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Module 1 Introduction to food hygiene

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Listening to training
It may have been a long time since many food hygiene learners had to listen to as much information as they do for this qualification. This page introduces some key concepts about food hygiene and develops the skills required for active listening in training sessions.

Talk about the importance of asking questions to learning. Explain that good listeners ask themselves questions about what they have heard to check their own understanding. They also ask questions of the teacher and other learners to clarify points or get more information. End by discussing any particular points about how you are going to teach and how you hope learners will respond whether you would like to be interrupted when someone has a question, or you would prefer learners to wait until you ask for questions, for example.

Materials
Audio CD and player, spare pens and paper

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To introduce some key concepts about food poisoning. 2 To be aware of good listening techniques to use when learning about food hygiene.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Suggestions for how to use this page

Using 46 titles from different sections of the food hygiene certificate training, ask learners to predict what sort of things they would expect to learn in each section. Discuss the ideas. Ask learners to write down how they remember things they hear. Discuss any different strategies used, for example, some people may see the words, some will remember the actual words spoken. Often learners associate what they hear with other, sometimes unrelated things, e.g. something else that happened in the session or what someone was wearing. Listen to the audio extract (or read the script aloud) about food poisoning. The words in bold are to be emphasised. Discuss the purpose of this information. What would be a good title for the training session? Tell learners that they are going to listen again. Point out that the audio talks about four types of food poisoning and the causes for each. Ask learners to listen and note down the four causes of food poisoning. (See answers for task.) Discuss answers as a group. Listen again to pick up which key phrase is used to signpost the relevant information (the first, another, etc.). Discuss this and other phrases that might be used as signpost words in speech for example, like this, etc., and why these words can be useful.

Listening to a lot of new information can be challenging for both ESOL learners and native English speakers. Encourage learners to make a note of any words or phrases they dont understand and then to keep listening. They may begin to understand from the context, or can check the meaning with you when you have finished speaking. If they keep the question in their heads they wont be able to hear anything else you say. Encourage learners to keep a glossary of their own on a separate page for vocabulary they have just learned. Suggest that learners (where appropriate and with the speakers permission) record information to listen to again later.

Suggestions for advanced learners

Learners who are already skilled listeners could usefully take the information they are hearing and turn it into another form, for example, an information poster for their workplace or a summary for colleagues who couldnt make the training.
Curr ref SLlr/L1.1 SLlr/L1.2 Standards 4GEN1.1; 3GEN1.1 Key Skills C1.3; WO1.1

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Listening to training
In learning about food hygiene you will be listening to a lot of new information. Listening to training sessions carefully helps you to do your job more efficiently and safely.
Listen to an extract from a training session to consider these points.

How can I remember all this?

What do I need to remember?

Listen for signpost words, like the first; another; also and the last. These words point you to key or new pieces of information.

Training sessions 1. Listen out for the main points first and then any extra information. 2. Make notes that you can refer back to later. 3. Ask questions to make things clearer or to get extra information.

Listen for key words. People often emphasise important words or phrases in speech, to make them stand out.

Making notes is a good way of remembering information. You need to write information down in a way that you can still read later.

You might ask for added information, or for information to be repeated.

4. Repeat back important points to check you have got it right. To make sure everything is clear, go through what you have heard in your mind or refer to your notes.
Ask yourself questions: What do I need to remember? Does it make sense?

At an appropriate time, repeat the information to the trainer in your own words to check you have got it right.

Try not to get distracted. Keep checking you are following what is being said.

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Taking notes
There is a lot of important information to take in when it comes to learning about food hygiene. Some learners may not be used to taking in such a lot of information all at once. It can help to go over some ideas about how to take notes on all the information at the beginning of a course. This page helps learners to begin to organise the information they need to learn in an efficient manner.

Explain the importance of giving all notes a clear heading for quick reference. Emphasise the importance of finding a way of note-taking that suits the individual, both writing information down and reading it back later. There are lots of ways to make note-taking easier not all will suit everybody. Other strategies include recording training sessions, using spidergrams or mind maps, using pictures or little drawings and using cards or sticky notes which can be moved around and combined in different ways.

