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ACS800

Learning Guide Drive dimensioning for cranes

Tcont.hoist =

(m0 + mL ) g v mech

Tacc

2 1 v = (Jm + Joth ) + (m 0 + mL ) t acc mech

ABB

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Frequency converters ACS800 with Direct Torque Control can easily be used on demanding applications as cranes. In this document we give some hints for selecting motors and drives, taking into account some specific requirements on hoists and travel motions. We consider as well new overhead traveling cranes as refurbishing jobs. When using this document, actual drives and motors performances and compatibility must be checked with suppliers latest information. Feedback and comments about this dimensioning document can be sent to: frans.busschots@be.abb.com mikael.holmberg@fi.abb.com

Frans Busschots, BE-ABB

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ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Dimensioning theory motor basics Crane basics Motor choice, ACS800 Drive and brake resistor sizing

Example

Tools

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Content (1)

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Sheet

1 Introduction 2 General condition of a dimensioning procedure 3 Induction motor (AC) fundamentals 3.1 Torque / speed diagram with direct on line start 3.2 Torque / speed diagram with frequency converter 3.3 Maximum motor torque with frequency converter 3.4 Continuous motor torque with inverter 3.5 Rated motor torque / maximum motor torque 3.6 Relation power and torque 3.7 Relation power and torque: example 3.8 Operation in four quadrants (hoist) 3.9 Operation in four quadrants (long and cross travel) 3.10 Duty factor uprating 3.11 Duty factor uprating: example 3.12 Motor derating with ACS 800 and standard motors 3.13 Motor ambient conditions 3.14 Maximum motor speed 3.15 Motor with reinforced insulation and/or insulated N-bearing 3.16 Motor in DELTA connection at 87 Hz (230 V/ 400V) 3.17 Motors 400 V / 690 V

8 10

11 12 13 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29

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Content (2)

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Sheet

4 Crane basics 4.1 Hoist 4.1.1 Torque and power needed to hoist a load at constant speed 4.1.2 Torque needed to lower a load at constant speed 4.1.3 Torque and power needed to accelerate/ decelerate a load 4.1.4 Total torque needed on a hoist drive 4.1.5 Maximum power needed on a hoist drive 4.1.6 Maximum braking power needed on a hoist drive 4.2 Gantry/trolley travel Long/cross travel 4.2.1 Torque and power needed to move a crane at constant speed 4.2.2 Acceleration torque from 0 to maximum speed 4.2.3 Maximum torque needed on a travel drive 4.2.4 Maximum power needed on a travel drive 4.2.5 Total braking torque/power needed on a travel drive 5 Particular cases 5.1 Motors in parallel 6 Motor choice 6.1 Hoist 6.2 Travel motions 41 37 30

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Content (3)

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7 Drive sizing Hoist and travel 7.1 Drive module 7.2 Brake chopper / resistor sizing for a hoist 7.2.1 Continuous braking power 7.2.2 Peak braking power 7.3 Brake chopper / resistor sizing for travel motions 7.3.1 Travel indoors 7.3.2 Travel outdoors with wind 7.4 Brake chopper sizing 7.5 Brake resistor sizing 7.6 Regenerative drive 7.7 Common DC-Bus 8 Redundant drives 9 Crane refurbishing 9.1 Total revamp 9.2 Partial revamp 9.3 Dimensioning replacement drives 9.3.1 Replacing DC-motors 9.3.2 Slipring motors 10 Crane Control 11 Examples (draft) 11.1 Hoist 11.2 Travel

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51 52

56 57

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Content (4)

Drive dimensioning for cranes

12 Examples Motor and drive choice 13 Tools 13.1 Excel sheet for hoist 13.2 Excel sheet for travel

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1 Introduction

Drive dimensioning for cranes

E.O.T. Crane Electrical Overhead Traveling Crane

Capacity typical 10 350 Tons Mostly used indoors Frequently used in power plants / paper and metals industry / waste handling

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1 Introduction

Drive dimensioning for cranes

An E.O.T. Crane has 3 motions: Hoist: hook up and down Cross travel (= short travel): trolley movement Long travel (= crane travel): gantry movement Sometimes there is an auxiliary hoist on a second trolley for tilting purposes, or an auxiliary hook to handle smaller loads at higher speed Some cranes have 2 identical hooks on 2 separate trolleys to handle long products or a special hook with master/follower in synchro control

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

2 General condition of a dimensioning procedure


1. Check the initial conditions of the network and the load 2. Choose a motor according to: a. thermal loadability b. speed range c. maximum needed torque 3. Choose a drive according to a. continuous and maximum current b. network conditions c. braking requirements

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.1 Torque / speed diagram with direct on line start

Maximum torque

Thermally dimensioned working point

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.2 Torque / speed diagram with frequency converter
Power Max mot Torque x 0,7 % 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Frequency (Hz) V constant field weakening Rated motor torque

V/Hz constant

Motor flux depends on V/Hz ratio: From 0 Hz to rated motor frequency (typical 50 Hz), V/Hz ratio can be kept constant If V/Hz ratio is kept constant, flux is constant Motor torque is constant Motor power goes up with increasing speed Above rated motor frequency (typical 50 Hz), supply voltage normally corresponds to rated motor voltage and can not be increased to follow the increasing frequency: So V/Hz ratio will diminish, and flux goes down with increasing freq. (field weakening) Motor torque decreases with increasing freq, power is constant in this range

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.3 Maximum motor torque with a frequency converter:
3.3.1 Below nominal frequency (typically 0 to 50 Hz): To have a safety margin, the maximum design torque should be 70% of maximum torque

TMAX Design = 0.7 x TMAX /TN


Typical values for TMAX /TN for squirrel cage motors: 2.5 to 3.0

3.3.2 In field weakening area (typically 50 Hz to FMAX): Maximum motor torque decreases with the square of the frequency ratio:

TMAX = TMAX

50 Hz /TN

x (50 Hz / FMAX )

maximum design torque should be only 70 %:

TMAX Design = 0.7 x TMAX /TN x (50 Hz / FMAX )


e.g. at 100 Hz:

TMAX Design = 0.7 x TMAX /TN x 1/4


At double frequency, maximum torque is divided by four!!!!

