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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment

(UETTDRSB01A)
Certificate IV in ESI Substation Resources (UET40206) Trainer Guide

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State Training Services

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Education and Training. The NSW Department of Education and Training do not give warranty or accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Using this Trainer Resource...........................................................................................4 Mapping to Training Package....................................................................................4 Learning Outcomes....................................................................................................5 References..................................................................................................................6 Introduction....................................................................................................................7 Learning Outcomes....................................................................................................7 Fault Finding Documentation ........................................................................................8 Identification and Coding of Equipment and Plant........................................................8 Introduction to Electrical Fault Finding.......................................................................10 Understanding Drawings and Terminology.............................................................10 AC Distribution Systems .........................................................................................14 Circuit Breaker Control Panel..................................................................................15 Transformer Control Panel ......................................................................................18 Substation Alarm Systems .......................................................................................22 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) ................................................................22 Test Tools and Instruments..........................................................................................23 Fault Finding Techniques ............................................................................................24

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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide -3 NSW DET 2009

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Timing

Instructional Content

Notes to Trainer

Introduction

Fault finding also requires a recognition that the initial fault indication may in fact be a symptom, rather than the actual fault. For example, a circuit breaker trip failure may not in fact be the circuit breaker but rather a control panel relay failure or a low voltage wiring fault caused by a rodent. Much of the content of this learning module is enterprise-specific. Trainees need to clearly understand that whilst the principles are transferable to other ESI organisations, many of the standards used (e.g. wiring identification codes) are potentially unique to that enterprise and are not necessarily transferable. Risk Assessment

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Learning Outcomes
(As per those listed on page 5 of this Trainer Guide.)
Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

Emphasise the importance of conducting a risk assessment before commencing fault finding activity. This is especially important when performing fault finding. The pressure to resolve faults quickly can potentially lead operators/fitters to take short cuts. However the very fact that a fault has occurred suggests that new hazards may have been introduced into the substation that need to be taken into consideration. If necessary, refer trainees back to the material in the learning module: Implement and monitor the organisational OHS policies, procedures and programs.

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This learning module encompasses the application of the full range of knowledge and skills from the other learning modules associated with Substation Maintenance. It requires the application of recognised fault finding techniques, combined with the use of test equipment, to diagnose and rectify faults in power system substations. Diagnosis of faults also requires the ability to read and interpret enterprise technical documentation such as schematic diagrams associated with control panels. Tracing and testing of substation wiring and cabling requires knowledge of enterprise coding systems.

Fault Finding Documentation

Trainers should develop a session which incorporates the range of enterprise documentation that operators/fitters are expected to be able to access in order to perform fault finding activity. These will likely include: Service Instructions or Work Method Statements Local or Regional Instructions Manufacturers manuals Schematic diagrams

Detail should also be provided about where and how these documents can be accessed.

Identification and Coding of Equipment and Plant

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Single Line Diagrams Voltage Identification (Coding) Definition of a Bay and how it is identified Symbols used in Operating Diagrams Wiring Codes (refer to AS2067 and local adaptations) Wiring colour codes Cable Identification
Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

Whilst Australian Standards do exist, they are not always followed, or enterprises have found it necessary to modify or depart from the Standards to take account of organisation-specific requirements. Furthermore, often within the one enterprise a range of coding systems may be in use due to historical factors. Trainers need to develop content on the topic of coding and identification of wiring, cabling, bays and equipment/plant for their enterprise. Topics may include:

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Student Exercise A number of exercises should be developed to give trainees practise in reading and identifying plant and equipment using the coding systems of your enterprise.

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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

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Introduction to Electrical Fault Finding Understanding Drawings and Terminology


Labelling Correct symbols Relay types Supervisory Control Supply Lamp Supply

There are also a range of schematic drawing standards that have been used over the years. Depending upon the age of the plant and equipment, operators/fitters may encounter any of these drawing standards in the field. Trainers should provide examples and explain the differences in how to read schematics produced to different drafting standards.

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TDSR Time Delayed Self Reset TDLU ILU ISR Time Delayed Lock up Instantaneous Lock Up Instantaneous Self Reset Student Exercise Introduce the Relay Logic Exercise ( Discuss the Symbols Used
Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

Relay Types

This exercise assesses the trainees currently knowledge and skills to analyse electrical circuits. (A suggested exercise is included, although you may wish to generate your own enterprise example.)

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Trainers should discuss each of these, as applied to electrical drawings.

Provide examples of different schematic drawing standards.

Discuss with the participants where each of the following would be found

C:\DATAFILE\ Lightship\Sub-stations

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Identify the different relay type used. (Refer to the table at the bottom of the exercise.) Set a time limit of 20-30 minutes.

(It is suggested that a competitive environment be set up to see who gets the first correct answer.)

Common characteristics of control circuits Group Discussion What is a Control Circuit? Why use Control Circuits?

o To provide remote operations - Local and Supervisory o To provide supervisory control functions o To provide status indication o Alarm indication o They are convenient o Reliable o Inexpensive

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What are some of the more common Control Circuits? o Indication o Protection o Monitoring What Voltages are used? 50VDC 110VDC 240VDC
Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

o The cable runs are of small current carrying capacity rather than heavy current cabling.

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Draw up a stop-start motor Include an alarm circuit, thermals.

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63.5VAC

110VAC

240VAC

415VAC

Typical components used in control circuits

What are some of the typical components used in control circuits?