Materials
OHP, audio CD and player

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To understand the different ways that food can cause illness. 2 To introduce and experiment with different notetaking strategies.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

ESOL learners may prefer to make notes in their own language. Encourage them to look up unfamiliar words in a bilingual dictionary. Dyslexic learners frequently have problems with taking and making notes and will need a lot of practice, they will probably (but not always) prefer mind-mapping or using pictures and diagrams. They may already have alternative strategies for coping with this such as using a Dictaphone. Dyslexic learners often feel they must write verbatim in case they miss out something vital. Also, they cannot multi-task i.e. listen and take notes. They would benefit from being given skeleton notes to complete initially, either in a linear or mind map format.

Suggestions for how to use this page

Talk to the group about how much there is to learn and remember in food hygiene training, and how useful it will be for them to take notes about what you say. Establish whether learners have taken notes before, and how useful or difficult they found it. Discuss the general purposes for taking notes, for example, as memory prompts, to help understanding, for quick reference of main points. Confirm that, while good notes are really useful, poor notes can lead to problems later on if you cannot understand what you have written, or if you didnt quite understand the information first time round. Taking or making good notes requires good understanding of the information and lots of practice. Discuss any note-taking strategies already used by learners and any difficulties experienced. Point out the strategies shown on the learner page. Go over the examples of how these can be used adding more examples if possible. Point out that all of these strategies will take time and practice to master. Point out that the same techniques can be used whether the learner is taking notes while listening or reading.

Suggestions for advanced learners


Learners who already have good listening and notetaking techniques could benefit from using text books, written material and, where available, Internet searches to find extra information about different kinds of food poisoning and the effects on human beings and animals in the food chain, and make notes.
Curr ref Wt/L1.2 Wt/L1.5 Wt/L2.2 Wt/L2.5 Standards 4GEN1.1; 3GEN1.1 Key Skills C1.3

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Taking notes
Writing things down can help you to remember what you have learned later on. Here are some strategies to help you take notes while you are listening or reading.
Save time by using abbreviations (shortened words). You can use:

Here are more examples of common abbreviations: approximately = approx. including = inc. telephone number = tel no. refrigerator = fridge

Use numbers and letters in place of words, like in text messages.

Shorten sentences by:


First symptoms usually start within twenty-four to forty-eight hours and can be very serious. 1st symptoms usu. Start in 24 2 48 hrs & can b v serious.

leaving out unnecessary words such as: and the are as to is which using arrows to link ideas

Food poisoning can affect everyone, but some people are more at risk of becoming very ill or even dying. Food poisoning affects all, some more @ risk of getting ill or dying.

Write your notes as a list of short main points using numbers, letters or bullet points.

Use a highlighter pen or underline the important parts you want to remember.

Symptoms 1. Stomach pains 2. Diarrhoea 3. Fever


An allergy to a food or an intolerance to a food is not the same thing as food poisoning. An allergy to a food or an intolerance to a food is not the same thing as food poisoning.

a) Stomach pains b) Dehydration c) Diarrhoea

Tip Dont worry too much about spelling in notes except for new technical words you need to remember.

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the first few letters of the word, for example: prob = problem. the first and last letter of the word, for example: yr = year. capital letters for titles, for example: Food Standards Agency = FSA. the apostrophe to show letters have been left out, for example: you are = youre.

Use symbols in place of words. Symbols are marks that have a meaning. Here are some examples: + plus or more % minus or less = equal, the same as @ because & per cent therefore at and

Nausea Vomiting Headache

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What does it mean?


Food hygiene, like all specialist areas, contains a lot of technical vocabulary. The language associated with food hygiene is also often scientific and can be daunting for many learners. Learners need to be able to understand the language used to fully access and understand the subject area. This page offers strategies for the learner to become familiar with the specialist vocabulary associated with food hygiene.

Discuss the benefits of using new words as often as possible. Suggest learners use a small notebook to begin a personal glossary of words to which they can add words with which they are unfamiliar.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Materials
Where available, access to the internet and dictionaries, the glossary

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To look up specialist vocabulary in a reference source. 2 To learn strategies for dealing with unfamiliar vocabulary.

