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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2010

4.1

UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

What is thermal equilibrium ?

1.

(______, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The SI unit for (______, temperature) is Joule, J. ( Heat , _____________ ) is the degree of hotness of a body The SI unit for (heat , ___________) is Kelvin, K. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is (______, equal)

6.

There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the ______ temperature irrespective of shape, mass, size or type of surface.

Calibration of thermometer

7.

The ______

______ of an object is important in the construction of a

thermometer. It is a physical quantity which is sensitive to and changes linearly with the change in temperature of the object. 4-1

Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2010

8. 9.

________________ (l 0 )/ ice point ________________ ( l


100)/steam

: the temperature of pure melting ice/00C point: the temperature of steam from water

that is boiling under standard atmospheric pressure /1000C 10. The lengths of the mercury column in the mercury-in-glass thermometer is 2.6 cm at 0OC and 22.6 cm at 100OC. When the thermometer is placed in hot water, the length of the mercury column is 16.9 cm. Calculate the temperature of the hot water. Answer :

Liquid-in-glass thermometer

11.

The liquid used in glass thermometer should

(a) Be easily ______ (b) Expand and contract rapidly over a ______ range of temperature (c) Not ______ to the glass wall of the capillary tube
12. List the characteristic of mercury

(a) ______ liquid (b) Does not ______ to the glass (c) ______ uniformly when heated (d) ______ point -390C (e) ______ point 3570C
13. Which modification increases the sensitivity of the thermometer ? A. Increasing the size of the bulb B. Increasing the thickness of the bulb C. Reducing the diameter of the capillary tube D. Reducing the length of the capillary tube

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Physics Module Form 4 Check Yourself 1

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2010

1. The diagram below shows a thermometer is used to measure the temperature of hot water. When the thermometer and the hot water are in thermal equilibrium, which of the following is not correct ?

4. A. B. C. D. 2. A. B. C. D. The temperature of hot water is equal to the temperature of the thermometer No heat flow between thermometer and hot water Heat flows from hot water to thermometer Heat flows from thermometer to hot water Which of the following characteristics does a liquid-in-glass thermometer work ? Volume of a fixed mass of liquid Length of the liquid Resistance of the liquid Pressure of the liquid

Diagram below shows the liquid levels from the bulb in three thermometers P, Q and R at certain temperatures.

What is the temperature reading at thermometer R ? A. 70.8 OC B. 65.4 OC C. 62.5 OC D. 57.7 OC

3.

Which of the following temperatures corresponds to zero on the Kelvin scale ? A. 273 OC B. 0 OC C. -273 OC D. 100 OC

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

4.2

UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

Definition of Heat Capacity

1. Quantity of ______ energy required to raise the temperature of an object by 10C. 2. The unit of heat capacity is ______ 3. Beaker A has (greater, same, less) heat capacity than beaker B.

A A

B A

4. This means that the (bigger, smaller) the mass, the (larger, smaller) the amount of heat stored.

Definition of Specific Heat Capacity

1. Quantity of ______ energy required to raise the temperature of ______of a substance by 10C. 2. The unit of specific heat capacity is ______ 3. An object with low specific heat capacity can be heated up______, as it requires less heat to increase its temperature by 10C. It can be cooled ______due to little amount of heat stored in it. 4. An object with high specific heat capacity takes ______ time to heat up, as it requires more heat to increase its temperature by 10C. It is ______ to cool down due to larger amount of heat stored in it.

Q = Pt Pt = mc Q = Heat supplied P = Power of heater T = Time in seconds M = mass of substance C = Specific heat capacity = Increase in temperature

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Physics Module Form 4 Determining the heat capacity of aluminium block

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

1. The purpose of wrapping the aluminium blok with wool ______ ______to or ______ of heat from the surrounding. 2. Oil in the holes for housing thermometer and the immersion heater is to improve the ______ of heat from the heater to the thermometer through the aluminium block. 3. The immersion heater of 50 W rated power is used for 5 minutes to heat up the aluminium block. If the mass of the alumimium block is 1.0 kg and the rise in temperature is 160C, what is the specific heat capacity of aluminium ?

Pt 15000 937.5 Jkg-10C-1 m 1 16

4. Specific heat capacity calculated is usually ______ than the standard value because some ______is lost to the surroundings.