- Discuss uses and reasons for each item and show symbols o switches o fuses o links o relays o contactor o metering

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DC Distribution Panels AC Distribution Panels
Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

- Ensure each individual is aware of the drawing symbols used and the functionality of each. - Question the group about any other components known by group? Trainers should develop content for this topic based upon your own enterprise equipment and requirements. Trainers should develop content for this topic based upon your own enterprise equipment and requirements.

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Control Panels Circuit Breakers

Control Panels - Transformers

Student Exercise: Design Control Boards for Substations

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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

[In order to determine the ability of trainees to integrate their knowledge on this topic it is recommended that an exercise be developed requiring the design of a substation control board including all types of sub-panels. This exercise will likely be quite challenging, requiring a significant period of time to be allocated. Trainers will likely need to coach trainees throughout the exercise to achieve the desired result.]

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Alarm Panels

Trainers should develop content for this topic based upon your own enterprise equipment and requirements. Trainers should develop content for this topic based upon your own enterprise equipment and requirements. Trainers should develop content for this topic based upon your own enterprise equipment and requirements.

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AC Distribution Systems

Trainers should develop content based upon your own enterprises equipment and technology. You should incorporate the following learning points: Symbols and components used in distribution system. Supplies.

Operation of mechanical interlocks. Operation of electrical interlocks.

Operation of indicators and alarms. Operation of contactors. Sequence of operation. Changeover of supply.

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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Trainer Guide

Student Exercise: Design Control Boards for Substations

[In order to determine the ability of trainees to integrate their knowledge, an exercise should be developed. An example is included here that could provide a template for development of an exercise based upon your own enterprises technology. A number of these exercises should be developed to give trainees experience in reading and interpretation of given situations.]

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Trainers will need copies of your own enterprises schematics of AC Distribution Systems. Resolution needs to be detailed enough that they can be read. Examples of some schematics from an ESI organisation are included here.

C:\DATAFILE\ C:\DATAFILE\ Lightship\Sub-stations Lightship\Sub-stations

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Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment


(UETTDRSB01A)
Certificate IV in ESI Substation Resources (UET40206) Assessment Guide Instructions to Assessors

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Evidence Required
State Training Services

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UETTDRIS05A UETTDRIS22A UETTDRIS23A UETTDRSB01A UETTDRSB02A UETTDRIS03A UETTDRIS04A UETTDRIS05A

This Assessment Guide is part of a suite of resources that have been developed to support 8 core units of competency from the Certificate IV in ESI Substation (UET40206) as follows:

Perform substation switching operation to a given schedule Implement and monitor the organisational OHS policies, procedures and programs Implement and monitor environmental and sustainable energy management policies and procedures Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Carry out substation inspections Install and maintain substation DC systems Maintain HV power system circuit breakers Maintain HV power system transformers and instruments

This guide is intended to provide some direction to assessors who are determining competence of students who have completed the theoretical and practical instruction in this learning module. Assessors are expected to use their own judgement in designing appropriate assessment questions and tasks and putting them into context for the assessment candidate. At all times the evidence requirements as set out in the unit and the principles of assessment, that is, validity, reliability, flexibility and fairness must be complied with.

Use these guidelines to assist in preparing your own assessment instruments and tools. The checklist should be treated as a starting point. You may choose to add more checkpoints to highlight particular aspects of knowledge and skill that you want to see evidence of. This could be through practical tasks or problem-based questions. Evidence for competence in this unit shall be considered holistically. Each element and associated Performance Criteria shall be demonstrated on at least two occasions in accordance with the Assessment Guidelines UET06. Evidence must also reflect the critical aspects of evidence which includes the following:

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The minimum number of items on which skill is to be demonstrated. Item List

A representative body of performance criteria demonstrated within the timeframes typically expected of the discipline, work function and industrial environment. In particular this must incorporate evidence that shows a candidate is able to: Implement Occupational Health and Safety workplace procedures and practices including the use of risk control measures as specified in the Performance Criteria and Range Statement. Apply sustainable energy principles and practices as specified in the Performance Criteria and Range Statement Demonstrate an understanding of the essential knowledge and associated skills as described in this unit to such an extent that the learners performance outcome is reported in accordance with the preferred approach; namely a percentile graded result, where required by the regulated environment. Demonstrate an appropriate level of skills enabling employment. Conduct work observing the relevant Anti Discrimination legislation, regulations, polices and workplace procedures.

To be deemed as competent in this Unit, the candidate must provide sufficient evidence of being able to confidently and competently conduct a number of fault finding exercises upon power systems in substation environments. Where summative (or final) assessment is used it is to include the application of the competency in the normal work environment or, at a minimum, the application of the competency in a realistically simulated work environment. In some circumstances, assessment in part or full can occur outside the workplace. However, it must be in accordance with industry and regulatory policy. (For more detail on assessment practices you are advised to refer to the Training Package and the Evidence Guide for this Unit of Competence, especially where longitudinal competency development and Profiling has been used). This assessment guide covers all tasks and equipment included in the section of the Unit: Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit, as shown in the table below.

At least two of the following At least three of the following:

AC circuit breaker fault Transformer system fault DC supply systems fault DC switchgear and equipment fault Multimeters Tong testers (current clamp meter) Insulation resistance/continuity tester Ductor tester (micro-ohm meter) Overload injection tester Specialist test equipment

Diagnose and rectify faults in power systems substation environment Assessment Guide - 2 -

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