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ABSTRACT

The objective of this experiment was to determine how mixing speed


affects power consumption and mixing time for different types of impellers.
A mixing rig, consisting of a mixing tank, a variable speed motor, power
meter, conductivity meter and tachometer were set up. To test power
consumption, the speed of the motor was varied and the percentage
current used was recorded from the power meter. Mixing time was
checked by injecting 10ml potassium chloride sample into the mixing tank
and recording the time taken for the reading on the conductivity meter to
become stable.
Aside from experimental error the results obtained agree with theory. It
was found that, as motor speed increases, the power consumption
increases and as motor speed increases, the mixing time decreases. The
flat paddle used the most power while the propeller the least, however, it
could not be determined with impeller gave the shortest mixing time due to
errors associated with checking the mixing time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... I
AIM ....................................................................................................................... 1
APPARATUS / PROCEDURE.............................................................................. 1
PART A POWER CONSUMPTION..................................................................................................2
PART B MIXING TIME ................................................................................................................2

RESULTS ............................................................................................................. 2
CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................. 3
PART A POWER CONSUMPTION..................................................................................................3
PART B MIXING TIME ................................................................................................................4

DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 5
POWER CONSUMPTION .................................................................................................................5
MIXING TIMES ..............................................................................................................................6
K, A AND K............................................................................................................................6

RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................ 7
CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 7
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................ I
FLAT PADDLE IMPELLER .............................................................................................................. I
6 BLADE IMPELLER ................................................................................................................... II
PROPELLER IMPELLER ................................................................................................................ III
GRAPH 1 ..................................................................................................................................... IV
GRAPH 2 ...................................................................................................................................... V
GRAPH 3 ..................................................................................................................................... VI

List of Figures, Diagrams & Graphs


Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Equipment Used ...............................................................1
Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed

Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed .....................................3
Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2 ...........................4
Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller ............. i
Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller .......................... i
Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ................ ii
Table 7 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ............................. ii
Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............... iii
Table 9 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............................ iii

Graph 1 Comparison of Power Consumption for the Different Impellers .......................... iv


Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each
Impeller ............................................................................................................................... v
Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller .................. vi

ii

List of Figures, Diagrams & Graphs


Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Equipment Used ...............................................................1
Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed

Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed .....................................3
Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2 ...........................4
Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller ............. i
Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller .......................... i
Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ................ ii
Table 7 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller ............................. ii
Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............... iii
Table 9 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Propeller Impeller ............................ iii

Graph 1 Comparison of Power Consumption for the Different Impellers .......................... iv


Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each
Impeller ............................................................................................................................... v
Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller .................. vi

iii

AIM
The objective of this experiment was to determine a relationship between
the mixing speed and power consumption and mixing speed and mixing
time, for different types of impellers used in water.

APPARATUS / PROCEDURE

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Equipment Used

Additional apparatus was used


Potassium Chloride (KCl) 75g

Water 250ml

Beaker

Stirring Rod

Syringe 10ml

Stopwatch

6 - Blade Turbine

Impeller diameter = 64 mm

Flat paddle

Impeller diameter = 100 mm

Propeller

Impeller diameter = 66 mm

The Mixing rig, consisting of a mixing tank, a variable speed motor, power
meter, conductivity meter and tachometer were set up as seen in Diagram
1 with the flat paddle as the first impeller to be used.

APPARATUS / PROCEDURE
Below is the procedure followed.
Part A Power Consumption
i. The tachometer was used to monitor the speed, starting at 100 rpm and
increasing speed up to 500 rpm. (For 6-blade and propeller, maximum
speed is 700 rpm)
ii. The armature current was recorded from the power meter for each
speed.
Part B Mixing Time
iii. A solution containing 75 g potassium chloride in 250 ml water was
prepared and mix thoroughly.
iv. The speed was set to 500 rpm and left for about 2 min for steady state to
be attained and the conductivity meter turned on.
v. The syringe was filled with 10 ml of the KCl solution and it was injected
as quickly as possible into the entry point through the tank covering.
vi. The mixing time, i.e. time taken for the conductivity of the water to
become stable (remain constant for about 3-5 second), was recorded.
vii. Steps (iv) to (vi) were repeated, injecting a second 10 ml portion of KCl
solution and record mixing time again.
viii. Step (iv) to (vii) were repeated with speeds of 300 and 200 rpm.
The above steps (i) to (viii) were repeated for the other two impellers 6blade and propeller.

