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Fitness for Service

Typically the inspection plan includes screening

criteria to determine if the equipment meets the
requirements for continued service.
If a fitness for service evaluation is required the
next step is to utilize the inspection data collected
to perform the FFS analysis.

Data Collection

The data collection requirements are dependent

on the type of defect found.
For any metal loss the first analysis is for General
Metal Loss. If this analysis does not prove
successful, then the defect must be more
carefully characterized and other analysis such as
Local Thin Area or Pitting may be used.

General Metal Loss Data

Grid spacing.
The extent of the data collection is an adequate
amount to characterize the metal loss. Typically a
minimum of 15 data points are required unless
there is good evidence of general metal loss.
A sample data collection sheet is shown in Table
4.2 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1.

Once data is collected, it must be analyzed to

determine if uniform metal loss can be assumed
or if a Critical Thickness Profile must be used.
A Coefficient of Variation must be calculated from
the thickness data. If the COV is greater than
10%, a CTP should be used. See template in table
4.3.

Collect measurements along 2 critical planes. For

a cylinder the critical planes are the meridional
and circumferential planes.
The length of the data collection in a plane must
be great enough to characterize the profile. Use
a minimum of 5 readings. Spacing between
Ls = min[0.36D x tmin, 2 trd]

Example Problem

Vessel shell has the following properties:

Material: SA-516-70
Design Conditions: 290 psig @ 150 F
Inside Diameter: 72 inches
Nominal Thickness: 0.7 inches
Future Corrosion Allowance: 0.05 inch
Weld Joint Efficiency: 1.0

Example Problem

Vessel minimum thickness

tmin = .527 in.
Vessel wall thickness away from the thinned area
trd = .70 in.

Example Problem

Determine minimum grid spacing for thickness

Ls = Min[0.36D x tmin, 2 x trd]
Ls = Min[0.3672 x 0.527, 2 x 0.70]
Ls = Min[2.217, 1.4]
Ls = 1.4 inches

Example Problem
6 Grid

0.0000

6.0000

12.000

18.000

0.000

0.6730

0.5720

0.5730

0.5520

6.000

0.6700

0.6740

0.6750

0.6710

12.000

0.6770

0.6780

0.6800

0.6780

Example Problem
From the data collected determine the minimum
measured thickness, the average measured
thickness and the Coefficient of Variation.
tmm = 0.552 in.
tam = 0.593 in.
COV = 9.2 %

Example Problem
Criteria for acceptance:
Average Measured Thickness
tam FCA >/= tmin
0.593 0.05 >/= 0.527
Minimum Measured Thickness
tmm FCA >/= max [0.5 tmin, tlim]
0.552 0.05 >/= 0.263

Example Problem

Using 6 grid spacing the vessel passed the

general metal loss criteria and was found fit for
service.

Example Problem
1.5 Grid Spacing

12.0000

13.5000

15.0000

16.5000

0.6790

0.6800

0.6790

0.6800

0.6820

0.6800

0.6800

0.6830

0.6840

0.0000

0.3520

0.6800

0.6840

0.0000

0.3520

0.6840

0.6890

0.6890

0.6860

0.6880

0.6880

0.6890

0.6870

0.6890

Example Problem
From the data collected determine the minimum
measured thickness, the average measured
thickness and the Coefficient of Variation.
tmm = 0.352 in.
tam = 0.518 in.
COV = 36.9 % > 10.0%

Example Problem
From the data collected determine the minimum
measured thickness and the Critical Thickness
Profile.
tmm = 0.352 in.
tsam = 0.517 in.

Example Problem
Criteria for acceptance:
Critical Thickness Profile
tsam FCA >/= tcmin
0.517 0.05 >/= 0.527

Minimum Measured Thickness

tmm FCA >/= max [0.5 tmin, tlim]
0.517 0.05 >/= 0.263

Example Problem

Using 1.5 grid spacing, vessel failed the general

metal loss criteria, but passed the LTA (local thin
area, Part 5 of API 579) criteria and was found fit
for service.

Example Problem
0.15 Grid Spacing

0.68
60

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.683
0

0.682
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.684
0

0.684
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.68
50

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.683
0

0.685
0

0.685
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.687
0

0.684
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.683
0

0.682
0

0.684
0

0.68
50

0.684
0

0.686
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.687
0

0.686
0

0.683
0

0.646
0

0.685
0

0.650
0

0.000
0

0.685
0

0.646
0

0.645
0

0.682
0

0.685
0

0.683
0

0.683
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.68
50

0.685
0

0.685
0

0.685
0

0.687
0

0.000
0

0.687
0

0.667
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.536
0

0.000
0

0.540
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.647
0

0.689
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.684
0

0.683
0

0.684
0

0.68
40

0.684
0

0.686
0

0.684
0

0.687
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.540
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.582
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.686
0

0.682
0

0.686
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.68
60

0.684
0

0.688
0

0.685
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.435
0

0.000
0

0.443
0

0.431
0

0.000
0

0.441
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.540
0

0.000
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.68
60

0.684
0

0.685
0

0.655
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.439
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.440
0

