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International Journal of Remote Sensing


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Utilization of Landsat ETM+data for mineral-occurrences mapping over Dalma and Dhanjori, Jharkhand, India: an Advanced Spectral Analysis approach
S. K. Pal , T. J. Majumdar , Amit K. Bhattacharya & R. Bhattacharyya
a b a b a

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302, India
b

Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad, 380015, India

Available online: 30 Jun 2011

To cite this article: S. K. Pal, T. J. Majumdar, Amit K. Bhattacharya & R. Bhattacharyya (2011): Utilization of Landsat ETM+data for mineral-occurrences mapping over Dalma and Dhanjori, Jharkhand, India: an Advanced Spectral Analysis approach, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32:14, 4023-4040 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.484430

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International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 32, No. 14, 20 July 2011, 40234040

Utilization of Landsat ETM data for mineral-occurrences mapping over Dalma and Dhanjori, Jharkhand, India: an Advanced Spectral Analysis approach
S. K. PAL, T. J. MAJUMDAR*, AMIT K. BHATTACHARYA and R. BHATTACHARYYA Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, India Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad-380 015, India

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(Received 26 July 2007; in final form 27 March 2010) The Advanced Spectral Analysis (ASA) technique, one of the most advanced remote-sensing tools, has been used as a possible means of identifying mineral occurrences over Dalma and Dhanjori. The ASA technique is a sixfold tool, which includes the continuous processes of (1) the reflectance calibration of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images of the study area, (2) the generation of minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation, (3) the calculation of the pixel purity index (PPI), (4) the n-dimensional visualization and extraction of endmember spectra, (5) the identification of endmember spectra for mineral occurrences and (6) the mapping of mineral occurrences. The identification of the extracted endmember spectra is obtained by comparing it with available pre-defined library spectra (United States Geological Survey (USGS), John Hopkins University (JHU) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) spectral libraries) using the Spectral Analyst tool of ENVI 4.1 software (Research Systems Inc., Boulder, CO, US), which provides scores of matching. Three techniques, namely Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) and Binary Encoding (BE), are used for identification of the collected endmember spectra to produce a score between 0 and 1, where the value of 1 equals a perfect match showing the exact mineral type. A total of six endmember spectra are identified and extracted in the study area. Mapping of mineral occurrences is carried out using the MixtureTuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) technique over the study area on the basis of collected and identified endmember spectra. Results of the present study using the ASA technique ascertain that Landsat ETM data can be used to generate valuable mineralogical information.

1.

Introduction

The use of spectral reflectance measurements in the solar spectral range, 0.482.22 mm of the electromagnetic spectrum, provides detailed information about many important Earth-surface minerals (Clark et al. 1990). Previous works (Kruse 1988, Kruse et al. 1990, 1993a,b, Boardman and Kruse 1994, Staenz and Williams 1997, Kruse et al. 2003,

*Corresponding author. Email: tjmajumdar@rediffmail.com


International Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN 0143-1161 print/ISSN 1366-5901 online # 2011 Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2010.484430

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Neville et al. 2003) have well established the efficiency of hyperspectral data for mineral exploration using the Advanced Spectral Analysis (ASA) technique (Altinbas et al. 2005). The study area has been extensively explored geologically, as well as for mineral occurrences (Dunn 1929, Naha 1965, Mukhopadhayay et al. 1975, Sarkar et al. 1979, Sarkar and Chakraborty 1982, Saha 1994, Majumdar 1995, 1998, Acharyya 1999, Pal et al. 2006a, 2006b, 2007a, 2007b). However, in the present study an attempt has been made for mineral mapping using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) multispectral data with the help of the ASA technique. The location map of the present study area is shown in figure 1(a). The image data have been initially converted to radiance and then to surface reflectance. Spectral endmembers are extracted automatically and have been compared with available reference library spectra, namely the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Clark et al. 1993), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (Grove et al. 1992) and John Hopkins University (JHU) spectral libraries (Salisbury et al. 1991) for mapping of various mineral occurrences. Landsat ETM data using the ASA technique provides basic mineralogical information within limited mapping of the fine spectral detail due to the lower number of spectral bands available within the range 0.482.22 mm (Altinbas et al. 2005). The endmember pixel spectra have been identified by comparing with the available spectral libraries of minerals, which theoretically assumes that a surface of at least 30 m 30 m (pixel resolution of Landsat ETM image used) is completely (since the spectrum is considered as pure) covered by homogeneous rock, and the corresponding spectrum is solely dominated by the spectral signature of a single mineral (as a dominating mineral). With this assumption, some work has been carried out by Kruse et al. (2003) and Neville et al. (2003) using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) (spatial resolution of 20 m 20 m) imagery and EO-1 Hyperion (spatial resolution of 30 m 30 m) imagery. 2. Geology and mineralogical occurrences

