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affects power consumption and mixing time for different types of impellers.

A mixing rig, consisting of a mixing tank, a variable speed motor, power

meter, conductivity meter and tachometer were set up. To test power

consumption, the speed of the motor was varied and the percentage

current used was recorded from the power meter. Mixing time was

checked by injecting 10ml potassium chloride sample into the mixing tank

and recording the time taken for the reading on the conductivity meter to

become stable.

Aside from experimental error the results obtained agree with theory. It

was found that, as motor speed increases, the power consumption

increases and as motor speed increases, the mixing time decreases. The

flat paddle used the most power while the propeller the least, however, it

could not be determined with impeller gave the shortest mixing time due to

errors associated with checking the mixing time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... I

AIM ....................................................................................................................... 1

APPARATUS / PROCEDURE.............................................................................. 1

PART A POWER CONSUMPTION..................................................................................................2

PART B MIXING TIME ................................................................................................................2

RESULTS ............................................................................................................. 2

CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................. 3

PART A POWER CONSUMPTION..................................................................................................3

PART B MIXING TIME ................................................................................................................4

DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 5

POWER CONSUMPTION .................................................................................................................5

MIXING TIMES ..............................................................................................................................6

K, A AND K............................................................................................................................6

RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................ 7

CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 7

APPENDIX ............................................................................................................ I

FLAT PADDLE IMPELLER .............................................................................................................. I

6 BLADE IMPELLER ................................................................................................................... II

PROPELLER IMPELLER ................................................................................................................ III

GRAPH 1 ..................................................................................................................................... IV

GRAPH 2 ...................................................................................................................................... V

GRAPH 3 ..................................................................................................................................... VI

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Equipment Used ...............................................................1

Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed

Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed .....................................3

Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2 ...........................4

Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller ............. i

Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller .......................... i

Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ................ ii

Table 7 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ............................. ii

Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............... iii

Table 9 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............................ iii

Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each

Impeller ............................................................................................................................... v

Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller .................. vi

ii

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Equipment Used ...............................................................1

Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed

Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed .....................................3

Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2 ...........................4

Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller ............. i

Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller .......................... i

Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ................ ii

Table 7 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ............................. ii

Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............... iii

Table 9 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............................ iii

Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each

Impeller ............................................................................................................................... v

Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller .................. vi

iii

AIM

The objective of this experiment was to determine a relationship between

the mixing speed and power consumption and mixing speed and mixing

time, for different types of impellers used in water.

APPARATUS / PROCEDURE

Potassium Chloride (KCl) 75g

Water 250ml

Beaker

Stirring Rod

Syringe 10ml

Stopwatch

6 - Blade Turbine

Impeller diameter = 64 mm

Flat paddle

Propeller

Impeller diameter = 66 mm

The Mixing rig, consisting of a mixing tank, a variable speed motor, power

meter, conductivity meter and tachometer were set up as seen in Diagram

1 with the flat paddle as the first impeller to be used.

APPARATUS / PROCEDURE

Below is the procedure followed.

Part A Power Consumption

i. The tachometer was used to monitor the speed, starting at 100 rpm and

increasing speed up to 500 rpm. (For 6-blade and propeller, maximum

speed is 700 rpm)

ii. The armature current was recorded from the power meter for each

speed.

Part B Mixing Time

iii. A solution containing 75 g potassium chloride in 250 ml water was

prepared and mix thoroughly.

iv. The speed was set to 500 rpm and left for about 2 min for steady state to

be attained and the conductivity meter turned on.

v. The syringe was filled with 10 ml of the KCl solution and it was injected

as quickly as possible into the entry point through the tank covering.

vi. The mixing time, i.e. time taken for the conductivity of the water to

become stable (remain constant for about 3-5 second), was recorded.

vii. Steps (iv) to (vi) were repeated, injecting a second 10 ml portion of KCl

solution and record mixing time again.

viii. Step (iv) to (vii) were repeated with speeds of 300 and 200 rpm.

The above steps (i) to (viii) were repeated for the other two impellers 6blade and propeller.

RESULTS

Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed

Speed, RPM

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

600

700

Armature Current, %

Flat Paddle

6-Blade

Propeller

6

5

5

7

5.5

5.5

8

6

6

9

6

6

11

7

7

12

7

7

14

8

7.5

16

9

8

19

9

8

11

10

12

11

RESULTS

Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed

Flat Paddle

Speed, RPM

t1

12.73

13.28

11.19

500

300

200

t2

14.44

12.80

11.80

Mixing Time, s

6-Blade

t1

8.08

9.22

14.00

t2

9.32

10.08

15.73

Propeller

t1

9.29

11.29

11.13

t2

9.17

11.96

13.98

CALCULATIONS

For all sample calculations consider Flat Paddle at a speed of 500RPM

= *T = *(k**Ia) = *0.2381 *Ia

P

Ia

= 3* (19/100)

= 0.57A

= 2*N

= 2*(RPM60)

= 2*(50060)

= 2*8.33

= 52.33 m/s

P

= 52.33*0.2381*0.57

= 7.10W

Given

Power Number

= K [Reynolds Number]a

i.e.

