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Uploaded by Sean Li

Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

- Math 4340-Lecture 18
- Math 4340-Lecture 11
- Math 4340-Lecture 10
- Math 4340-Lecture 15
- Math 4340-Lecture 17
- Math 4340-Lecture 4
- Math 4340-Lecture 1
- Math 4340-Lecture 19
- Math 4340-Lecture 24
- Math 4340-Lecture 3
- Math 4340-Lecture 20
- Math 7370-Lecture 23
- Math 7370-Lecture 19
- Math-6170-Lec-01
- Math 4340-Lecture 19
- Math 4340-Lecture 24
- Math 7370-Lecture 24
- Math 7370-Lecture 22
- Math 7370-Lecture 18
- Math 4340-Lecture 20

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). Symmetry group, loosely as group of automorphisms. (Review of group axioms, covered previous lecture.) If in addition to the group axioms we also have the axiom of commutativity, then the group is called commutative or abelian. Uniqueness of Identity. Suppose e and e are identities, then e = ee = e . Uniqueness of Inverse. Suppose y, z are inverses of x, so that xy = yx = e and xz = zx = e. Then z = (yx)z = y(xz) = y. Denition. Let G be a group. A subgroup H of G is a subset H of G which is a group that is closed under the same operation as G. That is, if x, y H then xy H. We denote this H G. Claim. The identity and inverses in H are the same as in G. Proof. Let e be the identity of H and e be the identity of G. Then in G, e = (e )1 e e = (e )1 e = e. For inverses, let h H, and let x be its inverse in G and y be its inverse in H. Then hx = e, hy = e = e, so hx = hy. Then left-multiplying by x gives xhx = xhy, so that x = y. Examples. Q , R , C , where the star means 0 is not in the set, are abelian groups under multiplication. Also, C, R, Q, and Z are abelian groups under addition. There are always two trivial subgroups: the identity and the entire group. Finite Groups. Permutation groups. Symmetry groups, Sn denotes the symmetric group of order n. Note that |Sn | = n!. Note that S3 is a group of order 6, and has subgroups of order 1, 2, 3, and 6, the divisors of 6.

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