RESULTS
Table 1 Armature Currents Used by the Impellers for Different Speed
Speed, RPM
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700

Armature Current, %
Flat Paddle
6-Blade
Propeller
6
5
5
7
5.5
5.5
8
6
6
9
6
6
11
7
7
12
7
7
14
8
7.5
16
9
8
19
9
8
11
10
12
11

RESULTS
Table 2 Mixing Times Taken by the Impellers for Different Speed
Flat Paddle

Speed, RPM

t1
12.73
13.28
11.19

500
300
200

t2
14.44
12.80
11.80

Mixing Time, s
6-Blade
t1
8.08
9.22
14.00

t2
9.32
10.08
15.73

Propeller
t1
9.29
11.29
11.13

t2
9.17
11.96
13.98

CALCULATIONS
For all sample calculations consider Flat Paddle at a speed of 500RPM

Part A Power Consumption


= *T = *(k**Ia) = *0.2381 *Ia

P
Ia

= (Armature current %* 3) Amps


= 3* (19/100)

= 0.57A

= 2*N

= 2*(RPM60)

= 2*(50060)

= 2*8.33

= 52.33 m/s
P

= 52.33*0.2381*0.57
= 7.10W

Given

Power Number

= K [Reynolds Number]a

i.e.

[ P / (*N3*Di5) ]

= K [ (Di2**N) / ] a

Taking log10, we get


lg [ P / (*N3*Di5) ] = lg K + a * lg [ (Di2**N) / ]
This is straight line of form y = m x + c, plotting graph of lg [Power #]
versus lg [Reynolds #] we can find K from intercept and a, from gradient.
lg [ P / (*N3*Di5) ]

= lg [ 7.10 (997.1*8.33*(0.15) ]
= lg [1.23]

lg [Power #]
2

lg [ (Di **N) / ]

= 0.09
= lg [ (0.12*997.1*8.33) 0.000904 ]
= lg [ 91915.56 ]

lg [Reynolds #]

= 4.96

CALCULATIONS
From graph,
lg K = 6.457 K = 106.457, K = 2864177.97 and a = - 1.2953
Table 3 Values of a and K for Each Impeller as Obtained from Graph 2

a
lg K
K

Flat Paddle
-1.30
6.46
2864178

6 - Blade
-1.55
7.82
65962939

Propeller
-1.61
8.07
118385905

Part B Mixing Time


Given the following FoxGex correlation:
N* = k*[(Fr/Re) 1/6]*[(ZL/DT) 1/2]
= Mixing time (seconds)

Where

N 2 Di
Fr = Froude Number =
g
Re = Reynolds Number
DT = Vessel diameter
ZL = Liquid height
Rearranging we get,
k = N* / [ (Fr/Re)1/6(ZL/DT)1/2 ]
N

= 500 rpm

= 8.33 rps

= (12.73 + 14.44)/2 = 13.59 s

ZL

= 0.38 m

DT

= 0.19 m

Fr

= (N2*Di) / g

= (8.332*0.1) / 9.81

= 0.71
Re

= [ (Di2**N) / ]

= [ (0.12*997.1*8.33) 0.000904 ]

= 91915.56
(ZL/DT)1/2

= (0.38/0.19)1/2

(Fr/Re)1/6

= (0.71/91915.56)1/6 = 0.141

= 1.414

= (8.33*13.59) / [0.141*1.414]
= 113.205 / 0.199

k500

= 569.64

DISCUSSION
The mixing of large quantities of two or more substances to create a
homogeneous mixture is a common and necessary occurrence in many
industries, as such efficient and effective mixing is required. The factors
that contribute to mixing include the differences and/or similarities between
the substances densities, viscosities, the quantity being mixed and how
the substances are mixed. In this experiment we just examine two of the
how in mixing the type of impellers used to mix and the speed of the
impellers and how they affect the power required and the time taken to
mix. In this experiment water and a solution of potassium chloride were
used and this produces a homogenous mixture. The vessel and
components were kept constant and the impeller and motor speed were
varied.

