicles had been put through tests at various locations in the U n. ted States, tne AM General entry was selected for standardization early in 1983, with frrst production vehicles to be completed in 1984. The initial ;ontract is for some 53,973 vehicles worth $1, l84 million wlth a 100 per cent option. Oi t[elnitiJ order, 38,085 venicles are for the US Armv, 1 3.1 g'6 tor the US Marines and rhe 'emaining 2,692 for the US Air Force. Compaled with the vehicles that it is replacing, the HMMWV has a oreatlv

To meet the requ rement for the HMMWV frve companies iout of

An HMMWV fittedwith arcot-mounted40-mm automaticgrenad.e launche: :: provide s^uppressivefirc.Thefirst of atleastSS,000 HMMfuVs is to be h,anae: over.in I 9 84, with the prime contractor being iM General Corpo, atiin. - - Praduction is being undertaken at Mishawaka, Indiana. The H MMWV.will be used to mount a variety of weapon sysrers dl f,-:: j carr,ed on the M15-1 light vehicle, including the Huqhes TOW ATG\A, ;.,.:_ and the Stinger surfac6-to-air missile systein. With fhe rear seats folde: :::, the vehicle can carry the standard S-2b0 communications shelter, wh,c ': :present carried by heaviervehicles There will also be communlcatibni ui- ,

andaforwardambulancewithafullyenclosedrearbody.Themanufacilt.i--i.l

..

winches.

speed and longer range of operation. The engine is at the f ront, four individual seats in the centre and a cargo carrying area ai the rear, with roll-over protecr,on provided as standard. Tne basic model is unarmoured, altnough an appl.qr.le armour kit will be available, as will a wrde range of other equifiment jriCh-ii

increased carrying capabillty, improved iross-iountrv performance. fitofrlr

Eradley ilianlry fighting vehicle, and can inflict severe damage on in: : armourof Soviet tanks and knock out most armoured personnel darriers <:-. . be encountered on the battlefield of tne future To keep costs to a minimum the engine, transmission, transfer case r:=: -. power steering and brakes are taken-f rom standard prod.lct on ,:ai = -'--.-t tyres are fined as standard, and as an option a centra'l tyre-pressure rec- : :, system can be installed.

General, has already mounted the Hugnes Flei;c-opt"iJlS--, Cra - G-tven cle tor_tnals purposes; this weapon ,s the same as that i.rstai eo - :-:

One a{ the prototypes of the

Teledyne entry in the competition

A General Dynamics HMMWV fitted with Hughes TOW ATGW system.

HMIUIWV

prototype of the AM General inthe ambulance role.

AnAM General HMMWV tn s:ri:::: configur ation. to sirol,y sea rs

tnUSArmYservice,thenewHMMWVwillreplacetheMISl,M2T2,MS6l
MBBj seriesvehicles andwiuhavemuchgreater carrying

and capabitity.

gleolthg_Erototype:+oltheAMGeneralHighMobilityMultipurpose

Wi"i1i&-f,iiia,J(n-tutiiWil intheweapons carrier

confisruratjon.

MlS I light vehicle (continued)


consists of coil springs and hydraulic shock absorbers. The Ml51 is widely used bY the US Army to mount such weapons as 7,62Powerplant: one 4-cylnder Petrol engine developing 72 hp (53,69 kW) Dimensions: lenqth 3,352 m (11 ft 0 in); width 1,58 m (5 ft2 in); height 1,803 m (5 ft 1I in) Performance: maximum road sPeed
106 kn/h (66 mph); maximumrange 483 lcn (300 miles); grradient 60 per cent; fording 0.533 m (1 ft 9 in)

or 12,7-mm (0,S-in) machine-guns or the Hughes TOW ATGW system. The M151 will soon start to be replaced by the High Mobility Multr-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (also built by AM General), whichwill have grreatly increased carrying capability and better off-road performance
mm (0,3-in)
Specification MISI Crew: 1* I (plns2inrear)

Weisht:empty 1012 kg(2,231 Ib)and loaded 1575 ks (3,472 ]b)

An M I 5 I (4 x 4) light vehicle of I 7 th C av alry with a pintle- mounted 7.6 2 mm (0.3-in) M60 machine-gun during O peration'J unction C iU', Phase IL in South Vietnam, I 967.

ffi
l95Os,

i'ana Rover l-Tonne ligrht vehicle


it was more than adequate to

When the long-wheelbase Land Rover was introduced into service in the tow weapons such as the OTO Melara 105-mm (4. 13-in) Model56 Pack Howitzer used by the Royal Artillery from 1960, It was realized that in the future heavier weapon systems would be in-

with a cross-country payload ol


1000 kq (2,205 lb) and also the ability to tow a powered trailer carrying 1500 kg (3307 ]b), This vehicle was subse-

troduced into service, so a requirement was drawn up for a 4x4 vehicle

quently desigmed by l,and Rover in co-operation with the Military Vehtcies and Engineering Establishment at

Chertsey, Surrey. The first prototypes

were completed in the mid-1960s, but as a result of trials a number of modfrcations were carried out and it was not until 1975 that the first production Land Rover l-Tonne vehicles were issued to British army units, For a varie-

ty of reasons less than 3;O0O vehicles were built, most of them being supplied to the Bntrsh army and Royal Air made to Australia (for the RaPier
SAM), Esypt (for the Swingrfire ATGW system) and Luxembourg. The main reason for this relative short production run, almost insignificant by Land Rover standards, was that it was de-

Force, although overseas sales were

qear, The transfer box is of the twospeed type with permanent fourwheel drive, The cargo ts at the rear and has bows and a tarpaulin cover.
For air transport the complete hood,

signed specifically for military

use,

body sides, windscreen, bumPers,

whereas the basic Land Rover was developed as a commercial vehicle but later adopted by the military, In the British army the Land Rover l-Tonne is used to tow the Royal Ord-

doors, bows and tarpaultn cover can be qurckly removed, so reducrng the overall weiqht of the vehicle to only
ts80

Above : The 1 -Tonne Land Rover was developed specifically to meet the requiremen ts of the B ritish armed forces by Land Rover and the Military Vehicles and Engineering Establishment. Typical roles in the British army include towing the 105mm(4.13-in) LightGun and the R apier surf ace - to- air m is s ile.

Below : A l -T onne L and R over towing a trailer. In addition to the British army and Royal Air Force Regiment, sales were aJso made to Luxembourg, Egypt (for the Swingfire ATGW system), and to Australiafor the Rapier.ltis no longer in production and was not produced in very large numbers .

nance Factory Nottingham 105-mm (4, 13-in) Light Gun, to carrY B1-mm
(3.I9-in) mortar teams in UK-based lnfantry battalions, to carry MILAN antltank teams (hvo launchers and 14 missiles), and to tow the Rapier SAM launcher, its missile resupply trailer and

out of production, the Gomba

ks (3,483 lb), Now that the Land Rover l-Tonne ts

Stonefreld (4x4), Dosco HS 100-4 (4x4)

the Blindfire radar system. There

is also a model with a fully enclosed body for use in the ambulance role, and thts

and Reynolds Boughton (4x4) ranges of trucks are betng offered by British industry to fill the gap in the market, The Gomba Stonefield has alreadY been recommended for use as the towing vehicle for the 105-mm (4. 13-in) Light Gun, and thrs vehicle is now in sewice with the Malaysian armY.

can carry four stretcher or six sitting patients in addition to its crew, Another fully enclosed body version is used tn

Specification
tandRover l-Tonne
Crew: l* I (plusB inrear) Weisht: empty 1924 ks (4,242 lb) and loaded 3120 ks (6,878 lb) Powerplant: one Rover V-8 Petrol ensinedevelopinq 128 bhp (95,5 kW) Dimensions: lengIh{.Izl m (13 ft 6 in); width LB42 m(6 ft I in); height2, 138 m (7 ft0 in) Performance: maxtmum road sPeed I20 Wn/h (7 4 mph) ; maximum range 560 kr (348 miles); gnadrent 60 Per cent

the communications/electronlc warfare role,

The Land Rover l-Tonne is of the forward control type, wrth the driver at the front right and passenger on the left with the engine behveen and be-" low their seats. The engnne is basically

a standard commercral model (but


with a reduced compression ratio to
enabte rt to run on low-octane fuels) and rs coupled to a manual gearbox with four forward and one reverse
926

land Rover in Action


proved
a faithful servant from the Arctic Circle to the Equator. Manufactured in mgre than 20 countries , the Land Rover's rugged reliability has found favour with ar me d for ce s worldwide.

Since its introduction to British army seruice nearly 30 years ago, the Land Rover has

were powered by a four-cylinder engine.

Of a1i the iight vehicles developed since World War II, it is the British Land Rover that is probably the most famous. Druing World War II the British army was supplied with large numbers of Jeeps by the United States, and these remained in use for many years after the end of the war, some being used by the Parachute Regiment as late as the Suez crisis of 1956. Towards the end of World War II, however, the Nulfieid Organization started work on a 4x4 ligrht vehicle for the British army which became known as the Gutty. The first prototypes of this were completed in 1947, and

Solihull this caused serious problems as the manufacturer produced rather expensive cars that in the harsh economic conditions at that time proved difficult to export. The company therefore decided to build a vehicle that would attract customers lrom industrial and agricuituand was shown for the first time at the April 1948 Amsterdam Motor Show, This vehicle, called the Land Rover, was an almost immediate success and production started at Soiihull in

ral markets around the world. The first prototype of this vehicle was completed in 1947

Unloading from an F,AF Hercaftes, this Land Rover is destined for the United Nationspeace,lreeping force in Cyprus. An akportable version, many body parts can be removed to lighten the vehicte.

