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CapacityAnalysisofCellularCDMASystems(ECE559Project) AbdullahAbuRomeh

1.Introduction:
Capacityofcellularsystemsisofmajorconcerntodesignersduetoitseconomicvalue.Foranymultiuser
communicationsystem,themeasureofitseconomicusefulnessisnotthemaximumnumberofusers
whichcanbeservicedatonetime,butratherthepeakloadthatcanbesupportedwithagivenqualityand
withavailabilityofservice[1].
InCDMAcellularsystemswithinterferencebasedadmissioncontrol,theinterferencelevelresulting
fromtheconnectedusersinthecellaffectsthecapacityandcoverageofthecellandanyreductionin
interferenceconvertsdirectlyintoanincreaseincapacity.Also,ItiswellknownforCDMAsystemswith
nonorthogonalusersandsingleuserdetectionthatthecoverageofacellhasaninverserelationshipwith
theusercapacityofthecell[2].Sincealluserssharethesamespectrum,powercontrolisexercisedinthe
reverseandforwardlinks.
Inthisreport,thecapacityanalysisofcellularCDMAsystemsandthecoveragecapacitytradeoff
inherentinsuchsystemswillbeexploredalongwithsomemethodstoincreasethecapacityandcoverage
ofsuchsystems.Also,thecoveragecapacitytradeoffofmixedtrafficUMTSCDMAsystemswillbe
exploredtotouchonthedifferencesbetweensecondgeneration(2G)andthirdgeneration(3G)cellular
systemsintermsofcoverageandcapacity.
2.ReverseandforwardlinkcapacityanalysisofCDMAsystems[3]
ThecapacityofCDMAsystemsisconsideredseparatelyforforwardandreverselinksduetothe
differenceintheinterferencecharacteristics.Forcellularsystems,interferenceisdividedintointercell
andintracellinterference.Thefollowingassumptionsaremadethroughouttheanalysis:
Usersarepowercontrolledbythebasestation(BS).
AllbasestationsrequirethesameSNRforadequateperformance.
PowercontrolisexercisedbytheBScorrespondingtopilotwithmaximumpowerseenattheuser.
Theadmissionpolicyisbasedontheinterferencelevel(SIRbasedadmissionpolicy)whereusersare
admittedtothecelluntilapredeterminedlevelofinterferenceisreached.
Usersareuniformlydistributedineachcellandthenumberofusersineachcellareequal.
21.Reverselinkcapacityanalysis
Inthereverselink,severalusersconnecttoaBaseStation(BS)andthepowerreceivedfromalltheusers
isequalduetopowercontrolwhichisaccomplishedbysendingapilotsignaltoeachuserwithknown
powerandphase.Therefore,theintercellinterferenceinthereverselinkdependsonlyonthenumberof
users.
Forasinglecellcasewithsingleuserdetectionanddeterministicnumberofusers,thecapacityanalysisis
straightforwardaswillbeillustratedbelow.TheSIRseenatBSreceiveris:
SIR=
S
(N1) S+j
(1)
where,S:powerofthereceivedsignalfromeachuser,
N:numberofusersinthecell,
:Backgroundnoise.
TheSIRcouldbeincreased(interferencereduced)bycontrollingthetermsinthedenominatorof(1).
TherearetwowaystoreducetheinterferenceseenbytheBSinthesinglecellcase.First,using
sectorizationwheredirectionalantennasareusedattheBSforreceivingandtransmitting.Themost
commoncaseisusingthreeantennaswhichdividesthecellintothreesectorsandsothenumberofusers
seenbythesectorantennaisreducedbyafactorof3.Secondly,voiceactivitymonitoringwherethe
transmissionfromtheuserissuppressedwhennovoiceispresent.Extensivestudiesshowedthateither
speakerisactiveonly35%to40%.
From(1),theSNR(EnergyperbittoNoisedensityratio)couldbeexpressedby:
E
b
N
0
=
S/ R
( N1) S/ W+j/ W
(2)
where,E
b
:Energyperbitseenatthereceiver,
W:spreadingbandwidth,
R:informationbitrate,
N
0
:noisepowerspectraldensity.
Followingfrom(2),themaximumnumberofusersinthecell(capacity)couldbeexpressedas:
N=1+
W/ R
E
b
/ N
0