Aim Experiment

To investigate the relationship between temperature rise and mass of water

800C

600C

800C

400C

Hypothesis Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable Apparatus Setup

When the mass of water ______ the temperature rise will ______ . ______ of water

______ in temperature ______ duration, water, weighing scale, ______ rating of heater used

Thermometer, water, beaker water, weighing scale

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Physics Module Form 4 Procedure

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

1. 100 ml of water is placed in a 500 ml beaker. 2. A heater is placed in the water. 3. Heating process is carried out for 1minute. 4. Highest temperature achieved is recorded. 5. Step 2 to 4 is repeated for 200ml, 300ml, 400ml and 500ml of water. Analysis Volume of water used, V (ml) Final temperature, T2 (0C) Initial temperature, T1 (0C) Rise in temperature, = T2 T1 (0C) 1/ (0C-1)

100 200 300 400 500

V Conclusion

1/

Applications of specific heat capacity

Water as heating agent in heating radiator

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

2. Heat from hot water is released to the cooler surroundings of a room to achieve _____

_____
3. Cold water will be recirculated to repeat the process continously

1. Cool water is pumped into the hot water reservoir to absorb a large amount of heat due to its ______specific heat capacity.

Water as a coolant in car engine

4. Hot water is cooled by the air from the cooling fins and the fan

2.

______ specific heat

capacity of water allows it to absorb a large amount of ______from the engine 3. Cool water is recirculated through the engine blocks and the process continues while the engine is running 1. Cool water is pumped into the hot engine

2. Hot air rises up from the land

Sea Breeze (wind from the sea)

1. During the day land gets hotter than the sea because c land c sea

3. Cool air blows from the sea to replace the space left by the hot air and

______
currents in the air are formed

Land Breeze (wind from the land)

3. Cooler air blows from the land to replace the space left by the hot air and convection currents in the air are formed.

2. hot air rises from the sea

1. During the night, the sea is hotter than the land because c land c sea

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Plastic handle _____specific heat capacity

Household apparatus and utensils


Steel ______specific heat capacity

Check Yourself 1 1. Table below shows four types of liquid with their respective specific heat capacities and boiling points. All the liquids have the same mass and same temperatures of 30oC. If the same amount of heat is supplied to them, which liquid, A, B, C or D will boil first ? Liquid A B C D Specific heat capacity (Jkg-10C-1) 3.0 5.0 4.2 0.2 Boiling point (oC) 50 80 100 200

3. Diagram below shows a bullet moving at a velocity of 60 ms-1 is embedded in a wooden block.

Assuming all the energy lost by the bullet is converted to heat energy and is absorbed by the bullet. What is the rise in temperature of the bullet ? ( Specific heat capacity of the bullet = 120 Jkg-10C-1) A. 0.5 oC B. 2.0 oC C. 30.0 oC D. 60.0 oC 4. Diagram below shows 200 g of water at 0 oC is poured into a cup containing 400 g of water at 80 oC . Assuming there is no heat loss to the surroundings.

2. Table below shows the specific heat capacity of four different metals.

Which of the following is the most suitable metal to be used in a rice cooker for fast heating ? A. P B. Q C. R D. S

What is the final temperature of the mixture ? [ Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 Jkg-10C-1] A. 53 oC B. 60 oC C. 66 oC D. 70 oC

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

5. Diagram below shows the temperature-time graph of two solids X and Y of equal mass but of different substances are heated simultaneously by identical heaters.

Which of the following comparison is correct? A. Cx > Cy B. Cx < Cy C. Cx = Cy

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

4.3

UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT


1. Latent Heat is the total energy ________ or released when a substance changes its ________ state completely at a ________ temperature.

Definition of Latent Heat

2. Latent Heat of fusion is heat absorbed when ________ changes into ________ or heat released when liquid changes into solid at constant________. 3. Latent Heat of vaporization is heat absorbed when ________ changes into ________or heat released when vapour changes into liquid at constant________. 4. Unit for latent heat is ________ . 5. Process in which solid directly changes into vapour is called ________ . 1. Specific Latent Heat of fusion is heat absorbed when 1 kg ________changes into ________or heat released when liquid changes into solid at constant________ . Definition of Specific Latent Heat 2. Specific Latent Heat of vaporization is heat absorbed when 1 kg ________ changes into ________or heat released when vapour changes into liquid at constant________ . 3. Unit for latent heat is________.

