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Temperature danger zone

A good understanding of temperature and temperature monitoring equipment is essential to effective food hygiene. This page is a first look at food related temperatures, how they are measured and what the temperature danger zone is. The following two pages deal with cooling and cooking times and temperatures below zero.

Look at the digital thermometer on the page (and ideally one or two different types from the workplace). Discuss how these work and the difference in the way temperatures are displayed (the digital thermometer gives a reading accurate to two decimal places). How important is this level of accuracy? Note: you may need to discuss what is meant by two decimal places. Discuss what is meant by the danger zone. Why is it called this? What is the danger? What actions might be needed? This is a good opportunity to discuss recommendations and practice from the workplace. Look at the temperature gauges on the learner page and establish whether the readings they show are within the danger zone or not. Show or describe other kinds of temperature gauges to the group. Discuss what is meant by perishable food and ask learners to complete the task. This could be done as a group activity, using realia, if possible. If available, use actual temperature gauges to measure different items in the room, for example, the air in the room, water in a water cooler, water from the hot tap in the bathroom, foods, etc.

Materials
Different kinds of temperature gauge, including analogue and digital instruments, foods to measure where available, OHT of learner page

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To read and compare temperatures related to food, using analogue and digital thermometers. 2 To introduce the concept of the temperature danger zone.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Learners who are used to measuring in Fahrenheit may need an explanation and a comparison between the two different measures. Learners who have difficulty reading the temperature gauges (especially the analogue scales, which are very small) due to visual impairment could be encouraged to use a magnifier. Others may struggle due to a more general difficulty with reading measures, and could benefit from creating a diagram of the gauge in order to establish how it is constructed and which order the numbers go in. Learners may need support with digital readouts and the decimal place issue. Confirm that it is rare to require accuracy to this level in the food industry.

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2:1 Temperature danger zone

Learners who are already familiar with the temperatures covered and methods of measuring them could draw up a chart which covers a wide range of foodstuffs and the temperatures they need to be stored at during different stages (e.g. frozen, defrosting, cooking, waiting to be served).
Curr ref MSS1/L1.4 Standards 2GEN3.4; 2GEN3.3 Key Skills N1.1; C1.2

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Temperature danger zone

Perishable food must be kept out of the temperature danger zone as much as possible. Bacteria and other micro-organisms grow best between 5C and 63C.
110C 105C Water boils

Temperature gauges come in different shapes and sizes and work in different ways. Make sure you understand how to use each one before you use it.

How does a temperature gauge work? A law of nature: if two things are in contact with each other for a long time they will come to have the same temperature. This is how a thermometer is used to measure the temperature of food. Put the thermometer into contact with the food and the thermometer will come to the same temperature as the food.

Re-heat food

Body temperature

Room temperature

20C 15C 10C

On this temperature gauge you must push the spike into the food and press the button. Read the temperature when the figures stop flashing. Is this temperature in the danger zone?

5C 0C 5C 10C Water freezes

Freezer

15C 20C
5

0
FRIDGE

5 10

Perishable food Perishable means likely to go bad. All food perishes in time, but some food does so more quickly, especially if it is untreated. Which of these are perishable foods that must be kept out of the danger zone?
PLAIN
FLOUR

MILK

Dried

This thermometer stays in the fridge unit. You can read the temperature by counting the number of marks past the closest number that the needle is pointing to. Is this temperature in the danger zone?

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Time and temperature

This page looks at the time calculations that are vital to good food hygiene planning. Learners need to be able to tell the time using analogue and digital clocks and to calculate start and finish times. The page links well with the work on temperature: cooking and storing temperatures.

You will also need to work on counting back time, to calculate start times from a given finish time. Count back in chunks of one hour, then half an hour, quarter of an hour, five minutes, then single minutes if necessary. Learners should be encouraged to check their calculation by counting on from their answer, to reach the finish time. In some work places it may be necessary to record time. Discuss how and where times are written. Discuss and explain the different ways of writing time using the 12- and 24-hour clocks. In some work places it may be necessary to record temperature at specific times or at particular stages of processes. Discuss how and where the temperature is written and what the learner should do if the recorded temperature does not meet the required standard. Ask learners to work out the times in the Have a go activity. Talk about the meaning of approximately, and the importance of allowing for leeway in case of delays.