The area has been studied extensively by various geologists (Dunn 1929, Naha 1965, Mukhopadhayay et al. 1975, Sarkar et al. 1979, Sarkar and Chakraborty 1982, Saha 1994). The various mineral occurrences over the study area, as presented in the published Mineral Map of India (Acharyya 1999), are as follows. Apatite mineralization is found along the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), extending over a length of 60 km, occurring as veins and lenses in biotite-chlorite rock. Asbestos minerals are entirely confined to the basic and ultrabasic rocks of the iron-ore group and Dalma lavas in Singhbhum district. Extensive deposits of copper occur over a length of 160 km. An important ore of copper mineral, chalcopyrite, occurs as veins, patches and dissemination, mainly in chlorite schist. Gold-bearing quartz veins are reported from a number of locations in Singhbhum district. The iron-ore group consists mainly of banded haematite. Manganese occurrences are found in the form of thin beds, lenses and concentrations in the schist and quartzite of Dalma group. The sulphide mineralization is considered to be associated mainly with the metavolcanics and meta-tuff of Singhbhum and Dhanjori groups. The predominant sulphide minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrite and pyrhotite. The mode of occurrence varies from massive to braided veins, stringers and disseminations, discordant to sheet-like bodies and also as en-echelon veins. Sarkar et al. (1986) suggested that the sulphide mineralization in this belt is confined mainly within certain stratigraphic horizons that are adjacent to the Dhanjori metavolcanics. The general trend of the ore

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body is controlled by the local trend of slip planes. Wall-rock alterations, in the form of chloritization, sericitization, biotitization, tourmalinization and albitization, are common (Gangopadhyay and Samanta 1984). Clay minerals, consisting of serisite and mica-feldspars, iron ores, consisting of magnetite and hematite, and copper ore, consisting of chalcopyrite and chalcocite, are also reported by Saha (1984, 1994). The reserves of important minerals available over the study area are presented in table 1. The geological set-up over the area of interest is shown in figure 1(b).

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Study area
8 68 88 95

22 30 N

23 00 N

Road River District boundary State boundary Railway 22 00 N 0 5 10 20 km

86 00E

86 30E

87 00E

(a)
Figure 1. (a) Location map of the present study area. (b) Geological map of the present study area. 1: older metamorphic tonalite-gneiss; 2: iron-ore group shales, tuffs, phyllites; 3: Singhbhum granite phase III, Bonai granite, Chakradharpur granite; 4: Singhbhum group pelites; 5: Singhbhum group quartzites; 6: quarzite-conglomerate-pelite of Dhanjori group; 7: Dhanjori-Simlipal-Jagannathpur-Malangtoli lavas; 8: Dalma lavas; 9: proterozoic gabbroanorthosite-ultramafics; 10: Mayurbanj granite; 11: alluvium, tertiaries.