Further development resulted in the Mudlark powered by a Rolls-Royce four-cyiinder petrol engine, and still more development resulted in the Austin Champ (FV180l) which was selected to become the standard light vehicle in the Brltish army in the 1950s. The main drawback of the Champ was that it was a complicated vehicie, mainly because the user required the Champ to have a deep-fording

the same year, The first model of the Land Rover used the engine of the company's Rover P3 '60' car and was fitted with a canvas hood. The next model shovrm was a fully enclosed estate version that could seat six people including the driver, These vehicles all had a 2,032-m (80-in) wheelbase, this being the distance behveen the centre of the front road wheel and the centre of the

sion by the 2,768-m (109-in) version, and these


1956

basic wheelbases remain the same today. br


Champ, From then on more and more armies around the world selected the Land Rover. examples being Australia in 1959 and SwiEerIand in the following year. In later years different engine optiors were offered, and in 1966 a forward control land

Rover as the replacement for the Austrn

the British army finally selected the lnnd

capability which necessitated extensive

waterproofing of the engine, axles and electrical system. The Austin Champ was finally phased out of service in the 1960s and replaced by the Land Rover The origins ofthe Land Rover can be traced back to the end of World War II, when the British government decided to ration steel to those motor manufacturers who could obtain the most exports. For the Rover Company at

rear road wheel. From then on the development of the Land RoveJ was rapid, and it is possible only to highlight some of the more
important improvements in this short article. In 1954 the 2.032-m (80-in) version was replaced in production by a 2,184-m (86-in) model, and the same year the first long wheelbase model was introduced with a wheelbase of 2,717 m

Rover was introduced; this latter was rised by a number of armies, including that of Spain, but is no longer in production. In Ig68 Land Rovers had their headlamps moved from the gnille to
Seruice in Malaya, Borneo and latterly inBeli*has given the Land Rover a series of very tough t6ts. Conditions are extreme, with heat, mud, huntidity and the torrential rain of the equatorial forest making travel very difficult.

Ib). T\ro years later the 2, I84-m (86-in) model was replaced in production by the 2 23m (88-in) model and the 2.717-m (107-in) ver653

(l07in) and the ability to carry


(l

750k9

Land Rover in Action


bie only to describe hvo models in any detail, namely the airportable and long-wheelbase
verslons.

Airportable.Land Rover
by Rover and the Military Vehicles and
The airportabie Land Rover was developed
En-

gineering Establishment specifically to meet the requirements of the British army, Royal Au

Force and Royal Marines. However since its


introduction it has also been adopted by a number of other countries including Belgium, Brunei, Jamaica, Libya, the Netherlands, Saudi
A-rabia and Sudan.

The vehicle (like other Land Rovers) has an all-welded box section chassis of the ladder

In the Radfan, north of Aden, Land Rovers faced different problems. The campaign to stem the flow of Yemeii arms to insurgents in Aden put great
tittlewater, rocky teiain and sand andgritwith everything.
strains on men and equipment, with searing heat'

built, and by

the forward mudgnrards to meet new lighting

requirements introduced in the Low Countries. T\ub years later the ltonne and 7z-ton models wers announced, these being the first Land Rovers developed specificaliy irr military use Tbro years later the Range Rover was introduced for the civilian market, and this too has been adopted by a number of armies for special roles.-For example the British Royal Military Police use it, and many Mrddle East.armtes have the type for the escort of VIPs and heads of state, these vehicles being more comfortable than the basic Land Rover' By l97l haif a million Land Rovers had been

1976 this had reached the one million mark. In addition to being produced in the United Kingdom, i,and Rovers are assembled or manuJactured by more than 20 other plants in every corner of the world, some of ihese plants being owned by Land Rover but others by local comPanles. The most recent version to be introduced is the 2.79-m (110-1n), commonly knovrn as the One-Ten, which can carry 1463 kq (3,225Ib) of cargo and is powered by a choice of three different engines (2,S-litre petrol or diesel, or

type to which the body is attached. The engine ii at the front, the driver and hvo passengers in the centre, and the cargo area at the rear' The Iast has a bench seat down each side for fou fiuther passengers and a drop tailgate for the rapid loading and unloading of cargo. What makes this model different from the normal 2 23-m (88-in) Land Rover, with which it shares many components including the engine, qearbox, axles, suspension and brakes, is that the hood, bodysides, windscreen, doors, bumpers and spare wheels can quickly be removed tc reduce the overall weight of the vehicle, thts belng essential for airborne operations The airportable Land Rover is available with a fowcylinder petrol or diesel engine, the former being the more powerful. The engine is coupled to a manual gearbox with four forward ani one reverse gears and a two-speed transfer box, The basic model has a lZ-volt electrical system, but when the type is used in the radic role a 24-volt system is installed, the two batteries being installed in place of the central passenqer seat, The radio aerials are normally mounted one on each wing and the radios tc the rear of the driver and passenger. The air-

portable Land Rover has a maximum crosscountry payload of 564 kg (1 243 ]b) and can

3.S-litre V-8 petrol), One ofthe secrets ofthe success ofthe Land Rover is the wide range of optional equipment available for the vehicle: another, that the company can build batches ofvehicles to suit overieas countries' specific reguirements. Typical optionat extras include a front-mounted winch, overdrive, modified suspension, flre extinguisher and lamp gnrards, the last being essential in some parts of the world. There are so many variants of the Land Rover that it is possi-

tow a trailer weighing t 130 kg (2,492 lb) Apan from the radio modei the only version used by the British armed forces is a lbrward ambulance which is the basic vehicle with racks for stretchers and a longer canopy that overhangs the rear. For the export market Marshall of Cambridge, who supply most of the bodies used on British army trucks (for example Bed-

ford and Foden), designed a version of the

Airportable Land Rover to carry the American l06lmm (4.17-in) M40 recoilless rifle, which can also be dismor:nted for use in the ground role; on the normal version the spare wheel and tyre is carried on the bonnet but on this versron it has been moved to the right side

British paratroopers patrol theline of walls, fencesi tripwirei, mines and watch towers that
divide E as t and W es t G ermanY
-

Based on the LWB Land Rover , the forward ambulance can carry four stretcher patients and one medical orderlY.

This RAF Land Rover was mainly used in bomb disposal work, the four sprocket-driven tracked bogies giving nearly 2Vz ftground clearance.

Modern ligrht Vehicles

On Ulster streets, this GreenHoward patrol is using standard military Land Rovers. In many cases, however, Land Rovers have been armoured against small arms fire and given what protection may be available againstculvertbombs or mined roadi. Too often, such a detonation leads to destruction of the vehicle and injury or death to the

such as the British Cymbeiine, The chassis is also used as the basis for a forward ambulance with a fully enclosed rear body by Marshall of

Cambridge. This can carry four stretcher patients and one medical orderly, or one or two stretcher patients and three seated patients,
The British army also uses the long-wheelbase version with a fully enclosed rear body in the command and communications roies, a standard model with the Field Artillery Computer Equipment (FACE), and with a box body fitted wlth a surveillance radar. The chassis is aiso used as the basis for the fully armoured Shorland Armoured Patrol Vehicle fitted with a turret armed with a 7,62-mm (0 3-in) machine-gun and for the SB,40 I armoured personnel carrier;

occupants.

ammunition (106-mm/4. 17-in recoilless rifle and 12,7-mm/0.5-in ranging machine-gun), barrel clamp on the dashboard, split windscreen and a blast shield for the bonnet.

Other modifications have inciuded stowage for

occupants against small arms fire, and extensions in the form of flexible skirting to stcp bombs being thrown under the vehicles, which normally have no protection against mines cl the undersides. When terrorists place bomb,"s under roads or culverts they will destroy no: only light vehrcles such as the Land Rover bu: even armoured personnel carrrers such as &e

In Northern lreland Land Rovers have beer fitted with additlonal armour to protect their

Alvis Saracen,

Long-wheelbase Land Rover


Today the long-wheelbase Land Rover is probably the most widely used of all the military Land Rovers, and in the British armed forces is the standard vehicle in its class, being used to carry 850 kg (1,874 ib) and tow a trailer of weapons weighing up to 1500 kq (3 307 Ib). Its layout is identical to that of the airportable model except that each ofthe rear bench seats can carry three or four men instead of two, The
optlonal equipment depends very much on the requirements of the user, but standard equipment includes provision for stowing a rifle on the dashboard ready for immediate use, military tow hook at the rear, vehicle lashing eyes front and rear, twin fuel tanks, FV pattern hghts, stowage for shovel, pick and axe on the tailboard, water jerrican stowage, freight lashing
cles.

alriifted from England after being fitted rnr':

For use by the ceasefire monitoring force -:: Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Land Rovers were

sales of these vehicles have been made to more than 30 countries, and the Shorland is used in Northern lreland. The British army did
er fitted with the Wombat 120-mm (4.72-in) rccoilless rifle, but this has been replaced by the Euromissile MILAN ATGW system which has a much longer range, In the British armed forces the 2,768-m (109-in) Land Rover will probably be replaced by the 2.79-m (ll0-in) wrth it-s much increased carrying capacity.
use a version of the long-wheelbase Land Rov-

Land Rover in action


every corner of the world, One of the most
famous versions is that designed for the Special Air Service (SAS), and these vehicles have been widely used in the Persian Gulf; painted pink to blend in with the surrounding area, these were commonly known as Pink Panthers.

