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Water

S No 1 Topic Total water 3 Forms of Water Description 73 % of earth surface is covered with water; of which 70 % comprise seas and oceans and rest by surface water sources (Lakes, Ponds, pools and tanks, Rivers, Streams, and Canals). Of total water 94 % is salty (in oceans and seas) and only 6 % is fresh water- of which 99 % is Frozen (Ice caps and glaciers)or as deep underground water beyond utilization; Only 0.06% of water is available for human use. Water determines health status of individual/Population as is used in drinking, bathing, cooking and agriculture Provision of safe drinking water to community is primary to improving health status From health point of view, water has five forms i) Safe - a form of water which on ingestion over a long period of time does not harm consumer; therefore should be free from pathogens and harmful chemicals ii) Wholesome a safe form of water which is acceptable to consumers for domestic purposes should be free from disagreeable taste and obnoxious smell. iii) Potable a wholesome (therefore also safe) water which is fit for supply to consumers should not corrode pipes and tanks. iv) Contaminated a form of water which contains pathogens, parasites and harmful chemicals; therefore is not safe for consumption. v) Polluted it contains unwanted substance (chemicals)and factors (heat)- it can cause harm to instruments and organisms Water is needed for Biosphere (maintenance of climate; by living organisms makes 75 % of body; medium for biochemical reactions; medium for waste disposal; body temperature) and Humans (for Domestic -drinking, cooking, washing; Agriculture; Industry; waste disposal; in stream electricity, navigation, recreation, transport of timber) Water which has been polluted/ contaminated due to previous use and as such is not reusable; and It has to be treated (primary, secondary, and tertiary) for reutilization. It must contain sufficient amount of water to meet present and future requirements of human; and It must have acceptable quality of water in terms of taste and smell Precipitation, Surface waters (Lakes, Ponds, pools, tanks, Rivers, Streams, Canals,) Ground Water (aquifer; largest underground reserve of water; cheapest And available throughout year), Seas and oceans (account for 94 % of water; important for Global Water Cycle) Sea water can be used for drinking after removal of salts by reverse osmosis (RO System; also used by our water filters) or by condensing evaporated water Underground water is obtained through dug or bored wells; Sanitary wells are dug wells with protection for preventing contamination from rain and runoff water

Water and Health Status

Need of Water

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Waste Water Criteria of a Good Water Source Water Sources