3.4 Continuous motor torque with a frequency converter:


see 3.12 Motor derating

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.5 Rated motor torque / maximum motor torque 3.5.1 Motor catalogue

Motor M3BP 280 SMB P: 90 kW Speed: 1483 rpm Tn = Nominal (rated) torque: 580 Nm Maximum torque (also called breakdown torque): TMAX/TN = 2.7 , so TMAX 580 x 2.7 Nm = 1566 Nm

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.5.2 Below nominal frequency (0 to typically 50 Hz):
maximum design torque should be T = 0.7 x TMAX / TN T = 580 x 2.7 x 0.7 = 1096 Nm

3.5.3 Above nominal frequency (50 Hz to ....Hz):


e.g. at 100 Hz : T = 0.7 x TMAX /TN x (50 Hz / 100 Hz) = 0.7 x 580 x 2.7 / 4 Nm T = 274 Nm In the field weakening range, the motor power is expected te be constant, but the maximum available motor torque will be the limiting factor!! Motor rated power is 90 kw BUT: maximum available torque is only 274 Nm, Maximum motor power: P = T x n / 9550 = 274 x 3000 / 9550 = 86 kW, overload included (instead 90 kW with 150% overload in heavy duty)
Power Rated motor torque Maximum Motor Torque x 0,7 250 200 150 100 50

290 Nm (90 kW) 274 Nm (86 kW)

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Frequency

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.6 Relation power and torque
Relation Power Torque (on same shaft):

T =
T=

Nm

with

2 *n (rad/s) 60

P * 9550 Nm n

Or:

P=T*

P =

T * n Nm 9550

Important note: always consider torque and power on same shaft, e.g. after a gearbox torque can be enormous at very low speed

Definitions:
F P T v Force(N) Power (w) Torque (Nm) Velocity of the load (m/s) Efficiency Angular velocity (rad/s) (rpm) Motor shaft speed

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.7 Relation power and torque: example
motor M3BP 315 SMC-6, 110 kW, 991 rpm

rated torque: Tn =

110* 9550 P * 9550 Nm = Nm = 1060 Nm n 991

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.8 Operation in four quadrants (hoist)
Speed

Up

Acc I

Dec II

Down

Acc III

Dec IV

Time

T Deceleration when lowering IV I Acceleration when hoisting

Braking III II

Driving n

Acceleration when lowering

Driving

Braking

Deceleration when hoisting

With a suspended load on the hook, braking is also necessary during a normal lowering of the load at steady speed !!! Maximum braking torque is needed at the end of the lowering!

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.9 Operation in four quadrants (long and cross travel) 3.9.1 Travel movement without wind
Speed

Forward

Acc I

Dec II

Backwards

Acc III
T

Dec IV

Time

Deceleration backwards IV I Acceleration forwards

Braking III II

Driving n

Acceleration backwards

Driving

Braking

Deceleration forwards

Only braking power needed during deceleration (forwards and backwards)

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.9.2 Travel movement with wind
When wind is blowing in opposite direction as the crane is moving, a lot of pressure can be built up on the crane surface (e.g. 250 Nm/m!!): this effect gives an extra load torque: acceleration will be more difficult!! The wind torque can drive the crane by itself: after releasing the brakes the full motor torque must be immediately available to prevent the crane rushing in the wrong direction (safety !!) When wind is blowing in the same direction as the crane is moving, the wind torque can drive the crane by itself: after releasing the brakes the full motor torque must be immediately available to prevent the crane to go in overspeed (safety !!) (The situation can be compared with a hoist during lowering!)

Maximum braking torque is needed to stop the crane. Attention when using braking resistors: a lot of energy must be evacuated during total travelling time, not only at stopping the crane At maximum wind force (above the safe working limit), it must be possible to drive the crane to a safety position where the crane can be mechanically blocked to the rails.

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.10 Duty factor uprating
On a crane not all motors are fully loaded all time. During a time lapse at no load or at standstill, the motor temperature can cool down, so the average temperature will be lower as compared to a motor that runs at full load continuously (S1). In some cases a smaller motor can be chosen, but dont forget too take into consideration that there is less cooling at low speed. See next pages. The duty cycle can be very different for the different crane movements. E.g. After a hoist movement to pick up a load the crane must travel to another point before the load will be lowered.

Important note:
Duty factor uprating concerns only motor temperature rise, a smaller motor has a lower breakdown torque: to be checked!! The table below (ABB motors) can be different for different motor manufacturers.
Intermittent duty, S3 Permitted output as % of rated output in S1 for motor size: (ABB) 56-100 112-250 280-450 115 145 140 140 145 140 140 140 140 110 130 130 130 130 130 135 125 130 110 110 120 120 110 120 125 108 120 105 107 110 110 107 110 115 105 110

Poles

15%

25%

40%

60%

2 4 6 -8 2 4 6 -8 2 4 6 -8 2 4 6 -8

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.11 Duty factor uprating: example
Continuous motor power needed, based on the dimensioning calculation: 48 kW, 1480 rpm Normal motor choice: 55 kW But, hoist motion Duty Factor is estimated: S3 60% We can check the smaller motor: M3BP 225SMC-4, 45 kW In the table on page 20 we find the Uprating factor for shaft height 225: 107% so motor M3BP 225SMB-4, 45 kW can be used for 45 x 1.07 = 48.15 kW No need to use bigger motor.

