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Sean Li Math 4340 Notes Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra Lecture 3 1/25/13 Oce Hours.

s. MWF 10:45 - 11:15, Malott 505. Homework. Due next Friday in class. Found at www.math.cornell.edu/~sen. TA. Christine McMeekin. Permutation Groups. Let S be any set. Then the permutation group on S, denoted by P(S), is dened as the set of 1-1 maps of S onto S, i.e. the set of automorphisms of S, with multiplication given by the composition of functions. Why is this a group? Associativity follows from associativity of composition. Identity follows from the identity function. Inverse follows from the fact that each function is bijective and thus has an inverse. Note on Inverses. Let f : S T be a bijection. Then f 1 (t) = s where f (s) = t. Then f 1 f = IS and f f 1 = IT . If S = T then they are the same. Notation. We write a permutation on n elements as ((1), . . . , (n)). For example, let = (1, 3, 2, 5, 4) and = (4, 2, 5, 1, 3). Then = (1, 3, 2, 5, 4)(4, 2, 5, 1, 3) = (5, 3, 4, 1, 2). Cycle Notation. Consider = (1, 3, 2, 5, 4). We write this in cycle notation as (1)(23)(45). Note (12345) is not the identity, and it satises (12345) = (23451). Every permutation is a product of disjoint cycles. Disjoint cycles permute with each other. Uniqueness up to permuting cycles and cyclic ordering.