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22550N 86250E

S. K. Pal et al.
86300E 86350E 86400E 86450E

22500N

Chendapathar, tungsten (W)

22450N

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Rakha, Cu, Ni, Co


22400N 22400N

22350N

Itagarh-Khajurdari, apatite (Ap)

Surda-Mosabani, copper (Cu)


22300N

Baharagora, copper (Cu) Pathargora-Kulmore, apatite (Ap)

86250E 1 2 3 4 5 6

86300E 7 8 9 10

86350E

86400E

86450E

11 0 2.5 5

10 km

(b)
Figure 1. (Continued.)

3.

Data source and the area of interest

A Landsat ETM image, with path/row 139/44 (date of acquisition: 7 May 2003) covering the study area, was chosen for the present study. The area of interest lies between latitudes 22 230 N and 22 530 N and longitudes 86 150 E and 86 450 E. The image was chosen under optimum conditions prevailing during the summer season, such as bright targets and well-exposed geology. The climate of the area is tropical with hot and dry summers during AprilMay and pleasant dry winters during NovemberFebruary. The forests of the area are mainly

22300N

22350N

22450N

22500N

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Table 1. Reserves of the important minerals available over the study area (http://seraikela.nic.in/mines/jharmine.htm). Reserve as on 1 April 1995 (tons)* Minerals Apatite China clay Copper ore Iron ore Manganese ore Quartz (silica sand) Feldspar Mica Talc/stealite/ soapstone Proved Probable Possible 4424 46 584 1825 542 882 2110 8830 41 852 528 143 6064 960 32 676 20 245 304 1678 129 483 Total Location

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123 191 438 606 4 589 709 13 554 12 49 228

3070 Singhbhum 45 930 Singhbhum, Dumka, Ranchi, Sahibganj 108 690 Singhbhum, Giridhi 2657 Singhbhum, Palamu 2363 Singhbhum 136 429 Koderma, Singhbhum, Deogarh, Giridhi 5 151 506 Dumka, Hazaribagh 13 554 Koderma, Giridhi, Hazaribagh 289 Singhbhum, Giridhi

Note: *1 ton 1.016 metric tonne, 1 metric tonne 1000 kg.

on open ridges and in undulating valleys. On the hillside, in these areas, there are forests present, but they have been much exploited for a pretty long time, and the jungles are in a poor state. There has been much cutting and grazing. The soil of this area has been classified mainly into three groups: rocky, red and black soils. Rocky soil remains practically uncultivated. Red soil is spread throughout the area: it is sandy and loamy and has poor fertility. The iron-rich laterites are distributed all over the area. Cultivated fields surrounding isolated villages are located mostly near the roads and rail lines. Rice is the main crop during JuneNovember. 4. Methodology

The Landsat ETM imagery over the study area was corrected by converting the Landsat ETM digital numbers (DNs) to radiance and then to reflectance units (each pixel is represented by a reflectance value). DN values were converted to radiance values (Ll) using the calibration equation (1), and then reflectance values (rl) were calculated using equation (2) (Vermote et al. 1997). The DNs were converted into absolute radiance using the relation: Ll Lmax Lmin =255DN Lmin ; . . . . . . . . . . . . (1) where Ll is the spectral radiance at wavelength l, Lmax and Lmin (W m-2 sr-1 mm-1) are the spectral radiances for each band at DN 0 and 255, respectively. The values of Lmax and Lmin for bands 15 and bands 78 were taken from the Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook (NASA 2006). Then, the reflectance value was calculated using the relation: rl p d Ll =E0l cos ; . . . . . . . . . . . .
2

(2)

where d is the EarthSun distance correction (1.00901 astronomical units),  is the solar zenith angle (21.32 ), Ll is the radiance as a function of the bandwidth, E0l is the solar spectral irradiance. The E0l values were taken from the Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook (NASA 2006). The values of d and  were collected from the header