[ P / (*N3*Di5) ]

= K [ (Di2**N) / ] a

lg [ P / (*N3*Di5) ] = lg K + a * lg [ (Di2**N) / ]

This is straight line of form y = m x + c, plotting graph of lg [Power #]

versus lg [Reynolds #] we can find K from intercept and a, from gradient.

lg [ P / (*N3*Di5) ]

= lg [ 7.10 (997.1*8.33*(0.15) ]

= lg [1.23]

lg [Power #]

2

lg [ (Di **N) / ]

= 0.09

= lg [ (0.12*997.1*8.33) 0.000904 ]

= lg [ 91915.56 ]

lg [Reynolds #]

= 4.96

CALCULATIONS

From graph,

lg K = 6.457 K = 106.457, K = 2864177.97 and a = - 1.2953

Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2

a

lg K

K

Flat Paddle

-1.30

6.46

2864178

6 - Blade

-1.55

7.82

65962939

Propeller

-1.61

8.07

118385905

Given the following FoxGex correlation:

N* = k*[(Fr/Re) 1/6]*[(ZL/DT) 1/2]

= Mixing time (seconds)

Where

N 2 Di

Fr = Froude Number =

g

Re = Reynolds Number

DT = Vessel diameter

ZL = Liquid height

Rearranging we get,

k = N* / [ (Fr/Re)1/6(ZL/DT)1/2 ]

N

= 500 rpm

= 8.33 rps

ZL

= 0.38 m

DT

= 0.19 m

Fr

= (N2*Di) / g

= (8.332*0.1) / 9.81

= 0.71

Re

= [ (Di2**N) / ]

= [ (0.12*997.1*8.33) 0.000904 ]

= 91915.56

(ZL/DT)1/2

= (0.38/0.19)1/2

(Fr/Re)1/6

= (0.71/91915.56)1/6 = 0.141

= 1.414

= (8.33*13.59) / [0.141*1.414]

= 113.205 / 0.199

k500

= 569.64

DISCUSSION

The mixing of large quantities of two or more substances to create a

homogeneous mixture is a common and necessary occurrence in many

industries, as such efficient and effective mixing is required. The factors

that contribute to mixing include the differences and/or similarities between

the substances densities, viscosities, the quantity being mixed and how

the substances are mixed. In this experiment we just examine two of the

how in mixing the type of impellers used to mix and the speed of the

impellers and how they affect the power required and the time taken to

mix. In this experiment water and a solution of potassium chloride were

used and this produces a homogenous mixture. The vessel and

components were kept constant and the impeller and motor speed were

varied.

Power Consumption

Firstly, the power consumption was examined. Graph 1 See Appendix

show that for all three impellers as their speeds increases so does the

power they used. This is expected because, as the speed increases, more

work must be done by the motor and therefore more power is utilized. It

also shows that the flat paddle impeller required more power than the

other two. For the 6-blade and propeller, for speeds 100 RPM up to

400RPM the power is almost the same. After speeds of 500RPM, the

power require by the 6-blade and the propeller increases more

significantly than at the lower speed, the 6-blade also required more power

than the propeller.

In taking the reading for the 6-blade and the propeller, the power meter

was fluctuating just around the recorded values. This was a source of

error. A more sensitive and/or a digital power meter could have given

more accurate values so any differences would have shown.

DISCUSSION

Mixing Times

Secondly, the mixing time was examined. Graph 2 see Appendix for

the 6-blade and propeller shows that as the speed increases, the mixing

time decreases. The 6-blade impeller has a quicker mixing time than the

propeller. This is expected, as the higher speeds create more turbulence

and this accelerates mixing. The results for the flat paddle do not agree

with this, it shows that the mixing time increases with increasing mixing

speed.

This is obviously as a result of errors in carrying out the experiment. The

mixing time was taken as the length of time for the conductivity of the tank

to become stable after addition of the KCl sample. It was observed that the

conductivity readings would change then remain at a constant for a few

seconds and then being change again until it became constant again and

this time it remained constant. It was found that the time taken for the

conductivity to remain constant was approximately the same, so it was

decided to take the time when the conductivity initially remained constant;

however this was extremely difficult to determine. This difficulty would

explain the somewhat erratic results obtained for the mixing times.

K, a and k

The relationship between power and mixing speed was given by the

correlation:

(Power Number) = K (Reynolds Number) a

Taking log of this equation allows for the values of K and a to be found

from the y-intercept and gradient of a plot of lg(Power Number) versus

lg(Reynolds Number) as seen in Graph 3 of the appendix. It was found

that as a decreased, K increased with the flat paddle having the highest

value of a and the propeller had the lowest.

Using the Fox-Gex equation, k for each impeller was determined. Looking

at the k values obtained, see Tables 5, 7 and 9 in Appendix it could be

said that for each impeller, as pump speed increases so does k

RECOMMENDATIONS

of average values.

that would give a highly endothermic or exothermic reaction and

use digital thermometer with probe properly placed to check for

temperature change, temperature would increase or decrease at

end of reaction indicating complete mixing.