Intermittent duty, S3

Poles

15%

25%

40%

60%

2 4 6-8 2 4 6-8 2 4 6-8 2 4 6-8

Permitted output as % of rated output in S1 for motor size: 56-100 112-250 280-450 115 145 140 140 145 140 140 140 140 110 130 130 130 130 130 135 125 130 110 110 120 120 110 120 125 108 120 105 107 110 110 107 110 115 105 110

107 %

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.12 Motor derating with ACS 800 and standard motors

T/Tn
110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Temperature rise Class B Separate cooling Class F temperature rise used for Class B motor

Relative speed

Important notes:
Dont choose lowest point of speed range at ZERO speed: Every crane starts at ZERO speed, but normally the lowest speed is only used for a short time. A hoist is a constant torque application, so, if zero speed is chosen as a working point, the derating result will be exaggerated. ADVICE: try to estimate the average motor speed during a cycle and consider also the duty cycle as shown on page 20. If not specified by the end-user and when ambient temperature is normal, class F temperature rise can be used. But dont forget: a motor winding temperature increase of 10K will divide expected lifetime by factor 2

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.13 Motor ambient conditions
Normal rules about ambient motor conditions must be considered. EOT cranes can be in very difficult situation: always close to the roof: heat built up sometimes above furnaces or hot coil or slabs: heat radiation moisture and dirt in metallurgy: avoid dirt in cooling air

Ambient temperature C 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 80

Permitted output % of rated output 107 100 96,5 93 90 86,5 79 70

Height above see level m 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

Permitted output % of rated output 100 96 92 88 84 80 76

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.14 Maximum motor speed
When a motor is connected to a drive, the output frequency can be set above 50 Hz (field weakening area) As seen on page XXX the maximum available motor torque decreases sharply, but also mechanical factors must be considered when using motors above rated speed: - centrifugal forces on the rotor - bearing lubrication - noise of motor fan (when no forced ventilation is used) The table below indicates max. motor speed for standard motors without special arrangements, for all individual cases the motor manufacturer must be consulted.

Frame Size ABB motor


80 - 90 - 100 112 - 132 - 160 -200 225 - 250 -280 315 (2p) 315 (4-12p) 355 - 400 (2p) 355 - 400 (4-12p)

Max speed (rpm)


6000 4500 3600 3600 3000 3600 2500

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.15 Motor with reinforced insulation and/or insulated N-bearing

Motor nominal power PN or frame size PN < 100 kW PN 100 kW or IEC 315 UN 500 V Standard motor Standard motor + Insulated N-bearing Standard motor + dU/dt filter + Insulated N-bearing OR Reinforced insulation + Insulated N-bearing

PN 350 kW or IEC 400 Standard motor + Insulated N-bearing + Common mode filter Standard motor + Insulated N-bearing + dU/dt -filter + Common mode filter OR Reinforced insulation + Insulated N-bearing + Common mode filter Reinforced insulation + Insulated N-bearing + dU/dt -filter + Common mode filter

UN 600 V

Standard motor + dU/dt - filter OR Reinforced insulation

UN 690 V

Reinforced insulation + dU/dt - filter

Reinforced insulation + dU/dt - filter + Insulated N-bearing

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.16 Motor in DELTA connection at 87 Hz (230 V/ 400V)

A 3 phase motor designed 230 V/400 V, 50 Hz has all six leads connected to a terminal box. Y or : depends on line voltage available Y : for line supply 3 x 400 V, 50 Hz : for line supply 3 x 230 V, 50 Hz In configuration the V/Hz ratio is 230/50. When we connect this motor to a drive with supply voltage 230V, field weakening starts around 50 Hz. But if we connect this motor to a drive with supply voltage 400V, field weakening starts around 87 Hz, what means that between 50 and 87 Hz this motor can deliver the same torque as below 50Hz.
Power Rated motor torque Motor voltage

Motor 400V, 87 Hz, D


400 350 300
Voltage

87 Hz corresponds with 400V

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

50 Hz corresponds with 230V

80

90 100

Frequency

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


Summary: Nominal voltage Nominal frequency Nominal current Nominal power Nominal speed old rating plate 3 x 400 V, Y 50 Hz 11,5 A 11 kW 2930 rpm new rating plate 3 x 400 V, 87 Hz 20 A 19 kW 5125 rpm

With same torque at higher speed, the motor can deliver more power.

Important remarks: 1.When changing the connection from Y to , the motor current is multiplied with 1.73, so a bigger drive is needed!! (corresponding to the new motor power) 2.ID-run parameters in group 99 of the drive must be filled in with the old rating plate data (at 50 Hz). The drive calculates automatically the new field weakening point related to the available DC-voltage.

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3 Induction (AC) motor fundamentals


3.17 Motor 400 V / 690 V Motor nameplate:

When supply voltage is 400 V, this motor must be connected in and it is not possible to use this motor at 87 Hz with constant flux When supply voltage is 690 V, this motor can be connected in Y for normal use: with constant flux till 50 Hz and above 50 Hz in field weakening area: with constant power OR: The motor can be connected in and when supplied by an ACS800 at 690V with constant flux to 87 Hz. Motor power will be 11 kW x 1.73 = 19 kW Speed: synchronous speed: 3000 rpm x 1.73 = 5190 rpm Slip: same (constant flux): 3000 rpm 2930 rpm = 70 rpm Real rated motor speed: 5190 rpm 70 rpm = 5120 rpm

Not 2930 rpm x 1.73 = 5069 rpm, as slip dont increase!