0.000
0

0.558
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.685
0

0.684
0

0.686
0

0.68
60

0.686
0

0.645
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.443
0

0.524
0

0.349
0

0.394
0

0.361
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.356
0

0.350
0

0.000
0

0.447
0

0.446
0

0.567
0

0.000
0

0.649
0

0.683
0

0.686
0

0.68
70

0.000
0

0.687
0

0.536
0

0.000
0

0.443
0

0.000
0

0.348
0

0.000
0

0.407
0

0.000
0

0.286
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.348
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.446
0

0.531
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.684
0

0.68
70

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.298
0

0.335
0

0.000
0

0.301
0

0.000
0

0.394
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.542
0

0.000
0

0.684
0

0.68
70

0.646
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.444
0

0.000
0

0.346
0

0.000
0

0.286
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.246
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.288
0

0.000
0

0.347
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.650
0

0.68
50

0.687
0

0.538
0

0.000
0

0.444
0

0.359
0

0.401
0

0.293
0

0.000
0

0.249
0

0.258
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.253
0

0.386
0

0.293
0

0.400
0

0.355
0

0.476
0

0.442
0

0.538
0

0.000
0

0.685
0

0.68
90

0.660
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.441
0

0.000
0

0.383
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.232
0

0.353
0

0.301
0

0.382
0

0.000
0

0.441
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.650
0

0.68
80

0.660
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.282
0

0.000
0

0.243
0

0.372
0

0.226
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.282
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.650
0

0.68
70

0.000
0

0.539
0

0.000
0

0.446
0

0.354
0

0.369
0

0.295
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.261
0

0.348
0

0.000
0

0.255
0

0.000
0

0.289
0

0.403
0

0.352
0

0.476
0

0.441
0

0.543
0

0.000
0

0.685
0

0.68
90

0.646
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.342
0

0.000
0

0.248
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.649
0

0.68
70

0.000
0

0.544
0

0.000
0

0.433
0

0.000
0

0.346
0

0.000
0

0.282
0

0.336
0

0.000
0

0.338
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.284
0

0.000
0

0.345
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.539
0

0.000
0

0.685
0

0.68
60

0.000
0

0.686
0

0.539
0

0.000
0

0.440
0

0.526
0

0.349
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.284
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.444
0

0.351
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.444
0

0.539
0

0.000
0

0.689
0

0.685
0

0.68
90

0.687
0

0.646
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.442
0

0.523
0

0.353
0

0.399
0

0.000
0

0.391
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.351
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.443
0

0.566
0

0.000
0

0.646
0

0.684
0

0.686
0

0.68
80

0.686
0

0.687
0

0.649
0

0.540
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.437
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.345
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.481
0

0.439
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.684
0

0.686
0

0.687
0

0.68
80

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.686
0

0.000
0

0.542
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.439
0

0.477
0

0.443
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.442
0

0.436
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.531
0

0.000
0

0.686
0

0.685
0

0.686
0

0.686
0

0.68
90

0.687
0

0.688
0

0.687
0

0.648
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.542
0

0.554
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.541
0

0.000
0

0.689
0

0.686
0

0.688
0

0.686
0

0.686
0

0.68
90

0.686
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.000
0

0.687
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.542
0

0.536
0

0.581
0

0.540
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.000
0

0.691
0

0.688
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.686
0

0.686
0

0.68
90

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.688
0

0.688
0

0.645
0

0.689
0

0.654
0

0.000
0

0.686
0

0.655
0

0.646
0

0.686
0

0.685
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.686
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.686
0

0.68
90

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.688
0

0.691
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.688
0

0.688
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.688
0

0.687
0

0.686
0

0.688
0

0.68
70

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.687
0

0.689
0

0.688
0

0.688
0

0.686
0

0.687
0

0.687
0

0.688
0

Example Problem
From the data collected determine the minimum
measured thickness, the average measured
thickness and the Coefficient of Variation.
tmm = 0.226 in.
tam = 0.391 in.
COV = 34.7 % > 10.0%

Example Problem
From the data collected determine the minimum
measured thickness and the Critical Thickness
Profile.
tmm = 0.226 in.
tsam = 0.371 in.

Example Problem
Criteria for acceptance:
Critical Thickness Profile
tsam FCA >/= tcmin
0.371 0.05 >/= 0.527

Minimum Measured Thickness

tmm FCA >/= max [0.5 tmin, tlim]
0.226 0.05 >/= 0.263

Example Problem

Using .150 grid spacing, vessel failed the general

metal loss criteria and the LTA (local thin area)
criteria and was found to be not fit for service.

From the inspection plan it was assumed that the

defect would be an area of general metal loss.
With that in mind a 6 grid spacing could have
been used and the defect would not have been
found.
The criteria for grid spacing for this particular
geometry led to the use of 1.5 grid spacing. This
spacing was adequate to detect the flaw even
though it passed the flaw size criteria.
Use of the 0.15 grid spacing provided a detailed
characterization of the flaw and the opportunity
for a complete analysis.

It should also be noted that the finer grid spacing

revealed defects and possible corrosion
mechanisms that did not appear with the cruder
grid spacing.
There is always a trade off between the time and
cost of a more detailed inspection and the quality
of the results. The better we understand the
corrosion mechanisms, the better we can plan an
inspection that will provide the data needed to
assure safe continued operation.