Photocopies of the glossary accompanying these materials can be used for many activities: a) Paired work. One calls out a technical word from the glossary. Can the partner find it in the glossary? b) Some learners may need help with using alphabetical order. If so, cut up a page of the glossary into horizontal strips and ask learners to reconstruct it in the correct order and check against an original copy. If necessary, learners can use alphabet strips to help. ESOL learners may need support in understanding the definitions of technical words. Encourage them to write notes in their own language if necessary. Some learners could benefit from extra work on breaking words down into manageable chunks, finding the root word to help work out the meaning, and understanding prefixes and suffixes. There is more on this on page 2:6. There are many exercises to help with these skills in the Skills for Life materials (http://www.dfes.gov.uk/readwriteplus/embedded learning/), as well as useful on-line exercises, for example on the BBC web site BBC Skillswise (www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise).

Suggestions for how to use this page

Begin by asking learners what they would normally do when they came across a word they havent heard before, or dont know the meaning of. Check whether any of the strategies suggested on the learner page are covered, and whether there are any other ideas. Read the piece of text Food Hygiene on the learner page together as a whole group, looking for the words in bold in the information boxes around the page. Discuss the pros and cons of the different strategies outlined on the page: Dictionaries are very useful but not always available, or might not include specialist vocabulary. Glossaries include the right vocabulary, but might not give extra information about the word. Asking someone else is a quick and useful way of finding out meanings as long as the person you ask gives the right answer. Working out meanings by thinking of similar words or using the words around it (the context) is a useful strategy, but requires practice and there needs to be some way of checking your idea. If dictionaries are available, ask learners to look up some of the underlined words in these sources and compare them to the glossary.

Suggestions for advanced learners


Learners who are already familiar with the food hygiene vocabulary on the learner page could scan other sources of food hygiene information for unfamiliar vocabulary. They should then use sources of reference to look up meanings and use the words in other sentences.
Curr ref Rw/L1.1 Rw/L1.2 Standards 4GEN1.1; 3GEN1.1; 2GEN3.4; 2GEN4.4 Key Skills WO1.1; C1.2

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What does it mean?


Food hygiene is a subject area that is full of technical words that are not used in everyday language. The more familiar these words become, the easier the subject will be to learn.
When you are dealing with a new subject, you will probably come across words that you are not familiar with. There are several strategies that you can use to work out their meanings:

Ask somebody else to explain the word. Look the word up in a dictionary or glossary. Use the other words around the word or other words like it to work out the meaning. Do a combination of any or all of these.

A dictionary is an alphabetical list of all the different meanings of words.


borne 1. (verb) carried; food-borne illness is illness that is carried by food.

Food Hygiene
In order to achieve the foundation certificate in Food Hygiene you will learn about the pathogens that cause foodborne illness and the effect that they have on food. You will learn about micro-organisms, including bacteria and mould, and the importance of toxins and spores. You will also find out about the main food poisoning bacteria and their requirements for growth. Sources of food poisoning bacteria and the ways contamination and crosscontamination occur will be covered, along with the way physical and chemical contaminants can enter food. Another area of study is naturally poisonous food.

A glossary is an alphabetical list of specialist words and their meanings.


Pathogens: very small forms of life that cause illness.

Whats contamination?

Its when food has got germs or something else in it that shouldnt be there.

micro = small You may find parts of some words in lots of other words: microchip microscope microwave Once you know that micro means small you can take a guess that a micro-organism is a small organism.

Right, so crosscontamination is when the germs are moved from one food to another and contaminants are the things that do the contaminating?

Thats it.

When you find out the meaning of a word from a dictionary, glossary or by asking someone else, try putting it into your own words or explaining it to someone else to check that youve got the right meaning.

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Hazards
This page introduces the three types of food hazard and some important key information about each type. Important information of this type is increasingly presented to readers using a range of formats to make it easier to read and digest. It is useful for learners to know how to use headings, lists and other textual features such as the use of emboldened print or block capitals to locate key information. Learners should be aware of the purpose of these features.

