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Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE-PEM FUEL CELL
Giacomo Falcucci and Stefano Ubertini
University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale - Isola C4, 80143 Naples, Italy

Luca Andreassi
University of Rome Tor Vergata, V.le Politecnico, 00100, Rome, Italy

Rodolfo Taccani
University of Trieste, Via Valerio 8, 34127 Trieste, Italy

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

December 16, 2011

Index
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Introduction 3D Modeling Electrochemical Model 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

PEM Fuel Cells

Attracting Features: high power density, high eciency, reliability;


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Drawbacks: intolerance to CO and CO2 , slow cathode kinetics, liquid water and heat management.

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Very similar to PEM fuel cells, but: working temperature above 100 C ; no risk of cathod ooding ; Pt anity with H2 is enhanced by the higher temperature;

Main advantages, compared to LT PEM: CO poisoning at the anode is eectively alleviated; accelerated reaction kinetics at the electrodes easier water and heat management;
G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Electrochemical Model
Introduction 3D Modeling Electrochemical Model 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

We tested our model on a computational domain represented by a single channel:

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

HT PEM 3D model: geometrical characteristics


Cell width Channel length Channel height Anode channel width Cathode channel width Anode GDL thickness Cathode GDL thickness Membrane thickness Anode GCL thickness Cathode GCL thickness Electrode height 3.4 235 0.7 0.7 1 0.34 0.34 0.065 0.04 0.11 2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

HT PEM 3D model: electrochemical characteristics


Membrane Ionic conductivity 0 GDL/CL electric conductivity 0 Electrode electric conductivit Anodic charge transfer coe. a Cathodic charge transfer coe. c Anode exchange current density Cathode reference exchange current density Porosity GDL Porosity CL Open circuit voltage V0 Thermal conductivity of GCL/GDL Thermal conductivity of membrane Thermal conductivity of current collector Permeability of GCL/GDL 12.99 103.3 535 1 1 1.0 108 170 0.8 0.6 1.015 1.7 0.95 25 5 1012 S/m S/m S/m A/m3 A/m3

V W/(m K) W/(m K) W/(m K) m2

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

HT PEM 3D model: initial conditions


Gas mass ow rate (kg/s) H2 mass fraction O2 mass fraction N2 mass fraction Operating pressure (Pa) Anodic channel 4.5e-7 1 101325 Cathodic channel 3.25e-5 0.22 0.78 101325

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling - Results
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Case 1: V=0.6 V (cost)

(a) t=0.12 s

(b) t=0.24 s

(c) t=0.36 s

(d) t=0.49 s

(e) t=0.71 s

(f) steady state

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling - Results
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Case 2: V=0.6 V 0.4 V

(g) t<0.5 s

(h) t=0.525 s

(i) t=0.625 s

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

3D Modeling - Results
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

[J. Peng et al., J. Power Sources 179 (2008), 220 - 231]


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Single Cell 3D Modeling


Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

same geometrical and electrochemical conditions;

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Single Cell 3D Modeling


Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

same geometrical and electrochemical conditions;

(j)

(k)

Details of the anode, (a), and cathode (b) channels.


G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Single Cell 3D Modeling


Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Results compared to a commercial HT PEM; Dierent gas compositions: pure hydrogen and syngas with dierent CO compositions.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Single Cell 3D Modeling


Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis HT PEM Design Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Results compared to a commercial HT PEM; Dierent gas compositions: pure hydrogen and syngas with dierent CO compositions.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Conclusions
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

3D model for coupled uid-dynamics and electrochemistry in a HT PEM; comparison between our results and results in literature; 3D model of a HT PEM single cell; simulation and comparison with commercial HT PEM.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Conclusions
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

3D model for coupled uid-dynamics and electrochemistry in a HT PEM; comparison between our results and results in literature; 3D model of a HT PEM single cell; simulation and comparison with commercial HT PEM.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Conclusions
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

3D model for coupled uid-dynamics and electrochemistry in a HT PEM; comparison between our results and results in literature; 3D model of a HT PEM single cell; simulation and comparison with commercial HT PEM.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Conclusions
Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

3D model for coupled uid-dynamics and electrochemistry in a HT PEM; comparison between our results and results in literature; 3D model of a HT PEM single cell; simulation and comparison with commercial HT PEM.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Future Work Enhancement of single cell gas channels; Adoption of channel design optimized for uid-dynamic perfomances; Tests and comparison with our own built HT PEM;

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Future Work Enhancement of single cell gas channels; Adoption of channel design optimized for uid-dynamic perfomances; Tests and comparison with our own built HT PEM;

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Future Work Enhancement of single cell gas channels; Adoption of channel design optimized for uid-dynamic perfomances; Tests and comparison with our own built HT PEM;

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

Acknowledgements This research is supported by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research within the project PRIN2008 Analisi integrata numerico-sperimentale, prototipazione e caratterizzazione di celle a combustibile ad elettrolita polimerico ad alta temperatura.

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011

Introduction 3D Modeling 3D Analysis Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgements Discussion

G. Falcucci December 16, 2011