You are on page 1of 255

AUTOBIOGRAPHYOF BHAISAHIBRANDHIRSINGH

FREEDOMFIGHTER,REFORMER,THEOLOGIAN, SAINTANDHEROOFLAHORECONSPIRACYCASE, FIRSTPRISONEROFTHEGURDWARAREFORMMOVEMENT


TranslatedwithIntroductoryThesis ByDR.TRILOCHANSINGH

ThisTranslationisdedicatedtotheSacredMemoryofMOTHERKARTARKAURwhoseheroic struggletobravethesorrowandsufferingsforfreedomandfaithwereaninspirationtoallwho knewher,metherandsawherfacingwithstoicenduranceandcalmpatienceuntoldmisery, threats,oppressionforthecountry'sfreedomwhileherhusband,theheroofthisbook, languishedandsufferedinhumantreatmentinBritishprisonsforseventeenyears.

CONTENTS TRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTORYTHESIS ..............................................................................................4 COMMENTS........................................................................................................................................38 CHAPTER1AWAKENINGOFFAITH..................................................................................................40 CHAPTER2DETACHMENTANDPREPARATIONS .............................................................................47 CHAPTER3RENUNCIATIONANDBAPTISM .....................................................................................51 CHAPTER4SEARCHFORTHEMYSTICWORD(NAM) ......................................................................59 CHAPTER5ILLUMINATIONOFDIVINENAME .................................................................................64 CHAPTER6THEVISIONOFGOD ......................................................................................................68 CHAPTER7BLESSEDNESSANDDIVINEVISION................................................................................73 CHAPTER8HOLYMOTHERGULABKAUR ........................................................................................76 CHAPTER9INTHEKHALSACOLLEGE...............................................................................................79 CHAPTER10ARRESTANDDEFENCE ................................................................................................81 CHAPTER11INTHEMULTANPRISON .............................................................................................89 CHAPTER12FROMMULTANTOHAZARIBAGHPRISON..................................................................97 CHAPTER13JAILERVADHAVARAM'SATROCITIES .......................................................................104 CHAPTER14THEARTOFMAKINGGOLD ......................................................................................110 CHAPTER15PRISONERS'ESCAPE ..................................................................................................118 CHAPTER16CLAIRVOYANCEOFKIRPASINGHANDMOREHARASSMENT ...................................125 CHAPTER17STRUGGLEFORRIGHTSANDJUSTICE .......................................................................145 CHAPTER18DEATHOFKEHARSINGHANDDEPARTUREFORMADRAS .......................................163 CHAPTER19RAJAHMUNDARYPRISON .........................................................................................172 CHAPTER20ONTHEWAYTONAGPURPRISON ...........................................................................180 CHAPTER21FASTSANDTORTURES ..............................................................................................189 CHAPTER22MORETROUBLESINNAGPURJAIL............................................................................202 CHAPTER23THESPIRITANDPERSONALITYOFTHESikhs ............................................................221 CHAPTER24FROMNAGPURTOLAHORE......................................................................................234 CHAPTER25MEETINGWITHBHAGATSINGH,THEGREATPATRIOT ............................................241 APPENDIXI .......................................................................................................................................248 APPENDIXII ......................................................................................................................................250

TRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTORYTHESIS Inthefirsttwodecadesofthiscentury,whenthecryoffreedomwasadistantdream,decadence anddemoralizationhadcorrodedthefoundationsofreligious,socialandpoliticalintegrityofour people,BhaiSahibRandhirSinghemergedasthemostbrilliantstarofanewepoch,anapostleof Sikhfaith,whodidnotlectureorsermonizebutpouredhisthoughtsandexperiencesthrough stirringdivinesongs;areformer,whodidnotchangesocietybypreceptsbutbyexample;a revolutionary,whothrewawaytheprideandpositionofanupperclassfamilyandplungedinto themostdaringrevoltagainstBritishImperialismatatimewhenevenradicalpoliticiansdidnot daretoraisetheirlittlefingerforfreedomandliberty. ParentageandChildhood: BhaiRandhirSinghwasbornonSunday,July7,1878.Hisfather,SardarNathaSingh,startedhis careerasayoungPrimarySchoolteacherandthroughhardworkandpassionforhigherstudies, herosetobeHighCourtJudge,apositionheldbyveryfewSikhsduringthosedays.Sonof LambardarBasawaSinghofNarangwal(Ludhiana),NathaSinghwasbornintheyear1852A.D. Wellbuiltinbody,hisheightattheageof25isrecordedas5feet8inches.AfterMatriculatinghe becameaprimaryschoolteacherin1870.Hetookdiplomainteachingasaprivatecandidateand waspostedasHeadmasterMiddleSchool,Ludhianain1874.Forafewmonthshewastransferred toAmritsarin1878,butheagainjoinedasMathematicsteacherandSuperintendentBoarding HouseofGovernmentHighSchool,LudhianaonapayofRs.90permonth.In1881,hepassedthe highestPersianandArabicexaminationknownasMunshiFazil.Thenextyear,hewasappointed DistrictInspectorofSchoolsinthegradeofRs.100. SardarNathaSinghnowaspiredforgreaterpositionandaprofessionofprestigethanthatofalow paidstaffoftheeducationdepartment.InJune,1881hesoughtthepermissionoftheChiefCourt ofPunjabtoappearforLawExaminationwithoutattendingtheclassesofthePunjabUniversity. Thepermissionwasgranted(Copy,DocketNo.1779ofJune,1881fromRegistrar,ChiefCourtof PunjabStates:"InreplytohisNo.1116of6thultimotheundersignedisdirectedtostatethatthe JudgesarepleasedtopermitNathaSinghatthefirstexaminationinLawofthePunjabUniversity Collegewithoutattendingtheclasses")andS.NathaSinghpassedthesuccessiveLaw Examinationssecuringpositioninmeritlist. Afterbecomingafullfledgedlawyer,heresignedfromhispostofDistrictInspectorofSchools.He evensoughtthepermissionofBenchCourtofNahantopractiseintheSirmurState,whichwas immediatelygranted,butasfarasweknow,hedidnotgotoNahan.Hemighthavegonethereto fightsomecases. In1888,hewasofferedthepostofTehsildarbytheAgentoftheGovernorGeneralinBaluchistan butheacceptedasimilarofferfromMaharajaHiraSinghofNabha.Hewassoonpromotedand madeCanalNazimandthenaNazim.ThePatialaStatethenofferedhimthepostofTranslatorof LawbookswhichheacceptedandhisfirstcommendableworkwashisPunjabitranslationofthe IndianPenalCodeunderthetitle"HindDandavali".ReviewingthebookMr.BishanDasPuriwrote: "SardarNathaSinghGrewal,LawTranslatorofPatialaState,hasmadeavaluableadditionto Punjabiliterature.Thetaskaccomplishedbyhimisbynomeanseasy.ThePunjabiequivalentof legaltermsarefelicitousandthestyleismarkedbyperspicuity.Thebookwillbeparticularly usefultothosewhoknowonlyPunjabiastheywillfindinitsuchlegalknowledgeasbearsupon theirdailyconductinaneasilyaccessibleform".Mr.A.ChatterjeeofthePunjabChiefsCourt

wrote,"IhopeitwillproveusefultotheGovernmentandpromotetheprogressofPunjabi languagewhichIhavesomuchtoheart".SardarSujanSingh,ForeignMinister,PatialaStatecallsit "anexcellentproduction"andsays,"ItwasaverydifficulttasktorenderastandardLawBookinto alanguagewhichisnotveryrichinitsvocabularyandwhichhasforitsmostpartbeenneglected bytheeducatedclassoftheProvince.ThesuccesswhichhasbeenachievedbySardarNathaSingh will,Ibelieve,removemanyofthemisgivingsofthepeopleandencouragethestudyand cultivationofmothertongue.ThetranslationisinidiomaticPunjabiandIconsideritmore intelligiblethantheonewhichissaidtobeinstandardUrdu.Theauthordeservesthehearty thanksofthePunjabispeakingpeopleandtheStateistobecongratulatedonsecuringthe servicesofsuchalearnedmanforsuchanimportantanddifficulttask.Itishopedthatthelabours ofthishighlytalentedTranslatorwillbedulyappreciatedbothbythePatialaStateandPublic." (SardarDasaundaSinghwrote:"Thelanguageemployedisclear,simpleandequivalentsoflegal termsarechosenwithextremecareandineveryrespectitisaveryfaithfulrenderingofthe original.HindDandavaliisaconvincingproofofthefactthatPunjabiiscapableofdischargingall thefunctionsofaCourtlanguageanditisboundtoserveasaneyeopenerforthosewholooked uponPunjabiasamerejargonofignorantpeople." SardarGurditSinghofPatialawrote:"Theauthorhastriedhisbesttorenderintogoodidiomatic Punjabi.Toachievesuchasuccessinafirstattemptinquiteanewfieldisnotanordinarything anddeservesappreciationatthehandsofallwhohavethecauseofPunjabiatheart."Sardar UttamSinghFirstgradeLawyerofJullundurwrote:"Itisafaithfulrenderingoftheoriginal.The authoremployedwordsandphrasesofeverydayuseofPunjabipeople.Hetookgreatpainsin findingoutmostappropriatewordsandtermsconveyingthesenseandideaoftheoriginaland renderedagreatservicetothePunjabis."Anothereminentlawyer,SardarBachanSinghwrote: ThebookisthebestofitskindandisanobjectlessontotheopponentsofPunjabiwhoopenly declarethatthePunjabilanguageisnotexpressiveandthatitsvocabularyisnotrichenoughto expressthefullsenseofthelanguage.Eachandeverywordoftheoriginalhasbeenquite correctlytranslatedandinmanyplacesthewordschosenaremostexpressiveandsimplerthan theArabicwordsusedinUrdutranslation.") SardarNathaSinghacquiredfameforseasoningjusticewithmercy.Hedistinguishedhimselfasa wellversedscholarofPunjabi,PersianandEnglishliterature. BhaiRandhirSingh'smother,PunjabKaurwasthedescendantofaveryeminentsaint,Bhai Bhagtu,adiscipleofGuruArjanandGuruHargobind.FamilytraditionsaysthatBhaiBhagtuhad predictedthatforsevengenerationstherewouldalwaysbeasaintinthefamily,andthe daughtersofthedirectdescendantswouldbepious,truthful,sharptonguedandwhateverthey utterwithaninspiredconvictionwouldcometopass.PunjabKaurwasfromtheseventh generationandwheneversheblessedorcursedanyone,itwastakenforgrantedthatthething wouldhappen.(BibiBachiterKaurdaughterofBhaiRandhirSingh'smaternaluncleistheliving saintinthefamily.Attheyoungageof17,shecameundertheinfluenceofSantAttarSinghand shehadopportunitytomeethersaintlycousin,BhaiRandhirSingh,whenhecameoutofthe prison.Shespentherwholelifeinmeditationsandprayersandshunspublicappearance.Quiet, shy,spirituallyilluminedBachiterKauristheonededicatedsoulIhaveseenwhohasspenther wholelifeinthepurityandperfectionofdivinelyinspiredideals.Sheavoidsmeetingpeopleand forhertheonlylifeisthelifeofcontemplationandcommunionwithGod.) WhilehisfatherS.NathaSinghwasastern,judicious,liberalandprofoundscholar,hismother PunjabKaurwasextremelysensitive,strongwilled,piousandabstemious.RandhirSinghinherited

hislearningandscholarshipfromhisfatherbutheimbibedthepietyandabstemioushabitsofhis mother.Heinheritedthequalitiesoftheheadfromhisfatherandthequalitiesoftheheartfrom hismother.Hewasaveryhealthylad,bubblingwithenergyandplayfulspirit.Attheageofseven oreighthefellfromtheroofofatwostoreybuildingfacedownwards.Hewastakeninacritical conditiontotheCivilHospital,Ludhiana.Forthreedayshestruggledforsurvivalandregained consciousnessonthefourthday."Hewillbeaterriblefighterandamanofgreatwillpower",said theCivilSurgeonattendinghim,tohisfather.Itisduringthisfallthathissharpandaquilinenose becameslightlyflattenedlikethenoseofBuddhainhisfareasternimages. SensitiveSchoolBoy: RandhirSinghhadmostofhisschooleducationatNabha.Heshowedexceptionalintelligenceand aquickgraspoverhisstudies.Aloverofbeautifulthings,compassionatetothepoorandhelpless, hewasanextremelysensitiveladofstronglikesanddislikes. Once,onthewaytoschool,hesawabeautifulflowerinthegardenofMaharajaHiraSingh.He wassoenchantedbyitscoloursandbeautythateverydayonthewaytoandbackfromschool,he stoodthereadmiringandfeastingonthebeautyandcoloursoftheflower.Heaskedthegardener totaketheutmostcareofthatparticularlovelyflowerandnotallowanyonetopluckit. Earlyonemorningonhiswaytoschool,RandhirSinghfoundtheflowermissingfromthegarden. Thegardenerpatheticallytoldhimthatoneofhisschoolmates,asonofanimportantStateofficial hadpluckedit,probablytoteasehim.SighingforthelostflowerRandhirSinghfainted.Hecould notbearthethoughtthatthemostenchantingthingthathehadseeninlifehaddisappearedfor ever.Hewastakenhomeinanunconsciousstate.WhenMaharajaHiraSingh,therulerofNabha cametoknowaboutit,herushedtoSardarNathaSingh'shousetoassuretheboythathewould getplantedawholegardenoftheseflowersforhim.Theboyregainedconsciousnessforatime andthensighingforthelostflowerhefaintedagain.Thissensitivenesstothingsbeautifuland sublimeremainedaningrainedtraitofhischaracterallhislife. Hehadacompassionateandforgivingheartandthroughouthislifehewentoutofthewayto persuadewrongdoersandsinnerstogiveupthepathofevil.Aservantstolegoldornamentsfrom hisfather'shouse.Hewasarrestedandimprisoned.Feelingcompassionfortheservant,heurged hisfathertogethisreleaseafterwhichhewasemployedagaintoaccompanyRandhirSinghto LahorewherehewastojoinCollege.ButonLudhianastationthisungratefulservantrobbed RandhirSinghofallhismoneywhilehewasasleepanddisappearednevertobefoundagain. WhenIonceaskedhimwhyhegavesuchalongropetoevildoershesaid,"ItisGodalonewho canjudgewhoisreallyvirtuousandwhoisreallysinner.Thegreatestsinnercanbecomethe noblestsaint.Ourattitudetowardsevildoersshouldbeoneofcompassionandnotofhatred.Only thosewhoarewilfullycruelshouldbeseverelydealtwithoravoided". PoetandSportsmaninCollege: InhiscollegedaysRandhirSinghwasenergypersonified.Hisathleticform,squareshoulders, broadchest,stoutandwellbuiltbodywithmusculararmsweretrainedtoallkindsofsports.He wasstudentofGovernmentCollege,Lahorefromtheyear1896to1898andofMissionCollege fromtheyear1898to1900. Hetookkeeninterestinliteratureandsports.Playinghockeywasapassionwithhim.Forayearor twohewastheCaptainofthecollegeteam.Havingaprodigiousmemory,hehadmemorized manypassagesfromPersianandPunjabipoetry.OncewhenIwasquestioninghimabouthis