The Land Rover has seen action in almost

occupants often being killed or injured by te vehicle falling on top of them; but if they are wearing seatbelts and the roll-over bar is fltei their chances oi survivat are increased, In the recent fighting in the Middle East La:,: Rovers were in some evidence, includino e.amples fitted with American M2 HB l2i-rrr.(0.S-in) or Soviet 12.7-mm (0.5-1n) DShK-'!1 heavy machine-gltns, while others were used to tow light artillery around in addition to the-r normal cargo-carrying missions, There have been a number of efforts to si;= the Land Rover an amphibious capability'b:: none of these merited service use. One oi:e veloped by RFD Limited of Godatmrng, Surrel it consisted of four rubberized fabrrc au bacs inflated by the exhaust system of the veLu:-= and each supported by a light alloy framevrcr<

a mine it will probably be

addltional armour protectlon and roll-over bars in the centre of the vehicle: if a vehicle does ir::
blornm over, '.he

points in the rear and double front and rear bumpers designed for pushing dlsabled vehi-

more interesting amphibious kits was ie-

In addition to carrying troops, the longwheelbase Land Rover is also used to tow a
variety of equipment such as the 105-mm

These were based on the long-wheelbase

in) OTO Melara Model 56 pack howitzer, Rapier SAM system and its Biindfire radar
(although in the British forces the l{onne Land Rover now undertakes this roie) and radars

(4, 13-

chassis and fitted with smoke dischargers front and rear, radios, machine-gnrns, navlgational equrpment, sand-crossing channels and so on

propulsion when afloat was provided b1

propeller at the rear run off the rear axle: a;:d

to enable them to operate ln areas of shifting


sands.

steering was by turning the front wheels as cl land, There was also an air-cushion vehic,e based on the Land Rover, this being called'-le

Hover Roverl

Land Rover in Action

A long wheelbase (LWB ) Land Rover as used by the British Special Air Servjce (S,4S).R eg:iment for longr ange reconnarssance m jssions rh the Middle East. These vehicles were commonly known as Pink Panthers, and were fitted with 7.62 -mm (0.3-in) G eneral Purpose M achine G uns,

smoke dischargers front and rear, sand channe k, navigational equipment, water and fuel cans and extemal stowage to meet the hard

operating conditions.

Modern Ligrht Vehicles

in Action: lqnd Rover'Protea


by South African forces along the Namibian/Angolan borders in their continuing actions against SWAPO guerrillas. the dim lights of the Land Rover showed
The African night was, as always, very dark but

Land Rovers have seen much action in southern Africa, the rough tracks and long dr'sfancesin volved in operations proving a stern test to the endurance andreliability of any vehicle. The following is a representation of the many operations carried out

conceal in the dark bush if anything vient wrong. During this operation nothing went
wrong, and in the early hours of the new day the Bushmen finally padded back with the information that the SWAPO camp was only 1000 metres (1,095 yards) ahead.

Iarge for the last push through the bush, so the 4x4 Land Rover was used instead. It provided a smaller potential target, and it was easier to

enough to pick the way through the bush. The engine was kept in low gear, but it was no use rewing too hard as the vehicle was on the last approaches to the SWAPO camp thatwasstiil a

scouts padded along, Iooking rather incongm:ous as their small stature contrasted sharply with the large R4 assault rifles they carried along with their diminutive bows and arrows ior the silent kills so feared by the SWAPO gnrerrillas. As they went the Bushmen slashed at branches to mark a possible route for the Land Rover to follow. If the Land Rover could beat a path through the bush the Ratels could follow. The Land Rover carried a small party of four men, the battalion group second-incommand, a sergeant, the driver and a signaller, They were the trail biazers for the last part
of the operation

few kilometres ahead. Ahead the

Bushman

men were sent across the border, or out from the base enclaves the South Africans had established within Angola, Using guile and bushcraft they discovered the latest locations olthe main SWAPO camps and supply dumps, and then reported back. Now the South A-frican mobile columns were prepared for the move into Angola to destroy them. mobiie groups just over the border from Angola. One of these was the 61st Mechanized Battalion Group based at a remote camp at Omuthiya, and it was from this group that this Land Rover crew came. For several days they had been gradually moving forward through the bush, moving carefirlly by day and nigh|

The South Africans maintained several

It was time for the Land Rover to stop. A final signalwas made to the Command Ratelandthe rest of the column started to deploy, As the Land Rover crew listened they could hear the Ratels moving up. On each side of them the Ratel 20s with their 20-mm cannon-armed turrets moved into position with the infantry crews pwhing their rifles through the vehicle firing ports ready for action. To their rear the support Ratel90s with their 90-mm (3.54-in) main guns

moved into their predetermined position


ready to add their firepower to any m6l6e. The Command Ratel with its 12,?-mm (0.S-in) machine-gun was somewhere well forward, but it was impossible to see far into the bush in any direction, and away to the rear the arrival of the 8l-mm (3.19-in) mortar crews with their armoured Bulfel (buifalo) transport had to be sensed rather than heard or seen.

keeping well away from the few tracks that might have been mined, and well distanced

k:own

to them all as Operation

'Protea'. A-ll the South African incursion sweeps

into Angola have been named after flowers, and this operation was no different. They all followed a set pattern. After a period of prolonged quiet along the border between South African-controlled

Namibia and Marxist Angola, the SWAPO

gnrerrillas (Namibian nationalists trained and

equipped by Cuban 'advisers' in Angola) moved across the Angolan border and resumed their programme of road mining, terror-

ism and kidnappinq among the border tribes. They had blown up a few South African Defence Force trucks, and made off with a batch

of 'recruits' from the local villages. The South Africans had decided to retallate. A few Bush-

from the few scattered settlements, The country is nearly all flat bush, with only a few gnrllies here and there, and the coiumn, some 70 vehicles strong, simply barged its way through the scrubby landscape. The weather had been, as always in that area, hot and dry, but the column lacked nothing on its journey forward, All their supplies were carried either on the Ratels that made up the bulk of the vehicles or on the SAMIL S{onne trucks bringing up the rear. If anything urgent was required the South African Air Force brought it in by helicopter or dropped it from Transall C. 160s. The last few kilometres to the SWAPO camp were made as quietly as possibie. The Land Rover acted as the trail-blazer and the sigmaller relayed information back to the group commander located in his special Command Ratel some distance back. This Ratel was realiy too

Dawnattack
As daurn broke the signal was given and the mortars opened fire. It was the indication for everyone to move forward, though the Land Rover stayed where it was. There was little it could contribute to the flqht and the second-incommand might be needed if a withdrawal was required. As the Ratels moved on the SWAPO camp there was only limited welcoming flre.

As always, the SWAPO guerrillas slmply


melted away into the bush in standard gmerrilla style as the South Africans attacked. Their

Looming ghostlike through the dust of their passage, a con voy of Ratel APCs and Land Rovers move into the operational area. Travelling through the night, ffi e coJumn seeks to mount a dawn action,Iollowing the reports of Busfiman scouls.

oa,

taining dictates that they cannot last long in a


stand-up fight; their role is to hit and run, and if a superior force is encountered it is better to run than remain, Thus as the Ratels broke into the camp perimeter very iittle resistance was met, and what there was was sobn overwhelmed. Thus when the I:and Rover crew moved into

fed, Thus as the released crowd milled around

the camp after about I5 minutes all was relatlely peaceful. The Ratels and their crews were arranged in the bush around the base perimeter and their crews were well on the alert in case of a sudden counterattack. It did
Dot come, After a few restive hours it was time to look around, but the searching had to be carried out

carefirlly for booby traps were everywhere.

This was a usual SWAPO practice, so everyone was on their gmard, As usual there were some casualties among the crowd of released Nami-

biars who had been held in the base by their SI/VAPO captors followlng earlier raids, Some cf these captives were children, some old men and women, but all had been subjected to SWAPO treatment, which was not gentle, and :rost were half-starved, for if they were unwill:igto toe the SWAPO line theywere simply not

tion and weapons. As the Land Rover ief| this time in the Ratel column, it led a smali convoy of three captured UAZ-469B 4x4 light vehicles, very similar in concept to the Land Rover itself, and a single GAZ-69 light truck. They too were loaded with weapons and ammunition, and
among their contents was a suitcase belonging

they searched for iood and inevitably set off some of the booby traps. For a gnrerrilla grroup the SWAPO unit was certainly weil equipped, with such unlikely items as Soviet-built T-34l85 tanks, BRDM-I troop carriers and even some light artillery, Everywhere were dumps of ammunition, land mines and heaps of weapons of all kinds, far more than the SWAPO guerrillas would need for their immediate use. Once the booby traps had been cleared it was time to withdraw. This time the Land Rover carried boxes of RPG-7 anti-tank rocket launchers that would later be issued to the South Africans along the border posts. SAMIL trucks carried away the ammuni-

As dawn breaks, the sW lights to the traers of a Ratel attack. In the struggle with SWAPO, surpris r'sessendalforantssuccess on either side, and in Operation'Protea' the South African attack to the capture of targe amounts of booty.

now. After it there were many other llower operations, but now they are all over. A pac
has been reached between the South Africans,

the column at Omuthiya. It is still there today. and the Land Rover that was used in the silent approach to the SWAPO base is nowused as a camp runabout, carrying nothing more aggressive than despatches to and from the varior:s squadrons on the base, Operation 'Protea' took place a long time aEo

bases- in Angola, and the South Alricans have ajready withdrawn from their enclaves within Angoia itself. So perhaps Omuthiya will once more

will SWAPO be allowed to set up

the Namibians and the Angolars. No lonEer

to a Cuban captain. A BRDM-2 amphibious

reconnaissance vehicle was earmarked to become a gate Onrardian back at the home base of

middle of nowhere, and the Lald Rovers and the Ratels will depart to more peacefi:l operations elsewhere.

settle down to being a small dustyvrllage in the

Eiitoe" M6hari Arm6e lisrht vehicle


The engine is coupled to a manual gearbox with four forward and one reverse gear, there being no transfer box as it is only a 4x2 vehicle. Both the front and rear axles are suspended by arms with lateral interplay on spiral springs, with hydraulic shock absorbers at each wheel station, Even though thrs is only a 4x2 vehicle the M6hari Arm6e does have some crosscountry capability, and it is so light that it can be easily manhandled in the
fie1d,