Draw attention to other features not previously mentioned such as italic font, symbols, etc. Point out that these are used to signpost information and to help us find our way around. Draw now on the text features of the page to make sure learners understand the information about the three types of hazard. Ask questions to test learners understanding. For example, how does chemical contamination occur? What are typical examples of physical contamination? Tell learners to find and mark as quickly as they can the parts of the text that will give the answers. Establish that two of the subheadings in capital letters and bold type help with this. Then read in detail with learners the parts identified, in order to establish answers to the original concerns. Although there is no specific Source page related to this learner page, you can make extensive use of other Source pages as examples of different layouts.

Materials
Flipchart, selection of coloured pens, examples of different types of food hygiene information and leaflets

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To identify the three types of food hazard. 2 To understand that the layout and format of text often varies according to purpose. 3 To practise using the format or organisational features of text to find information.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Suggested teaching activities

Explain that this session will look at ways of using format to read important information quickly. Ask learners to look at some food hygiene materials. Ask what sort of information they can find (e.g. information, instructions, advice, case studies). List these on the flipchart in a table. Are there differences in the way these texts are presented? Discuss the different formats and write up in the table, e.g. instructions are often presented as a numbered list, an information leaflet might use bullets to list key points, case studies might use subheadings and paragraphs, advice might use a flowchart. Obviously there will be overlaps bullets, for example, are used in many types of texts. Discuss the featured layouts on the learner page in turn. Can learners see how each can help them quickly find information? Are the featured layouts easier to read than a single solid block of text? Where have learners seen similar layouts? For each layout in turn ask learners to try to find other similar examples in the food hygiene materials used earlier.

ESOL learners may need explicit definitions of words such as format and layout. Encourage use of a bilingual dictionary or simple English thesaurus. Copy pages from the course book or other food hygiene documents. Ask learners to highlight headings and subheadings with different coloured pens. Provide copies of food hygiene texts where the headings have been blanked out. Ask learners to supply suitable titles for headings and subheadings.

Suggestions for advanced learners

Extend discussion and practice to other features not included on the learner page (e.g. flowcharts, tables and labelled diagrams). Discuss correct use of paragraphs (see learner page 2:5 for more on this).
Curr ref Rt/L1.4 Standards 2GEN3.2; 2GEN4.1; 3GEN1.1; 4GEN1.1 Key Skills

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Hazards
You will need to read important basic information about food hygiene in training course books and at work. This type of information is organised in many different formats or layouts to make it easier to read.
The title of this page is in a large, bold, coloured font. This makes the words stand out and catch your eye. There is a short definition and then the three types. These are bulleted and in bold type to make them stand out. Bullets make a list clear and easy to read.

What are food hazards?


A hazard is something that could cause harm. There are three types of food hazard: Biological: harmful bacteria like salmonella and E coli, viruses and moulds Chemical: cleaning products or pest baits Physical: glass, wood or metal

KEY FACTS ABOUT BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Food may become contaminated with harmful bacteria through contact with people, pests, dirty equipment or raw foods. Bacteria cannot move around on their own, they are carried around on items like cleaning cloths, knives and hands.

This subheading tells you what the next bit of text is about. It is in bold type and in BLOCK CAPITALS. This makes sure that this very important information catches the readers eye.

KEY FACTS ABOUT PHYSICAL HAZARDS Physical contamination of food by foreign bodies is common. Typical examples include: glass, wood, hair, jewellery, insects and metal which somehow fall into food. Sources of these items are packaging, broken equipment and people.

This is the second subheading. The subheadings relate to the three types of bacteria given in the bulleted list: The examples here are shown in a list following a colon : .

KEY FACTS ABOUT CHEMICAL HAZARDS Chemical contamination may occur when cleaning chemicals, rodent baits or insecticides get into food.

The third subheading relates to the third type of bacteria given in the bulleted list at the top of the information. Blank space is an important part of layout it makes a text more readable.

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People at risk
This page is designed to give learners an insight into the scale of the problems caused by poor food hygiene, by examining some of the reported figures and giving learners an understanding of large numbers.

Look at the box showing how to write sixty million in figures and ask learners to have a go at writing 350 million. Confirm this with other numbers in millions and hundreds of thousands. Now look at the information on percentage. If this is a new area to learners, you may have to work on this using the Skills for Life materials. It is important that learners understand the language of percentage and the relationship with other ways of expressing information, e.g. one in a hundred, one in ten, half.