interestsincollegelife,hesurprisedmebyquotingfreelyHafiz,RumiandPunjabiSufipoets.He wastwentythen.InCollegehewrotepoetryinUrduandPunjabiaboutlittleeventsthattook placeinhislife(about75suchUrdupoemswrittenbyBhaiRandhirSinghduringcollegelifehave beenpreservedbyhisclassmateRanjitSinghofGujjarwal.Loveandfriendship,devotionandthe spiritofsacrificearethemajorthemesofthesepoems).Hewroteapoemonthedepartureofhis Principal(anEnglishman)toU.K.onleave.Hewroteotherpoemsonsmallincidentswhichmoved hisdeeplyemotionalsoul.AlthoughhetooksomeinterestinstudyingtheBible,fortheteaching ofwhichtherewasspecialarrangementinthecollege,hetookpracticallynointerestinreligionor God,andheknewnothingaboutSikhismbeyondthetraditionalknowledgewhichSikhboysgetby theirupbringing.Laterontherevolutionaryandcataclysmiceventsofhislifesmotheredthepoet andsportsmaninhim.ThepoetbecamethesingerandbardofGodandthesportsmanbecame relentlessfighterforfreedom. TheAryaSamajmovementhadsetinmotionintellectualpugilismloadedwithanarsenalofabuse. ThesuperiorityofHinduismwasshownbycondemningandmakingfunoftheprophetsand scripturesofotherreligionsparticularlyChristianity,IslamandSikhism('IhavereadtheSatyarth Prakash,theAryaSamajBible.Ihavenotreadamoredisappointingbook.TheAryaSamajistis neversohappyaswhenheisabusingotherreligions.AportionofthePunjabPressissimply scurrilous.Itisattimesevenfilthy.Ihavegonethroughthetortureofreadingmanyextracts. ThesesheetsareconductedbytheAryaSamajists.'MahatmaGandhi:YoungIndia,June1924). AsRumainRollandputsit,"SwamiDayanandathunderedagainstallformsofthoughtsotherthan hisown,theonlytrueone".Lahorehadthusbecomebythistimeahotbedofpseudoreligious monstrositiesdevouredbymorbidpassiontoproclaimthesuperiorityofone'sownreligion.Idlers, buffoons,fishersintroubledwatersandreligiouscharlatansplayedhavocwiththesentimentsof illiterateandsentimentalPunjabis.InsuchapungentatmosphereBhaiRandhirSinghfound nothingthatcouldattracthissoul.Likeotheryoungmenofhisgenerationgettingwestern education,henaturallyturnedhisbacktoreligionpresentedbysuchanatmosphere.Every studentwhowasharassedbybulliesfoundprotectionunderthefraternalcareofRandhirSingh. Hestoodallaloneagainststudentswhofrightenedandoppressedweakerstudentsandtwicehe foughtapitchedbattleagainstthemofthetypehehadtofightagainstprisonwardensyearslater whentheycametoforcefeedbeefsoupafterhisfastevenwithoutwaterfor40days. TheCalloftheSpirit: Hisfather,NathaSingh,knewthatoutofallhissonsRandhirSinghwasthemostpromisinglad.He wasconsciousofhisspecialgiftsandtalents.Fromtimetotimehewroteletters,tendering affectionateadvicetohissensitiveson.Onesuchletterchangedthewholedirection,temper,and purposeofhislife. "IfyouwanttopassboththeB.A.andB.L.examinationsthisyear",wrotehisfatherinJanuary 1900A.D.,"youmustreadGuruNanak'sJapjieverymorning".Thesontooktheadviceliterallyand likeadutifulson,notonlyrecitedJapjieverymorningbutgavemoretimetoreadingthehymnsof theGuruthantohisstudies.WhethertheJapjihelpedhimtopasstheexaminationornot,it certainlybroughtaboutasudden,innerconversionwhichPrattedescribesas"changeoftaste,the mostmomentousonethateveroccursinhumanexperience"(J.B.Pratt:"TheReligious Consciousness"ChaptXIII). BhaiRandhirSinghhasdescribedthis"openingofthesoul'seye",inthefirstchapterofthis autobiography.Hefeltthatsomeveiloverhisheartwastornaway,soabruptly,thatitlefta

woundbehind.ForthefirsttimehefeltthatanunknownPowerhadsethimperfectlyloosefrom theworldandkindledinhimapassionatethirsttoknowGod.Hissoulbecameafurnacewhose leapingflameswereeagertoburneverythingdrossaroundhiminhiseagersearchfortruthand thelightofwisdom.Inthisinneragony,hemetaYogiwhosemiraculousoccultpowersattracted himlikeamagnet,butwhoseobnoxioushabitofsmokingrepelledhimandgavehimastunning shock. Marriage: RandhirSinghwasmarriedatquiteanearlyagetoKartarKaur,daughterofS.BachanSinghand DayaKaur,theSidhusofGumtiKalaninNabhaState.Themarriagepartywentonhorsesand decoratedchariots,whilethebridegroomrodeanelephantacquiredfromsomeprincelyfamily. MaharajaHiraSingh,therulerofNabha,sentacashgiftforthebride.Indianmarriagesduring thosedayswerepsychologicallysoarrangedthatitwasactuallyanorganizedandstagedromance betweentwoimmaturemindsculminatinginalastingconjugalhappiness.Inspiteofallthepomp andshowofmarriage,RandhirSinghandKartarKaurdidnotseeeachotherforayearormore evenafterthemarriage.Afterayearortwotheywereallowedtomeeteachotherforaboutthree orfourdays.Thisshyunionwasabondwhichwasfurtherstrengthenedbyaseparationof anotheryear.Withthematurityofthemindandbody,theiraffectionashusbandandwifealso maturedfasterandmoreintensely. KartarKaurwasfortunateinhavingasherplaymateanieceBibiShamsherKaur(beforebeing baptised,hernamewasJagatPrakashKaur.ShewasdaughterofS.BakhtawarSinghaprominent landlordofDhamot(Patiala).ShediedafewyearsafterhermarriagewithSardarMangalSingh MannofKotshera.SardarMangalSingh'sdaughterfromhissecondwifeismarriedtosonofBhai RandhirSingh'ssister,BibiBasantKaur,wifeofSessionJudgeS.SherSinghofSangrur).Bhai RandhirSinghdescribesherasayoungsaintdeeplylearnedinreligiouslore.Shewasmarriedto SardarMangalSinghMannofKotshera,onetimePresidentofChiefKhalsaDiwan.Shedied young.ItwasshewhotaughtPunjabitoKartarKauranddisciplinedhertoreciteherprayers regularly.LittledidKartarKaurknowatthisperiodthatheryounghusbandwouldoneday renouncetheluxuriouslifeofSikharistocratsandbecomeazealousmissionaryoftheGurusand anoutstandingfreedomfighter. Inthejoyandcomfortsofherfatherinlaw'srichmansions,littledidshedreamthatthebest yearsofheryouthwouldchangeintothemostterribleyearsofloneliness,sufferinganddistress andfornearlytwodecadesherdaysandnightswouldpassinuntoldanguishandsorrow.Inthese terribleyearsofstormandstress,shestruggledbravelyagainsttheterrorsofBritishruleand conqueredsufferingwiththecalmwillpowerofamartyr.Althoughneitherpoliceterrornor coercionfrightenedthisheroicsoul,hersufferingleftapermanentstampofsorrowonherserene faceandfrailbody. TheGoldenSparrow: OnlyhalfacenturyearliertheSikhshadlostanempirethesuddencollapseofwhichleftthewhole Sikhcommunitytotteringinmoralandculturalruins.ThroughouttheSikhruletheidealoftheSikh aristocracywastobreed,toleadandtobleed.AfterthecollapseoftheSikhempire,anumberof dedicatedsoulsrosetoreviveandrestorethetruespiritofSikhism.Mostofthememergedfrom obscurefamilies;someofthemwereofveryhumbleorigin.Prominentamongstthemwhohave nowbecomegreatnamesinSikhhistoryareBabaRamSingh,GyaniDitSingh,SantAttarSingh, followedbyBhaiVirSinghandBhaiRandhirSingh.TheyoungmindofRandhirSinghwasrestlessly

anxioustodedicatehiswholelifetomoralandspiritualregenerationofthepeople.Buthewas notbaptised.HewantedtodevoteayearortwototheSikhdisciplineasanovice. FamineinSouthIndiahadcausedfrightfulsuffering.Theearthquakeandthebubonicplague furtherintensifiedthehardshipsofthepeople.Thisplaguewassupposedtobeimportedfrom ChinafirsttoBombay.In1896,itspreadasepidemicfirstinDaccanandtheninPunjab.TheBritish Governmentintroduceddrasticsanitarymeasurestocopewithit.OnOctober2nd1902Bhai RandhirSinghwasappointedNaibTehsildarandpostedondutytohelpamedicalunitunderDr. Fishertofighttheplague.BhaiRandhirSinghhasdescribedhisexperiencesonthisjobinChapter 3. Corruptionwasrampantinthisdepartmentandwhenhefoundthatcharityfundsweremisused andmisappropriated,hetriedtoputanendtoit.Aftertwoyearseffortwhenhefailedtodoso, heresigned.Theofficerswhowereimpressedbyhistalent,judiciousadministration,nobilityand franknesspersuadedhimnottodoso.WhentheyfailedtoconvincehimthatbyservingtheBritish Government,hewasservinghiscountry,theysorrowfullysaid,"TheBritishGovernmenthaslosta goldensparrow". The'goldensparrow'feltadeepsenseofinjurywhenitswingsflutteringforthefreedomofthe firmamentstruckagainsttheglitteringbarsofthegoldencageofBritishImperialism.Hisrestless soulwasstrugglingtobreakthroughthebarsorelsebreakthecage.Littledidanyoneexpectthat GuruGobindSingh'sbaptismofthedoubleedgedswordwillchangethisattractivesparrowintoa relentlessfighteragainstthehawksofoppressionandtyranny. Baptism: ForRandhirSinghbaptismintotheKhalsaHolyOrderwasnotjustaformalceremony,buta spiritualrebirth.SohespentfullfiveyearsinpreparatoryselfdisciplineandstudyofSikh Scripturesanddoctrines.AfterstudyingSikhtheologyandhistory,hemouldedhismindandsoul accordingtotheSikhcodeofconduct. InMay,1903aMuslimdivine,MaulviKarimBakhshdeclaredhisintentionofbecomingabaptised Sikh.AlargereligiousgatheringwasheldathisvillageBakapuraboutthreemilesfromPhillauron G.T.RoadintheJullundurDistrictonJune14,1903.BhaiRandhirSinghwasbaptizedalongwith KarimBakhsh.KarimBakhshwasgiventhenameLakhbirSingh(LakhbirSinghtookupmissionary workincloseassociationwiththeeminentSikhtheologianBhaiVirSinghandwasreveredasa saintthroughouthislife)afterhisspiritualrebirth,whileBasantSinghwasgivenhispresentname RandhirSingh.WhathappenedafterthebaptismandhowwastheconfusioninthemindofBhai RandhirSinghabouttheDivineNamecreatedhasbeenvividlydescribedbyhiminChapterIIof thisbook. AtAbbottabad: BhaiRandhirSingh'sfatherandfriendsoncemorepersuadedhimtoacceptthepostofHeadClerk atAbbottabad.Theplacewasidealforcontemplativelife.Withinhispayhecouldaffordevery comfortandluxurybutstillhelivedwiththesimplicityofmedievalmonksandgaveallhissavings incharity.HislifeatAbbottabadwasmarkedbytwoeventsofnote:hisfriendlyassociationwith BabaSawanSingh,theRadhaswamileader,whowasanS.D.O.atAbbottabadandhisownmystic experiencesduringthisperiod.TherewasanoccasionalreparteebetweenBabaSawanSinghand BhaiRandhirSinghwhowerealsokithandkin,astheybothbelongedtoGrewalfamiliesand hailedfromvillagesonlyamileandhalfapart.WhileBhaiRandhirSinghremainedsilentabouthis

mysticexperiences,BabaSawanSinghopenlypreachedhistheoreticalmysticismborrowedpartly fromHinduoccultismandpartlyontheerroneouslyinterpretedhymnsofGuruGranthSahib. OnceBabaSawanSingh'shousecaughtfire,thelowerstoreywasablazeandBabaSawanSingh wasintheupperstorey.Whilearrangementswerebeingmadetoputoutthefireandfixupa laddertobringhimsafelydown,BhaiRandhirSinghdidnotmissafriendlyjoke:"BrotherSawan SinghJi,youdailypreach,'IamBrahma,thefirecannotburnme,theswordcannotslayme,the wateroftheseacannotdrownme;'letusseetodaywhetherfireburnsyouBrotherBrahma.This isthebestopportunitytotest"."ForheavenssakesavemeBhaiRandhirSingh"saidBabaSawan Singh,Thisisnotthetimetojoke". MysticExperiencesandVisions: BhaiRandhirSingh'sintuitivesearchforhigherrealization,hisintellectualdoubtsanddelusions aboutthedivineWord(Shabad),hispassionatethirsttoescapethebondsofselfhoodandpush widethedoorwhichleadstoTruthandilluminationhavebeenfaithfullyrecordedbyhiminthis autobiographywithoutcommentsandinterpretation.Hehashowever,givenatheological interpretationofallthestagesofmysticexperiencesandilluminationinthelightofSikhScriptures inhisbooksCharanKamalKiMauj(ThesublimeJoyofAccesstoHisLotusFeet)andAnhad Shabad(UnstruckMusic).HeclearlystatesthatthereisnomysteryorexclusivenessaboutSikh mysticism. Duringhislifetime,BhaiRandhirSinghveryrarelytalkedabouthismysticexperiences.Whenhe didsoitwastoenlightenasincereandtrueseekeronly.Whenspecificallyaskedabouthismystic experienceshewouldremainsilent,thewayBuddharemainedsilentoverthequestion.Only twiceinmymanyyearsofassociationdidhedescribesomerareexperiencestome.Hedidso whenhefeltimpelledtorevealthemandhedescribedtheminwordscharacteristicallyhisown. HisspeechatsuchmomentswasmusicandpoetryandanexpressionofLightandBeauty,andlike musicitfadedintosilence.Thenhewouldnotspeakforhours. Ionceexpressedtheopinionthateveryonecouldnotbeamountaineerandeverymountaineer couldnottouchtheHimalayanpeaksofspiritualexaltation.Hereplied,ThisHimalayanpeakcan bereachedthroughhumility,compassion,purityandintensecontemplationofHisWordbyevery onewhomakesaneffortandthesethingscanbepractisedbyeveryhumanbeing".WhenIonce askedhimthecauseofoscillationsofmindbetweenlightanddarkness,odddisturbancesfromthe lowersensesfromwithinorfromthesocialandpoliticalupheavalsoutside,abruptinvasionsfrom thesubliminalregionsanddisconcertingglimpsesoftranscendentalpowers,hereplied,Thecause isthedisturbingmentaldirtofoursanskarasandthecureisatotalselfdedicationtoHislove, drasticselfdisciplineandcontinuousmeditationstilltheseekeracquiresbeatitudeandwisdom.In ordertoattaindivineunionwithGod,thesoulhastopassthroughtheobscurenightof mortificationofthedesiresandselfdenialinallthings.Thespirituallifeallowsnoroomfor compromise.Inpractice,westumbleandfall,butthechoiceonemakesmustbeunconditional. Whenavesselisfullofliquid,theslightestcrack,unlessitisrepaired,isenoughtoemptyittothe lastdrop".Itisfortheologicalhistoriansandmysticstojudgeaftercarefulanalysesandstudy, whetherthemysticexperiencesofBhaiRandhirSinghpresentacleartestimonyofdivine revelationornot. TeacherwithaDifference: SardarNathaSinghthoughtthatthebestjobforhissensitivesonwouldbethatofateacher.He gothimanappointmentletterfromthePrincipalofawellestablishedChristianSchool.Bhai RandhirSinghmetthePrincipalandfranklytoldhimthathewouldbeamisfitintheChristian