The CitrodnM6hariArm6e is typical of

the many standard commercial vehrcles that have been adopted to meet military requuements with a minimum of changes. In trmes of peace llght vehicles, apart from the periods when they are on exercises, spend much of their time on normal roads and have Itttle occasion to use their ali-wheel drle. The 4x4 vehicles are not only expensive to procure, but also tend to be uneconomic on fuel.
After looking
at a

number

of

vehicles

on the market the French army chose the M6hari to meet its requirements for a vehicle suitable for use in rear areas

where little cross-country capabllity is required, and some 10,000 have now been delivered, not only to the French army, but also the gendermarie, air force and navy, with additional export sales being made. TVpical roles include cargo carrying with a maxmum load of 405 kg (894 1b), and command
when fitted wrth radios. The type is not used to mount any type ofweapon system,

The Citrodn company has more recently developed another light vehicle that is available in both 4x4 and 4x2 confiquratiors, This is the A FAF and

The civriian model is produced in


such exotic coiours as TP oranqe and beige, but the military vehicles are in various shades of sand or grreen, The Mehari Arm6e has an all-steel chassis

(882 Ib) It is powered by a petrol engine developing28,5 hp (2I kW) inthe 4x2 confignration, or 34 hp (25,3 kW) in the 4 x 4 confignrration, Both versions use automotive components from the civilian A type 4x2 vehicle, of which many millions have been built. The 4x4 model was selected by Burundl and in 1981 by the French army which placed an order for 5,000 vehicles,

has a maximum payload of 400 kq

Above : A

C itroin M ehari Arm6e (4x2) lightvehicle, used in the command role with a radio fitted in

the rear of the vehicle. Thisvehicle


was originally developed for the ciuilian market, but was then found to be suitable for awide range ofrear area duties where all-wheel drive is nol esserfial.

while the 4x2 model rs produced under licence in Greece by the

Below: A basic Citrodn M6hari Arm6e (4x2) Whtvehicle, with the hood folded down at the rear. An unusual feature of thisvehicle is that its body is of all-plastic construction, which is rustfree and therefore requires little or no maintenance. Thevehicle is used by all three arms of the French forces.

with a plastic body, This requires


hardly any maintenance as rt will not

National Motor Company (NAMCO) as the Pony, whlch is used by the Greek army rn a numbet of roles,

rust, The basic model has the engrine at the front, seats for the driver and one passenger in the centre (each with a

Specification
Citro6nM6hariArm6e
Crew: l+1 Weisht: empty 5BS kg ( 1,290 lb ) and loaded 990 kq (2, I83 lb) Powerplant: one AK 2 2-cylinder aircooled petrol engrne developing
26 hp (19.4

safety door chain), and an addittonal tvvo-man seat that folds down at the rear to provide a largte cargo area, The windscreen folds forwards onto the bonnet and a black cotton canopy can be fitted over the body; if required, a complete hood with transparent side panels and doors can be installed. The utility model is slmilar, but to the rear of the driver and passenger seat is a flat load area, Like the basic model it has a windscreen and canopy, and can be fitted with a complete hood.

Dimensions:lenqth3.52 m (l I ft 7 in);

kw)

width I.53 m(5 ft0 in); heisht (5 ft4 in)


100

1,635

Performance: maximum road speed


300

lar/h (62 mph); maximumrange kn ( lBO miles); gradient 40 per

cent; fording 0,30 m (1 ft 0 in)

i'",rg"otP4lightvehicle
cles, Peugeot selecting a MercedesBenz vehicle, Renault the Italian FIAT 1107 AD which it renamed the TRM with the West German army) which it renamed the C 44. In l9B i the Peugeot
P4 was selected, and the first of 15,000

Srnce the 1950s the standard light vehr-

cle of the French army has been the


Hotchkrss M 201, and to find a replace-

ment for this type the French army held a competitlon for which three manufacturets each provtded four vehicles, Each of the three French
manufacturers selected foreign vehi-

the West German Volkswagen IIts (already in service


500, and Citro6n

vehicies were delivered in the following year, In the basic model the engine is at the front, the drrver and one passenger in the centre, and the cargo area at the rear, The last has a two-man bench seat down each side, and this can be

of vehicles are (left to


7. 6 2

folded down to provide more space;

-mm (0. 3 - in) machine- wn ; Iong wheelbase command vehicle; short wheelbas e with M I LAN ATGW ; and Iong wheelbase troop carrier. The French army has ordered only the
s hor t

Fivevariants of the PeugeotP4 range right) short wheelbase; short wheelbase with

whe

lbase ve rsion.

934

Feugeot P4 light vehicle (continued)


-:-e opening tarlgate also carrtes the :!are tyre. The engine is coupled to a :,anual gearbox with four forward and

Modern Light Vehicles


electrical system. Optional equipment includes a lS-litre (3,3 Imp gal) tuel There is also a long-wheelbase version, which has not been adopted by the French army so far; this can carry l0 men (two in the front as normal and a further eight rn the rear seated four down each side), Fully enclosed versrons of both the standard- and longwheelbase versions are available for use in the command and ambulance
roles,
.

are also offered.

::-.e reverse gear and a two-speed :-=:rsfer box is fltted, The suspension ::nt and reat consists of coil springs double-action =d basic model isshock absorbers, powered by the -re -,}i8 four-cylinder rnline petrol engdne, : rt the P4 is also offered wrth the XD3 ::-ar-cylinder diesel which develops - 5 hp (56 kW) and gives a much better
a

can, power take-off front and rear,

power-assisted steering, foont locking differential and a front-mounted winch,

Winches are available on most light vehicles as an optional extra and can be used for self recovery or for recovering other vehicles, In the former
case the end of the cable is attached to

a tree or other so[d object and the


vehicle winches itself out of trouble, In French army service some vehimachine-gmns for use in the reconnaissance role, while others will be used to carry MILAN antrtank teams around the battlefteld, each team hav-

Peugeot has also built a 4x4 version

of the standard civilan Peugeot

504

::el consumption when beinq driven at


speed of 60 lcn/Lr (37 mph), though at (56 mph) fuel consumption is :Centical with that ofthe petrol engnne, S:andard equipment rncludes tnertia :eat belts, towingr eyes at the front, a

:l kn/h

cles will be fitted with twln light

pick-up truck, and some of these have recently been ordered by the French marines as it has a useful payload of
11

10

kq

(2,448

Ib), good ground-

clearance and a high road speed, In addition to the basic pick-up model
statlon wagon and ambulance versrons

:arler hook at the rear and a

24-volt

ing one launcher and four

mrssiles,

ii[lcnr.iss M 2o l lisrht vehicle


veillance radars to detect enemy
movements some distance away. commumcations equrpment for use in the command role, and some have even been fitted with battlefield sur-

Ihe Free French Forces used the


-:.merican-supphed Jeep in large num:ers during World War II, and these croved so successful that in the early

:btarned a licence to start production : France, for both the civilian and irtlitary markets. The first production :odels of this Hotchkiss M 201 were :cmpleted in 1953 and production con::rued until 1969, by which time over {C 000 had been built. In addition to ;eing used by the French armed
:crces the M 20I was supplied to many :cuatries in North A-frica and also to 3elgnum. In the French armed forces

-350s Hotchkiss-Brandt of Paris

wheelbase of 2,03 m (6 ft B in), but a longer model was built with a wheelbase of 2.53 m (B ft 4 in) and E[reater carrying capabili$, Once the M 201 had gone out ofproduction, a number of manufacturers
proposed vehicles to fill this

The basic military model has

time there was no French army re-

arapr at

the

.:s replacement by the Peugeot P4 .4x4) vehicle, which has grreater loadsiar:ted, The M 201

will be around for nany years yet, however, and surplus ','ehicles are already flnding their way :nto the civi[an market, The M 201 rs almost identical to the xartime Jeep with the engine at the :ont, driver and one passenger rn the :entre, and a seat for a further two passengers at the rear, With the winds3reen erected a canopy can be fitted :o the M 201 to provide protection for jre crew, The engnne is coupled to a ::ranual gearbox with three forward :nd one reverse gear and a two-speed :ansfer box, Suspension consists of semi-elliptical springs and hydraulic srock absorbers, The vehicle can carry a maximum load of 400 kg (BB2 lb) a:rd tow a trailer weiqlhing up to 500 kg
.

:arrying capability, has recently

quirement for a new vehicle, but new countries that were previously French colonies or who had a strong French bras strll looked to France for their requirements, This qap was eventually fllled by the SAMO light vehrcle whtch wheelbase configmrations, vrrth a petrol or diesel engnne, and with a wide range of optional equrpment such as
is available in both standard- and long-

Weight:empty

heavy-duty axles, z4-volt electrical system, long-range fuel tanks and a winch, This has been exported to a number of countries including the Central Aftican Republic, Chad, Upper Volta and Bururdi,

Specification
HotchkissM 20I
Crew: I + 1 (plus
2

inrear)

1120 ks (2,469 Ib) and loaded 1520 kq(3,351 ]b) Powerplant: one 4-cylinder petrol engine developing 61 hp (46 kW) Dimensions: lenqth 3,36 m (1 i ft 0 in); urdth 1.58 m(5 ft2 rn); height 177 m (5 ft l0 in) Performance: maximum road speed 100 kn/h (62 mph); maximum rangre 348 kn (216 miles); gnadient 65 per cent; fordrng 0.533 m (1 ft 9 in)

Above : The M

20

was in production by Hotchkiss-

(4 x 4)

light

ve hicle

BrandtinParisfrom

1953 to for both the civilian andmilitary markets. It is almost identical to the Jeepused by theAllied armies during World War I I, and it is only now being replaced in the French army by the Peugeot P4 (4 x 4) Iight vehicle, which is based on a W e s t Germandesigm.

j,969

i, 102 1b),

'r,"eapons carrier and fitted

with 7,62:m (0,3-in) or 12.7-mm (0.5-in) nachine-gmns, 106-mm (4.i7-in) M40 :_rpe recoilless rifles (which can also be dismounted for use in the gnound :cle) and ENTAC ATGWS, In the last
nodel a total of foru missiles were carned in the ready-to-launch position, a :.ulher three missiles being carried in

The M2Ol has been used as

:eserve; this model was used by


: rance and Belgrum, but the missiles .::ave now been replaced by the longer-range Euromrssile MILAN system,

lhe vehicle

is also

fitted with extensle

Right: A H otchkiss M 20 I (4 x 4) light vehicle of the French army fitted with

lour Aerospatiale ENTAC wire gruide d anti- tank mrsrJes. For tr avelling, fhese missrJes are retracted to the rear of the driver and missile operator.ln the French army fr,lTAC has now been replaced by

t'eMILANATGW.