j
S
(3)
whichshowsthatthenumberofusersdependsontheSNRrequiredbytheBSforadequateperformance.
TheSNRrequirementcouldbetranslatedintoaninterferencelevelthresholdforanSIRadmissionpolicy.
Foramulticellsystem,theBSsuffersfromintercellinterferenceinadditiontotheintracell
interference.TheeffectofthisinterferenceontheSNRseenattheBSunderconsideration(BS
0
)couldbe
observedbysimplyaddinganintercellinterferencetermto(2)
E
b
N
0
=
S/ R
( N1) S/ W+I/ W+j/ W
(4)
where,I:thetotalintercellinterferenceseenbyBS
0
receiverfromusersinneighboringcellswhoarenot
controlledbyBS
0
.
However,thecapacitycouldn'tbecomputedstraightforwardlyaswedidin(3)becausetheintercell
interference(I)isnotadeterministicterm.Theintercellinterferencedependsonthelargescale
variationsseenbythesignaloftheothercelluserswhenpropagatingtowardsBS
0
.Thegenerally
acceptedmodelforthegainduetolargescalevariationsis:
G=10
((/ 10)
r
4
(5)
where, (: N(0,c
2
) with usuallyequalto8dB,risthedistancetraveledbythesignal.
So,forauseratdistancer
m
fromhisBSandr
0
fromBS
0
,theinterferenceseenbyBS
0
canbeexpressedas
I (r
0,
r
m
)=
10
((
0
/10)
r
0
4
.
r
m
4
10
((
m
/10)
. S
(6)
wherethefirsttermrepresentsthepathlossandthesecondtermisduetopowercontrolexercisedbyBS
m
ontheinterferer(reciprocalofthepathloss).TocalculatetheoverallinterferenceseenattheBS,weneed
tointegrate(6)overtheareaseenbytheBSwhichrequiresfindingr
0
andr
m
foreachpointintheregion.
Havingthecelldividedintothreesectorsasdiscussedabove,theareaofinterestisshowninFig.1.

Fig.1.Reverselinkcapacitycalculationgeometry[3]
Afterintegrating(6)overtheareashownabove,theupperboundsonthestatisticsofI/Sarefoundandthe
SNRseenattheBScanbeexpressedas:
E
b
N
0
=
W/ R

i=1
N
s
1
+
i
+I / S+j/ S
(7)
where,Ns:numberofuserspersector,

i
:voiceactivityrandomvariable~Bernoulli( ),where isusuallychosenaround3/8.
In(7),wehavetworandomvariable:Iand .Therefore,thecapacityiscalculatedsuchthatacertain
BERrequiredforadequateperformanceisachievedwithacertainprobabilitywhichtranslatestoa
requirementontheSNR.Withanefficientmodemandapowerfulconvolutionalcodeandtwoantenna
diversity,adequateperformancecorrespondstoBER<10
3
whichisachievableonthereverselinkwhen
SNR>7dB.Consequently,therequiredperformanceisachievedwithprobabilityP=Pr(BER<10
3
).Since
wehaveupperboundsonthestatisticsofI/S,wecanupperboundthecomplementofPwhichgivesa
lowerboundonP(theprobabilityofachievingtherequiredperformance).Thefigurebelowshowsthe
reverselinkcapacity/sectorforanupperboundon1P.
Fig.2.Reverselinkcapacity/sector(W=1.25Mhz,R=8kb/s, =3/8)[3]
Fig.2showsthataswerelaxtheperformancerequirements,ahighercapacity/sectorcouldbeachieved
whichshowsthatCDMAsystemshasasoftlimitonthecapacitycomparedtothehardlimitinTDMA
andFDMAsystems.Also,asthenumberofusersinneighboringcellsincreases,thecapacity/sector
decreases.
22.Forwardlinkcapacityanalysis
InCDMAsystems,thereverselinkhaslesscapacitythantheforwardlinkduetothelimitedpower
availableattheuser.Forcellularsystems,powercontrolintheforwardlinkisrequiredduetothehigh
interferenceexperiencedneartheboundariesofthecellduetotheinterferencefrombasestationsof
neighboringcells.PowercontrolintheforwardlinktakestheformofpowerallocationattheBS
accordingtotheneedsoftheusers.ToenabletheBStoallocatepower,theusersendsinformationabout
thepowerreceivedfromitsBS,whichisdeterminedbasedonthepilotpower,andthetotalpower
receivedfromallotherBSstoitsBSatthebeginningoftransmission.Now,theBShasreasonable
accurateestimatesof
S
T
1
and

i=1
K
S
T
i
where
s
T
1
>s
T
2
>...>s
T
K
>0
arethepowersreceivedbythe
userunderconsiderationfromthesectorfacingit,assumingallbutKreceivedpowersarenegligible.The
receivedSNRatthei
th
usercanbelowerboundedby:
(
E
b
N
0
)
i

i
S
(T
1
)
/ R
|(

j=1
k
S
(T
j
)
)
i
+j /W
(8)
where, : thefractionofthetotalsitepowerdevotedtousers(excludingpilot),

i
:thefractionofpowerdevotedtothei
th
userwhichcouldbeviewedasthepowerallocation
variable,
S
T
1
:thetotalpowertransmittedbytheBScontrollingtheuserunderconsideration.
In(8),wehaveonerandomvariable( S
T
j
)whichisalognormalrandomvariablesincethepower
receivedfromthej
th
BSisaffectedbythelargescalevariations.Now,usingthesamemethodologyused
inthereverselinkcapacityanalysiswithmorecomplicatedcalculationsandapproximations,the
followingfigureisobtained:

Fig.3.Forwardlinkcapacity/sector(W=1.25Mhz,R=8kb/s, =3/8, =0.8)[3]


3.ReverselinkErlangcapacityanalysis[1]
TheErlangcapacityarisesintheanalysisofthecapacityofcellularsystemsasitcomputestheavailable
resourcesfortheusers.Erlangcapacityreferstotheaveragetrafficloadintermsofaveragenumberof
usersrequestingserviceresultinginacertainblockingprobability.Blockingprobabilityreferstothe
probabilitythatanewuserwillfindallchannelsbusyandhencebedeniedservice.InCDMAsystems
withSIRadmissionpolicy,thiscorrespondstothecasewhentheoverallinterferenceinthesystemis
aboveacertainthreshold.Throughoutthefollowinganalysis,theinterferencelevelisn'tallowedtoexceed
thebackgroundnoisebymorethan10dBtoguaranteeadequateperformanceandtheblockingprobability
shouldbelessthan1%whichtranslatesto
Pr ( I
0
/ N
0
>10)0.01
.
First,thereverselinkErlangcapacityanalysiswillbecarriedouttoasimplecasewiththefollowing
assumptions:
1) ConstantnumberofusersN
u
ineverysector,
2) eachusertransmitscontinuously( =1) ,
3) eachBSreceiverrequiresthesameSNRforadequateperformance.
So,thereisnoblockingaslongasthefollowinginequalityistrue:
N
u
E
b
R(1+f )+N
0
WI
0
W
(9)
where,f:theratiooftheintercelltotheintracellinterferenceatBS
0
.
Thistranslatestothefollowingconditiononthenumberofusersinthecell:
N
u

(W/ R)
(E
b
/ I
0
)
.
(1j)
(1+f )
(10)
where,=N
0
/I
0
=0.1.
Thisagreeswiththeanalysiscarriedoutintheprevioussectionwherethenumberofusersisinversely
proportionaltotheSNRrequirementandtheinterference.
Intheanalysissofar,wehaveassumedthenumberofusersinthecelltobedeterministic.Also,we
assumedthatthepowercontrolisperfect.Toaccountfortherandomnessofnumberofusersandpower
controlinaccuracies,thefollowingassumptionsaremade:
1) NumberofactivecallsinthesectorisaPoissonrandomvariablewithmean / ,
2) eachuserisgatedonwithprobability andoffwithprobability1 ,
3) eachuser'srequiredenergytointerferenceratioisvariedaccordingtopropagationconditions.
Withtheaboveassumptions,thenoblockingconditioncorrespondstothefollowinginequality:

i=1
k
+
i
E
bi
R+

j
other cells

i=1
k
+
i ( j )
E
bi ( j )
R+N
0
WI
0
W
(11)
Theblockingprobabilitycanthenbewrittenas:
P
blocking
=PZ=

i=1
k
+
i
c
i
+

j
other cells

i=1
k
+
i
( j)
c
i
( j )
>
W/ R
1j

(12)
where,k:numberofusers/sectorisaPoissonrandomvariablewithmean / ,

i
:SNRrequiredfromthei
th
user(E
bi
/I
0
).
Toevaluatetheexpressionin(12),weneedtoknowthatstatisticsofk, , whichareasfollows:
:Bernoulli( ).
k:Poisson( / ).
:dependsonpowercontrolmechanism.Ithasbeendemonstratedthattheinaccuracyinpowercontrol
loopsareapproximatelylognormalwithastandarddeviationbetween1and2.However,forexcessive
multipath,we'llgetabiggerstandarddeviation.Fromfieldtrials,withallcellsfullyloaded, maybe
modeledasalognormalrandomvariable10
X/10
withX~N(7,2.5)dB.
Forasinglecellcase,wegetthefollowingcapacitycurve:
Fig.4.Blockingprobabilityforasinglecellinterference(W/R=1280, =3/8)[1]
Thecapacityvaluesobtainedinthiscaseareabout10timeslargerthanthoseobtainedintheprevious
analysiswhichisbecauseofthedifferenceintheW/Rvalueusedinthesimulation.Also,theresults
showninFig.4suggestthattheGaussianapproximationoftherandomvariableZisclosetothevalues
obtainedfromthesimulationusingnumericalintegration.ThissuggestsusingGaussianapproximation
forthemulticellcasetoeasethecalculations.UsingthecentrallimittheoremonZ,weget
P
blocking
Q|
AE( Z)
.Var ( Z)