MissionSchool.ButthePrincipalthoughtthatitwouldbeeasytoconvertareligiousminded teacherlikehimtoChristianity.HeintroducedhimtotheSchoolstudentswhentheycongregated formorningprayer.HeaskedBhaiRandhirSinghtoaddressthestudents.ThenewSikhteacher sanginsimplePunjabiasongofGuruNanakinamelodiousvoiceandtheboysinstinctively repeatedeverylineofthehymninachorusafterhim.ThenextdaybeforetheChristianprayers began,theboysagainaskedhimtosingashabad.OnthethirddaythePrincipalpolitelytoldhim thathewastooadvancedfortheschoolwhichwasmeantforchildrenofbackwardfamilies. AttheKhalsaCollege: SardarHarbansSinghAttari,thegrandsonofSardarShamSinghAttari(theheroofSecondAnglo SikhWar)wasdeeplyimpressedbytheidealisticfervourofBhaiRandhirSinghandhegothim appointedastheSuperintendentoftheHostelinKhalsaCollege,Amritsar.HetoldBhaiRandhir SinghfranklythattheSikhslosttheSovereignStatebecauseofilliteracyinleadershipsandfallof moralcharacter.WhileoutwardlytheprofessedpurposeofKhalsaCollegewastobringout"loyal educatedyoungmentoserveBritishImperialism,"therealinnerpurposewastoawakeninthe youngergenerationalovefortheirheroicpastandtoinspirethemwiththelostglory.Thegroup ledbySardarHarbansSinghAttariwasantiBritishandthegreatSardarwhosegrandfatherfell 'fightingthelastbattlewiththeBritish'didnotacceptanypositionortitlefromtheBritish.The BritishGovernmentcametoknowaboutitandtheystartedplanningtheousterofthisgroupfrom theChiefKhalsaDiwanandKhalsaCollegeManagement. AlthoughBhaiRandhirSinghbelongedtoanaristocraticfamily,hepreferredlivingwithTolstoyan simplicity.Hegavethestudentsagooddealoffreedombuthedemandedfromthemstrict religiousdiscipline.Whateverhesavedfromhispaywasspentbyhimonthewelfareofstudents. ThearistocraticsnobberyoftheChiefKhalsaDiwanSardarstriedtooverwhelmhimbytheir authoritariandispleasureagainsthisradicalmethodsofplacingstudentsonspartanethical discipline.Theytriedtosmotherhisactivitiesbuthewentondoinghisdutyashisconscience dictatedhim.Hismoralandspiritualholdonthestudentssharpenedthejealousyofcertain representativesofthemanagement,whosawthemselvesputintotheshade.Whiletheywanted totrainthestudentsintimidity,treachery,andbetrayalofnationalcausesinthenameofloyalty tothebenevolentBritishSarkar,BhaiRandhirSinghinspiredthemwithmostrevolutionaryideas offreedom,nobilityandjusticeasenunciatedbyGuruGobindSingh.Yettheycouldnotdomuch becauseSardarHarbansSinghAttariwashisstrongestsupporter.Mr.Cole,thePrincipalofKhalsa College,wassogreatanadmirerofhisthatheappearedasBhaiRandhirSingh'sdefencewitness intheLahoreconspiracycase,anactwhichwasverycourageousforanEnglishmantododuring thosedays. Thestudentslovedandadmiredhim.Dr.DharamAnantSingh(Dr.DharamAnaptSinghwassent alongwithSantTejaSinghbytheeminentSaintAttarSinghforhigherstudiestoU.K.andU.S. DharamAnantSinghstudiedGreekandwroteabook"PlatoandtheTrueEnlightenerofthesoul." Luazc,1912comparingthePhilosophyofGuruNanakandPlato)theeminentGreekandSanskrit ScholarandPlatonist,whowasastudentofKhalsaCollegeatthattime,recordsanincidentand hisimpressionofBhaiRandhirSingh'snobleinfluenceinalongarticleentitled"DivineInfluenceof aPerfectlyVirtuousSikh".DharamAnantSinghsays,Thisincidentisaboutthegreathero,aliving martyrandsaintBhaiRandhirSingh.WhileastudentofKhalsaCollege,Ihadtheprivilegetowin hisspecialattentionandregard.Almosteveryday,hewouldhearandenjoymyrecitationofGuru GobindSingh'sJapand33swaiyasandnowandthenexpresseddeepappreciationformyloveof theGuru'shymns.Itwasintheyear1905whenithadrainedheavilyandthestudentsofthe collegeexpressedtheirdesiretoeatmilkpudding(milkandriceboiledtogether).Heaskedsome

cookstogetsufficientmilkfromthevillagesclosebyandpreparethedish.Aboutanhourafter theyhadtakenthispudding,nearlyallofthemstartedvomitingandsufferedfromacuteinternal trouble.Itwascholerathathadsuddenlyovertakenallwhohadtakenthedish.Icamefromthe GoldenTemplequitelate.Tomyamazement,Isawawholegroupofstudentsvomitingand writhingwithpainandBhaiRandhirSinghhavingalreadysentforthedoctor,questionedthethree cookssternly.Heaskedthemthereasonofsuchseriouscontaminationofthemilkandthreatened totakedireaction.Therewasnoangeronhisface,butwithcalmforcefulvoicehethriceasked themhowandwhyhadthemilkbeencontaminatedandthricetheysaidtheydidnotknow.He thenaskedthemtospreadouttheirhandsandsaidtothem,"Youmusttellthetruth.Godcanstill saveyoufromthesinofgreatcrimeyouhavecommitted.Iwillgoonstrikingonthepalmsofyour handswiththiswoodenrulertillyouconfess"("PuranSatogunideIshwariPrabhav"ByDharam AnantSinghpublishedinKhalsaAdvocateMay4and11,1964). Seventimeshestruckhardsaying"RememberGodandconfess"andthentheysuddenly confessedthattheyhadboughtlessquantityofmilkthantheywerepaidforandhadaddedsome dirtywatertoitfromamuddypond.BhaiRandhirSinghthrewawaythewoodenrulerandstood forfiveminutesinprayerwithfoldedhandsinvokingthemercyofAlmightyGodtosavethelives oftheinnocentboysandforgivethoseservantswhohadconfessedandrepented.Thedoctors arrivedanddeclaredtheconditionofallstudentsasveryserious."Whatwouldyouliketohave, mychildren",BhaiRandhirSinghaskedtheboys,"IhaveprayedforyouandIamsureGodthe onlyHealerwillcure.HavefaithinHissavinggrace".Theboysaskedforice.BhaiRandhirSingh procuredplentyofice.Nomedicinehadbeengiven.Somehowicealonesavedthelifeofallthe boys.Bynightfalltheywereoutofdanger.Dr.DharamAnantSinghwasaneyewitnesstothis incidentandwhatsurprisedhim,hesays,wasthecalmanddivinefaceofBhaiRandhirSinghwho wasveryserious,buttherewasnotatraceofbitterness,angeranddespaironhisface.The incidentgavethemanagementsomereasontorundownBhaiRandhirSingh.Heresigned. ThereweresomekeenadmirersofBhaiRandhirSinghinthemanagementcommitteeofKhalsa College,notablySardarAjitSingh,ChiefJudgeofPatialaandSardarHarbansSinghAttari,who wereimpressedbyhisliterarytalentandwantedhimtoeditaPunjabiJournalostensiblytofight thebureaucraticleadershipofChiefKhalsaDiwan(SardarAjitSingh,ChiefJudge,Patialawas DefencewitnessNo.53forBhai,RandhirSinghintheLahoreConspiracyCaseandhemadea statementtothiseffectinthecourt).ButBhaiRandhirSinghwastooindependentandnoblea spirittogetinvolvedinanysuchpartyconflict. EducationalActivitiesandReforms: BhaiRandhirSingh'sexperienceswiththeChiefKhalsaDiwanManagementconvincedhimthat thisorganizationwhichhadatthattimeconsiderableholdonurbanSinghSabhascouldneverlead theSikhmassesinanypositivedirection,norcouldthearistocratsleadingtheSikhcommunity evercomeoutoftheirivorytowersofluxuriousmansionsandthementalprisonsofunstinted loyaltytoBritishImperialism,toleadthemassesatanycriticaljuncture.Norcouldtheycarryout anyreformsinthehistoricalSikhtemples,whichtheMahants(priests)startedtreatingastheir hereditaryproperty.TheMahantsunderBritishprotectionandevenencouragementhadstarted convertingtheSikhshrinesintoHindutemples.TheyplacedinthemidolsandimagesofHindu godsandgoddesseswhichcouldfetchthemaximumamountofmoneyfromallsectsofHindus.To pleasetheHighcasteHindus,theMahantswentastepfurtheranddidnotpermitSikhsbornin lowcastefamilytoeithermakeanyofferingortojointhecongregationinworship.Eventhemost eminenttheologianandSanskritScholar,GyaniDitSingh,whodefeatedSwamiDayanandFounder ofAryaSamajtwiceinPhilosophicaldebateonVedas,andwasreveredbytheSikhcommunityas

anoutstandingleaderoftheSinghSabhamovementwasnotallowedbytheseprieststooffer Karahprasad(Sacramentaloffering)attheAkalTakhat. BhaiRandhirSinghwasperhapsthefirstoutstandingleaderofthetimeswhonotonlybaptised HindusborninlowcastefamiliesbutoncetheybecamedisciplinedKhalsa,hetreatedthemashis gurbhaisandkithandkininthefraternityofGuruGobindSingh.Ontheotherhand,hewouldnot eatfromthehandsofthosehighcasteandhighclassSikhswhodrankwineandledanunSikhlife. Thiswasonearticleofhisfaithwhichhemaintainedeveninprisonlifeatgreatriskstohishealth andlife.TheresultwasthathebegantobetreatedasanoutcastewhointheeyesofSikhs inspiredbyHinducasteprejudiceshaddegradedhimselfsociallybyminglingwithlowcaste people.Inhisownvillage,manyorthodoxpeoplewouldnotallowhimandhiscompanionstotake anywateroutoftheirwells. WhenBhaiRandhirSinghwenttoAmritsartoofferKirtanandKarahparasadatAkalTakhat,the priestsdidnotpermithimtodoso,butBrahmGyaniBabaShamSinghwhoperformedKirtanin theHarimandir(GoldenTemple)fornearly75yearsintervenedonhisbehalfandhewas permittedtoperformkirtaninthesanctumsanctorumofAkalTakhat.Peopleweresothrilledby hismelodiousvoiceandenchantingkirtanthattheyshoweredhundredsofrupeesonhim. Withouttakingasinglepennyoutofheapsofsilvercoinslyingaroundhim,hequietlyleftthe placeandwenttoNankanaSahib.WheneverhewenttoAmritsaragainthegreedyandcalculating priestswereonlytooeagertoinvitehimtoperformkirtan. Byexertingsuchcompulsivemoralinfluenceentirelyfreefromambitionforpowerorpossessive control,heconductedreformsininnumerablehistoricalshrines.Hecompelledthepriestsand managementsofAnandpurSahib,ChamkaurSahibandotherhistoricalshrinestoopentheirdoors toalldevotees,irrespectiveofcaste,colourorcreedandtorestoretraditionalrespectand sanctityoftheseshrines. InconsultationwiththeeminentSikhdivineSaintAttarSinghandanumberofotherreligious personalities,BhaiRandhirSinghorganizedaPanthicConferenceatthehistoricalshrineof DamdamaSahibandfoundationwaslaidhereofapredominantlyruralorganizationnamedthe PanchKhalsaDiwan.BhaiRandhirSinghwasthefirstGeneralSecretary.Unfortunatelyforthis organizationashrewdretiredS.D.O.,BabuTejaSingh,gotintothisorganizationandstarted mishandlingaffairsthroughlocaladherents,mostlyilliteratemenorpeoplelesseducatedthan him.Forhisownconvenience,heshiftedthePanchKhalsaDiwanofficefromDamdamaSahibto hisownvillageBhasaurandindulgedinsuchactivitieswhichintheeyesofBhaiRandhirSinghand SaintAttarSinghwereharmfultoSikhtraditionsandideals.BhaiRandhirSinghfirstquietly disassociatedhimselffromBabuTejaSinghandthenthedifferencebetweenthembecameacuter. TwicehemadeafriendlyappealtoBabuTejaSinghtodesistfromthepathhewasfollowingbut thefanaticandselfcentredBabuTejaSinghwentoncausingastir'byhissocial,religiousand politicalbehaviour'. RikabganjAffair191314: WhenGuruTeghBahadurwasbeheadedbyAurangzebinChandniChowk,Delhiandhisbodywas carriedawayundercoverofaduststormbyLakhiRai,hisdisciple,tohisresidenceatRikabganj, heputthewholeofhishousetoflamestocrematethebodyandlaterplacingtheremainsina metalvesselburieditattheexactplaceofcremationhopingtobuildashrinetocommemorate theGuru'smartyrdom.WhenGuruGobindSinghcametoDelhitheshrineswerebuiltatSisGanj andRikabganj,butduringthetimeofBandaorperhapsafterthedeathofMataSahibDeviand