Materials
Range of analogue and digital clocks and watches An analogue clock with moveable hands would be useful

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To calculate periods of time. 2 To reinforce the concept of the temperature danger zone. 3 To plan ahead of time to assure safe food handling.

Go over the temperature danger zone with the group, and ask learners what planning methods are used in their place of work to ensure food is kept out of this zone. Check that learners can tell the time using analogue and digital clocks. You may need to do this using a range of clocks and watches. Also check that learners know how to calculate time, e.g. if the clock says 2:30, what time will it show in 45 minutes? Learners may also need to work on 24-hour time. Go through the examples on the learner page, discussing any issues which arise. This is a good opportunity to discuss issues around defrosting, storing and cooling foods. Work through the time calculations on the analogue clock faces on the page. You may need to use an actual clock and make the hands go around to the correct times. Establish what methods learners use to calculate time. Explain the counting on method as one way to calculate when food should be withdrawn from display. It can be displayed below 63 for up to 2 hours. Its 6.30 now, so it must be removed from display by 6.307.308.30. It can be kept out of chill temperature for up to 4 hours. Its 20 past 8 now, so thats 20 past 9, 20 past 10, 20 past 11, 20 past 12.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Check that the learner knows the basic time facts (e.g. 60 minutes in an hour) and can read the time from analogue and digital clocks. If necessary, give additional support for time at Entry 3 or Level 1, using Skills for Life materials. Encourage the use of the analogue clock as it is easier to calculate time using it than using a digital display (digital clocks/watches/displays are really good for telling the time as it is happening, but are not so easy to use to calculate time). Practise counting forwards and backwards in time by moving the hands of an analogue clock. Explain some clues you can use to make time calculations easier. For example, the day is divided into two twelve-hour sections, so twelve hours before (or after) one in the afternoon is one in the morning; to work out nine hours ahead of time you could add on twelve hours and take away three. The hour is divided into four 15-minute quarters, so an hour and a half is the same as six 15-minute quarters. 8:15 is already one quarter past the hour; if you add three quarters, you get to the next hour (9:00), then add another three quarters to get to 9:45.

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2:2 Time and temperature

It might be useful to develop a crib-sheet of 12and 24-hour time equivalents. Use sticky notes to help time planning: a note for the start time, a note for the finish time, then notes showing the time divisions in between.

Learners who are already skilled at planning times for food hygiene could reinforce this skill by writing a plan for a days food preparation at their place of work, including times for food to be defrosted, chilled, cooled, cooked, etc.
Curr ref MSS1/L1.2 MSS1/L1.3 Standards 2GEN3.4; 2GEN3.3 Key Skills N1.1; C1.2

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Time and temperature

Good food hygiene involves careful planning of time. You must be able to work out times for defrosting food, keeping a hot dish waiting and how long to cool a dish before you can put it into the fridge.
110C 105C 100C 95C 90C 85C 80C 75C 70C 65C 60C 55C 50C 45C 40C 35C 30C 25C 20C 15C 10C 5C 0C 5C 10C 15C 20C D A N G E R Z O N E

Try to cool freshly cooked food within 90 minutes. Thats an hour and a half. This chicken will be ready for the fridge at 2 oclock.

This joint will take 12 hours to defrost thoroughly in a fridge. It will take 2 1 hours to cook. It is 2 needed for a meal at 1 oclock. It must come out of the freezer at least 14 1 hours before 1 oclock. 2

This lasagne can safely be kept warm at 63C for two hours. Food serving time is from 1:45 to 2:30. It is safe to put the lasagne in the food warmer at 12:30.

Have a go 1 You are serving a meal to guests at 8:15 pm. Individual chicken pies will take four hours to defrost and 45 minutes to bake. What time should they come out of the freezer, and what time should they go into the oven?

Its easier to count forwards and backwards in time using an analogue clock. A digital clock makes it easy to tell what the time is and whether it is morning or afternoon.

14:00
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2 You are serving steamed puddings at approximately 9:00 pm. You have a warming area that can safely keep them warm for 30 minutes. What is the best time to have the puddings ready by?