Materials
Calculators where available Source page 0:01

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To recognise the scale of the problems caused by poor food hygiene. 2 To read and write large numbers. 3 To read and write simple percentages.

Suggestions for how to use this page

Begin by asking the group how many people they think are affected by food poisoning each year. You might need to spend some time considering what is meant by food poisoning and the range of effects, from a slight upset to death. Write the answers up on a flipchart or whiteboard, in any form (so many in tens, so many thousands or millions, fractions, percentages, etc.) Look at the newspaper article on the learner page. There is a large copy of the article available in the Source materials. Discuss whether the FSA figures are higher or lower than learners expected. Match up the numbers the learners gave you with the numbers on the page. Did any of them come close? Discuss the different ways that the numbers in the research are expressed: almost one in ten, nine percent, 5.5 million. Explain that when the numbers are so high it isnt necessary to be exact. Discuss the meaning of the word approximately. Using the figure for the UK population (approximately 60 million), show how 5.5 million is almost one person in ten. It might be useful to do this using a number square (106). Establish that learners understand that each square represents 1 million people. Shade in 51 squares to 2 represent the 5.5 million. This demonstrates visually that 5.5 is approximately 6 and that 6 is one in ten of 60. Ask who has had food poisoning in the last year. Talk about how the answer matches the figures on the learner page are the figures similar?

It might be useful to do a number square (1010) to represent 100% of the population of 60 million. What does each single square represent (600,000 people)? Using a calculator, show how to key in 5.5 million and divide it by 600,000, to find the number of squares that should be shaded this gives approximately 9 squares, which represents 9%. Confirm this with further calculations, e.g. if the figures for food poisoning were 3.6 million, if 12% of the population had food poisoning, etc.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

For learners who have difficulty reading large numbers, write 60,000,000 on the flipchart or whiteboard. Write the number 6 on the right-hand side of a piece of card large enough to cover the other numbers. Starting on the left, cover 60,000,000 with the card so that the learners can see and read 60. Move the card gradually to the left, revealing higher numbers for learners to read as you move along. Practise this with some of the other numbers from the page, e.g. 350,000,000 and 5,500,000. For learners who have difficulty understanding what a percentage is and/or the equivalencies of different numbers, refer them to the Skills for Life materials or other resources, e.g. BBC Skillswise (www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise).

Suggestions for advanced learners


Refer learners who would like to learn more about food poisoning statistics to the Food Standards Agency web site.
Curr ref N1/L1.1 N2/L1.8 Standards 4GEN1.1; 3GEN1.1 Key Skills C1.2

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People at risk
Millions of people in the UK have been affected by food poisoning. If everyone followed safe food handling procedures it would save the country a lot of money.

Food poisoning costs UK millions!


Shock facts released today by the Food Standards Agency show that millions of workers are off sick because of poor food hygiene. This is costing the country a staggering 350 million per year, enough to build a new hospital every twelve months! The report from the government watchdog, the FSA, states that an amazing 5.5 million people are affected by food poisoning every year. Thats 9% of the UKs population of 60 million people. 7 out of 10 of the victims (71%) of food poisoning believed their food-borne illness was caused by food prepared out of the home in restaurants, fastfood places, cafes, supermarkets, market stalls, by caterers you name it. Victim Jen Owen says, It makes you wonder whether its safe to eat out any more! The cost to the country, in terms of lost working time and soaring bills to the already-stretched NHS, is estimated to be at least 350 million a year. Thats enough to build a brand-new hospital every year! We say its time to act.

But what do these figures mean?


Reading large numbers 60 million is 6 with 7 zeros. It can be written as:


9% is the same as nine per cent. Per cent means out of 100. Nine per cent means 9 parts out of 100. This is written as 9%. So, 9 people out of every 100 have had food poisoning in the last year. This is almost 1 person out of every 10 people.

60,000,000 60000000 60 000 000

How many people in your group have had food poisoning in the last year?

Sometimes the zeros are separated in groups of 3, to help read the number. The separator is usually a comma or a small space.