MataSundari,alltheSikhshrinesincludingMajnuTilla,theoldestone,werepulleddownand mosquesbuiltintheirplaces. ForthefirsttimetheSikhsinvadedDelhionDussehradayOctober1st1778."Inthispredatory expeditionintoDelhi,theSikhswenttotheGuru'sbungalownearRikabganjandtheredemolished amosqueandravagedthecultivatedfieldcloseby.TheSikhsstayedintheCapitalforabouta month"(G.R.C.Williams.TheSikhsintheUpperDoab,CalcuttaReview1876,Vol.DC,35.Imperial Records,SecretProceedings) "OnMarch8th1783theSikharmiesagainattackedMalikaGanjandSabziMandiandcreateda tumultinDelhibyenteringthroughAjmeriGate.Theyravagedthecityandmadetheirwaytothe fort.ExpectinganAfghanattacktheMislSardarswenttoPunjableavingSardarBeghelSinghto buildtheGurdwarasofRikabganj,SisGary,BanglaSahib,andtheSamadhisofMataSundariand MataSahibDevi"(DilliyethilRajKarnen(Marathirecord)Vol.I,P.84).Eversincethenthesanctity oftheseshrineshadbeenmaintainedbytheMughalGovernments. "WiththetransferoftheCapitalfromCalcuttatoDelhiin1911,preparationsbegantobemadeto buildtheViceregalLodgeoppositetheplacewhereRikabganjGurdwaraissituated.The GovernmentconsideredthattheoldsixcorneredenclosurewalloftheGurdwarawastoouglyto standinfrontoftheViceroy'spalaceandproposedthatitshouldbedemolished.In1912under theLandAcquisitionActtheGovernmentacquiredfromanaccommodatingMahantthewhole landlyingbetweentheGurdwaraandtheouterwall"(GurdwaraReformMovementbyProf.Teja SinghP.51UnfortunatelythedatesgivenbyProf.TejaSinghinthebook,arenotcorrectandthe eventsarenotplacedinpropersequence.Factsanddateshavetherefore,tobeacceptedwith caution). TheChiefKhalsaDiwan,whomtheBritishGovernmentacceptedastheonlyrepresentativebody oftheSikhsseemedinclinedtoaccepttheGovernmentpositioninviewofthefactthatthe GovernmentdidnotwanttodosotoinjurethefeelingsoftheSikhsbutsimplytoimprovethe outlookoftheGurdwara. "OnJanuary14th1914,theBritishIndianGovernmentrazedthewalloftheGurdwaratothe groundonthepretenceofmakingtheroadstraight.Thewallwas400ft.long2ftthickand11ft. high.Thebricksofthiswallwerehammeredintopiecesthatwereusedfortheconstructionofthe road.FiftybighasofthelandbelongingtotheGurdwarawasalsotakenforthepurposeof constructingaroadandasumofRs.8,000wasdepositedtotakepossessionoftheGardenwithin thewall.Thiswalltoowasrazedtotheground"(RuchiRamSahniStruggleforReformsinSikh Shrines:P.58). TheSikhcommunitywasshockedandhadjustifiedfearsthatthewholehistoricalshrinemightbe demolishedinduecourse.TheChiefKhalsaDiwancameunderfireandwasangrilyblamedfor permittingtheBritishGovernmenttocommitthisactofsacrilege.WhileultraloyalistslikeArur Singh,RajaSirDaljitSinghandGajjanSinghofNarangwalsupportedandevenencouragedthe Governmenttogoaheadwithitsplan,SirSunderSinghMajithiaandhisChiefKhalsaDiwan executivesoonrealizedthattheyhadcommittedablunder(TheChiefKhalsaDiwanExecutiveat thattimeconsistedofSardarShivdevSingh,S.SadhuSingh,S.HarnamSingh,S.MangalSingh,S. TrilochanSingh,S.NarainSigh,MasterTaraSingh(NotAkalileader),BhaiAmarSinghandS. SunderSinghMajithia.ProminentmemberslikeS.HarbansSinghAttariandS.HarchandSinghdid notgetanopportunitytoexpressthemselves).

SotheysentSardarSewaramSinghaneminentlawyertoknowthedetailsofthelandacquired andtheconstructionsdesiredtobedemolished.ThroughitsresolutionsNos.371and372dated February1standMarch22nd1914respectively,theChiefKhalsaDiwanappealedthatfurther demolitionshouldnottakeplacetilltheChiefKhalsaDiwanhadacquiredtheconsentoftheSikh Panthinitsgeneralgathering. PeopleactuallydidnotknowwhatwashappeningbetweentheChiefKhalsaDiwanandtheBritish IndianGovernment.ThingsexplodedintheannualSikhEducationalConferencewhichwasbeing heldundertheChairmanshipofRajaSirDaljitSinghanextremeloyalistatJullundurinJanuary 1912.SardarHarchandSinghandSardarHarbansSinghAttariraisedtheissueofthedemolitionof Rikabganjwallinthestrongestterms.RajaDaljitSinghanextremeloyalistdidnotevenpermitthe considerationanddiscussionoftheRikabganjaffairandaudaciouslysaidthatwhatevertheBritish GovernmentwasdoingwasintheinterestoftheSikhs.SardarHarchandSinghandSardarHarbans SinghAttariwalkedoutoftheEducationalConferenceafterlodgingastrongprotestandafter sayingthattheChiefKhalsaDiwanbyitsabjectsubmissiontothewishesofBritishGovernment wastreacherouslybetrayingtheSikhs.Aseparatemeetingwasheldbythesemembersthesame nightandthedemolitionoftheRikabganjwallwascondemned. ThefirstthingS.HarchandSinghdidwastomeetBhaiRandhirSinghandexplaintohimtheinside storyofhowsomeoftheextremeloyalistSardarshadabjectlyagreedtoselloutasmuchofthe RikabganjshrineastheBritishGovernmentdesired.Ashewasalandlord(Rais)allhecoulddowas toawakentheconscienceofupperclassSardars.OnlyBhaiRandhirSinghcouldawakenthe masses.BhaiRandhirSinghtookupthecauseseriouslyandbroughtaboutanawakeningofthe typeBabaRamSinghbroughtsomedecadesearlier.Thefirsttelegramofstrongprotestagainst demolitionofthewallwassentbyhimonbehalfofhisJathawhichhecalledTatKhalsaSangat, NarangwaltotheViceroy(KhalsaSangat,Narangwalpassedaresolutionprotestingagainstthe demolitionofaportionofthewallsurroundingtheRikabganj.HomePoliticalProceedings:May 18,1914Deposit).SimilartelegramwassentbySardarHarchandSinghonbehalfofLyallpur Sangataboutamonthlater.ChiefKhalsaDiwanAmritsarandKhalsaDiwanShanghailoyally expressedthanksforalltheBritishGovernmenthaddoneandalltheyintendedtodotobuilda newGurdwarawherevertheywished(HomePol:July28,Dept). ThestirthatwasbroughtaboutbythestatementsofBhaiRandhirSinghawakenedtheSikh massestothegrimrealityofthesituation."Revolutions"saidAristotle"arenottriflebutbegin fromtrifle"OntheeveofWorldWarI,astartlingrevolutionaryspiritwascreated.Forthefirst time,theChiefKhalsaDiwangaveanimpressiontotheSikhmassesthatitwasanorganizationof servileSikharistocratswhohadbecomepoliticallyamassofunspuncotton. OnApril13,Baisakhi1914festival,BhaiRandhirSinghorganizedalargePanthicConferencewith thehelpofBabaJawandSinghNihangatPatti.ThousandsofpeoplemarchedfromLudhiana, JullunduronfoottoattendthismeetinganditwasattendedbySikhdivines,ruralleaders.Itwas saidthataftertheBritishoccupationsucharepresentativeandlargegatheringhadneverbeen heldbefore.Aresolutionwaspassedthatastrongagitationwouldbelaunched,toprevent desecrationofthehistoricaltemple.IftheGovernmentrebuiltthewallalreadydemolished,the agitationwouldbewithdrawn,butiftheGovernmentpersistedinitssacrilegiousdesigns,Bhai RandhirSinghannounced,healongwithaShahidiJathaof500wouldsacrificehislifetoprevent thedesecrationanddemolitionofthehistoricalshrine(Detailsofthisconferenceweregivento mebyGyaniHarbhajanSinghPrinterandPublisherofBhaiRandhirSingh'swritings,whowas presentinthePattiConference).

KnowingBhaiRandhirSinghalwaysmeantwhathesaid;theChiefKhalsaDiwanwasunnerved.To retraceitsstep,theChiefKhalsaDiwanheldaconferenceofitsSinghSabhas.About245people attendedthismeetingheldinTownHallAmritsaronMay3rd1914andamidstuproarandprotests ofdissentingvoices,passedsixresolutionsallowingtheGovernmenttoacquiresomelandbut urgingthemnottotouchthebuildingofthehistoricalshrine(Theresolutionofthisrepresentative gatheringoftheChiefKhalsaDiwanranthus:ThattheGovernmentbehumblyrequestedto restorethelandandenclosurewalloftheGurdwaragardentotheiroriginalcondition,butiffor reasonofStateitisconsideredessentialtochangetheirform,thenintheopinionofthis committeeitwillbeacceptable,ifwithoutreducingthetotalareaoftheland,thewholeplaceis givenarectangularshapeandtheGurdwaracomesinthemiddleofitwithroadsrunningonboth sides.Theentirework,however,shouldbeentrustedtoaManagingCommitteeofSikhswho shouldbehelpedbytheGovernmentfinanciallyforthepurpose.Inanotherresolution,they requestedthatSikhsshouldbeallowedcompletelibertytovisitorresideintheGurdwaraatall thetimeofthedayornight."Vide:ChiefKhalsaDiwanResolutions.(AlsoseeGurdwaraRikabganj (StatementofChiefKhalsaDiwan)concerningproposeddemolitionofRikabganj)WazirHindPress P2.). AstheChiefKhalsaDiwanleftallthingsinitsresolutiontothesweetwilloftheBritishIndian Government,BhaiRandhirSinghandtheleaderswhosupportedhimorganizedanother conferenceatLangaMandi,LahoreonMay30th,themartyrdomdayofGuruArjanDev.The representativesofChiefKhalsaDiwanwerealsoinvitedtothisconference.Alltheleadersspoke vehementlycondemningtheactionoftheGovernment.Whenresolutionswereputforwardfor discussion,SardarManSingh,alawyerstronglysupportedtheChiefKhalsaDiwanstandand pleadedthecasesoenthusiasticallythatforalongtimehewouldnotallowanyoneelsetospeak. BhaiRandhirSinghstoodup,wentnearSardarManSinghandrebukinghimforhisdisruptive behavioursaid,"Willyounowsitdown.Wehavehadenoughofthisnonsense".SardarManSingh foldedhishands,sayinghewassorryandsatdown(Thisincidentwashumorouslyrelatedtomein 1946bySardarManSinghatFaridkotwherehewastheChiefJudge.S.ManSinghwasaclose associateofBhaiVirSinghandadmirerandfriendofBhaiRandhirSingh). TherewasastrongreactiontotheChiefKhalsaDiwanstandandalltheresolutionscondemning Britishactionwerepassedunanimously.Notasingleamendmentwasproposedtoanyresolution. TheChiefKhalsaDiwanforthefirsttimefeltthatithadlostholdonthemindsandheartsofthe Sikhmassesbothintheurbanandruralareas.Theynowthoughtofsendingadeputation consistingofthemuchhatedArurSingh,ManagerofGoldenTemple,Amritsartowinsome concessionsforitsstandandpersuadetheGovernmentnottotakeanyactionwhichmightcause permanentinjurytothefeelingsoftheSikhsandscandalizeChiefKhalsaDiwan.Theyalreadyfelt theSikhcommunitywasangrywiththemandmanySinghSabhasfromAbbottabadtoLudhiana hadpassedresolutionscondemningChiefKhalsaDiwanandpublishedpamphletscondemning theirstand(PamphletswerepublishedinsupportofBhaiRandhirSingh'sstandbySikhSocietiesin Rawalpindi,LahoreandDelhi). BhaiRandhirSinghthenmetBabuTejaSinghtoholdameetingatBhasaurandpassaresolution againstthedemolitionofthewall,butBabuTejaSinghrefusedtoutterawordagainsttheBritish Government("TejaSinghofBhasaurrefusedtopassaresolutioncondemningthedemolitionof RikabganjGurdwarawall."(StatementofApproverSunderSinghAsaMajrawhoclaimedtobe SecretaryofBhasaurorganization).Lahoreconspiracycasewitness26.P.545).

AchhraSinghofLohatbadi,acleverintriguer,thenorganizedaconferenceathisvillageapparently topassresolutionsandgivesupporttoRikabganjGurdwaramovement,butactuallytoexploitthe nameandpopularityofBhaiRandhirSinghandsetupaschoolcumsocioreligiousorganizationof thetypeBabuTejaSinghhadsetupatBhasaur.SunderSinghAsaMajrajoinedhim.Bothofthese personsbecameapproversagainstBhaiRandhirSinghintheLahoreConspiracycase.The statementofSunderSinghAsaMajrainthecasesuggestingthatRikabganjaffairwasaseditious movementandBhaiRandhirSingh'scommentsonitinthecourtisahistoricallyinterestinganda vitalstatement. SunderSinghAsaMijrawhoclaimedtobecloseassociateandSecretaryofBhasaurPanchKhalsa Diwansaid,"ResolutionswerepassedatLohatbadiwhere500menwerepresent.Resolutions werepassedregardingRikabganjandexcommunicatingSardarSunderSinghMajithiaand condemningS.ArurSinghforopposingthePanthicdecisionsonRikabganj.AtChamkaurgathering RandhirSinghtoldthatasecretcommitteehasbeenformedinsomevillageinLudhianaDistrictat whichitwasdecidedthatiftheGovernmentpulleddowntheGurdwaraatRikabganj,theywould sacrificethemselves(LahoreConspiracyCase,StatementofApproverSunderSinghAsaMajraP. 546.ApproverBhagatSinghofBallowaladded"whentheRikabganjaffairhappened,Randhir Singhaskedmetopreachsedition.Hedescribedtheaffairasagreatzulumandaskedhimto preachagainsttheBritishRaj.AfterKomagataMaruincidenttookplaceRandhirSinghtoldme, ourcountrymenhadbeenshotandkilledandoppressionwasdailyontheincrease.Whenwar brokeoutRandhirSinghtoldme,IndiantroopswerekeptinfrontwhileBritishwereintherear" (SecondLahoreConspiracycaseP.446). BhaiRandhirSinghinhisstatementinthecourtstated,"IdidattendthemeetingatLohatbadibut Ihadnofollowers.Iwasnotinvitedtherebutwentmyselftoprotestagainsttheremovalofsome girlsandteachingstafffromBhasaur,whichsomehowbymisrepresentation,AchharaSinghand SunderSinghhaddone.TheyhadalsofalselycirculatedthatIwastobethepatronofGirlsSchool theywishedtostartatLohatbadi.Iwasaskednottospeakagainsttheproposalandappeal,butI mademyselfheardinstrongtermsrepudiatingfalsereportsthatIwastobethepatronofthe School.Theseproceedingsweredisappointingtothem,astherewasnoresponsetotheirappeal forfundsaftermyprotest.Rikabganjmatterwasbroughtforward.Ipointedouttotheaudience, theutterfutilityofthematterafteralargerepresentativeDiwanatLahorehadsubmitteda memorandumtotheGovernment.OnthistheassemblyconfirmedtheresolutionoftheLahore DiwanofMay30,1914.Nonameswerementionedforexcommunication."BhaiRandhirSingh fartherstated:"IputforwardanamendmentthattheGovernmentshouldberequestednotto treattheopinionsoftheChiefKhalsaDiwanCommitteeasthevoiceoftheSikhPanth."(Second LahoreConspiracyCase,P.486). Whiletheapproversinthecasetriedtoprovethatallthemeetingsandannouncementsin connectionwiththeRikabganjcasewereseditious,thejudgesremarked,"Thismeetingwasnot seditious,butitdoesshowhowthementherewerelabouringunderaverygrievous misapprehensionastowhathadhappenedinregardtotheRikabganjGurdwaraandwehaveno doubtthattheywereledtothinkthatitwasapartoftheGovernmentpolicytointerferewiththe religiousfeelingsofitssubject.Theseedwasthussownfordiscontent."(IbidP.480). ItwasatthiscriticaljuncturethattheGadharitesarrivedfromCanadatofightforfreedomby givingacalltothepeopleforanarmedrevoltandtheWorldWarIflaredupinEuropeinAugust 1914.WilfridBlundoncesaid,"TodaytheirmottoisReform,letitnotdrivethemtomakeita revolutiontomorrow."ThisReformer,whowasabornrevolutionary,didnotlikemanythings