(13)
where, E( Z)=(1+f ) E(k) E(+c)=(1+f )(\/ j)exp|(c)
2
/2 exp| m ,
Var ( Z)=(1+f ) E( Z) Var (+c)+Var (k)| E(+c)
2
=(1+f )(\/ j)jexp| 2(c)
2
exp|2m .
From(13),wegetthefollowingexpressionfortheErlangcapacityofthereverselink(Erlangs/sector):
\
j
=
(1j)(W/ R) F( B, c)
j(1+f )exp(m)
(14)
where, F(B, c)=exp|(c)
2
/ 2| 1+(/ 2)exp| 3(c)
2
/ 2(1.1+4exp|3(c)
2
/ 2/ B) ,
B=
Q
1
( P
blocking
)
2
A
,
A=
(W/ R)(1j)
exp( m)
.
Using(14),theErlangcapacityvsblockingprobabilityfordifferentcasesofinaccuraciesinpowercontrol
wheresigisthestandarddeviationoftheSNRisshowninFig.5.Asshown,astandarddeviationof2.5
dBinpowercontrolcausesareductionof1dBincapacity.Also,thecurveswereobtainedfordifferent
valueofW/Rthanthoseusedin[1]whichmakesthemclosertothevaluesobtainedin[3].
Fig.5.ErlangcapacityvsblockingprobabilityfordifferentvaluesofstandarddeviationsforX
(Parameters:W=1.25Mhz,R=14.4Kbps, =0.45,m

=7dB, =0.1)
Sincecellularsystemsinthereverselinkarepowerlimited,itisimportanttodeterminetheErlang
capacityasafunctionoftheminimumSNRvaluesrequiredforeachuserwhichcorrespondstothe
minimumtransmittedpowerperuser.Thiscouldbeachievedbyfixingtheblockingprobabilityand
finding foreachuserloading / giventhelinkattenuation,receiversensitivity,antennagains.The
totalinterferencepercellcanbeexpressedintermsofthebackgroundnoiseandtheotheruser
interferenceas:
I
0
W=j(\/ j) S+N
0
W
(15)
whichisequivalentto:
S
N
0
W
=
1
j(\/ j)
(
I
0
N
0
1)=
(1/j)1
j(\/ j) (16)
Using(16)andtheproceduredescribedabove,wegettheminimumSNRversusErlangcapacity/sector
curveshowninFig.6.
Fig.6.MinimumSNRvsErlangcapacity/sector(Parameters:W=1.25Mhz,
R=14.4Kbps, =0.45,m

=7dB, =0.1to0.8)
Sofar,theeffectofinterferenceonthecapacityofaCDMAsystemhasbeeninvestigatedalongwiththe
capacityasafunctionof:BER,blockingprobability,andSNR.InCDMAsystems,thereisaninherent
tradeoffbetweencoverageandcapacity.Anaccuratepredictionofcellcoverageasafunctionofuser
capacityisessentialinCDMAnetworkdesignanddeployment.Therefore,thecoveragecapacitytradeoff
incellularCDMAsystemswillbeconsiderednext.
4.CapacityCoverageTradeoffinCDMAsystems[2]
IncellularCDMAsystemswithsingleuserdetectors,intracellinterferencelimitsthecoverageofthe
cell.Cellcoveragecouldbedefinedasthemaximumdistancethatagivenuserofinterestcanbefromthe
basestationandstillhaveareliablereceivedsignalstrengthatthebasestation.Sincetheintracell
interferenceincreasesasthenumberofusersincrease,foragivenupperlimitontransmitpower,the
coverageofacellisinverselyproportionaltothenumberofusersinit.
Toderiveananalyticalrelationshipbetweencoverageandcapacity,weneedtoderiveanequationthat
relatesthecellradiustothenumberofusersinthecellwhichcouldbeusedtosethardlimitsonthe
maximumnumberofusersadmittedintoacellsuchthatthecoveragerequirementsaremet.Inthe
previousanalysis,weonlyconsideredthecapacityofaCDMAsystemwhichisrelatedtotheoutage
probabilityduetotheoverallinterferenceexceedingapredeterminedlevel.Toanalyzethecoverage,we
musttakeintoconsiderationtheprobabilitythattheuserdoesn'thaveenoughpowertomeettheSNR
requirementsoftheBS.Now,wedefinetheoutageastheeventwhentheusercouldn'tgetareliable
communicationwiththeBSforacertainperiodoftimeasaresultofnotbeingabletomeettheSNR
requirementoftheBSwhichresultsinservicedegradationandcalldrop.Theprobabilityof
instantaneousoutagecouldbeexpressedas:
P
outage
=P
blocking
+P(requiredpower>S
max
|noblocking)
Thecoveragecapacitytradeoffwillbeconsideredfortwocases:thesimplecaseofdeterministicnumber
ofusersandthepracticalcaseofrandomnumberofusers.Thecoveragecapacitytradeoffanalysiswill
beindependentoftheadmissionpolicyandcallblockingprobability.
41.CoverageCapacityTradeoffwithdeterministicnumberofusers
Togetanexpressionfortheoutageprobability,theblockingprobabilitywillbeanalyzedfirstthenalimit
willbesetonthemaximumpower.TheSIRfortheauserattheBSvarieswithtimeduetomultipathand
imperfectioninpowercontrolaswasshowninsection2.Theinaccuracyinpowercontrolalgorithmcan
bemodeledasalognormalrandomvariable.So,theSIRdemandedfromthej
th
userduetothepower
controlalgorithmcanbemodeledasalognormalrandomvariableandcanbeexpressedas:

c
j
x
=

c
j
target
6
j
c
where, 6
j
c
:theerrorinthepowercontrolalgorithm,

c
j
target
:thetargetSNRrequiredbytheBSforadequateperformance.
Atanytime,theSIRmaybemodeledasiidlognormalrandomvariableassuggestedinsection2.In
ordertomeettheSIRrequirements,therequiredreceivedpowers

S
j
x
mustsatisfythepowercontrol
equations

c
j
x
=

S
j
x
/ R

i :i j
+
i

S
i
x
/ W+N
0
+I
(17)
Itcanbeeasilyshownthat(17)hasafeasiblesolutionif,andonlyif,thefollowinginequalityistrue:

i=1
k
R

c
i
x
+
i
W+R

c
i
x
+
i
1
(18)
andtherequiredreceivedpoweris:

S
j
x
(k)=
( N
0
+I)WR

c
j
x
W+R

c
j
x
+
j
1

i=1
k
R

c
i
x
+
i
W+R

c
i
x
+
i
(19)
LetA
out
betheeventthat(17)doesn'thaveafeasiblesolution,theblockingprobabilitycannowbe
expressedas:P{A
out
}=P{
k=1
K
1
6
k
+1
1
}where
6
k
=
W
Rc
K
x and c
k
x
(dB) ~ N(m
c
, c
c
2
)
Let
X
k
=
1
6
k
+1
Then
p
X
k
( x)=
10
ln10
1
c
c
.2n(1x)
exp(
| 10log
10
(
R
W
1x
x
)+m
c

2
2c
c
2
)
(20)
Usingnumericalconvolutionitcanbeshownthatasthenumberofusersinthecellincreases,theoutage
probabilityincreasesexponentiallywhennolimitissetonthemaximumtransmittedpowerwhichagrees
withwhatwehaveinFig.4.Therefore,thisanalysisisequivalenttotheErlangcapacityanalysis.After
analyzingtheblockingprobability,wenowconsiderthecasewhenalimitonthemaximumtransmitted
powerisset.LetB
out
betheeventthat(17)hasafeasiblesolutionbutthepowerrequiredisgreaterthan
themaximumavailablefromtheuser.Then,
P(B
out
)=P( S
trans
>S
max
)

where,
S
trans
=S
1
+PL(d)+Z
1
and
PL(d)+Z
1
arethelargescalevariationsindB.
So,theoutageprobabilitycanbeexpressedas:
P
out
=P( A
out
)+| 1P( A
out
) P( S
1
x
+PL(d)+Z
1
>S
max
l A
out
c
)
Now,letR
cell
bethedistancefromtheBSatwhichP
out
=p
m
(maximumoutageprobability)forauserof
interest.Then,
P(A
out
)+[1P(A
out
)]P(S
1
+K
1
+K
2
logR
cell
+Z
1
>S
max
|A
out
c
)=p
m
(21)
In(21),therearetwotermsthatdependonk:A
out
andS
1
x
.A
out
couldbeexpressedasafunctionofkas
shownabove(P
A
(k)).AfterdeterminingthedistributionofS
1
conditionedonA
out
c
asafunctionkweget:
logR
cell
=
1
K
2
| S
max
K
1
m
S
(k)
.
c
S
2
(k)+c
z
2
Q
1
(
p
m
P
A
(k)
1P
A
( k)
)
(22)
where,
PL(d)=K
1
+K
2
log(d)
.
Fig.7.Coverageversusnumberofusers(W=1.25Mhz,R=14.4Kbps, =0.45,m