CONCLUSION

It was found that:

i. As motor speed increases, the power consumption increases

ii. The flat paddle used the most power while the propeller the least

iii. As motor speed increases, the mixing time increases

iv. It could not be determined with impeller gave the shortest mixing time

due to errors associated with checking the mixing time.

APPENDIX

Flat Paddle Impeller

Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller

Speed, RPM

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Armature

Current, %

6

7

8

9

11

12

14

16

19

N=RMP/60,

rps

1.67

2.50

3.33

4.17

5.00

5.83

6.67

7.50

8.33

=2N,

rad/s

10.47

15.70

20.93

26.17

31.40

36.63

41.87

47.10

52.33

Power P, W

0.45

0.79

1.20

1.68

2.47

3.14

4.19

5.38

7.10

Power

Number

9.72

5.04

3.24

2.33

1.98

1.59

1.42

1.28

1.23

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

18383.11

27574.67

36766.22

45957.78

55149.34

64340.89

73532.45

82724.00

91915.56

0.99

0.70

0.51

0.37

0.30

0.20

0.15

0.11

0.09

4.26

4.44

4.57

4.66

4.74

4.81

4.87

4.92

4.96

Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller

Speed, RPM

500

300

200

t1

12.73

13.28

11.19

t2

14.44

12.8

11.8

= (t1+t2)/2

13.59

13.04

11.50

Fr

0.71

0.25

0.11

Re

91915.56

55149.34

36766.22

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6

0.141

0.129

0.121

k

569.64

357.23

224.61

APPENDIX

6 Blade Impeller

Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller

Speed, RPM

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

600

700

Armature

Current, %

5

5.5

6

6

7

7

8

9

9

11

12

N=RMP/60,

rps

1.67

2.50

3.33

4.17

5.00

5.83

6.67

7.50

8.33

10.00

11.67

=2N,

rad/s

10.47

15.70

20.93

26.17

31.40

36.63

41.87

47.10

52.33

62.80

73.27

Power P, W

0.37

0.62

0.90

1.12

1.57

1.83

2.39

3.03

3.36

4.93

6.28

Power

Number

75.42

36.87

22.63

14.48

11.73

8.62

7.54

6.70

5.43

4.61

3.69

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

7529.72

11294.58

15059.45

18824.31

22589.17

26354.03

30118.89

33883.75

37648.61

45178.34

52708.06

1.877

1.57

1.35

1.16

1.07

0.94

0.88

0.83

0.73

0.66

0.57

3.877

4.05

4.18

4.27

4.35

4.42

4.48

4.53

4.58

4.65

4.72

Speed, RPM

500

300

200

t1

8.08

9.22

14.00

t2

9.32

10.08

15.73

= (t1+t2)/2

8.70

9.65

14.87

Fr

0.45

0.16

0.07

Re

37648.61

22589.17

15059.45

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6

0.151

0.139

0.130

k

338.65

245.41

269.64

ii

APPENDIX

Propeller Impeller

Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller

Speed, RPM

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

600

700

Armature

Current, %

5

5.5

6

6

7

7

7.5

8

8

10

11

N=RMP/60,

rps

1.67

2.50

3.33

4.17

5.00

5.83

6.67

7.50

8.33

10.00

11.67

=2N,

rad/s

10.47

15.70

20.93

26.17

31.40

36.63

41.87

47.10

52.33

62.80

73.27

Power P, W

0.37

0.62

0.90

1.12

1.57

1.83

2.24

2.69

2.99

4.49

5.76

Power

Number

64.66

31.61

19.40

12.42

10.06

7.39

6.06

5.11

4.14

3.59

2.90

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

8007.68

12011.53

16015.37

20019.21

24023.05

28026.89

32030.73

36034.58

40038.42

48046.10

56053.79

1.81

1.50

1.29

1.09

1.00

0.87

0.78

0.71

0.62

0.56

0.46

3.90

4.08

4.20

4.30

4.38

4.45

4.51

4.56

4.60

4.68

4.75

Speed, RPM

500

300

200

t1

9.29

11.29

11.13

t2

9.17

11.96

13.98

= (t1+t2)/2

9.23

11.63

12.56

Fr

0.47

0.17

0.07

Re

40038.42

24023.05

16015.37

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6

0.151

0.138

0.129

k

361.13

297.16

228.91

iii

APPENDIX

Graph 1

Power, W

7

0

0

100

Flat Paddle

200

6-Blade

300

Propeller

400

500

600

700

iv

APPENDIX

lg Power Number

Graph 2

Changes in Power Number with Increasing Reynolds Number

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

y = -1.5457x + 7.8193

y = -1.6136x + 8.0733

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

y = -1.2953x + 6.457

0.20

0.00

3.50

-0.20

Propeller

4.00

6-Blade

Flat Paddle

4.50

5.00

5.50

lg Reynolds Number

Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each Impeller

APPENDIX

Graph 3

Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Impellers

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

100

Flat Paddle

200

6-Blade

300

Propeller

400

500

600

Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller

vi

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