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file of the corresponding image over the study area. Dark-object subtraction (DOS) using the band minimum was applied for atmospheric scattering corrections considered in the calculation of reflectance image data. The DOS method of atmospheric correction is a scene-based method to approximate the path radiance added by scattering, based on the assumption that within an area of a full scene, there will be a location that is in deep topographic shadowing, and any radiance recorded by the satellite for that area arises from the path radiance component, assumed to be constant across the scene (Moran et al. 1992, Chavez 1996). The corrected reflectance images were then processed using the advanced hyperspectral tool of ENVI 4.1 (Research Systems Inc. 2003) for mineral-occurrences mapping over Dalma and Dhanjori. Figure 2 shows a flowchart for the ASA technique, as used in this study. The ASA technique also includes: (1) generation of minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation to determine the inherent dimensionality of the image, to segregate noise in the image and to reduce the computational requirements (reduce the number of channel) for subsequent processing (Boardman and Kruse 1994), (2) calculation of the pixel purity index (PPI) image for delineation of spectrally pure pixels from the less spectrally pure/darker pixel and to reduce the number of pixels in the input of n-dimensional (n-D) visualization (Boardman et al. 1995), (3) n-D visualization, for extraction of endmember spectra (Kruse et al. 2003), (4) identification of endmember spectra for mineral occurrences and (5) mapping of mineral occurrences (Research Systems Inc. 2003). The lower MNF bands, which are coherent and contain most of the spectral information, were used to calculate the PPI

Apparent reflectance

Calibration of Landsat ETM data to reflectance

MNF transformation

Spectral data reduction and noise segregation

PPI generation

Spatial data reduction and extraction of purest pixel

n-D visualization

Purest pixel clustering and endmember extraction

ID

Identification of endmembers using BE, SAM and SFF scores

Map distribution and abundance

Mapping and abundance calculation using unmixing, MF, SAM, MTMF, etc.

Figure 2.

Flowchart showing different steps of Advanced Spectral Analysis technique.

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image and finally to determine the most likely endmembers, using the PPI technique. Purest pixels were located and clustered as corner points in the n-D (number of input MNF bands) scatterplot of the n-D visualizer by using inputs of corresponding MNF bands and PPI images. The scatterplots were rotated manually in real time on the computer screen until the corner points or extremities were delineated on the scatter diagram. These corner points were then painted using region-of-interest (ROI) techniques and then rotated again in a different dimension (three or more MNF bands) to identify other available unique signatures or corner points corresponding to the purest pixels. Once the set of unique corner points were identified in the n-D visualization, each separate projection of the corner-points cloud was exported to an ROI in the image. Then, the mean spectra were extracted for each ROI from the apparent reflectance data. These spectra act as endmember spectra (Kruse et al. 2003, Research Systems Inc. 2003). All the spectra available in USGS, JPL and JHU spectral libraries were subsetted and resampled to the collected six-band endmember spectra. The endmember spectra were analysed through comparative assessment with different library spectra (USGS, JPL and JHU) to find out the best match using the three techniques: Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) and Binary Encoding (BE). Each SFF (Clark and Swayze 1995), SAM (Kruse et al. 1993b) and BE (Mazer et al. 1988) produces a score between 0 and 1, where the value of 1 equals a perfect match showing the exact mineral type. Hence, the total score for a perfect match will be 3 (SAM 1, SFF 1 and BE 1), whereas the total score for the worst match will be 0. The endmember spectra were discriminated by finding the best suitable match after comparing with all the spectra of the different spectral libraries, using the spectral analyst tool of ENVI 4.1, which provides scores of matching. The absorption feature is the main diagnostic characteristic, and the spectral slope and pattern of reflectance maxima also have diagnostic roles for identifying ores and mineral occurrences (Singer 1981, Vincent 1997, Younis et al. 1997), which could be used over the geologically complex area. Finally, the identified spectra were used for mapping mineral occurrences. A number of spectral-mapping techniques are available: SAM classification (Kruse et al. 1993b), Spectral Unmixing (Boardman 1989), Matched Filtering (MF) (Boardman et al. 1995) and Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) (Stocker et al. 1990, Yu et al. 1993, Harsanyi and Chang 1994, Boardman 1998). In this study, mapping of mineral occurrences over the study area was carried out using MTMF on the basis of the collected and identified endmember spectra. The SAM and other techniques were also checked, but could not provide satisfactory results. MTMF images were generated from the estimated MNF images based on the extracted endmember spectra. The MTMF results were presented as two sets of images: (1) the MF score image, offered as grey-scale bands with values ranging from 0 (score of no matching) to 1.0 (score of maximum matching) and (2) the infeasibility image presented as bands with varying grey-scale values. The number of bands in each set is the same as the number of endmember spectra used for the MTMF technique; for example, if 11 endmember spectra are used, then 11 corresponding MF score bands and 11 corresponding infeasible bands will be generated. An MF score of 1.0 indicates a perfect match, whereas the high infeasible numbers indicate mixing between the composite background and the target. The best mapping of the minerals could be obtained when the MF score is high (near 1) and the infeasibility score is low (near 0). From the available bands list, MF score bands

