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Applied Fluid Mechanics

Sixth Edition

Robert L. Mott
University of Dayton

PEARSON

Prentkv
Pearson Education International

Contents

CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 The Big Picture 1 Objectives 3 Basic Introductory Concepts 3 The International System of Units (SI) 4 The U.S. Customary System 5 Weight and Mass 6 Temperature 8 Consistent Units in an Equation 9 The Definition of Pressure 11 Compressibility 13 Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity Surface Tension 19 References 21 Internet Sites 21 Practice Problems 21 Computer Programming Assignments 24

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CHAPTER 2 VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

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The Big Picture 26 Objectives 26 Dynamic Viscosity 27 Kinematic Viscosity 29 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids 30 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 33 Viscosity Measurement 35 SAE Viscosity Grades 44 ISO Viscosity Grades 46 Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 46 References 48 Internet Sites 48 Practice Problems 49 Computer Programming Assignments 51 vii

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Contents

CHAPTER 3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 The Big Picture 52 Objectives 52 Absolute and Gage Pressure 53 Relationship between Pressure and Elevation 55 Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation 57 Pascal's Paradox 61 Manometers 62 Barometers 67 Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid Pressure Gages and Transducers 70 References 74 Internet Sites 75 Practice Problems 75

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CHAPTER 4 FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 The Big Picture 83 Objectives 85 Gases under Pressure 85 Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids 86 Rectangular Walls 87 Submerged Plane AreasGeneral 90 Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas 94 Piezometric Head 96 Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 97 Effect of a Pressure above the Ruid Surface 103 Forces on a Curved Surface with Ruid Below It 103 Forces on Curved Surfaces with Ruid Above and Below 104 Practice Problems 105 Computer Programming Assignments 122,

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CHAPTER 5 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 The Big Picture 123 Objectives 124 Buoyancy 124 Buoyancy Materials 132 Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies 133 Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Degree of Stability 140 Reference 142 Internet Sites 142 Practice Problems 142 Computer Programming Assignments 152

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CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 The Big Picture 153 Objectives 154 Fluid Row Rate and the Continuity Equation 154 Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 158 Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 161 Conservation of EnergyBernoulli's Equation 165 Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 167 Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 169 Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 169 Torricelli's Theorem 179 Flow Due to a Falling Head 182 References 185 Internet Sites 185 Practice Problems 186 Computer Programming Assignments 196

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CHAPTER 7 GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 The Big Picture 197 Objectives 199 Energy Losses and Additions 199 Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions General Energy Equation 202 Power Required by Pumps 207 Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 211 Practice Problems 213

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CHAPTER 8 REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW, AND ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 The Big Picture 226 Objectives 229 Reynolds Number 230 Critical Reynolds Numbers 231 Darcy's Equation 233 Friction Loss in Laminar Flow 233 Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow 235 Equations for the Friction Factor 242 Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow 243 Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula 245 Nomograph for Solving the Hazen-Williams Formula References 247 Internet Sites 247 Practice Problems 247 Computer Programming Assignments 254

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CHAPTER 9 VELOCITY PROFILES FOR CIRCULAR SECTIONS AND FLOW IN NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 The Big Picture 255 Objectives 256 Velocity Profiles 256 Velocity Profile for Laminar Row 257 Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 258 Flow in Noncircular Sections 260 Computational Fluid Dynamics 266 References 268 Internet Sites 268 Practice Problems 268 Computer Programming Assignments 277

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CHAPTER 10 MINOR LOSSES


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 The Big Picture 278 Objectives 280 Resistance Coefficient 281 Sudden Enlargement 281 Exit Loss 284 Gradual Enlargement 286 Sudden Contraction 288 Gradual Contraction 290 Entrance Loss 292 Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 293 Application of Standard Valves 300 Pipe Bends 303 Pressure Drop in Ruid Power Valves 305 Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cy 310 Plastic Valves 311 References 313 Internet Sites 313 Practice Problems 314 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 319

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CHAPTER 11 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS


11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 The Big Picture 320 Objectives 321 Class I Systems 321 Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems Class II Systems 330 Class III Systems 339 Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity References 345

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Contents Internet Sites 346 Practice Problems 346 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments

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CHAPTER 12 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 The Big Picture 358 Objectives 360 Systems with Two Branches 361 Systems with Three or More BranchesNetworks Reference 377 Internet Sites 377 Practice Problems 377 Computer Programming Assignments 381

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CHAPTER 13 PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 The Big Picture 382 Objectives 384 Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 385 Types of Pumps 385 Positive-Displacement Pumps 385 Kinetic Pumps 392 Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 398 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 400 Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps 401 The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 410 Net Positive Suction Head 411 Suction Line Details 417 Discharge Line Details 418 Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure 419 Alternate System Operating Modes 423 Pump Selection and Specific Speed 429 Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems 430 Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 433 References 434 Internet Sites 434 Software for Piping System Design 435 Practice Problems 436 Design Problems 438 Comprehensive Design Problem 441 382

CHAPTER 14 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 14.1 14.2 14.3 The Big Picture 443 Objectives 444 Classification of Open-Channel Flow 443

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Contents Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open-Channel Flow 446 14.5 Kinds of Open-Channel Flow 447 14.6 Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 448 14.7 The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 453 14.8 The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 456 14.9 Critical Row and Specific Energy 457 14.10 Hydraulic Jump 459 14.11 Open-Channel Flow Measurement 462 References 467 Internet Sites 467 Practice Problems 468 Computer Programming Assignments 471 14.4

CHAPTER 15 FLOW MEASUREMENT


15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 The Big Picture 473 Objectives 474 Rowmeter Selection Factors 474 Variable-Head Meters 476 Variable-Area Meters 485 Turbine Flowmeter 486 Vortex Flowmeter 487 Magnetic Rowmeter 487 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 489 Positive Displacement Meters 489 Mass Row Measurement 490 Velocity Probes 492 Level Measurement 497 Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing References 499 Internet Sites 499 Review Questions 500 Practice Problems 501 . Computer Programming Assignments 502

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CHAPTER 16 FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION


16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 The Big Picture 503 Objectives 504 Force Equation 504 Impulse-Momentum Equation 505 Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations Forces on Stationary Objects 506 Forces on Bends in Pipelines 509 Forces on Moving Objects 513 Practice Problems 514

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CHAPTER 17 DRAG AND LIFT


17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 The Big Picture 520 Objectives 521 Drag Force Equation 522 Pressure Drag 523 Drag Coefficient 524 Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 530 Vehicle Drag 531 Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 533 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 534 References 537 Internet Sites 537 Practice Problems 537

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CHAPTER 18 FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 The Big Picture 542 Objectives 543 Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 543 Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 544 Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 549 Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 556 References 564 Internet Sites 564 Practice Problems 565 Computer Programming Assignments 567

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CHAPTER 19 FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 The Big Picture 568 Objectives 570 Energy Losses in Ducts 570 Duct Design 576 Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 583 References 584 Internet Sites 584 Practice Problems 585

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APPENDIXES
A B C Properties of Water 589 Properties of Common Liquids 591 Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils

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Contents D E F G H I J K L M N Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 594 Properties of Air 597 Dimensions of Steel Pipe 601 Dimensions of Steel Tubing 603 Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 604 Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 605 Areas of Circles 606 Conversion Factors 608 Properties of Areas 611 Properties of Solids 613 Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 615

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS INDEX

616 623