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4 Crane basics
4.1 Hoist 4.1.1 Torque and power needed to hoist a load at constant speed

Tcont.hoist =
or

(m0 + mL ) g v Nm (I) mech


(m 0 + m L ) g v Watt mech

Pcont.hoist =

Definitions: m0 Mass of the lifting system (rope/hook..) which is hoisted with load (kg) mL Mass of the load (kg) + ? overload (see local conditions) g Gravity (9.81 m/s2) v Hoist motion velocity (m/s) mech Mechanical efficiency (typical 0.9) n Motor speed (rpm) 2 n = ( rad / s ) 60

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Speed

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Tcont hoist I Up

Down

Tcont low. IV

Time

4 Crane basics
4.1.2 Torque needed to lower a load at constant speed

Tcont.lower =
or

(m0 + mL ) mech g v

Nm (IV)

Pcont.lower = - (m 0 + mL ) g v mech Watt


This is the continuous braking power !!

Definitions: m0 Mass of the lifting system (rope/hook..) which is hoisted with load (kg) mL Mass of the load (kg) + ? overload (see local conditions) g Gravity (9.81 m/s2) v Hoist motion velocity (m/s) mech Mechanical efficiency (typical 0.9) n Motor speed (rpm)

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Crane basics

Drive dimensioning for cranes

4.1.3 Torque during acceleration and deceleration


Acceleration torque from 0 to maximum speed (hoisting and lowering):
2 1 v = (Jm + Joth ) + (m 0 + mL ) Nm (I-III) t acc mech
2 v = (Jm + Joth ) + mech (m 0 + mL ) t dec
Speed

Tacc

Tdec

Nm (II-IV)

Up Down

Acc I

Dec II Time

Acc III

Dec IV

Definitions: m0 Mass of the lifting system (rope/hook..)


= 2 n (rad / s ) 60

which is hoisted with load (kg) mL Mass of the load (kg) + ? overload (see local conditions) g Gravity (9.81 m/s2) v Hoist motion velocity (m/s) mech Mechanical efficiency (typical 0.9) tacc Acceleration (sec) tdec Deceleration (sec) (ramp) time (ramp) time 2 Jm Motor moment (kgm ) Joth Inertia for other (kgm2) of inertia rotating parts reduced to motor n Motor speed (rpm) shaft

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4 Crane basics

Drive dimensioning for cranes

4.1.4 Total torque needed on a hoist drive TMax = Tcont.hoist + Tacc


(4.1.1 and 4.1.3)

If the deceleration time is shorter then the acceleration time, it is possible that

Tdec > Tacc


Then

TMax = Tcont.hoist + Tdec


Maximum braking torque

(4.1.1 and 4.1.3)

TMax braking = Tcont.lower + Tdec

(4.1.2 and 4.1.3)

Check if fast stop or emergency stop ramp is required! (Braking distance!)

4.1.5 Maximum power needed on a hoist drive

P Max =

T Max * n kW 9550

n: motor speed (rpm)

4.1.6 Maximum braking power needed on a hoist drive

P Max

braking

T Max braking * n kW 9550

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4 Crane basics

Drive dimensioning for cranes

4.2 Gantry/trolley travel Long/cross travel 4.2.1 Torque and power needed to move a crane at constant speed (friction)
4.2.1.1 Torque due to rolling friction:

Tf =

(m 0 + m L ) w f v
mech

Nm

4.2.1.2 Torque due to wind

Tw =

vW mech

Nm

Wind force is given by the wind velocity and the wind area:

W = A wind *

v wind N 1.6

with W = 250 N/m at wind speed 20 m/s

Definitions:
m0 mL wf v W Awind Weight of the crane part which is moved with the gantry (kg) Mass of the load (kg) + ? overload (see local conditions) Friction coefficient (N/kg) 2 n Gantry velocity (m/s) = ( rad / s ) 60 Wind force (N) Wind area (m2) n Motor speed (rpm)

Wheel diameter (mm) Wheel friction

250 0 07

315 0 065

400 0 06

500 0 055

>500 0 05

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4 Crane basics

Drive dimensioning for cranes

(4.2 Gantry/Trolley travel)


4.2.1.3 Total continuous torque (thermal motor load)

Tcont = Tf + Tw (rolling friction + wind)


4.2.2 Acceleration/deceleration torque from 0 to maximum speed

Tacc

2 1 v = (Jm + Joth ) + (m 0 + mL ) t acc mech

Tdec =

t dec

2 v (Jm + Joth ) + mech (m 0 + m L )

Definitions: m0 Mass of the crane / trolley which is moved with the load (kg) mL Mass of the load (kg) + ? overload (see local conditions) v Crane / trolley motion velocity (m/s) mech Mechanical efficiency (typical 0.9) i Gear ratio tacc
tdec Jm Joth

Acceleration

(sec)

2 n ( rad / s ) 60

(ramp) time Deceleration (sec) (ramp) time Motor moment (kgm2) of inertia Inertia for other (kgm2)

motor speed (rpm)

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

4.2.3 Maximum torque needed on a travel drive during acceleration TMax = Tf + Tw + Tacc
(4.2.1.1; 4.2.1.2; 4.2.2)

If the deceleration time is shorter then the acceleration time, it is possible that

Tdec > Tacc


Then check if deceleration with wind in same direction is worst case?