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were loaded as grey-scale images. Scatterplots of MF score bands and infeasibility score bands of corresponding endmember spectra were generated. In the scatterplots, points having a maximum MF score (near unity) and minimum infeasibility score (near zero) were marked using the ROI tool by creating polygons of ROIs. The delineated regions of interest were exported to build ROIs showing individual minerals. Finally, the MTMF mineral map was obtained by ROI-based classification of MNF images using all ROIs corresponding to individual minerals. 5. Results and discussion

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The spectral bands, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 of Landsat 7 ETM covering the 0.452.35 mm region, were selected and linearly transformed using MNF transformation. Figure 3 shows plots of eigenvalues and MNF bands of the study area. It is clear that the eigenvalues decrease with increasing MNF band; that is, the noise is segregated in the higher number MNF bands. The spatial data coherency was calculated, and is shown in figure 4. The spatial coherency plot exhibits that the dimensionality is 5 with a threshold level of 0.35. In the present study, thresholding is chosen with a spatial coherence value of 0.35, as obtained from the ENVI software. The PPI image for Dalma, Dhanjori and surroundings is shown in figure 5. A total number of iterations of 100, with a threshold value of 3, was used for PPI calculation. Generally, for Landsat ETM data, 100 iterations are used. However, 1000 iterations are used in hyperspectral data. The higher number of iterations in Landsat ETM data may lead to generating more extreme pixels, which are not yet extreme. Figure 6 shows the n-D visualization plot for the present study. During pre-processing, the data dimensionality was changed accordingly through the n-D visualizer to demarcate more endmember spectra. 14 are dimensional axes. The colour coding of clustered purest pixels which have been identified for different endmember spectra are same as described in figure 7 (endmember spectra of water and vegetation are not shown).
10

Eigenvalue

2 1 2 3 Band no. 4 5 6

Figure 3.

Plot of eigenvalues for the MNF bands over the study area.

Advanced Spectral Analysis approach


1.0 0.8 Spatial coherence value 0.6

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0.4 0.2 0.0 1 2

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3 4 MNF band no.

Figure 4. Spatial coherence plot of MNF bands. The threshold level is 0.35 and the number of bands above the threshold is 5.

Figure 5. Pixel purity index image over the study area. The total number of iterations is 100, and the threshold value is 3.

The extracted and delineated endmember spectra corresponding to various mineral occurrences are presented in figure 7. Details of delineated minerals, along with the score of matching and most suitable library spectra, corresponding to various endmembers, are listed in table 2. A total of six endmember spectra were extracted and

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Figure 6. n-dimensional visualization plot for the present study. 14 are dimensional axes. The colour coding of clustered purest pixels which have been identified for different endmember spectra are same as described in figure 7.