Power Consumption
Firstly, the power consumption was examined. Graph 1 See Appendix
show that for all three impellers as their speeds increases so does the
power they used. This is expected because, as the speed increases, more
work must be done by the motor and therefore more power is utilized. It
also shows that the flat paddle impeller required more power than the
other two. For the 6-blade and propeller, for speeds 100 RPM up to
400RPM the power is almost the same. After speeds of 500RPM, the
power require by the 6-blade and the propeller increases more
significantly than at the lower speed, the 6-blade also required more power
than the propeller.
In taking the reading for the 6-blade and the propeller, the power meter
was fluctuating just around the recorded values. This was a source of
error. A more sensitive and/or a digital power meter could have given
more accurate values so any differences would have shown.

DISCUSSION
Mixing Times
Secondly, the mixing time was examined. Graph 2 see Appendix for
the 6-blade and propeller shows that as the speed increases, the mixing
time decreases. The 6-blade impeller has a quicker mixing time than the
propeller. This is expected, as the higher speeds create more turbulence
and this accelerates mixing. The results for the flat paddle do not agree
with this, it shows that the mixing time increases with increasing mixing
speed.
This is obviously as a result of errors in carrying out the experiment. The
mixing time was taken as the length of time for the conductivity of the tank
to become stable after addition of the KCl sample. It was observed that the
conductivity readings would change then remain at a constant for a few
seconds and then being change again until it became constant again and
this time it remained constant. It was found that the time taken for the
conductivity to remain constant was approximately the same, so it was
decided to take the time when the conductivity initially remained constant;
however this was extremely difficult to determine. This difficulty would
explain the somewhat erratic results obtained for the mixing times.

K, a and k
The relationship between power and mixing speed was given by the
correlation:
(Power Number) = K (Reynolds Number) a
Taking log of this equation allows for the values of K and a to be found
from the y-intercept and gradient of a plot of lg(Power Number) versus
lg(Reynolds Number) as seen in Graph 3 of the appendix. It was found
that as a decreased, K increased with the flat paddle having the highest
value of a and the propeller had the lowest.
Using the Fox-Gex equation, k for each impeller was determined. Looking
at the k values obtained, see Tables 5, 7 and 9 in Appendix it could be
said that for each impeller, as pump speed increases so does k

RECOMMENDATIONS

The experiment could be improved by further repetition and using


of average values.

Digital, more sensitive power meter to record armature current %

Better method of checking mixing time needed Could use a salt


that would give a highly endothermic or exothermic reaction and
use digital thermometer with probe properly placed to check for
temperature change, temperature would increase or decrease at
end of reaction indicating complete mixing.

CONCLUSION
It was found that:
i. As motor speed increases, the power consumption increases
ii. The flat paddle used the most power while the propeller the least
iii. As motor speed increases, the mixing time increases
iv. It could not be determined with impeller gave the shortest mixing time
due to errors associated with checking the mixing time.

APPENDIX
Flat Paddle Impeller
Table 4 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller

PART A - Power Consumption


Speed, RPM
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

Armature
Current, %
6
7
8
9
11
12
14
16
19

N=RMP/60,
rps
1.67
2.50
3.33
4.17
5.00
5.83
6.67
7.50
8.33

=2N,
rad/s
10.47
15.70
20.93
26.17
31.40
36.63
41.87
47.10
52.33

Power P, W
0.45
0.79
1.20
1.68
2.47
3.14
4.19
5.38
7.10

Power
Number
9.72
5.04
3.24
2.33
1.98
1.59
1.42
1.28
1.23

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

18383.11
27574.67
36766.22
45957.78
55149.34
64340.89
73532.45
82724.00
91915.56

0.99
0.70
0.51
0.37
0.30
0.20
0.15
0.11
0.09

4.26
4.44
4.57
4.66
4.74
4.81
4.87
4.92
4.96

Table 5 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Flat Paddle Impeller

Speed, RPM
500
300
200

t1
12.73
13.28
11.19

t2
14.44
12.8
11.8

= (t1+t2)/2
13.59
13.04
11.50

Fr
0.71
0.25
0.11

Re
91915.56
55149.34
36766.22

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6
0.141
0.129
0.121

k
569.64
357.23
224.61

APPENDIX
6 Blade Impeller
Table 6 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller

Speed, RPM
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700

Armature
Current, %
5
5.5
6
6
7
7
8
9
9
11
12

N=RMP/60,
rps
1.67
2.50
3.33
4.17
5.00
5.83
6.67
7.50
8.33
10.00
11.67

=2N,
rad/s
10.47
15.70
20.93
26.17
31.40
36.63
41.87
47.10
52.33
62.80
73.27

Power P, W
0.37
0.62
0.90
1.12
1.57
1.83
2.39
3.03
3.36
4.93
6.28

Power
Number
75.42
36.87
22.63
14.48
11.73
8.62
7.54
6.70
5.43
4.61
3.69

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

7529.72
11294.58
15059.45
18824.31
22589.17
26354.03
30118.89
33883.75
37648.61
45178.34
52708.06

1.877
1.57
1.35
1.16
1.07
0.94
0.88
0.83
0.73
0.66
0.57

3.877
4.05
4.18
4.27
4.35
4.42
4.48
4.53
4.58
4.65
4.72

Table 7 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the 6 - Blade Impeller


Speed, RPM
500
300
200

t1
8.08
9.22
14.00

t2
9.32
10.08
15.73

= (t1+t2)/2
8.70
9.65
14.87

Fr
0.45
0.16
0.07

Re
37648.61
22589.17
15059.45

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6
0.151
0.139
0.130

k
338.65
245.41
269.64

ii

APPENDIX
Propeller Impeller
Table 8 Results of Power Consumption Calculations for the Propeller Impeller

Speed, RPM
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700

Armature
Current, %
5
5.5
6
6
7
7
7.5
8
8
10
11

N=RMP/60,
rps
1.67
2.50
3.33
4.17
5.00
5.83
6.67
7.50
8.33
10.00
11.67

=2N,
rad/s
10.47
15.70
20.93
26.17
31.40
36.63
41.87
47.10
52.33
62.80
73.27

Power P, W
0.37
0.62
0.90
1.12
1.57
1.83
2.24
2.69
2.99
4.49
5.76

Power
Number
64.66
31.61
19.40
12.42
10.06
7.39
6.06
5.11
4.14
3.59
2.90

Re

lg [Power Num]

lg [Re Num]

8007.68
12011.53
16015.37
20019.21
24023.05
28026.89
32030.73
36034.58
40038.42
48046.10
56053.79

1.81
1.50
1.29
1.09
1.00
0.87
0.78
0.71
0.62
0.56
0.46

3.90
4.08
4.20
4.30
4.38
4.45
4.51
4.56
4.60
4.68
4.75

Table 9 Results of Mixing Time Calculations for the Propeller Impeller


Speed, RPM
500
300
200

t1
9.29
11.29
11.13

t2
9.17
11.96
13.98

= (t1+t2)/2
9.23
11.63
12.56

Fr
0.47
0.17
0.07

Re
40038.42
24023.05
16015.37

[ Fr/Re ] 1/6
0.151
0.138
0.129

k
361.13
297.16
228.91

iii

APPENDIX
Graph 1

Power, W

Comparison of Power Consumption for Different Impellers


7

0
0

100

Flat Paddle

200
6-Blade

300
Propeller

400

500

600

700

Impeller Speed, RPM

Graph 1 Comparison of Power Consumption for the Different Impellers

iv

APPENDIX

lg Power Number

Graph 2
Changes in Power Number with Increasing Reynolds Number
2.40
2.20
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20

y = -1.5457x + 7.8193

y = -1.6136x + 8.0733

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40

y = -1.2953x + 6.457
0.20
0.00
3.50
-0.20
Propeller

4.00
6-Blade

Flat Paddle

4.50

5.00

5.50

lg Reynolds Number

Graph 2 Changes in lg Power Number with Increasing lg Reynolds Number for Each Impeller

APPENDIX

Mixing Times, sec

Graph 3
Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Impellers
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
100
Flat Paddle

200
6-Blade

300
Propeller

400

500

600

Impeller Speed, RPM

Graph 3 Comparison of Mixing Times for Different Speeds for Each Impeller

vi