TMax = Tdec + Tw - Tf 4.2.4 Maximum power needed on a travel drive

(4.2.1.1; 4.2.1.2; 4.2.2)

P Max =

T Max * n kW 9550

n: motor speed (rpm)

4.2.5 Total braking torque/power needed on a travel drive


4.2.5.1 Without wind forces

(only during deceleration time) 4.2.5.2 With wind forces during travel in same direction as wind

Tbraking = Tdec - Tf

(4.2.1.1; 4.2.2)

(contiously during travel in same direction as wind) 4.2.5.3 Peak braking power at end of travel in same direction as wind

Tbraking = Tw

(4.2.2)

(peak only during deceleration time)

TPeak braking = Tdec + Tw - Tf

(4.2.1.1; 4.2.1.2; 4.2.2)

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5 Particular cases
5.1 Motors in parallel
All gantry drives and most trolley drives have multimotor configuration. As all this motors are mechanically connected (over the rail) and their load is more or less identical, these motors can be connected as a group to ONE drive or in different groups to more drives in master/slave connection. 5.1.1 Motor dimensioning All basic torque and power calculations on previous pages remain valid, but dont forget to add all motors and couplings inertia together. Finally the needed torque can be divided by the number off motors installed BUT: always check for the worst case scenario E.g. gantry drive: When the trolley is moved to extreme left or right position on the crane, the weight of the trolley and the load will be very asymmetrical for the gantry motors. This can be seen when comparing the reaction forces on the gantry wheels (info from crane maufacturer)

M1

M2

M1

M2

Short travel

Short travel

M3

M4

M3

M4

Rail A Long travel

Rail B

Rail A Long travel

Rail B

E.g. gantry weight : 100 ton, trolley 30 ton, load 40 ton Equally distributed load: left side 50 + 35 ton right side 50 + 35 ton:

85 85 ton

Trolley left position: 80 % of trolley + load extra to the left side: 50 + 56 ton load to the right side: 50 + 14 ton: 106 56 ton So 25 % more load on motors M1 and M3 The motor choice (max. torque) must be based on this worst case load

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Drive dimensioning for cranes

5 Particular cases
5.1.2 Drive dimensioning 5.1.2.1 One single drive
When only 1 drive will feed all motors, the current absorbed by each motor will be related to the (electrical) slip of this motor (slip is related to the load). When some motors are loaded less because load is asymmetrical, the other motors will be loaded less, so total current will be the same as presumed in the calculations. Extra hint: When connecting motors in parallel to 1 drive, always consider the sum of the maximum motor currents to choose the appropriate drive and never motor powers, as the sum of the magnetizing currents of a number of smaller motors is bigger than for 1 bigger motor. (These effect increases with increasing motor pole pairs.) E.g. 4 pcs motors M3BP 225 SMB-8, 22 kW, 730 rpm, 400 V, 45 A. Total current 4 * 45 A = 180 A Compared to a motor M3BP 315 SMC-8, 90 kW, 741 rpm, 400 V, 167 A. Motor powers mentioned in the drive catalogue normally refer to 4p motors: Motor M3BP 280 SMB-4, 90 kW, 1483 rpm, 400 V, 159 A so 13% difference

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 38 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

5.1.2.2 Drives in Master/Slave connection


For each group of motors the worst case scenario must be considered: When connecting all motors from one side of the gantry together (M1-M3 and M2-M4), load can be asymmetrical and drives must be upgraded accordingly. Not only the position of the cross travel, but also the structure of the crane can give different load.

M1

M2

Short travel

M3

M4

Rail A Long travel

Rail B

When connecting the motors in the front and in the back of the gantry together (M1-M2 and M3M4), there is no influence from the trolley position, only the crane structure can cause a (permanent) load difference. Master alone can also move the crane. Attention for braking distance.

M1

M2

Short travel

M3

M4

Rail A Long travel

Rail B

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 39 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

5.1.2.2 Drives in Master/Slave connection (continuation)


For a good load distribution, a cross connection left/right front/back can also be used Disadvantage: no speed correction left/right possible

M1

M2

Short travel

M3

M4

Rail A Long travel

Rail B

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 40 N of sh 65

ACS800
6 Motor choice
6.1 Hoist

Drive dimensioning for cranes

6.1.1 Thermal motor load


Needed continuous motor torque T: see sh 30 Corrections with: duty factor (uprating) sh 21 speed range (derating) sh 23 ambient conditions sh 24 Continuous motor torque at rated speed: continuous motor power (3.10) (3.12) (3.13) (4.1.1)

P =

T * n Nm 9550

Motor can be chosen in motor catalogue. For a hoist the cont. motor torque is normally the most demanding criterion, but check always the maximum needed motor torque

6.1.2 Maximum motor torque


Needed maximum torque: sh 33 Corrections with: maximum design torque sh 13 (4.1.4) (3.3)

Attention: Once a motor is chosen, all calculations where (estimated) motor inertia is used (acceleration torque!!) most be reconsidered with the exact inertia

6.1.3 Real motor data:


Check motor rated current Calculate motor current corresponding to max. motor torque needed. Consider some saturation effect above rated motor torque (10% e.g.)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 41 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

6.2 Travel motions 6.2.1 Maximum motor torque


Maximum motor torque T needed: see page 36 (4.2.3)

Choose motor according this maximum torque, taking into account the maximum design torque: sh 13 (3.3)

Attention: Once a motor is chosen, all calculations where (estimated) motor inertia is used (acceleration torque!!) most be reconsidered with the real motor inertia For a travel motion (indoor) the maximum torque is normally the most demanding criterion, but checks always the continuous motor power needed. For outdoor cranes the wind load can be considerable, dimensioning with the data for the thermal load are on sh 35: continuous motor torque (4.2.1.3)

Continuous motor torque at rated speed: continuous motor power

P =

T * n Nm 9550

Motor can be chosen in motor catalogue.