whichtheGadharitesdid.Butfindingthattheywereextremelysincereanddedicatedsoulsand alsofindingthatpoliticianswhowereloudlydemandingfreedomforIndiaweretimidly withdrawingevenmoralsupportforthem,BhaiRandhirSinghconsideredithismoraldutytogive themanalloutsupportfortheirfightforfreedom.Hegaveunstintedsupporttothis Revolutionarymovementwithoutgettinginvolvedintheirlootandplundercampaigns. GhadarMovementinU.S.A.andCanada: TheSikhsareirresistibleemigrantswithapassionatelovefortheirnativeland.Thissideofhell, theywouldgotoanyplaceonearth,seaorskytoekeoutanhonourableexistence.Their confidenceintheirabilityandinherentcapacitytodotwicetheamountofworkanyotherfarm handorartisanintheworldcando,isthemainspringoftheiradventurousspirit.Theynaively considereveryaliencountrytobe"promisedland"andthesocialliberationoftheirreligiongives themfreedomtoadjustineveryculture. Whenin1907,theCanadianGovernmentpassedtheImmigrationActtoputastoptotheingress ofallIndians,theSikhsresidingtherefeltthattheyhadeverymoralandlegalrighttosettledown inanyBritishDominion,andtheywerestrongenoughtofightracialdiscrimination.Theyhadbuilt GurdwarasinVancouver,VictoriaandStockholm.Anorganizationwassetupcalledthe "HindustanWorkersofPacificCoast".InameetingofIndiansheldatVancouveron22ndFebruary, 1913threedelegatesweredeputedtovisitEnglandandIndiatoappealtoBritishGovernmentto helpthemintheirdifficulties.ThesedelegateswereDr.NandSinghSeehra(Dr.NandSinghSechra hailingfromPhillaurstudiedforPh.D.onGuruGobindSinghScholarshipattheUniversityof CaliforniaBerkley.TheScholarshipwasgivenbyoneJawalaSinghofMoorland,California),S. BalwantSinghandS.NarainSingh. OnarrivalinIndiathesedelegateswerewelcomedbytheTribunewhichpublishedaninterview withDr.NandSingh.Ameetingwasheldon18thAugust,1914inBradloughHalloverwhichS. BaghelSinghRaispresided.ThefirstresolutionprotestingagainsttheattitudeoftheCanadian GovernmentwasmovedbyMr.P.C.ChatterjeeJudge,ChiefCourtLahore.Similarmeetingswere heldatAmritsar,Jullundur,andAmbalaandevenBhaiVirSinghinhisKhalsaSamachar(Khalsa Samachar,Amritsar1913)publishedalltheresolutionsandwroteastrongeditorialagainstthe Britishattitude.ButsoonthemovementofprotestagainstBritishGovernmentbecameafiery movementforpoliticalfreedom. Hardyal(HecametobelievethattheEnglishwereunderminingHinducharacter,thattheir educationalpolicyandmethodshadbeendesignedtodestroyHinduismandtoperpetuatethe politicalbondageoftheHindus.LajpatRai"YoungIndia".1916.Thereisnothingtosuggestinthe writingsofHardyalthathewasinterestedonlyinHinducharacterandbondageoftheHindusonly. HiswritingsduringthisperiodinspiredatrulyIndianSpirit),oneoftheveryfeweducatedIndians inU.S.A.,feltthattheBritishwereunderminingHinducultureandcharacterandhemustdo somethingforit. TheSikhemigrantsurgedhimtotakeupthecauseoftheracialdiscriminationagainstIndians.In May1913,itwasdecidedtostartaWeeklypapertoforgeunityandfightforpoliticalrights. HardyaltouredtheStatestocollectsubscriptions.Theresponsewasveryenthusiasticanda substantialamountofmoneywascollected.ButwhenHardyalcalculatedthelegalandpolitical risksofstartingarevolutionarypaperinaforeigncountry,heshrankfromthegrimanddangerous responsibility.Forfivemonthshekeptsilentwhileletterspouredinaskinghimwhytheplans wereshelvedeventhoughtherewasnodearthofmoney.Hardyalwrotetoeveryonethathis

healthdidnotpermithimtotakeupsuchaheavyresponsibility.Itwashisinherenttimidityand fearofbeingarrestedandimprisonedthatimpelledLalaHardyaltotakeupthisattitude. KartarSinghSarabha,an18yearsoldyoungsciencestudentofBerkelyUniversity,arestlessand fieryspiritwithsuperhumanenergyandcourage,camepersonallytoenquirethereasonofdelay instartingthepaper.HeofferedtoHardyalallthemoneyhehadreceivedforhisstudies.He offeredeventogiveuphisstudiesandtakeallrisksofthelegalresponsibilityofthepaperby becomingitspublisher.HeofferedtogivephysicalprotectiontoHardyalbyalwaysaccompanying himwithaloadedrevolver.ThequailingspiritofHardyalnowfoundsufficientmoralsupport, physicalprotectionandfundamentalsecuritytorunthepaper. ThefirstissueoftheWeeklypaper"Ghadar"(Rebellion)appearedinNovember,1913with HardyalaseditorandKartarSinghSarabhaasprinterandpublisherfromtheirpartyheadquarter calledYugantarAsharam,inWoodStreet,Stockton.FromthefirstweekofJanuary,1914the paperappearedinPunjabi(Gurmukhiscript)forwhichHardyal'sUrduarticlesweretranslatedinto PunjabibyKartarSinghSarabhaandpopularrevolutionarypoemswerewrittenbyHarnamSingh TundiLat(meaningtheViceroywithonearm).Theworkershadcommonkitchenandeachworker gottwodollarspermonthforpersonalexpenditurewhileHardyalwasgiven25dollars.Whenever Hardyalwentoutfromofficetohisresidenceortoanyotherplace,KartarSinghSarabhaundS. HarnamSinghTundiLataccompaniedhimarmedwithloadedrevolvers. Thepaperfoundedasaforumtofightracialdiscriminationbecamethehubofthemostactive revolutionarymovementagainstBritishImperialism.InanarticlepublishedinanEgyptian revolutionarypaperAlKasas,Hardyalwrote,"Themovementisentirelyofthepeople.The membersofthepartyarepeasantsandworkingmen.Thereareonlyhalfadozeneducatedmen toeditthepaper,carryingoncorrespondence,deliveringlecturesandthinkingoutplans.This partypublishesaWeekly8pagespaper,theGhadar(Rebellion)inthreelanguages.Thispaperhas alreadybeenproscribedinIndia,butitissmuggledinlargequantities.Thepaperreachesthe masses,men,poorinwealthbutrichincourage.Itdoesnotappealmerelytothesocalled educatedmenandaristocratswhoseheartisintheirbankaccounts,whiletheirlipspratefor libertyandsacrifices.Whenthecommonpeopleunderstoodsomething,theywanttorisklifein ordertorealizetheidea.Theyhavenopropertytomakethemcowards.Thebigpressrunsallday, printingthreenewspapers,pamphletsandcirculars.Mencomefromfarandneartoseeitand offerofferingsasinatemple.Spiesalsocomefrequently.Theidealofthepeoplecomprisesboth politicalandsocialchanges.Theydesireeconomicaswellaspoliticalfreedom.Theyhateprinces, landlordsandcapitalists.TheywantademocraticrearrangementofconditionsinIndia.Thisisthe revengeoftheexilesagainstthepowersofdarknessthatdrivemenawayfromtheirhomes.In CaliforniaisbeingpreparedthepowerthatwillreducetheEmpiretodustandashes.Bewareof theexile,yetyrantsforhebearsinhisheartanunquenchableflame(HomePolitical,Secret Proceedings1914). ExitHardyal: Hardyalwasapowerfulwriter,abrilliantorator,ashrewd,quietandunpredictablethinker,buthe wasatimid,vacillatingmanwhoshrankintoescapistseclusionatthefirstsightofdangerand sufferingahead. FourmonthsafterhehadstartedworkastheEditorofGadhar,theU.S.A.Governmentissued warrantsofhisarrestaccusinghimofunAmericanandanarchistactivities.OnMarch16,1914 whilehewasabouttoenteralecturehalltodeliveraspeech,twopolicemenbroughtawarrantof hisarrest.KartarSinghSarabhaandHarnamSinghTundiLotwhowerewithhimwereaboutto

shootthepolicemendown,butsensingdangertheAmericanpoliceofficerdidnotarresthimbut gothiswrittencommitmenttoappearinthecourtnextday.Hardyalwasreleasedonasecurityof 5,000dollarspaidbyoneBhaiGurmukhSingh.Hardyal,thePresidentofthepartyandEditorof Gadharwhowasdayinanddayoutexhortinghiscountrymen'tobecomesoldiersofmutiny,to unsheathetheirswordsandhastentothebattlefieldandsacrificetheirlivesfordrivingawaythe British',jumpedbail,escapedtoSwitzerlandandthenmovedtoParisandAlgeriatokeepatasafe distancefromtheGhadaritesandtheordealsofarmedrevolutionforwhichhehadfiredthefirst shot.Whilehisfriendsandcompanionscheerfullyfellonthegallowsorrottedforlifeindingy dungeonsofBritishprisons,heslinkedawayandfoundescapeintheblissfulstudiesofBuddhism (BhaiParmanandinhisbook"Mylifestory"writesHardyalwasaficklemindedman.Aftertheend ofWorldWarIhewroteabook"FortyfourmonthsinGermanyandTurkey"inwhichhehas praisedtheBritishandcondemnedGermany.HahasexpressedthehopethattheBritishshould ruleIndiafortwoorthreedecadesatleastbeforeitisfitforfreedom').Hewroteoneortwo impressivebooks. KomagataMaru: ThebitternessagainstracialdiscriminationcametoaheadwhenBabaGurditSingh,aSikh businessmanofSingapore,charteredaJapaneseshipKomagataMaruanddroppedanchorin Vancouverharbourwith346Sikhsand130PunjabiHindusandMuslimsaboard.TheCanadian journalistsandtheSocialistleaderswereimpressedbythe"handsomedemeanourandclean habitsoftheSikhsaboardKomagataMaru".TheTimesofLondon(May23,1914)describedit"as thesecondorientalinvasionofCanada".Socialistleaders,Mr.EdwardBirdandMr.Fritzgerald attackedtheracialpolicyoftheircountrymenandexhortedtheIndiansto"getup,armyourself andfighttoregainyourliberty.InspireyourcountrymentosweepallthewhitesfromIndia".The racialistsalsosarcasticallysaid:"Hindusgohomeandfightyourrevolution".Earlieradelegation byDr.NandSinghSeehrahadmettheViceroyofIndiatohelptheIndiansintheirdifficultiesbut theirpleaswereignoredandrejected. ThenationalprideandthepatrioticfervouroftheSikhsinCanadawasinflamed.Hopkinsonthe policechiefemployedspiestosuppressandpersecutethepatriots.Thespieskilledthepatriots andthepatriotskilledthespieswhohelpedtheGovernmenttosuppressandpersecutethe patriots.ThiswasagamemischievouslyenactedbyHopkinson,tillMewaSinghwhobefriended Hopkinsontoknowthetruthshothiminthecorridorsofthecourt(inaconfessionalstatement MewaSinghwrote:"Myreligiondoesnotteachmetobearenmitytoanybody,nomatterwhat class,creedororderhebelongsto,norhadIenmitywithHopkinson.Iheardthathewasopposing andoppressingmypeopleverymuch.ImadefriendshipwithhimthroughhisbestHindufriends tofindoutthetruthofwhatIheard.Onfindingoutthefacts,IbeingastaunchSikhcouldno longerbeartoseethewrongdonebothtomyinnocentcountrymenandtheDominionofCanada. ThisiswhatledmetotakeHopkinsonslifeandsacrificemyowninordertolaybarethe oppressionexerciseduponinnocentpeople.AndI,performingthedutyofatrueSikhof rememberingtheNameofGod,willproceedtowardsthescaffoldwiththesameamountof pleasureasthehungrybabedoestowardshismother.Ishallgladlyhavearopeputaroundmy neck,thinkingittobearosaryofGod'sName."). WhenKomagataMaruarrivedatthemouthofHooghlyanddockedatBudgeBudgeharbouron September25th1914theshipwassearchedbutnothingincriminatingwasfound.WhentheSikhs wereorderedtoleavetheship,theycameoutinaprocessioncarryingacopyof(Bid)GuruGranth SahibandtheSikhflag.Withoutanyrhymeorreasonthepoliceopenedfirekilling18and wounding25.BabaGurditSinghandsomeofhiscompanionsjumpedintotheriverandswaminto