=7dB,

=2.5dB,
K
1
=17.3dB,K
2
=33.8dB,S
max
=23dBm,N0=169dBm/Hz,p
m
=0.05,
z
=8dB)[2]
ApointofinterestinFig.7iswherethecurveintersectthexaxis(numberofusersasthecoverage
shrinkstozero)whichisdefinedasthepolecapacity(k
pole
).ThisrepresentstheErlangcapacityofthe
CDMAsystem.Clearly,thepolecapacityisindependentofthemaximumallowableinterferencebecause
thereisnolimitationonthetransmittedpowerandthetotalinterferencetobackgroundnoiseratiodoes
notaffecttheSIRdemandedbythepowercontrolalgorithm.
42.CoverageCapacityTradeoffwithrandomnumberofusers
Todesigncellcoveragesandcapacitiestomatchprojectedtrafficdensitiesinthenetwork,itis
appropriatetomodelthenumberofusersinacellasarandomvariable .Thestatisticswillbea
functionoftheadmissionpolicyandtheofferedtraffic.Theaverageoutageprobabilityatdistancedcan
becalculatedas:

P
out
(d)=
1
1p

(0)

k=1
k
pole
p

(k)| P
A
(k)+|1P
A
(k) P(S
1
x
+PL(d)+Z
j
>S
max
lA
out
c
) (23)
Asbefore,

P
out
( R
cell
)=p
m
.If hasasPoissonwithparameter truncatedat
k
pole
,the
averagenumberofusers(c)couldbeexpressedas
c=E| =

k=0
k
pole
kp

(k)=

k=0
k
pole
k

k
e

/ k!

j=0
k
pole

j
e

/ j !
=| 1

k
pole
e

/ k
pole
!

j =0
k
pole

j
e

/ j !

(24)
Bysolving(23)and(24)forvariousvaluesof ,thefollowingtradeoffcurveisobtained:

Fig.8.CoverageversuscapacityforatruncatedPoissonuserdistribution(W=1.25Mhz,R=14.4Kbps, =0.45,
m

=7dB,

=2.5dB,K
1
=17.3dB,K
2
=33.8dB,S
max
=23dBm,N0=169dBm/Hz,p
m
=0.05,
z
=8dB)[2]
ThepolecapacityinFig.8agreeswiththevaluesshowninFig.5sincethesameadmissionpolicyis
assumed.Thebeautyofcoveragecapacitytradeoffanalysisisthatitisindependentoftheadmission
policyandprobabilityofoutage.Byplugginginthevaluesofp
m
anddecidingtheappropriateuser
arrivalmodel,thecapacitycoveragetradeoffanalysisisobtainedforanydesiredcase.
5.Effectofsofthandoff
SoftHandoffisatechniquewherebymobileunitsintransitionbetweenonecellandoneofitsneighbors
transmittoandreceivethesamesignalfromallbasestationssimultaneously.Inthefollowinganalysis,it
willbeshownthatsofthandoffincreasescellcoverageandreverselinkcapacitywhencomparedtohard
handoff.
5.1Effectofsofthandoffoncellcoverageandreverselinkcapacity[4]
Toconsidertheeffectofsofthandoffonthecellcoverage,wemustresorttotheeventB
out
.Inhard
handoffwheretheusercouldonlyconnecttooneBSatanygiventime:
P(B
out
lA
out
c
)=P(10

0
/ 10
r
0
4
>S
trans
S
0
)
.However,forsofthandoff:
P(B
out
lA
out
c
)=P(min(10

0
/10
r
0
4
, 10

1
/10
r
1
4
)>min(S
trans1
, S
trans0
)S
0
)
.Thisshowsthatthe
coveragewithsofthandoff(withtwoBSsinthisexample)isbettercomparedtohardhandofffor
distancesfromtheBSgreaterthanthecellradius.Thefollowingtablecomparestherequiredmarginfor
softandhardhandoffwhere isthepowerrequiredfromtheusertoovercometheeffectoflargescale
variations(PL+Z).Therequiredmarginis6to8dBlessforsofthandoffthanhardhandoff.This
correspondstoanincreaseinthedistanceausercanmoveof1.5to2dBoranincreaseintheareaby3to
4dB(2to2.5).
RelativeDistance
BeyondCellBoundaryr
0
HardHandoffRequired
Margin