Have a go: 6 60 600 6000 60 000 600 000 6 000 000 60 000 000 six sixty six hundred six thousand sixty thousand six hundred thousand six million sixty million no zeros 1 zero 2 zeros 3 zeros 4 zeros 5 zeros 6 zeros 7 zeros

Now try writing three hundred and fifty million in figures. How many zeros will you need?

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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning


There is a great deal of information to be taken in by the food hygiene learner on the causes and effects of food poisoning. This type of information is often organised into a table. This page looks at techniques for reading and finding information in a table.

have plenty of time to grow. The customer finally leaves the caf, and seven hours later is doubled up in pain, vomiting and sweating. Ask pairs or small groups to make up similar scenarios for other cases. Answer the questions on the learner page as a whole group, in pairs or in small groups. Before learners begin discuss how to decide which column and row to look in. For example, look for key words from the question to identify where to look.

Materials
A copy of the table from Source pages 0:020:03 for each learner, a copy of the table on an OHP transparency and pieces of blank card

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To be able to explain the causes and describe the symptoms of food poisoning. 2 To use the organisational and structural features of a table to locate information.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Learners with visual difficulties may benefit from using a reversed L card or a ruler or other straight edge to extract information from the table. Dyslexic learners may have difficulty with the concept of key words and will need help and practice in this area. It may help them to think of key points as just words that remind you of more information like labels on suspension files in a filing cabinet

Suggestions for how to use this page

Make sure that all learners are familiar with the terms causes and symptoms. The causes of food poisoning are the things that make it happen. The symptoms of food poisoning are the things that happen to you when you have it. Write these definitions on the whiteboard for learners. Introduce language of tables column, row. Read and explain all the headings across the first row, checking especially that learners understand the difference between Incubates for and Lasts for. When learners are familiar with the layout of the table extract, hand out the source page containing the larger table. Talk to the group about the scientific names of the bacterial toxins, and any names that they might be more familiar with, e.g. lockjaw. Point out that not all of the causes of food poisoning are covered in this table. Use one or two rows to trace a story about what might happen in the case of food poisoning. For example, in Joes Caf, a new student worker is left to beat some eggs next to a plate of sausage and mash ready to go out to the table. He is too enthusiastic, and drops of raw egg splash onto warm sausage. He allows the food to go out to the customer sitting outside at a sunny table. The customer eats very slowly, and salmonella bacteria

Suggestions for advanced learners

Ask learners to devise further questions and answers for a partner. They could also draw flowcharts of cause and effect from the information across each row, beginning with a particular cause (e.g. rodent pests come into contact with food) and what might happen because of it.
Curr ref Rt/L1.4 Standards 3GEN1.1 Key Skills C1.2; N1.1; N1.2

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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning


We now have a lot of information about the causes and symptoms of food poisoning. This type of information is often put into a table to make it easier to read and understand.

Reading information in a table You do not have to read all of the information. Use the columns and rows to help you find what you want. Read down the first column to find the bacteria you are looking for; read across the rows to find the information heading you need.

Bacteria

Caused by

Symptoms

Incubates for

Lasts for

Bacillus cereus (toxin in food, or in intestine)

leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

These bacteria cause different symptoms depending on whether the toxin they produce is in the food or in the intestine. Symptoms from food toxin: nausea vomiting. 19 hours 1224 hours

Activity Use the full table Causes and symptoms of food poisoning in the Source material to answer these questions. 1 How long does Salmonella poisoning last for? 2 Breathing difficulties are a symptom of food poisoning caused by which bacteria? 3 Which bacteria cause food poisoning by leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them? 4 What is the incubation period for Clostridium botulinum?

Tip Use the key words in bold to search for the information you need. Decide what information you already have and look for it on the table. Then use the headings to help you find the information you need.

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Bacteria
It can help learners to do some background reading about bacteria, as this information is so important to the Food Hygiene Certificate qualification. This page looks at the technique of using skimming skills to select reading material which is relevant and useful so that learners dont waste time struggling with irrelevant, difficult and inappropriate reading material.