deeperwaterstosafety.SudhindraBose,PresidentoftheHindustanAssociationwrote:"The entireAmericawasshockedyesterdaytoknowthatthreehundredIndianimmigrantswhowere unjustlydeniedadmissionintoCanadalastsummerwererecentlyshotdownincoldblood.The Indianpaperstohandmakenomentionofthefact.Iftheslaughterofthesedefencelessand unnamedinnocentpeoplebetruethenitcertainlyputtheallegedBelgianatrocitiestoshade." (HomePol:Jan1915,278;282.Page36). TheCommissionofEnquiryconsistedoftwonotoriouslyunpatrioticIndians,MaharajaofBurdwan andRajaDaljitSinghwhoblamedtheinnocentpassengersofKomagataMaruofeverything.Raja DaljitSinghwasawardedknighthoodforthisactofloyaltytoBritishImperialism. LajpatRaiandtheSpies: LalaLajpatRaiwhowastouringU.S.A.whentheGhadarleaderswereplanningrevolutionary activitiesopposedthemovementandgaveconflictinganddisturbingstatements.OnSeptember 12th1914whenhewasdeliveringalectureatNewYork,theeminentscientistSirJ.C.Bosefeltso perturbedbyhislecturethatheandhiswifeleftthehallinthemiddleoftheLecture(HomeDept. Pol.January1916,No.278282,P.37). HecalledtheGhadarrevolutionariesfanaticsanddangeroustothenationalcauseinanumberof statementsandarticleswhichvirtuallywarnedtheBritishGovernmentandprovidedthemwith thematerialwhicheventhespieshadnotgivensofar.TheGhadarleadersstronglyresentedLala LajpatRaiJiremarkssaying,"LalaLajpatRaihasdescribedthemasasetoffanaticsinModern Review.LalaLajpatRaiappearstohavestatedthathegaveadvicetotheGhadarpartyinAmerica, reproachedthemandtriedtodiscouragethem.ItisabsolutelyfalsethatLajpatRaihasgivenus anysortofadvice.LalajihasmadesuchremarksinhispublicationssimplytotelltheBritish GovernmentthathehadnosympathywithGhadarparty.LalajihasbeeninAmericaforthepast oneyearbuthehasneverbeenintheshrineofliberty,thatisYugantarAsharam,theofficeofthe HindustanGhadarParty."(HomePoliticalDept.B.ProceedingNo.218222).Bengalirevolutionists werethespecialtargetsofLajpatRai'smaliciouswrath(MostoftheBengalirevolutionaries,I foundabsolutelyunprincipled.Theirpatriotismwastaintedbyconsiderationsofgainorprofit. Theyspentalotofmoneyonluxuries.Theywerealwaysreadytoreceivekindness,hospitalityand helpbutrarelyreciprocated.TheyfoughtamongthemselvesbutagainstnonBengalistheyalways madecommoncause.'LajpatRai,AutobiographicalWritingsP.20327). WhilethelecturesandarticlesofLajpatRaisoundedloudalarmagainsttheGhadarleadersand alertedtheBritishGovernmentagainstthemmuchsoonerthanalltheirspiesandintelligence reportscoulddo,theGhadarleaderscametoIndiawiththebeatofthedrum.TheBritish Governmentintercepted140letterswrittenbyGhadarleaderstotheirrelatives.Theseletters gaveeverydetailoftheirrevolutionaryactivity.SomerevolutionariestravellinginKomagataMaru asspieshandedovertotheBritishCouncilinYokohamapacketscontainingseditiousliterature (HomeDept.PoliticalB.WeeklyReportofCriminalIntelligenceFeb.1915.P.7).TheBritish Governmenthadplansreadytoarrestallreturnedemigrantswhowereundersuspicion. Conflagration: "Revolutions",saidAristotle,"arenottriflesbutbeginwithtrifles."(Aristotle:PoliticsI).The demolitionoftheboundarywallofthehistoricRikabganjGurdwarahadbroughtawideawakening andashockingrealizationinthemindofBhaiRandhirSinghthatthepoliticalandmaterial subjectionofhiscountrywasinevitablyleadingtothemoralandspiritualenslavementofhis

countrymen.ThesuccessiveattacksonSikhreligiousinstitutionswoulddemoralizeanddehu manizeSikhpeopleandtheirculture.TheagitationinBengalafewyearsearlierhadbeen describedbyLordCurzonaspettyvolcanoeswhichscreamedandscratchedandthrewtheir torrentsofmudintotheair."(LetterfromCurzontoBirdrech). BhaiRandhirSinghawakenedtheSikhmassestotheircollectiveresponsibilityandgrandheritage andwrestedonceforallthereligious,politicalandculturalleadershipoftheSikhpeoplefromthe handsofahandfulofaristocratsandpriests(Mahants).Theformerdeclaredthemselvestobe unashamedchampionsofthedivinerightofBritishImperialismandwenttotheextentoftelling thepeoplethatwhoeveropposedtheBritishrulerswasnotaSikh(GajjanSinghGrewaldelivered alecturecirculatingtheseideaaatLudhianainOctober1914.Addressingameetinghesaidthatall thosewhoopposedtheBritishGovernmentandhelpedtheGhadariteswerenotSikhs.Theywere enemiesofthePanth.TheSikhcommunityresentedGajjanSingh'slectures,butnoonedaredto condemnhimandhisstatementsexceptleaderslikeBhaiRandhirSingh.BothGajjanSinghand BhaiRandhirSinghbelongedtovillageNarangwal).

TheMahantsbelievedintheirhereditaryrightsoverSikhtemplesofwhichtheirancestorswere appointedthepriests.Boththesesectionsbecametheinveterateenemiesoffreedomfighters. WhileRikabganjaffairwasonlyatimidprologuetomuchfarreachingencroachments,searches, arbitraryarrests,expulsionsfromhomeandcountryandallimaginableformsofhumiliation becameanalmostmatterofcourseoccurrences. InthefeverishheartofthisyoungmanofdestinyBhaiRandhirSingh,thereburstforthirresistibly thehumiliationanddegradationoftheenslavedpeople,thepitiableconditionofthemoraland culturalcollapse,theagonyofthebetrayalbythosewhoflatteredBritishImperialismblindlyover theactsofsacrilegeandcruelty,andtheanguishanddespairofthehelplessteemingmasses.He inwardlyfeltittobehismissionandordaineddestinytochoosethelonelypathofself consecration,towakeuphiscountryfromherataraxiaandorganizethepeopleforanallround struggleforreligiousandpoliticalfreedom.AfterBabaRamSingh,hewasthefirstleadertolive andmoveonlyamongthemassesandtoworktirelesslyfortheirmoralandspiritualregeneration, aprerequisiteforallrevolutionsandprogress.Frompreachingthegospeloftruth,heturnedto espousingthegospeloffreedom.Twovoicestroubledhissoul,"LoveGodorDieforthefreedom ofthecountry". Inhismindandsoulnowthetwopathsbecameonejustastheywereintheheartofhisbeloved Master,GuruGobindSingh.LikeGargantuahefeltthathewasdestinedtorendasunderthe swathingbandsthatwerethrottlingthecountry.Hisreligiousandeducationalreformsfrom1901 1913hadawakenedintheSikhmassesasenseofprideintheirgloriouspastandaspiritual consciousnessofthegrandeuranddistinctivefeaturesofSikhculture.Theshootingofthe passengersofKomagataMaruandindiscriminatearrestsofreturnedemigrantsembitteredhim greatly. OutofaboutseventoeightthousandrevolutionarieswhoenteredIndiaalargemajoritywere arrested.Thosewhocamebydeviousroutesandremainedundergroundescapedarrests.Kartar SinghSarabha,BabaNidhanSinghandafewotherprominentGhadariteswerethefirsttoarrivein thesecondweekofSeptember,1914.ThemajorbatchcomingbyS.S.TosaMarucametoknowat PenangabouttheshootingofKomagataMaruincident.TheyimaginedthatthewholeofIndia mustnowbefightingagainsttheBritishandtheysentatelegramtotheEditorAmritaBazar Patrikaaskinghimwhetherrevolutionhadalreadytakenplace.

TheGhadariteshadaverychildishnotionofarevolution.EvenafterreachingIndiatheyfailedto assessthepoliticalclimateofthecountry.Therebelliousspiritoftheseimmature,inexperienced anduntrainedrevolutionarieshadfirmfaiththatiftheycoulddonothingelsetheycouldstirup theircountrymentothrowofftheirageolddocilityandtoceasebeingcowardsandfightlikemen. TheybelievedinthefantasticillusionthatiftheycouldsetfiretooneBritishregimentalcentrethe wholecountrywillbeablazewithrevolutionarypassion.OutofthousandsthatenteredIndia hardlyfiftytohundredcouldgettogetherinAmritsaronOctober13th1914.Whiletheseinspired revolutionarieswerepreparingforamassuprisingandmilitaryrevolt,theCongresspartywas tradinginloyalty.In1914theIndianNationalCongresspledgeditswholeheartedsupportto Englandinwar.LordPentland,GovernorofMadrasattendedtheCongresssessionwhenthe resolutionofunswervingallegiancetoEnglandwaspassed.MahatmaGandhi'sargumentfor supportingBritishwareffortswere:"Wasitnotthedutyoftheslaveseekingtobefree,tomake themaster'sneedhisopportunity?Ifwewouldimproveourstatusthroughhelpandcooperation oftheBritishitwasourdutytowintheirhelpbystandingbythemintheirneed"(Gandhi:The storyofMyExperimentwithTruthP.4154). Gandhidisregardedhistheoriesanddoctrinesofslave'sopportunityandofwinningfreedom throughcooperationwithBritishGovernmentintheSecondWorldWar.In1914the revolutionariesofPunjab,BengalandMaharashtraresentedthisattitudeofMahatmaGandhivery much.CriticisingthisattitudeofslavemoralityaPunjabipaperwroteearlier,"IftheCongress persistsinitspresentinfamouspolicyofdisgracefulinactionandcontemptibletalk,heedlessof thedemandmadeonthemforaction,thecountrywillcometoregardthemasabodyof ambitiousimbecilesorasocietyofselfseekerswhoaresacrificingtherealinterestsoftheir countryonthealtarofvanity."(P.N.N.P.Jan.10,1914.(NationalArchivesIndia)). WhentheGhadaritesarrivedtheyfoundtotheirdismaythatthemetaphysicalrebellionoftheir imaginationhadnoreality.Inordertogetamassbasefortheirrevolutiontheyopenlyexhorted thepeopletorevoltagainstBritishpowerandauthorityatAmritsar,NankanaSahib,andTarn Taranbuttheycouldnotconvincethemasseswithwhatstrategyandweaponstheywould succeedindoingsosuddenlyandrashly.Outofallprominentpoliticalleadersnooneexpressed anysympathyfortheirwildplans.IntheAmritsardistrictBabaJawandSinghofPattihelpedthem secretlytosomeextent.Buttheonlyprominentleaderwhowaspreparedtorenderallouthelp wasBhaiRandhirSingh."IntheMalwaTract"recordstheIsemongerReport,"theeffortsofthe revolutionariestoenlistthehelpofthepeoplereceivedvaluablehelpfromalocalreligiousleader, RandhirSinghofNarangwal,Ludhiana.ThismanhashadaUniversityeducationandisthesonof NathaSinghanimportantofficialintheNabhaState.Hehadlocallyagreatreputationforsanctity andconstantlytouredabouttheMalwaTractofficiatingatreligiousmeetingsforwhichhewasin greatdemand.Heappearstohavebeenanordinaryloyalcitizenuntilthebeginningof1914,when theagitationovertheRikabganjGurdwaraworkedonhimtosuchanextentthathebecamean activeseditionist.On27thFebruary,1915,therewasameetingoftheleadingSikhgentryofthe districtstowhichtheemigrantsbelonged,atGovernmentHouse,Lahore.TheLt.Governor presided.TheSardarspresentadvocatedthatallemigrantsshouldbeinternedinjail,butitwas pointedoutbyLt.Governorthatitwouldbeimpossibletointernthousands.SardarGajjanSingh,a memberofProvincialLegislativecouncilandlawyeradvocatedthatasdelaysindealingwithcrime committedbyrevolutionarieshadaverybadeffect,theusualprocedureshouldbemodifiedand speedyandsummarytrialssubstituted.ThiswasbeforethepassingofDefenceActofIndia." [(i)IsemongerandSlattery:AnaccountofGhadarConspiracyP.150.(ii)SirMichaelODwyer representedtotheGovt,ofIndiaafterthismeeting,that"itismostundesirableatthepresent

timetoallowtrialsoftheserevolutionaries,orofotherseditionmongerstobeprotractedbythe ingenuityofcounselanddrawnouttoinordinatelengthsbythecommittalandappealprocedure whichtheCriminalLawProvides."SirMichaelODwyer,IndiaasIknewitp.199.(iii)Itisfortunate thattheGovernordisregardedGajjanSingh'sadvicetoarrestallthereturnedemigrants, irrespectiveofthefactthattheyweresuspectsornot.GajjanSingh'sreactionaryoutburstsand notorioussuggestionstogivespeedyandmaximumpunishmenttoallsuspectedGhadarites, madehimthemostunpopularSikhofhistimes.GajjanSinghusedallhisinfluencetorepeatedly harassBhaiRandhirSingh'syoungwifeandlittlechildrenwhentheSaintwasinprison,andallhis attemptstoannoythemandcauseonetroubleafteranotherfailed,andhavebecomehousehold talesinNarangwal.Scoresofeyewitnessesarestillliving.Thismanandhisfamilybecamethe mostcursedfamilyinNarangwal] AllwritersonGhadarmovementadmitthatBhaiRandhirSinghwastheonlylocalleader(theonly onewhowasnotareturnedemigrant)whoofferedtoparticipateinthebattleforfreedom withoutanyreservations.HewastheonlySikhleaderofthemasseswhowaswonoverbythe revolutionaries.Therestwerereturnedemigrants(JagjitSingh,GhadarPartydaIthas,386). TwoPathsofRevolution SometimeinSeptemberandOctober1914whenthecauseofpreventingtheBritishGovernment fromacquiringRikabganjGurdwarahadbeenvirtuallywon,fiveeminentGhadaritesnamelyBaba NidhanSinghofVillageChugha,BhaiUttamSinghofHans,BhaiIsharSinghofDhudike,Kartar SinghSarabha,BhaiGandhaSinghandBhaiArjanSinghmetBhaiRandhirSinghandwonhimfor thecause.TheGhadaritesmadedesperateefforttocontactthemasses.TheyvisitedNankana Sahib,TarnTaranonreligiousfestivalsandopenlyexhortedthepeopletorevoltagainsttheBritish insuchviolentlanguagewhichfrightenedthepeasantsinthefaceofmassarrestsofreturned emigrantsandtheshootingofthepassengersofKomagataMaru.Theydidnotgetmuchresponse andastheirresourcesbecamehopelesslymeagre,theyresortedtotheRobinhoodcultof plunderingtherichandpayingtherevolutionaries.Theywereshockedtofindthatthepolitical climateinthecountrywasnotatallconducivetorevolution,butthatdidnotdeterthemfrom carryingouttheirplans. EvenafterresortingtodacoitiesandcommittinggruesomemurderstheGhadaritesdidnotget muchmoney.WhiletherevolutionaryphilosophyoftheGhadariteswasofanarchistrevolutionar ies,thatofBhaiRandhirSinghwasapassionforfreedominspiredbySikhhistoryandidealsof Sikhism.TheGhadariteswererevolutionistsofadifferentorder.WithouteverreadingVoltaire, RousseauorMarx,theybelievedwithMikhailA.Bakunin.TheRevolutionistisadoomedman.He hasnopersonalinterest,noaffairs,sentiments,attachmentsandproperty.Therevolutionist despiseseverysortofdoctrinarismandhasrenouncedthepeaceful,scientificpursuits,leaving themtofuturegenerations.Heknowsonlyonescience,thescienceofdestruction"(MikhaiA. Bukanin:CatechismoftheRevolutionArticleIand5). BhaiRandhirSinghfeltthatpeacefulmethodswouldneversucceedwiththeBritishImperialism. Theywerenoweveninterferinginreligiousandculturalmattersandunderminingallfundamental freedoms.HebelievedintherevolutionaryidealofGuruGobindSinghwhoinhisletterto Aurangzebsaid,"Whenallothermeansfail,itislawfultoresorttothesword".Hebelievedin makingadequatepreparationtocarryoutanarmedrevoltagainstBritishPower.Hewasstrongly againstdacoities,lootandplunderforthesakeofmoney.Henotonlyresenteditbutalsodidnot allowanyofhiscompanionstohaveanythingtodowithsuchactivities.Thatiswhyhekepthis group,calledtheTatKhalsaJatha,quiteapart,independentofcentralcommandandcompletely