6.2.2 Real motor data:


Check motor rated current Calculate motor current corresponding to max. motor torque needed. Consider some saturation effect (10% e.g.)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 42 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7 Drive sizing hoist and travel


7.1 Drive module Choose drive ACS800 according the motor power in heavy duty use (6.3)

heavy duty usemeans:


Maximum drive current during 1 min is 150% of rated HD current.

If max. motor torque needed > 150% (travel!!) a bigger drive must be chosen Max. current needed / 1.5 < I hd (6.3)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 43 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.2 Brake chopper / resistor sizing for a hoist 7.2.1 Continuous braking power:
Speed Braking Power

Up

Hoisting

Down Lowering

Time

Duty cycle: - time for lowering: max. hoisting height / load speed (s) pause: - time for hoisting: max. hoisting height / load speed (s) - time for connecting/disconnecting load to be added to cycle time Remark: if braking continues over 30 seconds, braking is considered continuous and not intermitted.

7.2.2 Peak braking power


At the end of a lowering cycle the deceleration power must be added to the continuous power due to gravity, but this power also decreases at decreasing speed.

PMaxbraking =

TMaxbraking* n kW 9550
Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

(4.16)
Sheet 44 N of sh 65

ABB

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.3 Brake chopper / resistor sizing for travel 7.3.1 Travel indoors

Speed

Braking Power

Left
Dec De c

Right

Time

Duty cycle: - deceleration time left + deceleration time right pause: - time for traveling left and right - time for connecting/disconnecting load to be added to cycle time (no load) Braking power decrease with decreasing speed: triangular load with short duty cycle

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 45 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.3.2 Travel outdoors with wind


Speed Braking Power
Wind in back Wind in front

Left
Dec De c

Right

Time

Duty cycle: - time for traveling left + deceleration time right + deceleration time left pause: - time for traveling right - time for connecting/disconnecting load to be added to cycle time Braking power is continuous during travel with wind in the back if wind torque is bigger as the resistive torque: the length of the track will be determining the braking resistor capacity.

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 46 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.4 Brake chopper sizing:


Capacity of internal braking chopper (option code +D150) must be checked: (certainly for frames R2 and R3 where the internal braking chopper is standard in all drives.) Pbrcont = Phd . (30 seconds)

Max. continuous braking torque < continuous Pbrcont


If internal chopper is too small: external braking chopper must be added or a bigger drive can be chosen with higher Pbrcont

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 47 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.5 Brake resistor sizing: Parameters to define a braking resistor:


1. Peakpower that the resistor must be able to absorb:

Pmax <

UDC : voltage over resistor during braking = 1.35*UAC *1.2 (1.2: chopper starting voltage)

UDC R

R: resistor value in ohms: a too high value will limit braking power!

Remark: lowest resistor value allowed on brake chopper as mentioned in table (R)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 48 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

2.Power than can be dissipated by heat transfer to the air, taking into account a cycle time, Or: continuous power capacity intermittent power capacity The power capacity of standard resistors in ABB drive table (sheet 48) is normally to small for hoist applications and travel with wind. In order too boost capacity with same resistance value 4 resistors can be put in series / parallel to obtain four times thermal capacity.

R R

R R

Also other combinations are possible or resistors can be purchased from other manufactures, as long as the minimum resistor value is respected.

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 49 N of sh 65

ACS800
7 Drive sizing

Drive dimensioning for cranes

7.6 Regenerative drive 7.7 Common DC-Bus

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 50 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

8 Redundant drives
8.1 For each drive 1 extra drive: full redundant solution. For very critical installations where interruptions in the process can not be allowed, an extra drive can be installed for fast switch-over. 8.2 One drive as back-up for 2 drives with similar kVA. A drive can have 2 parameter sets, so a redundant drive can be switched between 2 movements. E.g. between main and auxiliary hoist, or between long and cross travel 8.3 No extra drives installed but switching between movements for alternative movements of the crane.

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 51 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

9 Crane refurbishing
The metal structure of a crane has a longer lifetime as the electric and electronic components, so after some years a crane can be modernized.

9.1 Total revamp:


All motors/drives will be replaced

9.2 Partial revamp:


In case of existing AC slipring or AC squirrel cage motors, these motors can sometimes be reused after cleaning and/or adaptations. New drives will be added.

9.3 Dimensioning replacement drives


Motor and drive dimensioning is the same as shown in previous pages, but often it is difficult to find the old files with the original design criteria. In that case the dimensioning must be based on the specifications of the existing motors and drives. 9.3.1 Replacing DC-motors Try to find out what was max. overload allowed: 160% or 200% (?) and check field weakening range, this can be higher than allowed for AC motors. Motor base speed is normally not a standard synchronous speed.