3i"i*p"ch

700 AP

Haflinser lisrht vehicle


capacity of 1500 kg (3,307 lb), a power take-off for running accessories such as a power saw, and a snow plough. There was also a model of the Haflinger with a slightly lonqrer wheelbase

vehicle was designed in the earlY 1950s specrfically for use in moun-

The Steyr-Puch 700 AP Haflinger light


tainor:s terraln, and was in production betvveen 1959 and 1974, by which ttrne

but rt has also meant that the fording


capability of the vehicle is limrted. The engnne is coupled to a manual gtearbox (with four forward and one reverse four wheels, which have l65x
12

anti-tank rifle. Both the Swiss and


Swedish armies have used the vehicle as an anti-tank platform wtth six Bofors Bantam wire-gnuded antr-tank misstles facingr the front and another eight missiles facing the rear,

gears) which transmits power to all


tyres,

the Pinzgauer was firmly established as rts successor with its much improved cross-country performance and increased load-carrying capabiliW. The Hallinger has an unusual layout, mth the driver at the very ftont on the left, with one passenger to hrs right and a further tvvo Passengers to the rear, At the rear is a very small carqto-

and slightly greater load-carrying

Vehicles produced after 1967 have a manual gearbox with five forward and one reverse qear, a significant improvement over the earlier model as vehicle was produced with a slightly
no transfer box is fltted. From 1967 the

more powerful engine. OPtional equipnient included a winch with a

capabilrty, ln its military role, the Haflinger was olten used as a weapons platform, The Austrian army has used the vehicle to mount the standard 12.7-mm (0.5-in) M2 HB machtne-gnrn on a pintle in the centre of the vehicle, or the old American 57-mm (2.24-in) MIBA1 recoilless

Specification

Steyr-Puch Haflinger

by foldinq flat the back two seats

carrying area, whrch can be increased When the vehicle is being used in the troop-carryinq role the vrtndscreen is

Crew: l*3 Weight: empty 645 ks (1,422 Ib) and loaded 1200 kg (2,645 lb) Powerplant: one Model700 AP 2cyhnder petrol engine developing
24 hp (18

A SteE-Puch Haflinger (4x4) light


vehicle with a canvas toP and the

T\to Ha[linger (4x4) light vehicles of the Austrian army.Theoneon the IeIt is armed with a I 2.7 -mm (0.5-in) M2
HB machine-grun, and that on the

kw)

Dimensions: length

2,BS m (9 ft 4 in);

width L40 m (4 ft 7 in); height L74 m


(5 ft B in) Performance: maximum road sPeed 75 kn/h(46,6 mph); maxrmumrange 400 km (248 miles); grradrent 65 per cent; fordrng 0.40 m (I ft 4 in)

normally erected and a canvas toP with removable side doors is fltted. The engine is mounted under the
verv rear ofthe hull which has enabled the ioad-carryrng area to be retained

sideremoved to show the seating arr angements. The tw o' cY I in d e r petrol engine k under the rear and is coupled to a manual gearbox with
four forward and one reverse gear.

rightwith a 57-mm recoilless rtfle for use in the anti-tank role.This vehicle was in production between J 959 and
1974.

ffiH$des-Benzlisrhtvehicle
obtained from normal commercial
sources in Europe! The layout of the vehicle rs different to that of the Land Rover wrth the engine at the front, driver and one passenger in the centre, a seat for tlvo passengeF to the rear and a small cargo area at the back, The rear seats can be folded doum to provide sPace for cargo, which can be loaded through a door in the rear, although the shortwheelbase vehicle has a droP-down rear like the Land Rover, The basic

The Mercedes-Benz companyof West

duced a vnde range of trucks that are widely used by the military, including the famous Unimog range which is available in models with cross-country payloads of between I and 5 tonnes. To complement these vehicles it was decided to design a new MercedesBenz light vehicle which wor.:ld have a

Germany has for many years Pro-

Land Rovers spare Parts belng

cross-country payload of 750 kg


(1,654 kq) and be able to tow a 2500-kg

vehrcle was not adopted by the West

(5,5Il-ib) tratler on roads or a 750-kg (1,654-lb) trailer across country. This German army, which selected the West German Volkswagen iltis, The

model is available with four different enqine options, a four- or five-cylinder dielel oia four- or six-cylinder petrol
engdne, the latter tvvo offedng the high-

vehicle was entered by Peugeot in the competition for a successor to the Hotchkiss M 201 light vehicle used by the French army, wrnning the competi-

pled to a manual gearbox wrth fow

est performance, The engine is couforward and one reverse gear and a transfer-box; for road operations the vehicle is normally driven in 4x2 configmratron.

tron in the form of the Peugeot P4 which is now in sewice with the French army

in a number of variants, Production of this vehicle is undertaken in Autria by GFG, which built 7,500 vehicles in 1980, mostly for the civrhan market, GFG was established

version, there is also a station wagon type wlth a fully enclosed bodY and

In addition to the normal four-seater

A Mercedes-Benz (4 x 4) light vehicle with the windscreen folded forwards

the rear. Lightvehicles with

by Daimler-Benz and Steyr-Daimler-

twin doors at the rear, and a longwheelbase model with a van tYPe
body; although these are aimed mainly

Puch, the former company suPPlYing the axles, transmission and engine and the latter the body and chassis. Thts

mm (0.5-in) M2 HB machine-grun in

and the hood removed to allow installation of a pintle-mounted

armamentinstallations are used by almost every country in the world for

similar

I 2.7 -

reconnar'ssance. loaded 2400 kq (5,291 ]b) Powerplant: one OM616 4-cYlinder diesel developing 65 hP (49 kW) Dimensions: ienqth 4. 145 m ( 13 ft 6 in); wrdth 1.70 m(5 ft7 in); height i.995 m (6 ft 7 in) Performance: maximum road sPeed II7 Wn/h(72 mph); gnadient B0 Per cent; fording 0,60 m (2 ft 0 ln)

at the civilian market, the van

tYPe

vehicle has been adopted bY the

Norwegian army, which ordered an initial batch of 450, and some were
obtained by Argentina, only to be caphrred by the British in the Falklands. These captured vehicles are now used

model has obvior.rs potential for use as a command vehicle or ambulance As with most vehicles todaY a range of optional equipment can be fitted in-

front, a trailer hook at the rear and additional protection for the radiator and engine,

winch mounted at the front, dilferent

ctuding an electrically-operated

Specification
Mercedes-Benz light vehicle Crew: I * I (plus2inrear) Weisht: empty 1670 kq (3,682 lb) and

by the British forces alonqside their


936

tvres, front and rear differential locks, a trailer coupling, a tow hook on the

E
::u1d carry

fti#asenlltislishtvehicle
250

Modern.Light Vehicles

- re standard light vehicle of the West 3erman armed forces for many years :';as the Auto-Union Lkw (4x4), which

-:-e French army competition for a new

3etween l95B and 1968 over 55,000 of --iese were built at Ingolstadt for both :l-vil and military use, The Lkw was to :ave been repiaced by the so called -wope Jeep designed to carry 500 kg - 102 lb) of cargo and also have an -nphibious capability, but after pro::types had been built by two compet-rg teams (each having one manufac-.:rer from West Germany, Italy and ::ance), the whole project was drop;ed, The West German army then ,ssued a new requirement for a vehicle :at would carry 500k9 (1,102 Ib) of :arqo across country, but whrch was ---rt required to be amphibious, To :reet thrs requirement prototype vehr:-es were built -.-clkswagen, by Daimler-Benz and and in 1977 the latter "!e was selected and an order placed :,-r 8,800 Volkswagen Iltis vehicles, - ne f,rst of these were handed over in -378, and production has now been :rmpleted for the West German r:rned forces. The Iltis was entered in

kg

(552

lb) of

cargo,

Mercedes-Benz design, More recentIltis has been selected by the Canadian Armed Forces to replace its obsolete M3B vehicles which have been in service for some 30 years, and
1y the

production will be undertaken in


Canada by Bombardier Incorporated, The lltis has a pressed steel body with the engine at the front, drler and one passenger in the centre, and cargo area at the rear, The last has a seat which can be folded down to increase the windscreen is raised and the folding hood and removable sidescreens

the load area, In inclement weather


a

fitted, The engine is coupled to

one reverse qear and a two-speed transfer box, When drivino on roads
the front axle is normally d'isengaged so the vehicle becomes a 4x2, Suspensron front and rear consrsts ofsemielliptical leaf springs and doubleactrng hydraulic shock absorbers,
The basic vehicle is used for normal duties in the fronlline area, but more specialized versrons include a cablelayer for use by signal units, a com-

manual gearbox with five forward and

vehicles for general duties where a numbers of these vehicles were supplied to Austria, Denmark and France for military use.