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Module 2 Food storage and treatment

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Frozen food
Reading and calculating negative temperatures can be confusing. This page looks at ways of simplifying and clarifying negative temperatures, as well as the necessity of storing frozen food safely.

Go through the tips to remember about handling frozen food, and discuss why they are important. Relate this to learners workplace situations. Add further tips.

Materials
Dice, OHT version of the learner page

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To learn and follow good practice in frozen food handling. 2 To recognise, read and understand negative temperatures.

Many learners will have difficulty adding and subtracting with and from negative numbers. This may be because addition implies larger whereas 18 + 6 gives 12, and subtract implies smaller whereas 12 to 18 implies larger. Learners will need extensive practice. Make sure learners understand the purpose of learning about negative numbers, and allow learners some time to assimilate the information. It might help to relate the information to their own experience of summer and winter temperatures. Give learners a small counter to move backwards and forwards along the temperature scale to help hold the place physically. Use two counters when trying to work out the difference between two temperatures. Use a blue counter to represent colder temperatures.

Ask learners about how frozen food is stored in their own place of work. Look at the thermometer on the learner page. Make sure that learners understand that the little circle is a short way of writing degrees and that the C is the abbreviation for Celsius, the name given to the scale used. Make sure learners understand how temperatures are recorded. Make sure learners know how the scale is marked and labelled and that each mark represents one degree. Look at the Celsius scale and the information about how to read negative numbers. Observe how the numbers for the minus temperatures get bigger as the temperature gets lower. Compare this with the plus temperatures. Using dice, learners should take turns to roll the dice and starting from zero, count the number of marks shown back from zero on the scale and read the number; alternate throws go backwards and forwards. Follow the movement on the scale on the OHT.

Learners who are comfortable with negative temperatures and handling frozen food could devise a checking sheet for use in their place of work to record fridge and freezer temperatures over a period of time.
Curr ref N1/L1.2; MSS1/E3.9 Standards 2GEN3.4; 2GEN3.3; 2GEN4.3 Key Skills N1.1; C1.2

Make the game harder by turning off the OHT and turning over the learner pages. Learners have to follow the numbers in their heads and work out the temperatures.

Ask learners to do the activity Have a go which is about a new freezer on the page, individually or in pairs. Discuss any issues which arise.

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Frozen food
Frozen food has to be kept very cold, at minus 18 degrees Celsius or below. Minus temperatures are shown by a minus sign, like this: 18C. The little circle is a shorthand way of writing degrees and the C is the abbreviation for Celsius, the name given to the scale used.

20C 15C 10C 5C

0C 5C 10C

The air temperature of a freezer must measure 18C or below.

The air temperature of an ice cream freezer must measure 12C or below.

The air temperature of a fridge must be between 0C and 4C.

Negative or minus numbers count backwards from zero. The colder the temperature, the bigger the number. 1C is colder than zero. 2C is colder than 1C. 5C is 10 degrees colder than +5C. To make it six degrees colder, take away six degrees from 12C to get to 18C. To make it six degrees warmer, add six degrees to 18C to get to 12C.

Have a go The kitchen receives a new freezer unit, which is needed as urgently as possible. Your job is to keep checking the temperature gauge. As soon as it is cold enough minus 18C you must inform the kitchen manager. Follow the temperature drops and circle the step number when the freezer reaches 18C or below. 1 When you receive the freezer, the temperature measures +10C. 2 In half an hour, it has dropped by eleven degrees. 3 In the next ten minutes the temperature drops by three degrees. 4 Twenty minutes later, it has dropped again by six degrees. 5 The next time you measure the temperature it has dropped another four degrees. 6 Thirty minutes later it has dropped by six degrees. 7 Five minutes later the temperature has dropped again by one degree.

Remember!

Never place hot or warm food in a freezer or fridge unit because it will make the temperature rise and cause condensation that could contaminate other food. Defrost food completely before cooking it. Cooking partially frozen food is a common source of food poisoning. Never refreeze food which has been defrosted.