4. When temperature remain constant, ________energy of the molecules remain constant. However energy absorbed is used to overcome ________ of attraction and atmospheric pressure.

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Physics Module Form 4 Heating curve

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Fill the empty boxes for the heating curve below with the following words Solid, liquid, gas, boiling point, melting point, latent heat of fusion, latent heat of vaporization

Calculation of specific latent heat of fusion

Mass of water collected in Set A = 49.2 g Mass of water collected in Set B = 6.4 g Power of heater = 80 W Time interval of switching on the heater = 3 minutes 1. Calculate energy supplied by the heater.

2. What is the mass of ice melted due to the heat absorbed from the surroundings? 3. Determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice. L=

14400 (80)(3 60) Pt = = = 3 m (49.2 6.4) 10 42.8 103

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Check Yourself 1 1. Diagram below shows the cooling curve of a Gas. Temperatures T1 and T2 represents power of 1 kW. The beaker and its content is resting on an electronic balance which measures the mass of the beaker and its content.

T1 A. Solidification B. Boiling Point C. Melting Point D. Melting Point

T2 Room temperature Solidification point Freezing Point Room temperature When the water is boiling, it is found that 80 g of water is boiled away in 3 minutes. What is the specific latent heat of vaporization of water ? A. 2.10 x 106 Jkg-1 B. 2.15 x 106 Jkg-1 C. 2.20 x 106 Jkg-1 D. 2.25 x 106 Jkg-1 4. Diagram below shows the arrangement of apparatus used to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice. There are two identical sets. One of the sets is called a control set which is without a power supply.

2. Diagram below shows the heating curve of a solid Y of mass 2 kg which is heated by a heater of 70 W power. Which statement below is NOT true ?

A. Specific latent heat of Y is 10500 Jkg-1. B. Specific heat capacity of solid Y and liquid Y are the same C. Total heat used is 1120 J D. Melting point of Y is 10 oC 3. Diagram below shows the arrangement of apparatus used to determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water. The water in the beaker is heated by an immersion heater with a 4-12 The aim of the control set is

Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011 C. To detect any changes in the melting point of the ice D. To find the mass of water evaporated

A. To find the mass of ice melted due to the heat absorbed from the surroundings B. To find the mass of water formed by condensation from the vapour in the air 5.

Heat produced in an engine block of car needs to be transferred out promptly to prevent overheating. This is done by circulating a suitable cooling liquid through the engine block. (a) What is meant by specific heat capacity of water is 4200 Jkg-1oC-1 ? ________________________________________________________________________________ (b) Based on the table above, (i) Explain the suitable characteristics of the cooling liquid to extract heat out of an engine block. High Specific Heat Capacity High specific latent heat of vaporization High boiling point Low rusting rate (ii) Decide which liquid is the most suitable and give reasons for your choice. _____________________________________________________________________________ (c) Total energy released by an engine in 1 hour = 9.0 x 107 J Energy breakdown : mechanical 40% and heat 60% Mass of cooling liquid circulating in 1 hour = 150 kg Temperature of water entering the engine = 30oC Temperature of water exiting the engine = 60oC Based on the information above, (i) Calculate the power of the engine

(ii) Calculate the amount of heat produced by the engine in one hour.

(iii) Calculate the specific heat capacity of the cooling liquid.

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

(d) Suggest two ways to dissipate the heat from the cooling liquid. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

4.4

UNDERSTANDING GAS LAWS

What is kinetic theory of gases ?

The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas as a large number of small particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, _______ _______. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with each other and with the walls of the container. Kinetic theory explains ___________ properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. The ___________ of an ideal __________ ____ is a measure of the average _______ _______ of its atoms. Boyles Law Charles Law

Pressure Law

Define the three gas laws.

Formula

Condition

T = ___________and _______ of gas are constant

P = ______ and _____ of gas are constant (temperature must be in ______scale)

V = ______ and ____ of gas are constant (temperature must be in ______ scale)

Graphs

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Physics Module Form 4 Experiment al set up

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Calculation involving Boyles Law.