0.6 0.5 Reflectance (%)

Magnetite Pyrite Kaolin Cuprite/Chalcopyrite Sodalite Apatite

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 1.0 1.5 Wavelength (m) 2.0

Figure 7. Extracted and identified endmember spectra corresponding to various mineral occurrences over Dalma and Dhanjori.

identified (figure 7/table 2) in the present study, namely magnetite, cuprite/chalcopyrite, pyrite, kaolin, apatite and sodalite, corresponding to various mineral occurrences. Figure 8 demonstrates the characteristic features (absorption features characteristics, spectral slope and pattern of reflectance maxima) exhibited in the plot of relative reflectance of various endmember spectra of mineral occurrences, together with the corresponding library spectra. Younis et al. (1997) showed that fresh rocks (library specimens) exhibit higher reflectances than those of the open weathered/fractured rocks with rough surface.

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Table 2. Details of the features identified from the present study over Dalma and Dhanjhori and surroundings. Description of endmembers 0.873 0.707 0.472 0.651 0.523 0.621 0.865 0.513 0.687 0.961 0.544 0.598 1.0 0.672 2.545 1.305 1.985 1.851 2.028 SAM score SFF BE Total score score score SAM SFF BE Spectral library (best matched) USGS JPL USGS USGS

Serial no.

Endmember

Kaolin4 Al2Si2O5(OH)4

Kaolin of variety 4 as per USGS. Group of clay minerals. These are generally derived from alteration of alkali feldspars and micas A mineral occurring in igneous rocks, especially pegmatite, and in metamorphosed limestone

Advanced Spectral Analysis approach

0.844 0.654

0.48

1.000 0.765 0.456

2.324 1.875

USGS JPL

Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F, Cl, OH) Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) Widely occurring mineral found mainly in hydrothermal and metasomatic veins/important copper ore that / cuprite (Cu2O) occurs in weathering zone of copper veins Pyrite of variety 1 as per USGS. Most wide spread Pyrite1 sulphide mineral. It occurs as an accessory mineral in (FeS2) igneous rocks, in hydrothermal ore veins, contact metamorphic deposits and anaerobic sediments Magnetite2 Iron-rich mineral (Fe3O4) Sodalite Refers to a white, grey or green mineral tectosilicate of Na2Al3Si3O12Cl feldspathoid group

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Magnetite(endmember) Magnetite(library)

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0.105
Reflectance (%)

0.052
Reflectance (%)

0.100 0.095 0.090 0.085 0.080

Pyrite(endmember) Pyrite(library)

0.050 0.048 0.046 0.5 1.0 1.5 Wavelength (m) (a) 2.0

0.5

1.0 1.5 Wavelength (m) (b)

2.0

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 1.0 1.5 Wavelength (m) (c) 2.0

Chalcopyrite/Cuprite(endmember) Chalcopyrite(library) Cuprite(library) Chlorite(library)

0.60
Reflectance (%)

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Reflectance (%)

0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.30 0.5


Kaolin(endmember) Kaolin(library)

1.0 1.5 2.0 Wavelength (m) (d)


Apatite(endmember) Apatite(library) Chlorite(library) Biotite(library)

0.8
Reflectance (%) Reflectance (%)

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5


Sodalite(endmember) Sodalite(library)

0.6

0.4 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

1.0 1.5 Wavelength (m) (e)

2.0

Wavelength (m) (f)

Figure 8. (a)(f). Plots of relative reflectance of various endmember spectra of mineral occurrences, together with the corresponding library spectra.

The endmember spectra (figure 8(a)) demarcated as magnetite bears a good relationship (total score 2.324) with the USGS spectral library. It demonstrates that there are three absorption minima near 0.45, 0.80 and 1.65 mm, with two peak reflectance maxima near 0.65 and 2.22 mm. The spectral-reflectance distribution (figure 8(b)) of pyrite (total score 2.028), as obtained from the present study and the USGS spectral library, with which it has very good correlation, reveals that within the wavelength region of 0.482.22 mm, there is a peak reflectance maxima near 0.60 mm, with a sharp decrease up to almost 1.6 mm, and then a gentle decrease up to 2.22 mm. The endmember spectra (figure 8(c)) demarcated as cuprite (total score 1.851) bears a good relationship (gentle increase in reflectance) with library spectra for the higher wavelength region (after 0.90 mm). However, it could also be correlated very well with chalcopyrite (total score 1.985) in the short-wavelength region. One sharp absorption minima and two shallow absorption minima are present near 0.48, 0.65 and 2.22 mm, respectively. Two peak reflectance maxima are exhibited near 0.55 and 1.65 mm.