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Best before and use by

This page examines the many different ways in which best before and use by dates are displayed by manufacturers of food products. It will be useful for those learners who are unfamiliar with date format and who need practice in determining when a product should be discarded or used by. It is also useful as an opportunity to discuss issues around best practice in food storage and usage. before or use by dates. Discuss particular stock control methods learners use in their place of work, and talk about food manufacturers responsibilities and the law relating to dating food products.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Materials
A range of food products/labels with various date formats on them

Check that learners who are struggling to read dates are reading them in the correct order. In some countries the usual layout of a date is different to that used in the UK. Those learners with difficulty remembering and sequencing months of the year should be encouraged to make a cue card with months and their number in order. Some learners may struggle to count forwards over different units of time (weeks, months with different numbers of days in them, and years). These learners may benefit from using a one page yearly planner or monthly calendar (depending on the task) to calculate how long an item of food can be kept fresh. Using a pencil to mark the days, weeks and months gives a clear visual picture that might suit their learning style better. It might help dyslexic learners to write each date in the task on a separate sticky note, and then arrange them physically in order before arranging them into piles of those that need to be used before and after the date shown.

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To understand the significance of use by and best before dates. 2 To read dates in a range of different formats.

Look at foods in a range of packaging for the best before or use by dates, comparing where they are found and what formats they are found in. Using the learner page as a focus, discuss the meaning and purpose of the different kinds of dates found on purchased food items. Give learners examples of different products and ask which kind of date use by or best before they would be likely to find on them. Using the learner page, look at the range of formats that are used for dates. Discuss any difficulties experienced with these, e.g. remembering the numbers for months, the order of day/month/year. Note: learners may have experience of the US system of month/day/year. You could design a type of bingo game, where learners are given cards with dates written on them in different formats and actual food products are examined for their best before dates and called out in front of the whole group. The first person to match every date on his or her card is the winner. Ask learners to complete the activity on the learner page, individually or in pairs, and discuss the answers. This is a good opportunity to talk about the possible consequences of ignoring or losing best

Learners who are comfortable with reading and using food dates could benefit from planning a store-cupboard replenishment. Give learners a variety of items with different best before dates on them and quarterly dates on which they can order more stock. Tell learners to assume that the quantities of food are sufficient to last until the best before dates have expired. Ask them to plan ahead and write orders for foods that will go past their best before date before the end of each quarter.
Curr ref MSS1/L1.2 Standards 2GEN3.3 Key Skills N1.1; C1.2

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Best before and use by

Best before and Use by dates are required by law on prepackaged foods. These dates are used by supermarkets and suppliers to make sure customers can be confident that foods are safe to eat. Dates are written in many different formats.
USE BY dates are found on highly perishable foods. BEST BEFORE dates are found on foods with a longer shelf life.
BEST BEFORE END MAR 2006

BEST BEFORE

Use by

04-08-06

Different manufacturers write dates in different ways. If a date contains just numbers, the day of the month is written first, then the month, then the year. 04/08/05 Day Month Year The fourth day of August 2005 The months of the year are numbered in the order they come in: 01 = January 07 = July 02 = February 08 = August 03 = March 09 = September 04 = April 10 = October 05 = May 11 = November 06 = June 12 = December

Sometimes the month is written out in full: MARCH Sometimes the month is shortened to the first three letters: MAR Sometimes a number represents the month: 03

DAY DOTS are placed on refrigerated fresh or defrosted products.

Day dots show the last day that a product can be used. The shelf life is normally 3 days. Example: This casserole was refrigerated on Monday. It must be used by the end of Thursday (Thu).

Activity The kitchen will be closed from Monday 23rd December 2006 until Monday 6th January 2007. Which items of stock should be thrown out on 22nd December?

USE BY 07 / 01 / 07
d

e

Tue

g

h

Wed

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Module 2 Food storage and treatment

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Preserving food
Reading about preserving food can help learners to organise and retain the information. Understanding how information is organised into paragraphs makes it easier to read and absorb. This page focuses on skills which help learners to read, understand and absorb information about the complicated processes involved in preserving food.

Ask pairs, or small groups, of learners to read the paragraphs on the learner page and answer the questions together. Hand out the full page of paragraphs about food preservation from the Source materials. Explain that the topic sentence in each paragraph is highlighted to help understand the main idea. Ask learners to look through the methods and check meanings of words in the glossary or a dictionary. Discuss the different methods as a whole group, filling any gaps from the groups original list and checking understanding.