Important remark: 9.3.1.1 When choosing an AC motor with higher base speed, motor power must be extra derated accordingly the speed difference. 9.3.1.2 When choosing an AC motor with lower base speed, motor power is constant in the field weakening area, but then max. speed must be checked. 9.3.1.3 DC-motors can have a wide field-weaking range. When replacing by AC-solution, dont forget the limitations by the maximum motor torque at higher frequencies. 3.2.2 (sh 12)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 52 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

9 Crane refurbishing
9.3.2 Slipring motors
Some basic information: Slipring motors can have high pull-out torque compared to squirrel cage motors. This is never mentioned on the motor rating plate. Other places where this data can be found: motor manufacturer (motor serial number!) original motor catalogue from date of purchase of the motor original file about the crane (delivered by crane manufacturer, often kept in the mechanical maintenance department TMAX /TN : 4-5.5 is possible Table ABB HXS slipring motors:

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 53 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

9 Crane refurbishing
9.3.2 Slipring motors
Some basic information (continuing): By changing rotor resistance maximum torque is available from start to rated speed
T R2E

Definitions:
4 TL T TL n nSn R2E 1-4 n Motor torque Load torque Motor speed Rated synchronous speed External rotor resistance Load points

2 3

nsn

This high starting torque is not well controlled. When nearly no torque is needed (at no load conditions e.g.) the crane moves not gently but whit shocks at start.

Important remark:
1. Slip ring motors are typically rotor critical and originally designed for speed control in the area 70-100 % of rated speed. With a drive the peed range goes to 0%. But lower speeds are critical from loadability point of view 2. The choice of a slipring motor was normally based on the thermal load of the motor, taking into account: duty cycle the number of starts per hour: every start causes an inrush current independent from the actual load. This current causes heat:
resistance x ( current )

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 54 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

9 Crane refurbishing
9.3.2 Slipring motors
Some basic information (continuing):
after choosing a motor a final check was made to see if the maximum motor torque of this motor was sufficient also for the worst case in the working cycle: e.g. starting torque with full load against the wind!

2 situations possible: 1. maximum motor torque is too small: a bigger motor will be chosen 2. maximum motor torque is sufficient: motor choice is OK, but the full motor torque will never be needed After e.g. 25 years it will be very difficult to find out the real need. An oversized motor and drive will not cause problems for the crane behavior as the motor torque will be adapted by the drive to the real need. Only When connecting slipring motors to a drive, the rotor circuit must be short-circuited: external in connection box but: slipring and brushes remain in service and continue to wear internally on rotor itself motor must be opened and rotor must be dynamically rebalanced on a hoist drive: encoder must be added on motor shaft when re-using existing motors the use of du/dt filters is recommended to decrease the voltage stress on the motor insulation

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 55 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

9 Crane Control ACS 800


(more doc to follow)

Uline

UDC

Uout

brake resistor ACS800-Crane Control 0x Rectifier L1 Supply L2 L3 L DC link + C Ud V6 V2 Inverter V1 V3 V5 U1 V1 W1 brake ctrl encoder speed ethernet ,internet PC Motor M3~

V4 RMIO motor and application ctrl

Control Electronics control, monitoring and communication PLC fieldbus stand-alone I/O follower control , DDCS

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 56 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

11 Examples (draft)
11.1 Hoist 11.1.1 Torque and power needed to hoist a load at constant speed

T cont.hoist

( 780 + 19800 ) 9,8 0,417 102,6 0,929

= 882 Nm

or

Pcont.hoist =

(780 + 19800) 9,81 0,417 0,929

= 90 600 Watt

2 9 80 Values: = = 102.6 m0 780 (kg) 60 mL 18 000 (kg) + overload 10% = 19 800 kg g 9.81 m/s2 v 25 m/min= 0.417 (m/s) mech 0.929

11.1.2 Torque needed to lower a load at constant speed

Tcont.lower =
or

(580 + 20000) 0,929 9,81 0,417 = 762 Nm 102,6

Pcont.lower = - (580 + 20000) 9,81 0,417 0;929 = -78 210 Watt


Continuous braking power during lowering: 78.2 kW

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 57 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

11 Examples (draft)
11.1.3 Torque and power needed to accelerate/ decelerate a load
Acceleration torque from 0 to maximum speed (hoisting and lowering):

Tacc

102.6 = 1.94

2 1 0.417 7.44 + (20580 ) = 413 Nm 0.929 102.6

Tdec

102.6 = 1.94

2 0.417 7.44 + 0 .929 (20580 ) = 410 Nm 102.6

Definitions: m0 780 kg mL 18 000 (kg) + overload 10%= 19 800 kg g 9.81 m/s2 v 25 m/min= 0.417 (m/s) 2 980 = mech 0.929 60 i Gear ratio tacc 1.94 (sec) tdec 1.94 (sec) Jm 4.1 kgm2 Joth 3.34 kgm2

= 102.6

11.1.4 Total torque needed on a hoist drive TMax = 882 Nm + 413 Nm = 1295 Nm 11.1.5 Maximum power needed on a hoist drive 1295 * 980 P Max = kW = 133 kW 9550

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 58 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

11 Examples (draft)
Maximum braking torque TMax braking = 762 Nm + 410 Nm
(4.1.2 and 4.1.3)

11.1.6 Maximum braking power needed on a hoist drive

P Max

braking

1172 * 980 kW 9550

P Max braking = 120.3 kW

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 59 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

11 Examples (draft)
11.2 Gantry travel
4.2.1 Torque and power needed to move a crane at constant speed (friction) 4.2.1.1 Steady state torque, due to rolling friction:

Tf =

(79000 ) 0.05 1.67


155 0.96

= 44

Nm

4.2.1.2 Torque due to wind

Tw =

1.6712500 = 140 155 0.96

Nm

Values:
m0 59 000 kg mL 20 000 kg 0.05 N/kg wf v 1.67 m/s W 25 000 N Wheel diameter 710 mm number of motors: 2

2 1480 60

= 155

Wheel diameter (mm) Wheel friction Wf (N/kg)

250 0,07

315 0,065

400 0,06

500 0,055

>500 0,05

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 60 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