launched over the rear of the vehicle, The West German Army also uses a number of Volkswagen 18I (4x2) light and

4x4 capability is not essentral,

AVolkswagen lltis (4x4) vehicle with the hood folded down at the rear. This is now the standard vehicle in is class in the West German armed forces, and is now being manufacturcd under licence in

CanadabyBombardier

Incorporated.
Dimensions: lenqth 3,887 m (12 ft 9 i:l

mand vehicle with communications


equipment, an artillery suwey vehicle, an ambulance and an anti-tank vehicle with Euromissile MILANATGWs, This last model is the replacement for the

Specification
Volkswagenlltis
Crew: I + I (plus
2

-ght vehicle by Citrodn under the des-gmation Citrodn C 44, but this com?eugeot P4 based on a West German

;etition was eventually won by

l:kw with Cobra ATGWs that were

Weight:empty 1550 kg (3,4i7 lb) and loaded 2050 ks (4,520 lb) Powerplant: one 4-cylinder petrol engine developing 75 hp (56 kW)

inrear)

widrh 1,52 m (S ft o in); heishi LB5Z r(6 ft I in)


Performance: maximum road speei 130 kn/h(BO mph); maxrmumrance 500 kn (31 1 miies); gnadient 7O pel: cent; fording0.60 m (2 ft0 in)

U!

finz-+o9B lisrhtvehicle
two-speed transfer case, The suspension consists of semr-elliptical spdngs

: 1960 the Ul'yanovsk Motor Vehrcle Plant, which was then buildinq the -A2-69 and UAZ-69A(4x4) lisht vehrrles, built the prototype of a new vehiused ::-lany components of the UAZ-450 :anqe of 4x4 forward control vehicles desigmed mainly for civilian use, This -,';as not placed in production and fr:rth:: development resulted in the UAZ4698 which entered production in 1972 :*nd has now replaced almost all of the -A2-69 and UAZ-69A light vehicles rn

forward and one reverse gear and a

The four-cylinder petrol engnne is coupled to a manual gearbox with four

Although the UAZ-469B is the most wrdely used light vehicle, it rs not the
only one of its type rn the Soviet Union.

Specification
uAz-469B Crew: I* I (plus Tinrear) Weight: empty 2290 kg (5,048 lb) aic loaded 1540 ks (3,395 lb) Powerplant: o n e ZMZ- 4 I5 IM 4-cylinder water-cooled petrol engr:: developing 75 hp (56 kW)

:ie called the UAZ-469, which

x 15 tyres are fltted all round, and a spare wheel and tyre are located on the rear, In addition to the basrc model, which is widely used by the Soviet army, there rs also an ambulance model de8,40

and hydraulic shock absorbers;

been used for a number of military

TheYAZ-2121 (4x4) liqht vehicte has

the Niva. The Lutsk Motor Vehicle


Plant has developed the IJuAZ-9OZM amphibrous battlefield medical recon-

applicatrons and is sold rn the West as

narssance vehicle as well as the tuAZ969 (4x4) light vehicle which is used

:e

lhe

armies of the USSR and of most :lher members of the Warsaw Pact,
UAZ-452 series of

UAZ-469B uses the engine, trans-

=:ssion, :i the

and military roles. The vehicle has been widely exported outside the
Souet Union, especially to the Middle :ast, and is available on the civihan :rarket as the Tundra. The main improvements of the UAZ-

axles, brakes and other parts 4 x 4 hght vehi:les, which are used in both civrlian

signated the UAZ-469G which can carry four stretcher patients in addition to the driver, a fully enclosed van-type vehicle used for a variety of roles, and another that has equrpment fitted at the rear ofthe hull that dispenses pennants

although its automotive components are used in the LuAZ-967M. In general terms, Soviet trucks and popular in the Mrddle East and elsewhere as their Wesiern counterparts reliable,
have, as the latter are found to be more

mainly for civilian applications,

Dimensions: lengrth4,025 m ( 13 ft 2 :-' 1.785 m (5 ft 10 in); heishi 2.015 m (6 ft 7 rn) Performance: maximum road soee d 100 kri/h (62 mph); maxrnum rinqe

mdth

750

kn

light vehicles have not proved

cent; fording

(466 miles): gradienr 62 O,B0 m (2 ft B in)

per

so

into the ground to designate clear lanes through NBC-contaminated


areas.

A UAZ -469 B (4 x 4) Iight vehicle, which entered production at the Ul'yanovsk Plant in I 972. It is used by every afin oI the Souiet forces and has been exported on a large scale.

ahonal range, The layout of the UAZ-469B is con'/entional, with the engme at the front ard the driver and passenger in the centre (each with a side door); to their lear is a three-man bench seat with a Coor on each side, and a further tuvo :nen can sit at the rear, one on each screen can be folded forward onto the ronnet, the tops of the doors removed and the canvas top folded down, When

slightly increased payload, qreater road speed and much longer oper-

-,t698

over the earlier vehicle include

side, facrng each other, The wind-

payload is increased to 600 kg .1,323 lb), The vehrcle can also tow 'rbraked trailer weighing a total an of
330 kq ( 1,323 lb), or 2000

payload of the vehicle is only i00kg .220 lb), but when only the driver and rne passenger are carried thrs

:arrying seven men the freight

lraked,

ks (4,409 lb) if

il

Enz-og series

The GAZ-69 series is the Sovtet

equrvalent of the Jeep, and entered prbduction at the Gor'ky Motor Vehicle Plant in 1952, although in 1956 pro-

ductron was transferred to the


the vehicle was subsequently redestg-

Ul'vanovsk Motor Vehicle Plant and

nated UAZ-69, Production continued well into the 1960s, the type's replacement, the UAZX-469B, entering production in 1972, al layout with the engine at the front, the driver and one Passenger in the centre, and the cargo at the rear' The
last has a bench seat down each side

The basic GAZ-69 has a convention-

The windscreen can be folded forward onto the bonnet, and the crew and cargo/passenqer area can be

covered by a quickly-removable cover that is stowed at the rear when not in


A GAz-69 Gx4) Iight vehicle' which has seatsfor thedriver andone passenger al fft e front and a bench leat down each side at the rear. The

use, The GAZ-69 can carry a maximum load of 500 kg (1, 102 lb) and tow a trailer wetghing a maximum of 850 kg

The M-20 petrol engtne is couPled to a manual gearbox wrth three for-

(1,874 1b).

or from wrthin the cab (a window in the

riqht side being provided for this pur-

ward and one reverse gear, a tvvospeed transfer box being standard Suspension front and rear consists of semi-eltrptical springs with hydraulic shock absorbers. Irate Production vehicles were of the UAZ-69M standard with a more Powerful engine The GAZ-69A (later UAZ-69A) has
carqo, four doors, two on each side, and can

carry flve men and I00kg (220lb) of lG wrth most vehicles of this type the chassis has been used for a number of

pose), This particular vehicle has seen combat in the Mlddie East, The chassis was also used as the basis for the GAZ-46 or MAV amPhibrous vehicle, which is simrlar in concept to the American Ford GPA (4x4) vehrcle supplied to the Sonet Union during World War II and based on a Jeep chassis, The GAZ-46 was used to carry out reconnaissance ofriver crossing points, but this role has now been taken over by amPhibioru armoured vehicles such as the BRDM-I and
BRDM.2.

that fitted with DIM mlne-detection equipment, When traveliinq this


swung through about I40'to project

One of the more umrsual models is

equrpment rests on the roofofthe vehicle, but when required for use is over the front ofthe velucle, where it is supported by two small rubber tyres. The vehicle is driven along the road at low speed, and when the sensor de-

windscreen is in the raked position but the cover is not erected. On the left side of the vehr'cle is ffi e spare

wheelandtyre. Specification
GAZ-69

tects a mine or other metaliic object the vehicle automatically stops and an
alarm sounds. Once the exact positlon of the mine has been determrned its

position is marked and the vehicle


ralued.

withdravrn to the rear while it is neutA GAZ-69 (4x 4) Iight vehicle with the top in the raked position. This entered sewicewith the Soviet armed forces in I 952, but has now been replaced in most units bY the UAZ-4698, which has a slightlY

vbhrcle has been rebuilt to the rear of the driver/passenger area and carries four AT-1'snapper' wire-gpided antitank mlssiles, which are launched to the rear of the vehicle with the operator either a short distance away from the vehicle (controlling the missiles with a separation sight and controller)

applications, The GAZ-69 anti-tank

Crew: l+ I (plus 4 inrear) Weisht: empty 2U5 ks (4,795 lb) and loaded 1525 kg (3,362 lb) Powerplant: one M-20 4-cYlinder petrol engnne develoPing 52 hP
(39

kW)

Dimensions: length

3,BS m (12 ft 8 in);

A GAZ-69 (4x4) light vehicle, used in the anti-tank role with a four'round launcher for SnaPPer ATGWs at the rear. In this photograph the wire' gruided ATGWs are not fitted' The Iauncher is covered when travelling.

width LBS m(5 ft 2 in); heisht2 03 m


(6 ftB in) Performance: maximum road sPeed 90 lan/h(56 mph)t maximumrange 530 lcn (330 miles); gi.radient 60 per cent; fording 0,55 m (t ft l0 in)

greater payload.

fl

r*

r Io?