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Copper mineralization is reported within breciated sericite-quartz schist and quartzchlorite schist. Furthermore, copper mineralization is also reported in biotite-chlorite schist and silicified schist. Hence, there is a great chance for mixing with sericite/ chlorite, which could produce a spectral signature similar to copper mineral (chalcopyrite/cuprite) at Landsat ETM resolution. This was examined cautiously with the available library spectra, and it was found that there are noticeable differences in absorption minima and maxima (figure 8(c)). Consequently, the endmember spectrum is demarcated as chalcopyrite/cuprite. The sericite spectrum is not available in the library spectra (USGS, JPL and JHU). The kaolin endmember (figure 8(d)) has a good correlation with the USGS library spectra (total score 2.545) and exhibits a wedge-shape reflectance curve within 0.482.22 mm, with two peak reflectances near 1.70 and 1.65 mm. The endmember spectra (figure 8(e)), demarcated as sodalite, could be correlated (total score 1.875) with the JPL library spectra. The spectra exhibit flat absorption minima centred at 0.58 mm with a sharp peak reflectance. Sodalite, identified as endmember spectra, shows comparatively less reflectance than that of the JPL library spectra. The apatite endmember spectra (figure 8(f)) has a good correlation (total score 1.305) with the JPL library spectra. The spectra exhibit a low absorption minima centred at 0.60 mm and then show a gradual increase up to the 1.70 mm wavelength region. Apatite, identified as endmember spectra, shows comparatively less reflectance than that of the JPL library spectra. As the apatite occurs within biotite/chlorite, which could produce a spectral signature similar to apatite, there is a chance of mixing. This was checked carefully with the available library spectra and it was found that there are noticeable differences in positions of absorption minima and maxima (figure 8(f)). Hence, the endmember spectrum is accredited to apatite mineralization. The MTMF-based inferred mineral-occurrence map of Dalma volcanic, Dhanjori group and surroundings is shown in figure 9. An attempt was made to validate the findings obtained from the present MTMF-based inferred mineral occurrences by comparing with the mineral map of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) (Acharyya 1999) (table 3). Over Dalma volcanic, Dhanjori group and their surroundings, three copper occurrences, namely, Baharagora, Surda-Mosaboni, Rakha, and two apatite occurrences, namely, Itagarh-Khajurdari and Pathargora-Kulmore, were mapped correctly. However, the tungsten (Chendapathar), cobalt, nickel (Rakha) occurrences could not be identified in the present study. It is observed in the MTMF-derived mineral map (figure 9) that kaolin/clay minerals are exposed over most of the area; a group of clay minerals that are generally derived from alteration of alkali feldspar and mica. Cuprite/chalcopyrite minerals were mapped at a number of places (figure 9), in the fractured/weathering zone of copper veins/hydrothermal and metasomatic zones. The identified occurrences of cuprite/chalcopyrite are very interesting and require further detailed study. Magnetite, pyrite, sodalite and apatite are mapped at very few places (Sarkar et al. 1979, Sarkar and Chakraborty 1982, Saha 1984, 1994, Sarkar et al. 1986).Water bodies over the Dalma Lake and in some parts of the Subarnarekha River have also been mapped correctly. 6. Conclusions

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The endmember spectra collected from Landsat ETM have only six bands, and the extracted relative reflectance curve will have less spectral resolution. Accordingly, some spectral information is lost during resampling of library spectra (of large