Now look at the skimming clues, explaining each one, and ask learners to use these with the Source material. Using clues like this gives a framework for skimming through reading material. Go through what they need to know about bacteria once again, and use the clues together as a whole group or in small groups. Relate this to the numbered points on the Source material, as shown on the learner page, e.g. point 5 is about technical language. Would you need different clues if you were looking for different information? Point out also that when accessing technical/scientific information from any source it is important to know when it was published. Go back to the different sources of information you have brought in. Ask pairs or small groups to look for clues in one of these texts and decide whether they would recommend it to others as something useful to read. When they feed back to the whole group, ask what clues learners used to discover this.

Materials
Source page 0:04, various sources of information about bacteria, including newspaper articles, text books, industry journals and web pages

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To introduce the concepts of purpose and audience as applied to information. 2 To learn skimming skills.

Suggestions for how to use this page

Begin by talking to the group about what they will be required to know about bacteria for the Food Hygiene certificate. Explain that they will learn most of what they need to know in class, but that it would help understanding if they read information from other sources. Ask for suggestions as to where you could find more information about bacteria. Show the group the material you have brought in, and ask which of these learners would be likely to read. Explain that information is written in very different ways depending on the purpose of the writing. For example, an article about food hygiene in a newspaper will be written in a different way from an article about food hygiene in a catering journal. Show some examples and ask learners to pick out the differences. These may include layout or format, use of graphics, technical language, the use of emotive language (e.g. in newspaper articles). This is a good opportunity to introduce learners to journals, web pages and other sources of information. Hand out the articles from the Source materials, which shows enlarged versions of the articles on the learner page. Point out that learners should not try to read the articles, just run their eyes over them to see what stands out. Discuss how much they can tell about the writing without actually reading it.

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Some learners may need practice and encouragement to prevent them from attempting to read every word from the beginning of the text, and ignoring clues such as headings and illustrations. Confirm that some published writing is difficult to read because it is badly written or uses very technical language, and it is useful to recognise this. Work on the skills to help with technical language and complex texts are elsewhere in this pack.

Suggestions for advanced learners

Learners who already read widely will be able to read some of the articles in more depth, once they have decided what is of most interest. It would be useful to ask them to report back to the group about the information they have found.
Curr ref Standards 3GEN1.2 2GEN3.4 Key Skills C1.2

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Bacteria
There is a lot to learn about bacteria. You can find information in many different places, but not everything will be relevant to you. You can decide if a text is relevant to you by skimming it, or looking through it quickly, to check what its about and whether it has the information you need.
The Food Hygiene certificate asks you to be able to do these things:

Skimming clues Use these skimming clues to help you decide what to read and what not to read. 1 Who published the information? Look for the logo or a heading. 2 Headings usually stand out. They are often bigger or bolder. They help you find information. 3 Look at the introduction. Sometimes this is in bigger or bolder writing. 4 Pictures and illustrations can tell you what kind of article you are reading, and what might be in it. 5 Language is a big clue. Is it technical? Full of difficult words? Easy to read?

Explain what bacteria are and where they are found. Explain how bacteria reproduce and how long this takes. Find out what helps bacteria grow or slows their growth. Find out the difference between pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

Before you look for information, it helps to be very clear about what you need to know. Then you can decide what to read and what not to read. Skim reading a piece of writing can give you clues about what to read and what not to read.

Will you find what you need to know here?

Or here?

1 2
In-depth study into pathogenic bacteria and their reproduction
Author: Dr R Roberts Assisted by: M. Hackney Dr F Boyd R. Freeman

4 2
Food Hygiene Programme Guide

Introduction This study will cover the following areas: 1. Mitrochondrial expansion. 2. Reproduction and growth in an acidic environment. 3. Pathogenic nucleic growth. 4. Slowing the rate of development.

A guide to what bacteria are, their reproduction rate and influences on this, and pathogenic and spoilage bacterias effects on the food we eat. 1. What are bacteria and where do they grow? Bacteria are micro-organisms. This means they are so small we cant see them with the human eye. Bacteria need warmth and moisture to grow. They reproduce by dividing themselves, so one bacterium becomes two and then two become four and so on. In the right conditions one bacterium could become several million in 8 hours and thousands of millions in 12 hours.

1. Mitrochondrial expansion In the mitrochondrial expansion phase of the pathogenic growth hormone physicardia-crobatical the rate of exchange of the physical properties is in direct proportion to the rigomort function of the extremis particularituli membrane. This paper sets out to examine the difficulties in the measurement of the bipolar metamorphosis of the pathogenic organism.