Diagram on the right shows an arrangement to investigate relationship between pressure and volume of a fixed mass at constant temperature. The pressure of the air in the glass measured by a pressure gauge and the pressure can be increased by using the bicycle pump. The pump of the gas x 105 Pa when the volume is 80 cm3.

the of gas tube is is 1.5

(a) Explain how a gas exerts a pressure on the walls of its container. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ (b) State the Boyles law. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ (c) Find the volume of the gas when pressure is 2.5 x 105 Pa

(d) Find the pressure of the gas when the volume of the gas is 60 cm3.

(e) A bubble of air rises from the bottom of a pond to the surface. As the bubble reaches the surface, its volume is double its original volume. Assume the temperature is constant, find the depth of the pond. [Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water]

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Question involving Charles Law.

(a) State Charles law. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ (b) Diagrams below shows how (a) the pressure of the gas change with temperature and (b) the volume of the gas change with temperature .

(a) (i)

(b)

Compare the characteristics displayed by the graphs. 1. _______________________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________________ Relate the information you have mentioned to form a physics concept.

(ii)

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (iii) Name the concept. ______________________________________________________________________ (c) (i) Define pressure.

______________________________________________________________________ (iv) Using kinetic theory of gas, explain why the pressure of a gas in a fixed container increases with an increase in its temperature. 1. _______________________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________________

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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

Questions involving Pressure Law.

Diagram (a) shows the conditon of a snack pack kept in a refrigerator at 18oC, whereas Diagram (b) shows the condition of the same snack pack in Borneo Highlands at the same temperature at 18oC.

(a) Based on the above information and observation,

(b)

(a) State one suitable inference. ______________________________________________________________________ (b) State one suitable hypothesis. ______________________________________________________________________ (c) With the use of appropriate apparatus, describe an experiment framework to test your hypothesis. In your description, state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment

______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Variables used in the experiment _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ (iii) List of apparatus and materials _________ pressure gauge, a _______ with volume scale, rubber tube and retort stand. (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus

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Physics Module Form 4 (v)

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2011

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable 1. The apparatus for the experiment is set up as shown in the diagram 2. The ______ of the syringe is pressed down slowly until the volume of air inside the syringe is 100 cm3 3. The ________ of the air in the syringe is read from the Bourdon gauge 4. The experiment is repeated with ________of air fixed at 80 cm3, 5. Make sure that there is no _____ and no increase in ___________ . 6. The way you would tabulate the data Volume, V (cm3) Pressure, P (Pa) 100.0

(vi)

(vii)

The way you would analyze the data 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0

Check Yourself 1 1. Diagram below shows a valve P connecting two cylinders, A dan B. When P is opened, gas from cylinder A moves to cylinder B. P D. 8.0 x 10 -4 m3 3. Diagram below shows capillary tubes (a) and (b) which are identical. If the atmospheric pressure is 75 cmHg, determine the length of gas column x and the pressure p. A. 2.0 x 10 -4 m3 B. 4.0 x 10 -4 m3 C. 5.0 x 10 -4 m3

Which physical quantities does not change ? A. B. C. D. Pressure Volume Mass Density

2. The graph in the diagram below shows the relationship between pressure, P and volume, V of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature. What is the value of V2 ?

Length x (cm)

Pressure p (cmHg)

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Physics Module Form 4 A. B. C. D. 24.0 21.0 22.4 21.0 70 75 80 70

Chapter 4 - Heat

GCKL 2010

4. Diagram below shows a fan is allowed to blow in a closed room for an hour. What are the possible changes to the pressure and temperature of the air in the room ?

5. Air at a temperature of 27oC is kept in a container at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. What is the pressure of the air, in atmosphere, if it is heated to a temperature of 77oC ? A. B. C. D. 0.35 0.86 1.17 2.85

6. Table below shows the volume and temperature of a fixed mass of gas kept at constant pressure. V (cm3) T(oC) Temperature A. B. C. D. Increases No change Decreases Increases Pressure no change increases increases Increases 50 27 100 x

What is the value of x ? A. B. C. D. 54 oC 300 oC 327 oC 600 oC

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