underhiscontrol.ThatiswhyhedidnotaccepttheoverallleadershipoftheGhadarmovement. HeassuredthekeyGhadarleaders,BhaiNidhanSinghChugha,KartarSinghSarabhaandothers thatheandhiscompanionswouldparticipateonlyinarmedrevoltagainsttheBritisharmy.He expressedhisresentmentagainstkillingofciviliansformoney.BhaiNidhanSinghChugha,a returnedemigrantfromCanada,wasoneofhisstrongestsupportersofthislineofapproach. NidhanSingheventoldhiscompanionsthathehadcontactedsomeprincelyfamiliesofHillStates likeMandiandsomerichSardarswhoforsomereasonortheotherweredisgustedwithBritish rule.Theyhadpromisedtorendereveryfinancialhelp.ButtheLahoreRevolutionarygroupwas caughtupinaviciouscircleofcreatingarevolutionarysituationthroughterrorismandraising moneythroughlootandplunder.Theyconsidereditsimpler,easierandexciting,butitproved verydangerousandharmfultotheircauseandanutterfailureinachievingthehighpurpose.Bhai RandhirSingh'sJathanotonlystronglyresentedanddisapprovedofthesetactics,hekepthimself aloofandapartfromthisrevolutionarygroupwhichhaditscentreatLahore,butextendedfull supportofhisJathainanarmeduprisingagainsttheBritishforces(GianiHarbhajanSinghand GianiDalipSingh,lifelongcompanionsofBhaiRandhirSingh,informmethatbothBhaiNidhan SinghandBhaiRandhirSinghstronglyresentedthesedacoitiesandattacksoninnocentvillagersto grabmoney.Nearly20dacoitiesandmurderswerecommittedbetweenOctober16th1914and August3rd1915inthenameofRevolution).ThatiswhyhedidnotcaretomeetleaderslikeRash BihariBoseandotherbombcultrevolutionaries,eventhoughhewenttoAmritsarduringthis periodonce.BhaiNidhanSinghChugha,KartarSinghSarabhaandGandhaSinghmethimalmost everyweek. BhaiRandhirSingh'sJathahelditsfirstcloseddoormetinginSeptember,1914atKhannaandthe secondmostimportantmeetingwasheldonJanuary19,1915atChamkaur(SecondLahore ConspiracyCaseP.276).Togiveacalltotheyoungergenerationtojointherevolution,heasked oneofhiscompanionstoputupthefollowingposteronthegatesofKhalsaHighSchool,Ludhiana. TheFeringhishavelootedthecountryandlaiditwaste Thepeopleareharassedgreatly,Opeople; TheyhavetakenallrichesofIndia, AndhavesentthemtoEngland,Opeople; Thesedacoitsarelootingusdayandnight Thepoorcultivatorsarestarving,Opeople; GoodpayispaidtotheWhiteman Toeat,drinkandbemerry,Opeople. Alltherest,soldiers,Sikhs,orMuslims Haveonlygramstoeat,Opeople. Thewhitemanshrankbackonthebattlefield, StandingatsafedistancetheyissueOrders,Opeople; Tofightandgetkilledwearepushedtothefront, InEgypt,Africa,Persia,Opeople; TheEnglisharenotagreatpower, Fightanddefeatthem,Opeople; Whenwillye,Khalsadrawthesword? AndslaytheWhiteman,Opeople; Makepreparationformutinysoon Todestroytheruleofthetyrants,Opeople. (HomePoliticalDeptt.January1915,No.278282.)

EventhoughtherevolutionaryzealoftheGhadaritesreceivedashockfromtheextraordinary loyaltysomeIndianleadersopenlyprofessedforBritishrule,therewasoneheroicwoman,Mrs. AnnieBeasant,whoaftercomingfromIrelandbecamemoreIndianthananyIndian.Ina desperateattempttomovetheconscienceoftherulersshewrote,"O,EnglishNation,greatand fineandproud,cannotyousee,cannotyouunderstand,cannotyourealizewhatyourIndian brothersfeelnowasyouwouldfeelifaforeignerruledinyourLand?Thattobeastrangerinyour owncountry,analieninyourland,withnorightssavethosegivenbygraceofGovernment,not yourown,yourinferioritytakenforgranted,yourcapacitiesweightedinalienscalesand measuredbytheworldofanothernation.WhatdoesIndiawant?Shewantseverythingthatany othernationmayclaimforitself.TobefreeinIndiaasanEnglishmanisfreeinEngland.Tobe governedbyherownmenfreelyelectedbyherself"(K.DwarkaDas:IndiaFightsforFreedom). CountessMaryMintowrotelateron,"Thosewhoblametheextremistsforhavinginspiredthe causebypromotingGovernmentrepressiondonotrealizethatunderforeignrulepeaceunalloyed byrepressionwouldbefatal.Thepoliticalconsciousnesscreatedbytheextremistsinadecade couldnothavebeencreatedbythemoderatesinhalfacentury.Forasubjectnationnothingis morefatalthanpower.Libertycannotbewonwithoutsacrifice"(CountessMaryMinto.India Minto&MorleyP.251). SirJohnStracheyhadsaidsomeyearsearlier,that"therewasnosuchcountryasIndiaandthere werenoIndiansinthesenseofunitedpeople.TheGhadaritesgavealietothistheoryaboutIndia andIndians".Dr.AnnieBeasantrefutedMahatmaGandhi'stheorythatitwasthedutyofthe IndianslavestomaketheneedoftheBritishMastersanopportunitytoseekmorefreedomsaying "Indiaisnolongerachildinthenurseryoftheempire".Sheridiculedalltalkofrewardforserving theBritishloyally,saying,"Indiadoesnotchafferwiththebloodofhersonsandtheproudtearsof herdaughtersinexchangeforsomuchliberty,somuchright.Indiaclaimstheright,asaNationto justiceamongthepeoplesoftheEmpire." UnhappyreactionoftheMasses: Withoutanycentralleadership,organization,preparationsandplans,thereturnedemigrants plungedintorevolutionaryactivityandformoneytheyindulgedinloot,plunderandeven meaninglessmurders,whichprovedhighlydetrimentaltotheircause.Thepeasantrysawnothing justifiableintheseacts,fromwhateverpatrioticmotivetheymighthavebeencommitted.To manyofthemtherevolutionariesbecamemurderersandplunderers. KhushwantSinghandSatindraSinghintheirmonograph,Ghadar1915,suggestthattheSikh massesshowedgreatenthusiasmforrecruitment.TheydosoprobablyonthebasisofMichaelO Dwyer'sstatementwhichsays,"InfouryearsofwartheSikhsfromthetotalpopulationofless than1%ofBritishIndiafurnishednolessthanoneeighthofIndia'stotal"(MichaelO'Dwyer,India asIknewit,P.207). ButMontagueinhisDiarywroteduringthewar,"ODowyerisdeterminedtomaintainhisposition astheidolofreactionaryforcesandtotryandgovernbyironhand"(Montague,Diary,January. 1918,P.114). AndDr.AnnieBeasantwhotouredthePunjabduringtheseyearswrotethat"themostatrocious, tyrannical,barbaricandinhumanmethodswereemployedbySirMichaelODwyerandhisagents toobtainrecruits.OthereventshavemadePunjabmiserableandunhappyandthewholeof Punjabwaslikeavolcanoseethingwithdiscontent."(Ibid,P.114.)

LordPentland,governorofMadrasonreadingthisstrongarticleofAnnieBeasantdemandeda securityofRs.2,000fromherjournalearlyin1916.FearingthattheSikhtroopsmayrevoltagainst theBritish,NepalesetroopswerebroughtintothePunjabState. Therevolutionariescamelikeaboltfromtheblue.Theywereneitherorganizednorfullyprepared foranyarmedrevolt.Peopledidnotknowwhatitwasallabout,andtheyhadthecommonsense tobelievethatahandfulofbadlyorganizedadventuristscouldnottoppletheBritishGovernment. Dacoities,lootandplundermadethemmoreunpopular.Therevolutionaries,withallthe remarkablepatrioticqualitiesandspiritofselfsacrifice,feltthattheirmovementwasbecoming aimlessandwhattheyrequiredwasanastuteleaderwhocouldorganizeaplannedarmedrevolt. RashBihariBose,BengaliAnarchistOrganizesRevolt: KartarSinghSarbhamadeadesperateefforttocontacttheBengalrevolutionariesforammunition andguidance.FortheBengalrevolutionaries,rebellionmeantthrowingbombsincrowdedplaces andshootingofficialsandprotectedleaders.Theycouldnotbelievethatthearmiescouldbewon overformutinyonnationalscaletotoppletheBritishGovernment. WhenKartarSinghSarbhametSachindraNathSanyalatBanaras,hebecamehopefulof establishingliaisonwithcompetentBengalrevolutionaryleaders.SachindraNathSanyalwasthe founderofAnusilanSamiti,arevolutionaryorganizationwhichremainedunnoticedand ineffectualtillRashBehariBosejoinedit. "RashBehariBosewasaBengalirevolutionaryhailingfromChandernagore.Hetookgovernment serviceandwasemployedasaclerkintheImperialForestInstituteofDehraDun,wherehebore anexemplarycharacter.Throughouttheyear1912hehadwithhimatDehraDun,ostensiblyasa servant,ayoungBengalinamedBasantKumarBiswaswhomhewasinstructinginthedoctrine thatassassinationwasnocrimebutwasinaccordancewithhisreligiousdutyasaHindu.Coached thus,BasantKumarandRashBihariwenttoDelhifortheStateEntryon23rdSeptemberand BasantKumarthrewthebombattheViceroy,whichwoundedhimandkilledanIndianattendant. Aftertheoutragetheyremainedthereforafewdays.RashBiharithenwentbacktoDehraDunto takepartinameetingtoexpresshorroratthecrime.Foralongtimetherewasnocluetothe crimeanditwasneverpossibletoputthecaseinthecourt.InthefollowingMaytherewas anotherbomboutrageinwhichBasantKumarwasoneoftheprincipalaccusedinLahore.Here toonocluecouldbeobtainedformonths.Inthebeginningof1914,however,thehistoryofthe Lahoreoutragewasdiscovered.BasantKumarandotherswerearrested,butRashBihariwas absentonleaveinChandernagoreandmanagedtoescape.BasantKumarandthreeotherswere sentencedtodeath.RashBihariBoseremainedinhidinginBenarasuntilthetimecameforhimto takecontroloftheGhadarmovementinthePunjab"((i)IsemongerandSlattery:AnAccountofthe GhadarConspiracyP.130.(ii)HowIndiaStruggledforFreedomI.P.220) SeductionofTroops: Foranarmedrevolt,theseductionoftroopswasnowthefirstandlastprogramme.The Revolutionarieshadestablishedgoodcontactsinanumberofcantonmentsespeciallyinthe LahoreandFerozepurcantonments.BhaiRandhirSinghhadsomedevotedfriendsinthe36 Cavalry,Ambala,notablyBabuMaiSingh,SubedarPiaraSingh(laterCol.PiaraSingh)andSubedar HarbachanSingh.BhaiRandhirSinghaskedBabuMaiSinghtojointhearmedrevolt,buthe helplesslyrefusedandfranklysaidthathecouldnotaffordtosacrificehisdutiestohisfamilyand plungeintoarevoltwhichmeantcourtingdisaster(BabuMaiSinghsonofBhaiKahanSinghand MaiGulabiwasinfluencedbythedevoutBhallasaintsofBataladuringchildhoodandeversince

thenhasledareligiouslife.HehailsfromvillageSarliKalaninAmritsardistrict.HewasHeadClerk in36Cavalry,AmbalaCantt.HecameintocontactwithBhaiRandhirSinghin1910.Onceortwice hewasabsentfromdutywhileperformingprayers,buthiscommandertookalenientviewofthe matter.WhileinFrancehesufferedfromT.B.Hewassentbackhomein1917inahopeless condition.InadreamvisiontheGurucomfortedhimBaying"Iwillsaveyou."Heisstillhaleand heartyattheageof88.WhenBhaiRandhirSinghwasinprisonhelookedafterhisfamilyasbest ascircumstancespermittedhimtodoso.AfterBhaiRandhirSingh'sreturnfromtheprisonhe conductedallthebaptismceremoniesofhisJathaandhasduringhislifeadministeredbaptismto thousandsofdevotees.AfterthedeathofBhaiRandhirSingh,BabuMaiSinghisreveredasavery prominentfriendandcompanionofthesaint).BabuMaiSinghandhiscompanionssoonleftfor FrancetofightfortheBritishwhileBhaiRandhirSinghspearheadedtherevolutionagainstthe BritishGovernmentinIndia. Withinaweekafterhisarrival,RashBihariBosestudiedthesituationandfixedFebruary22ndas thedayofmeetingandrevolt.SomeunitsinLahoreandFerozepurcantonmenthadagreedto captureammunitiondepotsandstageanarmedrevolt.Thewholethingwasbrilliantlyorganized. Buttheorganizationhadoneinherentweakness.Anyonewhocameintocontactwiththemwas easilyacceptedintheinnercircle.TheGovernmentplantedaspyonthemongettingsome informationwhowormedhiswayintotheinnergroupwithinlessthanaweek.BhaiRandhirSingh visitedAmritsarduringthesedaysbuthedidnotcontactRashBihariBose.KartarSinghSarabha andBhaiNidhanSinghmethimeveryweek,andhewaskeptinformedofallthedevelopment personallybythem. Betrayal: WhileinvestigatingandexaminingtheevidenceobtainedintheChubadacoity,LiaqatHayatKhan D.S.P.suspectedthattheGhadariteswereinvolvedinthedacoityandmurder.Onthe7thFebruary LiaqatHayatKhanaskedZaildarBelaSinghtofindamanwhopersonallyknewsomereturned emigrants.On9thFebruary1915BealaSinghbroughtoneKirpalSingh,arelativeofanemigrant BalwantSingh,whowasplantedasaspy.AsthismanknewNidhanSinghChugha(theyhadmet earlieratShanghai),hewasabletogetintotheinnercirclethroughhim.HefirstgotMulaSingh arrestedandreplacedMulaSinghintheinnercircle.On12thFebruarytheRevolutionaryCouncil HighCommandfixed22ndFebruary,1914asthedateforcollectivemutinyandrevoltwhichKirpal Singhconveyedtothepoliceonthe13thFebruary,butthepolicereachedthespotwhenallhad dispersed.KirpalSinghhadcontactsonlywiththeAmritsarpolice.Sohewasnotabletogetany helpfromtheLahorepolice.NidhanSinghwasthefirsttocometoknowthatKirpalSinghwasa spy,buttherevolutionaryleadersdidnotthinkitwisetodoawaywithhimimmediately.They howeverkeptaclosewatchonhim.TheRevolutionaryCouncilchangedtheDdayto19February inaninformalmeetingonFebruary14th1915.Uptothe17thFebruarythechangeofthedatewas keptacloselyguardedsecret,amongfourorfivetopleaders. KartarSinghSarabhaMeetsBhaiRandhirSinghon14thFebruaryNight: BhaiRandhirSingh'sjathahadworkedapartandwasfullypreparedtoplungeintotherevoltwith about60men.TheinnercircleoftheJathahadalreadyheldcloseddoormeetingsinthefollowing places:Khanna(September1914),Chamkaur(19thJanuary1915),Lohatbadi(20thJanuary1915), Gujjarwal(12thFebruary). Thedateofrevolthadbeenchangedfrom21stFebruaryto19thFebruary,butonlytopleaders knewit.ThechangehadnotbeenasyetpassedasaresolutionbytheRevolutionaryWarCouncil. On14thFebruarynightBhaiRandhirSinghwasgoingtoDhandharitoperformAkhandPath (continuousrecitationofGuruGranthSahib)inthehouseofSardarHarditSingh,amilitaryman.