AD lisrht vehicle
bench seat down each side for two men, An interesting feature of these vehicles was that the side doors could be swung back through 180" and clipoed to the sides can tow a 1740-kq (3 836-1b) trailer on

When the Italian army was re-formed its requirement for a light vehtcle was met bv the Fiat AR-SI whlch was Powered' bv a four-cylinder petrol enoine developinq 53 hp (39 5 kW); this iras succeeded in prbduction by the

under the designatton Renault TRM


500, although this competition was

roads or a 900-kg (I,984-1b) trailer


across country,

won

ieave the

allon'tng the crew to vehicle raPidlY in an


so

AR-55 and finallY bY the AR-59 All these vehicles have a similar layout with the engine at the front, driver and

one passenqer in the centre, and cargo area at the rear, the last havinq a
338

emergency, The AR-59 was rePlaced in Production bv the Fiat II07 AD (4x4) Iight vehicl6 which has a maximum payload of 750 kq (1,653 lb) across country and

The Fiat 1107 AD entered Production in 1974 for both the civilian and milltary markets, It is also produced under licence in Yugoslavia for the

bv Peuoeot. 'The Sody of the Flat

army (as was the earlier AR-59 under the name of the Zastava) and was entered in the French army's competition

1107 AD is of all-steel construction, with the engine at the front, driver and two passengers 1n the centre (with a door on each side opening to the front) and the cargto aiea atlhe rear. The last has a bench

for a new hght vehicle bY Renault

seat down each side for two men, and can be loaded via the tailqate, on

F:at I l07AD light vehicle (continued) 7te Fiat 1 107 AD (4x4) chassis is Lsed for a number of applications, siuch as this forward ambulance with

Modern Ligrht Vehicles

'codylvork by Grazia. In addition to ne military, ciuilian authorities such as ambulance andfire brigades use
'J.e

military-type chassiswhere an

af-road capability is required.

::dy and there is also a long','.':eelbase


version that can carry a tot=' of nine men.

:.-:ch the spare wheel is carried, The : -rc model has a windscreen that ::-Cs forward onto the bonnet and a ::rovable canvas top and side cur:=,:u. The Fiat 11OZ AD is also proi;:ed with a fully enclosed hard-top
l,i,:t,i:rl)rl;13:ll
,&,ixr1,1r.ir):ttli;

The petrol engine is coupled to

I -.:i'"ri :;t "-": -t : t

:-anual gearbox with five forward and

l; ;" :I

::rxfer

-:e

reverse gear and a two-speed


box, Suspension is of the inde-

,::ndent McPherson type with longdtu- ral torsron bar. Each front wheel sta-:n has a single hydraulic shock -sorber while each rear wheel sta::r has two hydraulic shock absor::rs, because the loaded vehicle has :-:re weight on the back ofthe vehicle :,an the front,

w
Fiat ll07AD Crew: 1+2 (plus4rnrear) Weisht: empty 2420 kg (5,335 lb) and loaded 1670 kq (3,682 ]b) Powerplant: one 4-cylinder petrol engine developinq B0 hp (59,7 kW)

More recently the company has :-ered the type with a diesel engine

-:: longer operatronal range. Standard =lurpment for the military model rn:: enable trailers and light weapons to :: towed, towing eyes at the front, :-:k and shovel, a flre-extingn-rishrng

:-:des a pintle towing hook at the rear

-;stem, and a heatinq and defrosttng .=;stem; options include a petrol en;-ne that will run on low-octane fuel

lance, and a number of compames rn Italy have made use of the chassrs for

Specification

::ctection and a fuel fllter between


:-rmp and carburettor. The vehicle can be adapted as a

=:-d specral equipment such as engine

other applications. one such betng bers by the ltalian peacekeeptnqf force in Lebancn early in i9B4

ASA for the Guardian rnternal security vehicle. which v;as used in small nLlm-

Dimensions: length 3.775 n ( -2 .. : :width 1.58m(5ft I rn):heiof.- (6 ft 3 in) Performance: maxtmum roai -.: ==: 120 kr:n/h (74,5 mph); maxr.:r,-.:- -.:=

: .

::mmunications vehicie or ambuIHE NETHEBLANDS

400

kr (249 miles) gradre,-.: . - - : =: cent; fording0,70 m (2 ft 3 in)

DAF YA 126 weapons carrier


Snce well before World War II Van lcorne's Automobrelfabriek of Eind:cven has been a major supplier of ;heeled transport vehicles to the )ltch army, In the immediate post-

;ar

'. known as DAF Trucks, produced

period the company, which today

YA

:cmplete range ofnew transport vehi:1es for the Dutch army, the smallest ::ember of this family being the DAI
-950, and production was undertaken

126 (4x4) weapon carrier, The prototype of this was completed in

Eindhoven between 1952 and 1960, The type is still in service, but has leen replaced in many units by DAF :ucks with an increased payload,
,'/eapons carrier is conventronal, with re engine at the front, the driver and

:i

The layout of the DAF YA

126

3ne passenger in the centre, and the trargo area at the rear. The windscreen :an be folded down onto the bonnet ald the rear cargo area can be co':ered by removable bows and a tarpaulin cover, Four troops can be sea:ed dourn each side of the cargo area :nd the dropdown tailgate facilitates :re loading and unloadinq of supplies, The engrne of the YA 126, which rs the sarne as that installed in the DAF YA 314 (6x6) 3000-ks (6,614-1b) truck, is :oupled to a manual gearbox with four

dinal trailing arms connected at the


front wrth transversely mounted tubular beams containingT torsion bars. Between the upper traihng arms and the chassis arxiliary rubber springs are fitted, and each wheel also has a hydraulic shock absorber,

with a capacity of 2500k9 (5,5121b), and varrants included a workshop stretcher patients, and a command./
radio vehicle,

Some vehicles were fitted with a winch

A DA.F YA I 26 (4 x 4)

carrier,withbows and a tarpaulil


cover erected over the compartnent at the rear. ?o ass:s: with self-recovery and torxover other vehicles thal became stuc.k, a number of Dutch amy YA I 26 ve hicle s were fi tted with a win ch. dized as the DAF 66 YA a:-: :::.-- :1,200 vehrcles were cie--,'::::

weapons

vehicle, flrlly enclosed van{1pe ambulance that can carry a maxmum of four

tap

On each side of the vehicle is

:crward and one reverse gear and a :ro-speed transfer case. The front and :ear wheels, which have 9,00x16 rrrres, dr suspended on tvvo lonedtu-

spare wheel and tyre; these are free to rotate and so assist the vehicle in overcoming obstacles, a similar arrangement being used on the DAF YA 328 (6x6) 3000-ks (6,614-1b) carsro truck,

To meet the requirements of the Dutch army for a light utility vehicle, the DAF company designed the DAF 55 YA (4x2) which is based on standard and proven commercial components, This was eventually standar-

tween

driver, this vehicle

1973

and

1977. In

= ca: ::=.- ---i-

ac:-:: "-. ::

:= -:

DAF YA 126 weapons ca:rier (continued)


passengers and 400 kg (BB1 lb) of cargo. To increase the load-carrying area the two rear seats can be folded down, Tlpical roles for the DAF 66 YA inPowerplant: one Hercules JXC 6cylinder petrol engine developing
102 hp (76

kW)

where good off-road performance


attendant and

clude rear-area military policing

is

not required, casualty evacuation wrth two stretcher patlents plus the medical

Dimensions: lenqth 4,55 m ( 14 ft I I in); width 2, 10 m (6 ft I I in); height 2,20 m (7 ft 3 in) Performance: maximum road speed
84 kn/h(52 mph); maximumrange 330 km (205 miles); gradient 65 per cent; fording 0,76 m (2 ft 6 in)

drler, and radio

car-

rying, The Dutch army is also a large user of the Land Rover (4x4) vehicle, includrng a number supplied to meet its own specific requrrements,

A DAF YA I 26 (4 x 4) weapons carrier, whichwas in production for the Dutch army between I 952 and
9 60. An unusu al feature of this vehicleis that the sparewheel on eacfi sjde r's fre e-wheeling and assrsts flre YA I 26 in overcoming obs tacles while crossing rough

Specification
DAFYA
Crew:

Weight: empty 4230 ks (9,325 lb) and loaded 3230 ks (7, 12 I lb)

l*

126

I (plus

inrear)

counfuy.

ffi"n"re lisht vehicles


or sx-cylinder petrol or diesel
engines, the petrol engrne being prefer-

In the early 1950s Mitsubishi Motors Corporation obtained a licence from the American Jeep manufacturer Wilin Japan for both civilian and military roles, The Mitsubishi J544, powered by a four-cylinder petrol engnne developing 75 hp (56 kW) was the standard /aton vehrcle of the Japanese Self-Defence Forces for many years. This has now been replaced by the J25A which has the military designalys to undertake production ofthe Jeep

red in many parts of the third world


stations,

as there are more petrol than diesel

If one excludes the

Umted States

and the Soviet Union, the British Land

tion Type 73; this is powered by a diesel for rncreased fuel efficiency.