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Module 1 Introduction to food hygiene

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Pests
This page uses a range of information about pests to teach a specific reading skill that will be useful in this and many other contexts. Scanning for particular pieces of information about food pests will help learners to improve both their food hygiene knowledge and their ability to access many different kinds of information more quickly.

Make sure that all learners are aware that the information in this table is not aligned in rows. Go to the questions on the learner page and ask the groups to answer the questions from the text, and not from their heads.

Materials
Highlighter pens or pens in a colour which will stand out are useful but not essential. Source page 0:05

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties

Some learners feel as though they are cheating if they dont read every word. Reassure these learners that scanning for particular words is a very useful reading skill. Those learners who struggle to pick words out or those who have great difficulty finding the shape of short words, would benefit from writing the key word they are looking for in large lettering on a piece of card, and using it as a guide to run down the columns with.

Learning outcomes (objectives)


1 To learn about food pests, the hazards they pose and methods of controlling them. 2 To scan a page of information looking for specific keywords.

Suggestions for how to use this page

Suggestions for advanced learners

Put learners into groups and ask each group to call out the names of as many food pests as they can think of, taking turns without repetitions. Write the names on a flipchart, or whiteboard, and keep them. Show the group the learner page. Read the opening paragraph and information box on scanning together. Have the groups look for the three food pests shown in the part of the table on the learner page. Ask the fastest group members to describe how they found the information so quickly. How many words did they actually read? Readers who are skilled at scanning will read very few words indeed, focusing on the word they are looking for only (although they may not be aware of this). Explain that practising this skill makes searching for information much easier. Look at the full table of information on food pests in the Source material. Explain to learners that they can also use the column headings to find information. For example, if you were looking for specific information on the hazards to health caused by pests, you would look first in column 2. Point out how this again reduces the amount of information that you need to read. Instead of scanning the whole table you need only scan the information in column 2.

Learners will benefit from plenty of practice at scanning texts for information. Give learners additional pages of food hygiene information to practise with. In pairs, or in small groups, learners can give each other challenges to locate information.
Curr ref Rt/E3.7 Standards 3GEN1.2; 2GEN3.4 Key Skills C1.2

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Module 1 Introduction to food hygiene

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Pests
Control of pests is an important aspect of food hygiene. When you need to find information about a particular pest, remember that you dont need to read all of the information. Scan the page for the word you are looking for.
Scanning is like looking for your name on a list. Think about what you are looking for: Is it one word or a group of words? How long is the word? Have a go how many times can you see these creatures mentioned in the information? Flies Rats Wasps

Kinds of pest
Insects that come in from outside, for example:

Hazards to health
Carrying germs from unhealthy places, for example:

Methods of control

flies moths ants cockroaches fruit flies

Insects that live in stored food, for example:


rats carrying disease from the sewers they live in flies carrying disease from rubbish tips and animal droppings wasps carrying dirt and germs from dustbins.

beetles mites weevils

Carrying bacteria inside their bodies, for example:

Rodents:

rats
mice

passing on bacteria from saliva and defecating while eating food passing on food-borne diseases like dysentery and Weils disease carried by rats urine.

Birds:

pigeons

Contaminating food with:

Keep food covered at all times. Store food in sealed containers (this will help to keep it fresh as well as safe). Never leave food outside. Make sure rubbish bins are kept closed and emptied regularly. Check deliveries of fruit, vegetables and cereals for pests, and around all packaging. Check stored food carefully and regularly for signs of pests. Dont keep grains, cereals or spices for too long. Keep the food storage areas and preparation areas clean all the time. Check around bins especially. Clear up any food spillages immediately. Dont leave doors and windows

You need to have thought about the words you are looking for before you scan for them, so that the shape of the word jumps out at you. Use the full page of information from the Source material to answer these questions. Answer them as quickly as you can by scanning for the key words shown in bold type.

1 Which of these birds is mentioned as a kind of pest? a) Dove b) Seagull c) Crow 2 How is the hazard Weils disease carried? 3 What should you tell your manager? 4 Where might weevils live? 5 How should you store food?

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