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Figure 9. Inferred mineral map obtained using the MTMF method. White areas and spots are unclassified.

sampling rate/higher spectral resolution) by Landsat ETM endmember spectra (of low sampling rate/lower spectral resolution). However, as Landsat ETM is a multichannel sensor with good coverage (six bands) of various important wavelength regions, which exhibit diagnostic spectra for imperative materials, it could be very useful for mapping of mineral occurrences using the ASA technique. A total of six mineral spectra, magnetite, cuprite/chalcopyrite, pyrite, kaolin, apatite and sodalite, were extracted from the processed Landsat ETM image of Dalma volcanic, Dhanjori group and surroundings, and were validated very well by comparing with the available library spectra. The spectrum of sodalite could be also considered as a mixing of clay and iron oxides, considering the presence of lateritic soils. It can thus be concluded that most of the minerals occurring in the host rock have been identified using the spectral-analysis technique. However, comparison based only on the location of mineral-occurrence sites is not meaningful without any information about the actual expression of those mineral occurrences at the ground surface (e.g. presence of

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Table 3. Details of comparative study of mineral occurrences, between the inferred MTMF mineral map and the mineral map (economical mineral deposits) of GSI over Dalma volcanics, Dhanjori group and surroundings. Economical mineral deposits reported as per GSI over Dalma/ Dhanjori and Serial surroundings no. 1. 2. Inferred mineral occurrence as per present study over Dalma/Dhanjori and surroundings Remarks on Location of mineral accuracy occurrences over assessment over Dalma/ Dalma/Dhanjori Dhanjoriand and surroundings as per surroundings GSI map Copper has been mapped correctly Tungsten could not be mapped Copper has been mapped correctly Apatite has been mapped correctly Apatite has been mapped correctly Copper has been mapped correctly

Baharagora: copper Chalcopyite (CuFeS2)/ 22 280 39.8600 N, (Cu) cuprite (Cu2O) 86 320 24.0500 E Chendapathar: tungsten (W) Surda-Mosabani: copper (Cu) 22 500 21.4100 N, 86 400 18.6900 E Chalcopyite (CuFeS2)/ 22 310 25.1300 N, cuprite (Cu2O) 86 240 24.6300 E

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3. 4.

5.

6.

Itagarh-Khajurdari: Apatite 22 340 48.7300 N, Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) apatite (Ap) 86 230 2.9200 E Ca5(PO4)3 (F,Cl, OH) PathargoraApatite 22 260 48.5200 N, Kulmore: apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) 86 220 35.1300 E (Ap) Ca5(PO4)3 (F,Cl, OH) Rakha: copper (Cu), Chalcopyite (CuFeS2)/ 22 420 4.0200 N, cuprite (Cu2O) 86 210 40.0600 E nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co)

outcrops, their extension, geo-mineralogical characteristics), and details of the map obtained are needed to demonstrate the correlation. Further detailed ground surveys by professional teams from the GSI and the National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) are required for further confirmation of such occurrences. The results of the present study ascertain that the Landsat ETM data can be used to generate valuable geological/mineralogical information. It further establishes that the spectroscopy using Landsat ETM images brings a new conception in remote sensing that enables the identification and mapping of major scene components. It can have great potential to aid numerous other fields of study, for example soil, cartography, land use/land cover, vegetation-cover mapping and so on. The success of this study is very much dependent on the quality and correctness of the data, analysis techniques used and spectral library/collected ground-truth data for spectral reflectance. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments for improving this manuscript. The authors are also thankful to Dr. R. R. Navalgund, Director, Space Applications Centre (SAC), and Dr. B. K. Rastogi, Director General of Institute of Seismological Research (ISR), for their keen interest in this study. Thanks are also due to Dr. P. K. Srivastava, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, for his help. Dr. T. J.

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Majumdar would wish to thank Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, for the Emeritus Scientist Fellowship since January 2011. References
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