Hard
dB
RelativeMargin

Hard

soft
dB
RelativeCoverageArea
1 10.3 4.1 1.6
1.05 11.1 4.9 1.8
1.1 12.0 5.8 2.0
1.15 12.7 6.5 2.1
1.2 13.5 7.3 2.3
1.25 14.2 8.0 2.5
TableIRelativecoverageareaforsofthandoffcomparedtohardhandoff[4]
Clearly,softhandoffincreasesthecellcoveragecomparedtohardhandoff.
Theeffectofsofthandoffonthecapacitycouldbeanalyzedbyconsideringtheintracelltointercell
interferenceratio(f).Thisisjustifiedbecauseallotherfactorsthataffectcapacityarethesameforsoft
andhardhandoffcases.Forhardhandoff,assumingthathandoffoccursatcellboundaries,fcouldbe
foundbydividingtheintegralof(6)overtheareacontainingtheinterfererusersbytheintracell
interferencewhichisequaltothenumberofincellusersinthenormalizedpowercase.Forsofthandoff,
theareaofintegrationdependsonthenumberofbasestationsinvolvedinthehandoff.Thefollowing
tableshowsthevalueoffforhardandsofthandoff.Where,
:theexponentofthepathloss,
:isthestandarddeviationoftheshadowfading,
N
C
:thenumberofbasestationstakingpartinthehandoff.
=3 =4 =5
Hard Soft
N
C
=2
Hard Soft
N
C
=1
Soft
N
C
=2
Soft
N
C
=3
Soft
N
C
=4
Hard Soft
N
C
=2
0 0.77 0.77 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.30 0.30
2 0.86 0.78 0.48 0.48 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.33 0.30
4 1.18 0.87 0.67 0.67 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.31
6 2.01 1.09 1.13 1.13 0.56 0.49 0.49 0.78 0.36
8 4.21 1.60 2.38 2.38 0.77 0.57 0.55 1.64 0.47
10 10.9 2.80 6.17 6.17 1.28 0.75 0.66 4.27 0.73
12 35.1 5.93 19.8 19.8 2.62 1.17 0.91 13.7 1.42
TableIIValuesoffforhardhandoffandsofthandoffwithdifferentnumberofBSsinvolved[4]
Clearly,asthenumberofbasestationsinthesofthandoffincreases,theratiofdecreaseswhichamounts
totheBSunderconsiderationseeinglessinterferenceandthusincreasingthecapacity.
5.2Effectofsofthandoffonthecoveragecapacitytradeoff
SofthandoffincreasesthecapacityandcoverageofaCDMAsystemasshowninsection5.1.Theeffect
ofsofthandoffonthecapacitycoveragetradeoffcurvewillnowbeconsidered.Toenablethecomparison
withthecapacitycoveragetradeoffwithnohandoff,thecellswillbepartitionedasshownbelow.
Fig.9.Cellradiiandsofthandoffregion(W=1.25Mhz,R=14.4Kbps, =0.45,m