Materials
Examples of foods demonstrating different methods of preservation, Source page 0:05, dictionaries

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To learn about the variety of methods used in food preservation. 2 To understand what a paragraph is. 3 To recognise topic sentences and their purpose. 4 To use this knowledge to improve reading and comprehension skills.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Learners who have difficulty in reading or who dont read in English very well need only read the highlighted sentence in each paragraph, and then discuss each method. Encourage learners to circle and look up unfamiliar or complicated words in the glossary. Give support for the alphabet skills required, if necessary. Chunking the alphabet into quartiles (AG, HM, NS, TZ, with M marking the middle) can help to locate where words will be found. A useful technique for slowing down readers who tend to trip over words and lose the sense of what they are reading is to give them a red felt tip pen and ask them to draw a large red dot wherever they see a comma, a full stop, a joining word, or in long sentences, after every five words. (You may need to start this process off, as many learners may not know what a comma or a joining word is and may not notice full stops.) They should then read up to each dot and stop to check that what they have just read makes sense.

Learners who are quick to assimilate information could look at examples of actual food packaging and determine what techniques have been used to preserve the food, looking out in particular for chemical additives. They could make a list of what they have found and present it to the rest of the group.
Curr ref Rt/L1.3; Rt/L2.3 Standards n/a Key Skills C1.2

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Preserving food
Many methods are used to slow down the process that leads to food spoilage. Reading about them can help you to remember and understand the different processes. Longer pieces of text are usually split into separate paragraphs. This can make the text easier to read.

are groups of sentences about the same idea can have one or two, or many sentences in them are often separated by spaces.
temperatures. r fo p

Chemical preservation
to A ing hen HT eep rd, sed ses of can Chemicals can preserve food by making it difficult for micro-organisms to grow there. Salting, pickling, curing and preserving with sugar are examples of chemical preservation. Some herbs and spices can also help to preserve food. Artificial chemicals, such as sorbic acid, sodium benzoate and sulphur dioxide are found in many foods today Artificial chemicals are . given an E number.

Drying
Drying food, or dehydration, takes out the moisture that feeds spoilage bacteria, so food like fish, meat, vegetables and fruit can be kept for long periods. (Paragraph 4) Smoking food adds flavour as well as preserving it. Cheese, fish, chicken, sausages and bacon are often smoked.

Ir
T s o r

Questions 1 How many sentences are there in each paragraph? 2 What is a suitable heading for paragraph 4? 3 Which of the preserving processes described in the paragraphs are used for these products? a b c

Reading tips You may need to read a paragraph more than once.

Read first to get a general idea of what it is about. Read again and try to find one sentence that gives you the main idea. This is called the topic sentence. Use the glossary or a dictionary to look up technical words. What are the topic sentences in the three paragraphs above?

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The dos and donts of food storage

This page focuses on the importance of handling and storing food in a safe and methodical manner in order to prevent contamination, spoilage and ultimately food poisoning. A set of instructions on food storage is used to demonstrate the language of instruction.

Ask learners to find all of the examples of negative instructions in the text. Discuss the use of the conditional in the set of instructions. Ask learners to think of more examples from their work, e.g. If the eggs are delivered late again, phone the supplier. Offer strategies for understanding written instructions: 1. Look for the imperatives and underline the instructions. 2. Count the number of instructions. 3. Check the meanings of unfamiliar words or phrases.

Materials
Different colour pens, Source page 0:07

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To recognise correct and incorrect methods of handling food. 2 To read and understand the language of procedures and instructions. 3 To recognise instructional language, e.g. imperatives. 4 To know that some instructions are conditional.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Point learners to the glossary to remind them of word meanings. Assist learners who are having difficulty spotting the imperatives. Help learners to identify and underline all of the examples. Learners working in pairs or small groups can read the text together and support one another. They are more likely to achieve the learning outcomes in this way.

Give learners another piece of instructional text to do with the area of food hygiene. Ask learners to i) underline the imperatives, ii) circle any negative instructions, and iii) put a square box around any negative instructions. Point out to learners that they are following a simple set of instructions when completing this task itself.
Curr ref Rt/L1.2 Standards 2GEN3.3; 4GEN1.1; 4GEN1.3; 2GEN4.3 Key Skills C1.2; WO1.1

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The dos and donts of food storage

Its important to store food away correctly straight after you have checked a delivery. There are lots of guidelines to do with the correct storage of food.
These guidelines are a set of instructions. They are clearly written in short bulleted sentences.

