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Article 171 [Falsification by public officer; employee or notary ecclesiastical minister] Par. No.

1 Counterfeiting or imitating (feigning) any hand writing, signature or rubric. There are two ways of committing falsification under paragraph 1 of art. 171 (1) counterfeiting, which is imitating any handwriting, signature or rubric; & (2) feigning, which is simulating a signature, handwriting or rubric out of one which does not in fact exist. Requisites: Imitating of anothers signature need not be perfect. It is necessary only (1)that there be an intent to imitate, or an attempt to imitate, and (2)that the two signature or handwritings, the genuine and the forged, bear some resemblance to each other. Par. No. 2 Causing it to appear that persons have participated in an act or a proceeding. The imitating of the signature of the offended party is not necessary in falsification under paragraph 2 art. 171. Requisites: (1) That the offender caused it to appear in a document that a person or persons participated in an act or a proceeding; & (2) That such person or persons did not in fact so participated in the act or proceeding. Par. No. 3Attributing to persons who have participated in any act or proceeding statements other than those in fact made by them. Requisites: (1) That a person or persons participated in an act or a proceeding; (2) That such person or persons made statements in that act or proceeding; & (3) That the offender, in making a document, attributing to such person or persons statements other than those in fact made by such person or persons. Par. No. 4 Making untruthful statement in a narration of facts. 1st Requisites: (1) That the offender makes in a document statements in a narration of facts; (2) That he has a legal obligation to disclose the truth of the facts narrated by him; (3) That the facts narrated by the offender are absolutely false; &

(4) That the perversion of truth in the narration of facts was made with the wrongful intent of facts was made with the wrongful intent of injuring a third person. 2nd Requisites: There must be a legal obligation on the part of the accused to disclose the truth of the facts narrated. Par. No. 5 altering true dates. Date must be essential. There is falsification under this paragraph only when the date mentioned in the document is essential. The alteration of the dates or dates in a document must affect either the veracity of the document or the effects thereof. Par. No. 6 Making alteration or intercalation in a genuine document which changes its meaning. Requisites: (1) That there be an alteration (change) or intercalation (insertion) on a document; (2) That it was made on a genuine document; (3) That the alteration or intercalation has changed the meaning of the document; & (4) That the change made the document speak something false. Par. No. 7 Issuing in authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such original exists, or including in such a copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine original. How it be committed: (1) Purporting to be a copy of an original when no such original exists. That a notary public made a supposed copy of a deed of sale which was never executed and of which he had no copy, is an example. (2) Including in a copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine original. That a civil registrar stated in a certified copy of a record of birth that the person mentioned therein was legitimate when there was no such statement in the original, is an example.