11 Examples (draft)
11.2.2 Acceleration/deceleration torque from 0 to maximum speed

Tacc

2 155 1 1.67 = (0.11 ) + (79000 ) 5.5 0.96 155

Tdec =

t dec

2 v (Jm + Joth ) + mech (m 0 + m L )

Values:
m0 mL v 59 000 kg 20 000 kg 1.67 m/s mech 0.96 tacc 5.6 sec tdec 5.6 sec Jm 0.05 kgm2 Joth 0.06 kgm2 number of motors: 2

2 1480 60

= 155

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 61 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

12 Examples: motor and drive choice


12.1.1 Thermal motor load
Needed continuous motor torque: hoist: 882 Nm travel: sh 25 corrections with: duty factor (uprating) 60%: 1.07 speed range (derating) average speed 50%: 0.95 ambient conditions 40C: 1 corrected motor torque: 882 Nm / 1.07 /0.95 / 1 = 868 Nm P= M*N/9550= 868 * 980 / 9550 = 89 kW Motor choice: 90 kW, 992 rpm, 866 Nm, 163 A, Tmax/Tn 2.8 (10.9) (3.10) (3.11) (4.1.1) (4.2.1.1) or (4.2.1.2)

12.1.2 Maximum motor torque


hoist: 1295 Nm (4.1.4) Available on chosen motor: 866 *2.8*0.7=1697 Nm OK travel: sh 27 (4.2.3)

12.1.3 Final motor choice:


M3BP 315 SMB6, 90 kW, 992 rpm, 400V, 163A, 866 Nm, 4.1 kgm motor current corresponding to max. motor torque needed : 163 *1295 / 866= 243 A

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 62 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

12 Examples: motor and drive choice


12.2.1 Single drive choice
Choose drive ACS800 according the motor power in heavy duty use 90 kw HD : ACS800-01-0135-3 (R6), 163 A Max current 1 min/ 5 min: 163A *1.5 = 244 A This is very close to what is calculated. Taking into account some current saturation effect in the motor, better choice is next module: 110 kw HD : ACS800-01-0165-3 (R6), 215 A Max current 1 min/ 5 min: 215A *1.5 = 244 A Braking chopper in module: PBrcont = 132 kW , minimum resistance: 2.7 ohm (6.3)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 63 N of sh 65

ACS800

Drive dimensioning for cranes

12 Examples: motor and drive choice


12.2.2 Brake chopper / resistor sizing
Braking cycle needed: Hook path: 15 m, speed: 25 m/min, max. cycle: 25 sec total cycle time estimated: 60 sec Cont. braking power needed during lowering with short peak at end of lowering: 85 kW This corresponds with a resistor 44 kW permanent use. Braking capacity for standard resistor: 13.5 kW cont not sufficient, but OK when connecting 4 pcs in series parallel (same total resistance, power times 4)

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 64 N of sh 65

ACS800
13 Tools

Drive dimensioning for cranes

Excel sheet to convert mechanical crane data to motor torque and power needed 13.1 Excel sheet for hoist:
Drive:
Load/Motor speed: Hoisting speed: Nominal load: +empty mass: Total load: +overload: Max. load: 70,0

Levage 70 T
5 5 68,0 2,0 70,0 m/min m/min tons tons tons tons tons Vmax: 4,7 m/min 720 750 RPM RPM Drum diameter: Number of ropes: Gear ratio 1: Mechanical efficiency: 85 % Motor inertia 5,000 kgm^2 External inertia/motor 2,000 kgm^2 Total inertia/motor 7,07 kgm^2 560 2 mm

CALCULATED POWER & TORQUE REQUIREMENTS:


No load (at Vmax): Nominal load: Max. load : Nom. load acceleration: Max. load acceleration: acceleration: Overload: 1,8 63,1 63,1 85,0 85,0 21,8 kW kW kW kW kW kW kW = = = = = = = 23,0 803,6 803,6 1081,7 1081,7 278,1 Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Static -"-"Dynamic -"-"Static

MOTOR DATA:
Number of poles: Nominal frequency: Number of motors: Max. Frequency: Nmax: Acceleration time: TLmax/Tnrl: Acceleration time 0-max: 8 50 1 50 750 2,00 1,35 2,00 Hz RPM sec. sec. Hz

13.2 Excel sheet for travel


Drive:
Travel speed/Mot. speed: Travelling speed: Weight of load+hook: Weight of gantry/trolley: Total mass: Rolling friction: Wind force:

Chariot
30 30 21,50 13,8 35,3 50 m/min m/min tons tons tons N/ton kN Inclination: Vmax: 30,0 m/min 1000 1000 RPM RPM Gear ratio 1: 263,19 Mechanical efficiency: Motor inertia External inertia/motor Total inertia/motor 85 0,10 0,05 0,95 % kgm^2 kgm^2 kgm^2 Wheel diameter: 400 mm

CALCULATED POWER & TORQUE REQUIREMENTS:


No load (at Vmax): Nominal load: Max. load(wind etc.) : Nom. load acceleration: Max. load acceleration: acceleration: Wind etc. load: 0,4 1,0 1,0 5,0 5,0 4,0 kW kW kW kW kW kW kW = = = = = = = 3,9 9,9 9,9 48,2 48,2 38,3 Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Static -"-"Dynamic -"-"Static

MOTOR DATA:
Number of poles: Nominal frequency: Number of motors: Max. Frequency: Nmax: Acceleration time: TLmax/Tnrl: Acceleration time 0-max: 6 50 1 50 3,00 4,86 3,00 Hz sec. sec. 1000 RPM Hz

ABB

Rev 1.0.EN 17 April 2008

Sheet 65 N of sh 65