When you read instructions look out for the action words that tell you exactly what to do.

General rules for food storage

Store food immediately after you have checked the

delivery .
Always deal with high risk, frozen and perishable

foods before dry and canned goods.

Keep high risk and perishable foods out of the

Look out for negative instructions things you should not do.

temperature danger zone.

Always read the storage instructions on the label

Never store food on the floor.

or box. Place foods in the correct storage areas. You must protect food from contamination.
Never store food on the floor, always use shelves

or pallets.
Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food

needs to be divided into smaller quantities or rewrapped.

Keep an eye out for dos and donts so that you can follow the guidelines correctly.

Always read Always store Never store

and leave enough space between goods for air to circulate freely .
Keep storage areas clean and dry; clear up any

spills immediately .
Rotate stock. Never use food that has just arrived

when you have stock on the shelves that should be used first.

Look out for things that must be done if something else happens.

Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped.

Tell your manager about any signs of pests. Separate any food that could be spoilt or has gone

past its date mark to ensure that it is not eaten and tell your manager. He or she will tell you what to do once the food has been checked. Unacceptable food should be returned to the supplier or destroyed.
Always store cleaning chemicals and materials in

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Food storage
Correct food handling includes food storage, and learners need to be aware of the potential hazards caused by incorrect and inappropriate food storage. This page combines reading a memo from the Source materials about inappropriate food storage with some work on developing skills in using context to work out some of the technical vocabulary used in connection with food handling.

Read the in-company memo from the Source materials together as a group. Check whether there are any other words that are difficult other than those underlined. Learners complete the activity on the page in pairs or small groups. Discuss the problems identified in the memo and ask learners what the consequences of each problem could be. Use the technical words used in the memo as well as other, more colloquial terms so that learners become familiar with them and their meanings. Talk about any other possible storage failures as a whole group. When learners use long, complicated or less familiar words in their discussion, write these words up on the flipchart or whiteboard, with alternative meanings. This will help to extend learners vocabulary related to food storage and food hygiene, as well as helping to extend reading and spelling skills. Confirm that the underlined words are all in the glossary and that this and a dictionary are useful tools to use when reading technical information.

Materials
Source page 0:08

Learning outcomes (objectives)

1 To explore and understand appropriate and inappropriate methods of storing food. 2 To recognise and understand a range of food hygiene-related vocabulary, using context clues.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Assist learners who have problems with the alphabetic skills needed for looking up words in the glossary. It is a good idea for all learners, but particularly those with dyslexia or ESOL needs, to develop their own personal glossary of terms used. It might be a good idea to add sentences with the words used correctly as well as meanings.

Learners who have no difficulty with the vocabulary used could benefit from listing the kinds of foods stored in their place of work, and making a note of potential hazards caused by inappropriate storage of these items.
Curr ref Rw/L1.2; Rs/L1.1 Standards 2GEN3.3; 4GEN1.1; 4GEN1.3; 2GEN4.3 Key Skills C1.2

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Food storage
Its important to handle and store food in the best possible conditions, at the right temperature and for a safe period of time. Some of the words used to describe these conditions can be difficult to read or understand, but you can sometimes work out their meanings from the context.
Activity Read the memo from the Source materials and choose the best meaning for the underlined words below. Use the context to help you do this.

Handle everything with care: rough handling can accelerate spoilage. The best meaning of accelerate in this context is: 1 speed up 2 drive 3 slow down

Freezer burn is caused by dehydration damage when food is frozen without proper wrapping and moisture evaporates. The best meaning of dehydration in this context is: 1 water penetration 2 drying out 3 burning

Inappropriate storage in the fridge may allow raw meat to drip onto cooked food. The best meaning of inappropriate in this context is: 1 shelf 2 inside 3 incorrect

Storing rubbish for too long caused an infestation of flies. The best meaning of infestation in this context is: 1 a small number 2 an overwhelming number 3 a home for

Tip Use the other words around the word or words like it to work out the meaning.

You cant always work out the exact meaning of words from the sentence you find them in but you can make a good guess.

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