=7dB,

=2.5dB,
K
1
=17.3dB,K
2
=33.8dB,S
max
=23dBm,N0=169dBm/Hz,p
m
=0.05,
z
=8dB)[5]
R
in
isdesignedsuchthattheoutageprobabilityatadistanceR
in
fromthecellisP
out
(outageprobability
requirement)whenthemobileiscommunicatingonlywiththeBS.So,theinnercircleisthenosoft
handoffregion.R
out
issuchthatitallowssofthandoffwithotherBSandR
cov
representsthecoverageof
thepilot.TheanalysiscarriedoutisthesameasinnohandoffcasebutwithA
out
andB
out
replacedwith
theirequivalentexpressionsforsofthandoff.A
out
willbetheeventthatallBSsconnectedtotheuser
underconsiderationdon'thaveafeasiblesolutionandB
out
willbetheeventthatallBSsrequirepower
fromtheusergreaterthanthemaximumpossible.
Fig.10.Cellradiiversuscapacity[5]
SinceR
in
representsthedistancefromtheBSwithnosofthandoff,thecoveragecapacitytradeoffisthe
sameasthatshowninthesection4.2.R
out
representsthecoveragewithsofthandoffwhichisbetterthan
thatwithnosofthandoff.R
cov
increasesneark
pole
becauseR
in
goestozeroandthepilothastoextend
furthertobeabletocoverthesofthandoffregionwhichisbiggerbecauseR
in
isgettingsmaller.
6.Coverageandcapacityin3Gcellularsystems
6.1IntroductiontoUMTS[6]
Thirdgeneration(3G)cellularsystemsareviewedastheenablersforhighspeeddataforwireless
mobilitymarket.3GandallitismeanttobearedefinedintheInternationalTelecommunicationsUnion
(ITU)specificationInternationalMobileTelecommunications2000(IMT2000).IMT2000isaradio
networkaccessspecificationdefiningseveralmethodsortechnologyplatformsthatmeettheoverallgoals
ofthespecification.
AnumberoftechnologieswereproposedtomeettherequirementslaiddownforIMT2000.InJapanand
Europe,WCDMAwithFDD(andTDDforJapan)areusedtomeettheIMT2000standards.IntheUS,
CDMA2000isused.Sinceanumberofgroupswereworkingonverysimilartechnologies,twogroups
werecreatedbyITUtopoolresources:ThethirdGenerationPartnershipProject(3GPP)and3GPP2.
3GPPworksonUMTS(UniversalMobileTelecommunicationSystem)whichisbasedonWCDMA,and
3GPP2worksonCDMA2000.
TheradioaccessforUMTSisknownasUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(UTRA)whichisWCDMA
based.TheUMTScorenetworkisbasedonanevolutionoftheGSMcorenetwork.Fordetailed
descriptionofUMTS,referto[6](pp197254).
6.2CapacityandCoverageinmixedtrafficUMTSCDMAsystems[7]
Inthirdgenerationsystems,manyapplicationssuchasWebbrowsingareexpectedtogenerate
asymmetrictrafficdemandinfavorofthedownlink,andthereforethedownlinkdirectionislikelytobe
thecapacitybottleneckintheWCDMAradiointerface[8].Theasymmetrictrafficwillgenerate
considerablymoreinterferenceintheforwardlinkthanthereverselink.
InUMTS,thereisaDCHtransportchannel(DedicatedChannel)whichismappedtotwophysical
channels:DPDCH(DedicatedPhysicalDataChannel)andDPCCH(DedicatedPhysicalControl
Channel).TheDPDCHcarriestheactualuserdataandcanhaveavariablespreadingfactordependingon
thetypeofdata.Spreadingfactorusedfordataislessthanthatforvoicetokeepthesameprocessinggain
(R
data
>R
voice
)Also,thevoiceanddataSNRrequirementsforadequateperformancearedifferent.
TheanalysisofcapacitycoveragetradeoffinmixedtrafficUMTSdiffersfromthatofCDMAIS95
becauseinUMTStheforwardlinkisconsideredintheanalysis.Theoutageeventisnowtheeventwhen
theSNRseenbytheuserdoesn'tmeettherequirementsofitsreceiver(dependingonwhetherdataor
voiceistransmitted)ortheeventwhenthepowerrequiredbyalltheusersishigherthanthemaximum
availablepowerattheBS.Havingdeterminedtheoutageevent,procedureswithsimilarconceptstothose
insection4couldbefollowedtoobtainthetradeoffcurves.
Fig.11.Requiredpilotpowerformixofvoiceanddatausersinanurbanurbanenvironmentwith =1[8]
Fig.11showsthepilotpowerwhichindicatesthecoverageversusthepercentageofvoiceusers.The
numberofvoiceanddatausersisasfollows:100%correspondsto100voiceusersand0datausers,
whereas0%correspondsto25datausersand0voiceusers.Therestofthepointsareamixofuserswith
thesameproportion.Fora0dBinterferencemargin(referencetotherequiredSIR),switchingbetween
voiceanddatausersdoesn'taffectthecoverage.However,asthetheinterferenceincreases,morepoweris
requiredfordatausersthanforvoiceusers.Therefore,ifuserA(voice)anduserB(data)arebothinthe
samepointinthecell,userBmaynoticeanoutagewhereasuserAhasreliablecommunicationwiththe
BS.Alsotheinterferenceincreases,thepilotpowerrequiredfordataincreasesrapidly.
7.Conclusions
Inthisreport,severalmethodstoanalyzethecapacityofCDMAsystemsinliteraturewerepresentedand
theyallshowedthatsuchsystemsareinterferencelimitedandanyreductionininterferenceresultsinan
increaseincapacity.Therefore,methodssuchasvoicemonitoring,sectorization,andsofthandoff
increasethecapacitybyreducingtheamountofinterferenceseenbytheBS.
Also,capacityanalysisforaCDMAsystemisconsideredseparatelyforforwardandreverselinksdueto
thedifferenceintheinterference.Inthereverselink,theBSreceivesinterferencesignalsfromincelland
othercellusersbecauseRCDMAisused.However,intheforwardlink,orthogonalcodesareusedand
theuserreceivesinterferencesignalsfromotherBSs.Insecondgenerationcellularsystems,thetrafficis
symmetric(voiceintheforwardandreverselink)andthecapacitybottleneckisthereverselinkbecause
theuserhasmuchlesspowerthantheBS.Also,theforwardlinkhasbetterperformancebecausecoherent
demodulation(withthepilotsignal)andRakereceiverareused.Inthirdgenerationsystemshowever,the
forwardlinkisthecapacitybottleneckbecausethetrafficisasymmetricandtheforwardlink(user
download)ismoredemandingwhichamountstoanincreaseininterference.
Finally,inCDMAsystems,thereisatradeoffbetweencoverageandcapacityduetothelimitedpower
availablefortheuser.So,astheinterferenceincreases,theuserhastoincreasehissignal'spowertokeep
theSNRatthedesiredvalueandsincethepowerislimited,theuserwillexperiencedegradationin
serviceunlesshegetsclosertohisBS.Thecoveragecapacitytradeoffcurveisusefulforplanningcell
coveragebasedontheexpectedtrafficanditcanbeusedtostudytheErlangcapacity.In3Gcellular
systems(UMTSinourcase),thecoverageandcapacitytradeoffisdifferentfromthatof2G.Asthe
interferencerequirementsarerelaxed,thenumberofdatausersthatthe3Gsystemcansupportdecreases
drastically.
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