Rover was for many years the most widely used vehicle of its type, but in recent years the Japanese have been making steady inroads to many traditional Land Rover markets, and in 1980 alone Nrssan and Toyota between
them built some 150,000 4x 4 light vehr-

The TYpe 73 rs very simrlar in appearance to the Jeeps used by the Allies dunng World War II, and has an identical layout u,rth the engine at the front, driver and one passeneter in the centre, and tvuo seats at the rear. One of the dlstingnrishing features of these vehicles is that each of the headlamps at the foont has vertical bars to protect it from damage, As usual there are many variants of Jeep used by the Japanese Ground Self-Defence Force, including a reconnaissance vehrcle

cles for the home and export markets, although most of these were for civilian rather than milrtary use,

Specification
MitsubishiJ2SA Crew: i* I (plus2 inrear) Weight: empty 1420 kg (3, 130 lb) and loaded 1900 ks (4 189 lb) Powerplant: one 4-cylinder diesel developingB0 hp (59.7 kW) Dimensions: length 3.75 m (12 ft 4 in); width 1.655 m (5 ft 5 in); heisht 1.95 m
(6 ft 5 in);

fitted wrth a pintle-mounted 7.62-mm

(0.3-rn) machine-gnrn, and an anti-tank vehicle with the 106-mm (4, 17-in) M40 recoilless rifle, KAM-3D (TYpe 64) or the more recent KAM-9 (Type 79) anti-

Performance: maxrmum road speed


90 l,an/tt (56 mph); maxrmum rangte 500 kn (31 I miles); gnadient 60 per cent; fording0.S m (1 ft B in)

Above : A long-wheelbase Mitsubishi (4x4) light vehicle, which can carry six men instead of the four men of the normalversion. These are used for a wide range of roles including that of anti- tank, fi tted with ATGW s ; command, fitte d with r adios ; and

B elow : M

forward ambuiance.

itsubis hi (4 x 4 ) lig ht vehicles of theJapanese Ground Self Detence F orce A GS DF) fitted with 7 .62-mm (0 .3-in) machine-gqns on pintle mounts at the rear for use in the reconnaissance role. Latest versions ofthevehicle have a diesel engine for longer range.

tank missiles, the last having a much longer range.


In addition to Mitsubishi, the Nissan also manufacture light vehicles. These are desigmed for civilian applications but are used by many armies around the

Motor Company and Toyota

world. The Nissan Patrol vehicle

produced in standard open-type as well as hard-top, pick-up and long-

is

wheelbase configmration, It has also been burlt under licence in India by Mahindra and Mahindra which has supplied many vehicles to the Indian armed forces ior a wide range of roles includrng anti-tank (with recorlless rifles), command (with radios) and reconnaissance. One ofthe more unusual versions used by the Indran army has three SS, 11 wire-gmided anti-tank missiles over the rool firing forward, India

has also exported vehicles to other countries, and recently supplied some 4,000 Jeep kits for assembly in lran,
The Toyota Land Cnriser is used by many countnes in A-frica and the Far East, and rs available in three different

wheelbases (standard, long wheelbase and super long wheelbase), the first two of these being used by the military, They are available with four940

.kTrned Forces of the

World

WAirForc
-: "; , :,,.ed by some as the poor relatlon of SAC, liL:: r: i:r Command (TAC) had the defence of
,i(it-r- :-erica added to its duties with the demise r --; lerospace Defense Command and has for

Part 3
it is therefore
possible

Readiness Command, and

for TAC aircraft to be ordered into action without


referring to the more usual chain of command. TAC headquarters are located at Langley AFB, Virginia, routine administration being effected via two subordinate numbered air forces, these being the gth Air Force at Shaw AFB, South Carolina, and the '1 2th Air Force at Bergstrom AFB, Texas. There are. in addition, several units which report directly to TAC

the 354th TFW at Myrtle Beach AF3. S:,--Carolina, whilst the F-16 Fighting Falcon ais: _.:-,:_. with two units, these being the 56th TFw* at \"::l AFB, Florida, and the 363rd TFW at Sha\,, :=: South Carolina. The latter wing's three F-l 6 sc-::rons are complemented by one squadron ,r', :r :-: RF-4C Phantom, this being a legacy of tne 3e.3-:

fie:,"::'ewyears

:: ::r are predominant in TAC's combat echelons, :-: ':rce modernization has not been solely conr

orogramme which has witnessed the prorr-i:*:nt of substantial numbers of a new generar :- :':ombataircraftto replace oldertypes such as 'l-: ----sry McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom and the r': -::-t A-7 Corsair ll. Today, the Fairchild Republic r-' I i Thunderbolt ll, the McDonnell Douglas F-1 5 !=,;: and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting

[ir:-

been engaged in a major modern-

TFW's long career as a purely reconnaissance ,.,

headquarters, these mainly being concerned

r::- sition being the Boeing E-3A Sentry derivative :-::e Boeing 707 for airborne warning and control
:-:,.
- terms of numbers of personnel assigned,
maintains
a

-el io such

with the development and evaluation of weapons and tactics and with the administration of the various 'Flag' programmes of which 'Red Flag' is probably best known. This is the series of flying
training exercises conducted regularly in the vicinity of Nellis AFB, Nevada, with the objectlve of providing realistic combat training so as to enhance aircrew experience levels and likelihood of survival in any future conflict. Other similar exercises include 'Black Flag'for maintenance personnel, 'Green Flag' predicted on European and Korean theatre operations and'Blue Flag'which is concerned with battle-

elements, another noteworthy recent

Sikorsky CH-3E helicopters of the 507rn additional elements of this unii being loce:ec :: Patrlck AFB, Florida. from where they ooe'::: l2As and Rockwell OV-10A Broncos in the ..-,',:-l air control role. The three remaining wings ..,- :report to the gth Air Force alloperate Phanto-s :",. :
Seymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina (4ir and at Moody AFB, Georgia (347rh TFW), wn

Shaw is also home for the Cessna O-2is =-: -:C,'.

-:

being fully operational units with the

=-:i

-=,',

=:

position of superiority, but TAC is by '"'rne largest USAF command with regard to the --'rber of aircraft on hand. These are engaged in a

::

SAC

third serves in the training role with F-rls

isr:-:
---

missions encompassing virtually all :':as of tactical air power, ranging f rom forward air ::ntrol through air superiority to close air support ::C reconnaissance. Accordingly, TAC's fleet cons sts of several widely dlsparate types, of which -ost are optimized for a specifrc task, a situation far -emoved from that of the 1960s and early 1970s ,,,'nen the albeit highly versatile F-4 Phantom 'eigned almost supreme as a 'maid of all work'. Making a substantial contribution to the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force (RDJTF), TAC elenrents constitute the USAF component of two of the specified commands responsible to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, namely Atlantic Command and

*-iiitude of

field management and the decision-making

process. The operational elements of the 9th Air Force are distributed between a total of l0 air bases, two of which (Langley and Eglin) host F-15 air superiority

units, Langley's 1st Tactical Fighter Wing having


recently completed transition to the newest variant

drawal from the front-line inventory. TAC's second major component, the 12tr : Force, differs quite considerably in composition :-: equipment, three bases hosting two wings eacn as well as several with just a single wing. Long+arc:
all-weather strike elements are concentrated wilr ^ the 12th Air Force, these comprising the Gener= Dynamics F-1 1.1As of the 366th TFW at Mounra'-The dorsal speed brake helps slow this MDonnell DouglasF-15 Eagleofthe49thTFW as it arrives at Holloman AFB on 20 December I 977 atter the unit had converted at Luke AFB .

distant future as the requirement for Pha.::crews diminishes with the type's continuing .,, ---

Homestead AFB, Florida. This 31st TFW ,s ::marked for transition to the F-l6 in the nci-::,:-

of the Eagle, namely the F-l 5C with the so-called 'FAST Pack' (Fuel And Sensor Tactical Package);
this unit is now one of those assigned to the RDJTF. TAC's second fairly new type, the A-10A Thunderbolt ll with its fearsome General Electric GAU-B/A Avenger 30-mm Gatling-type cannon, equips two units: the 23rd TFW at England AFB, Louisiana, and

Armed Forces of the World

t7

P,.,S >

USAirForce

ffi

-:"re
..

AFB, ldaho, and the F-1 1 'l Ds of the 27th TFW Cannon AFB, Nernr Mexico. After a disaster-ridden

career, the F-1 11 eventually'came good'in - SAF service and such is the faith now placed in this :.ce that it has formed the basis for the latest :e'ence-suppression aircraft to enter the nventory. -^ s, the Grumman/General Dynamics EF-1 11A : ectric Fox', is essentially a much modified

:3'V

being home for the 35th TFW which operates the F-4E on trainrng, including the training of West German pilots in Phantoms owned by that country. Further Phantoms are to be found at Bergstrom AFB, Texas, although in this instance they are the reconnaissance-configured RF-4Cs of the 67th TRW, whilst the 12th Air Force also parents three
units, namely the 58th TTW (f ormerly TFTW) at Arizona; the 3BBth TFW at H ill AFB, Utah, and the 414rhf FW at Nellis AFB, Nevada. The two
F-'l 6 Lu ke AFB,

The Boeing E-3A Sentry, packaged into a 707-320C airframe, entered sewice in 1977 with the 552nd Airborne W arning and Control Wing at Tinker

AFB,Oklahoma.

these four wings, the 479th TTW is perhaps the most unusual, this undertaking lead-in and operational conversion training of newly-qualified pilots before assignment to other TAC units, and to provide added realism the T-3BBs are f itted with underwing stores statrons in order to carry air-to-ground rockets and/or gun pods.
The Fairchild Republic A- I 0A Thunderbolt II is employed by the USAF solely to destroy armoured vehicles, relying on manoeuvrability, heavy armour andsystems redundancy to minimize /osses.

:-i

:: ^ r al dellveries have been made to the 3BBth : ectronic Countermeasures Squadron at


'.'ountain-Home AFB, these operating alongside .^e standard F-111A as part of the 366th TFW -iother defence-suppression aircraft, the F-4G ,'i d Weasel' variant of the Phantom, equlps the

A, some 42 Grumman conversions at present ng scheduled for service in the USA and Europe.
1
T

:-:r

TFW at George AFB, Callfornla, this base also

remain ng bases supporting 12th Arr Force elements are Holloman AFB, New Mexico, which has the 49th TFW with F-15 Eagles plus the 47gth TTW with a mlxture oi Northrop AT-3BA and T-3BB Talons, and Davis-Monthan AFB, Arlzona, with the 355rh TTW'S A 10A Thunderbolt lls plus the 602nd TACW wlth Cessna OA-378s for FAC f unctions. Of