KartarSinghSarabhaknewabouthisprogramme.TheyoungRevolutionarywaitedontheGill MalerkotlaroadtocontactBhaiRandhirSingh.AftersomehoursofwaitinghesawBhaiRandhir Singhcoming.ThesaintembracedKartarSinghSarabha(GyaniHarbhajanSinghwaswithBhai RandhirSinghduringthismeeting.Hehasgivenmeawrittenaccountofwhattranspiredbetween them). KartarSinghtheninformedBhaiRandhirSinghthatspyKirpalSinghhadleakedouttheDday, February21st.SoithadbeenchangedtoFebruary19th.Theyweretomeethimontheoutskirtsof Ferozepurcantonment.KartarSinghthensuggestedthatthejathashouldwearwhiteturbans insteadofblackandshouldnotbringanyweaponsastheweaponswouldbesuppliedbythearmy mutineers.BhaiRandhirSinghtoldhimthattheywillwearblackturbans,andwouldalsokeep someweaponsliketheswordsandaxesincasetheywerenecessarybeforeotherweaponscome tohand.KartarSinghSarabhatoldhimthatcarsandtaxiswerereadytobringtheLahoreand AmritsarrevolutionarieswhileBhaiRandhirSinghandhiscompanionswereadvisedtocomeby trainintheformofweddingpartyandreachFerozepurbysunset.Afterlengthyandenthusiastic discussionslastingforabouttwohoursKartarSinghdisappearedintodarkness(Whenthedate hadAnallybeenfixedfortherising,KartarSinghwenton17thFebruarytoBhaiRandhirSinghwho washoldingcongregationatDhandurtvillage,Ludhiana,aservicetoprayforthesafetyofsome IndianSoldiersinFrance.KartarSinghinformedhimofthedateanddirectedhimtocometo Ferozepurontheeveningof19thwithhismen.Thedisaffectedmenofthe26thPunjabiswouldbe guardfortheassembly.Thedepotmagazinewouldbeattackedbyonepartyandotherdepotsand regimentallineswouldbeattackedbyanotherparty,andBritishtroopswouldbemassacredand thenthearsenalwouldbeattacked.IsemongerandSlattery,AnAccountofGhadarConspiracy,P. 110.KartarSinghSarabhametBhaiRandhirSinghonFebruary14th,andnoton17thasIsemonger reportsuggestssaysGianiHarbhajanSinghwhowaswithBhaiRandhirSinghonthisdate). D.DayFebruary19th1915: BhaiRandhirSinghheldoneofhiscloseddoormeetingsatDhandarion17thFebruaryandthe secondathisresidenceonthemorningofFebruary19th.Thequestionwasthoroughlydiscussed. OneofhiscompanionssuggestedthatBhaiRandhirSinghasasaintlypersonshouldkeephimself abovepolitics.Heshouldnotcovetanypower.TothisBhaiRandhirSinghrepliedthathewasnot fightingforpowerbutasaSikhofGuruGobindSinghitwashisunfailingdutytofightforfreedom. ASikhshouldnottolerateslaveryofanykind.Healsowasnotpreparedtodiscussthequestionof failureorsuccess."Whenwefightforfreedom",hesaid,"Ourdutyistobepreparedtofighttill yousucceed.Asoldierdoesnotconcentrateonspeculationsofwhatmighthappen.Hefightsfor victory".Aresolutionwasthenunanimouslypassed. Onthe19thFebruaryeveningBhaiRandhirSinghalongwith60companionsboardedatrainfrom Mullanpurat6P.M.forFerozepur.WithhimwereprominentrevolutionarieslikeBhaiNidhan Singh,GandhaSingh,IsharSinghandothers.TheygotdownatFerozepurCanttRailwayStation, andwaitedattheplacewheretheyweresupposedtomeetKartarSinghSarabha.The Governmenthadcometoknowaboutthisdatealso.KartarSinghfearlesslyenteredthewell guardedcantonmentandcametoknowthat8ofthesepoysonwhomhecountedhadbeen discharged.Fiveofthemwereactuallymarchedtotherailwaystationonthemorningof19th Februaryandentrainedfortheirhomes.Someofthemhadcomebackatnightandtoldhimthe wholestory.OnemansentbyKartarSinghSarbhaintothecantonmentwastakenintocustody. KartarSinghSarbhathenmetBhaiRandhirSinghandhismenamongthereedsoutsidethe cantonmentandaskedthemtodisperse.FromFerozepurCantt.,theywalkedtoKhairailway

stationfromwheretheyboardedatrainforMullanpurearlynextmorningandcamebackto Narangwal. Onthe18thor19thmorningspyKirpalSinghcametoknowaboutthechangeddatefromaman whodidnotknowthatKirpalSinghwasaspy.KirpalSinghimmediatelytoldaC.I.D.Officerinplain clothesaboutthechangeddate.FindingKirpalSinghnervousandintheknowofthedate,the Ghadaritesthoughtofkillinghim.At4.30P.M.KirpalSinghwentupontheroofofthebuildingand shoutedtothePolicetosavehim.ThePolicehadbynowsurroundedthebuilding.Theyarrested allthosewhowerethereandalsotookawaythepapersanddocumentsfromtheGhadarOffice. KartarSinghSarabhaandhiscompanionswerearrestedaftersomedays. FatefulSlipofPaper InthefirstLahoreconspiracycaseKartarSinghSarabhawasthemainaccused.Thiscaseopened onOctober29th1915.TheGovernmentuptothistimedidnotknowthatBhaiRandhirSinghand hisjathawereinanywayinvolvedinthecase.BhaiRandhirSinghwenttoNabhawherehisfather SardarNathaSinghwastheHighCourtJudge.Afatefulslipofpaperwiththreenamesonit writtenthoughunsignedbyRashBihariBosecameupforexplanationinthefirstLahore ConspiracyCase.ThetextofthisslipofpaperwasNidhtoIchh:Randhir,Uttam,Jagar,sendthese join."(LahoreConspiracyCase:HomePol.1915Oct;P.98A).ApproverAchhraSinghofAmbala explainedthat'Nidh'meantNidhanSingh,'ichh'meantAchhraSingh,RandhirstoodforRandhir Singh,Uttam,Jagar,sendthesetojoin.WhenAchhraSinghApproverrevealedforthefirsttime thatRandhirSinghwasaleadingrevolutionary,theViceroyatoncesentatelegramtoMaharaja NabhatokeepBhaiRandhirSinghincustodytillfurtherinvestigation. MaharajaRipdumanSinghcouldhaveavoidedarrestandhelpedBhaiRandhirSinghtoescape,but toprovetothevictorythathewasnotsoantiBritishashewassupposedtobeandhewasinno wayinvolvedinanyGhadarmovement,hetookBhaiRandhirSinghintocustody,assuringhimthat hewillbewelllookedafter.BhaiRandhirSinghsentareplytotheMaharajasayingthatwhenitis Maharaja'sturntobeinterned,hewillknowwhatprisonis,andhewillknowhowonefeelswhen heiswelllookedafterinprison(MaharajaRipdumanSinghlateronconfessedthathehadmade thegreatestmistakeinhislife.HediedinBritishPrison). ArrestandTrial: OnFebruary4th1916,BhaiRandhirSinghinhisdefenceStatementdeclared,"OnSunday27th Baisakh(May9th1915)thepolicearrestedmeandkeptme(atNabha)thereforfifteendays.From thereIwastransferredtoLohatbadipolicestation,whereIwaskeptforaboutamonth.From thereIwassenttoLudhianaunderthecustodyofpoliceandasergeantonJune19th(June17th givenbyGianiNaharSinghintheappendixtothePunjabieditionoftheAutobiographyis incorrect.ThisdategivenbyBhaiRandhirSinghinhisstatementintherecordsofLahore ConspiracyCaseisobviouslycorrect),IwaskeptinthelockupattachedtoLudhianapolicestation foraweek.On20thJuneIwassenttoLudhianajail.Ihavebeeninjailsincethattime.Eversince myarrestnobodyhasmadeanyenquiryfromme,takendownmystatement,noryethaveIbeen toldforwhatfaultIwasarrested"(LahoreConspiracyCase,Feb.4,1916,P.956). Dr.MohammedAlamappearedforBhaiRandhirSinghwhileMr.PitmanwastheProsecuting Officer.BhaiRandhirSinghandhiscompanionsweretriedbyA.A.Irvine,T.P.EillisandPundit SheoNarain.Hewas,alphabetically,accusednumber69intheFirstSupplementaryLahore ConspiracyCase.OnceagainBhaiRandhirSinghmetKartarSinghSarabhainprison.Thefirst LahoreConspiracycaseagainstKartarSinghandhiscompanionsstartedonApril26th1915in

LahoreCentralJailandjudgementwasdeliveredonSeptember13th1915.Outof81 revolutionariesarrested24weresentencedtodeath.TheibidLahoreConspiracycaseinvolving BhaiRandhirSinghandhiscompanionsstartedonOctober29th1915,andjudgementwas deliveredonMarch30th1916. TherewerefourapproversagainstBhaiRandhirSinghnamelySunderSinghAsaMajra,Bhagat Singh,UdhamSinghHansandAnokhSingh.Therewerefiveprosecutingwitnesses.AchhraSingh (Approveroffirstcase),InderSinghandhiswifeNihalKaur,twopointsmenofKhaiRailwayStation namedAhmadKhanandIsaKhan. WhenAchhraSinghwasaskedtoidentifyBhaiRandhirSingh,he,outofshame,didnotdaretodo sobutsaideyesightwastoobadforidentification.SohecouldnotsaywhichmanwasRandhir Singh(AchhraSinghwhosenameinthecaseappearsasIchhraSinghhadashopatRaikot.With SunderSinghasPresidentandhimselfasTreasurer,hestartedaschoolatLohatbadi.Whenhe quarrelledwithSunderSingh,hebecameanallinallManager.Hewasgivenchargeofbombsand ammunitionandrevolutionaryliterature.HeforwardedtheliteraturetotheViceroyandGovernor ofPunjabandbecameApproverintheFirstLahoreConspiracyCase.Itwashewhoforthefirst timerevealedthatBhaiRandhirSinghandhisJathawereactivelyinvolvedinthecase). WhenInderSinghofKhannawasaskedtoidentifyhim,hesaidheknewBhaiRandhirSinghvery wellbutonthatdayhisaqal(mind)toldhimnottodoso.Sohewasincapableofidentifyinghim. AchhraSinghseemstohavegenuinelyrepentedafterallthedamagehadbeendone.Heoffered tohelpifhecould.Itwassuggestedtohimbytherevolutionariesthatonacertaindaywhena swordoftheGhadaritieswastobeshowntohimforidentificationheshouldtaketheswordand killtheprosecutingofficerandthentheywillpounceonthejudges.KartarSinghSarabhaand GandhaSinghhadevenprocuredrevolversandknivesfromoutsideandeveryonecarried something.ButtheswordwasshowntoAchhraSinghfromadistanceandthetragedywas averted. OnedayinadvertentlythePoliceOfficerInchargeofPrisonsmarchedtheprisonerstothecourt. EachPrisonerwassurroundedbytwoarmedpolicemen.Astheyweremarching,BhaiLaiSingh (HinduoutcastewhohadbecomeSikh),amemberofBhaiRandhirSingh'sjatha,suddenly appearedontheroadandstartedmarchingalongwiththem.HesuggestedtoBhaiRandhirSingh thathehadcometofreethem.Allhehadwithhimwasabattleaxe.Thearmedpolicemenwere unnerved.TheyknewthattheGhadaritesweredesperatemen.TheybeggedBhaiRandhirSingh nottoputthemtotrouble.BhaiLaiSinghwastooeagertoattackandlaydownhislifetoliberate hiscompanions.BhaiRandhirSinghknewthatwithdoublethenumberofpolicemenhaving loadedriflestherisksweregreat.SoheaskedBhaiLaiSinghtogoawaybeforehewasarrested. LaiSinghwentawaysaying"Iwillwaitforyouonyourwayback"(Thisincidentwasrelatedtome bycoprisonersGianiHarbhajanSinghandGianiDalipSingh).Eventhejudgesinthecourtwere surprisedtoseetheprisonersinthecourt.Theorderwastotrythemintheprison. Pervertedjudgement: JudgementwasfirstpassedonKartarSinghSarabha,whichreads"Thereisnodefencewitness, therewasnocrossexamination,throughoutthetrial,andtheaccuseddidnotwishtoarguehis owncase,nortoallowthecounselappointedforhimtoargue.Itonlyremainstobesaidthatthe guiltoftheaccusedhasbeenprovedtothehilt.Heisayoungman(18.5yearsold)nodoubt,but heiscertainlyoneoftheworstoftheseconspiratorsandisathoroughcallousscoundrel,proudof hisexploitstowhomnomercywhatevercanorshouldbeshown."(WhenBhaiParmanandasked

KartarSinghSarabhainprison,whydidyousacrificethecomfortablelifeinCanadaforthesakeof dyingonthegallows,KartarSinghSarabhareplied"Tellmewhichdeathisbetter.Todielikea cursedslaveinaforeigncountryandbearinsultsandhumiliationfromeveryWhitemanortodie likeaheroinyourowncountryfightingforfreedom."ItisunfortunatethattheBiographyof KartarSinghpublishedbythePunjabiUniversityPatiala,thoughexcellentlyprintedneithergives anyessentialdetailsofthisremarkablehero'slife,noreventheeasilyavailablefactsabouthis struggleforfreedom.ThewholelifeofKartarSinghSarabhaisalmostlegendryinspiringsagaof theyoungestandthebravestfighterforfreedominIndianhistory(TrilochanSingh)). ButeveninthecaseofBhaiRandhirSingh,where100defencewitnessesincludingPrimeMinister ofaSikhState,JudgesofHighCourts,andEnglishmanMr.ColePrincipalofKhalsaCollege appearedonhissideandtheevidenceofapproversandprosecutingwitnesseswaspatentlyfalse anderroneouslytutored,thejudgementwasperverted.Thewordingofthejudgementagainst himwasalmostthesameasthatagainstKartarSinghSarabha.St.Augustinehassaid,"Justice beingtakenaway,thenwhatarekingdoms,butgreatrobberies.Forwhatarerobberies themselvesbutlittlekingdoms"(Augustine,TheCityofGod,IV). Behindthewholedramaofprovingthecharges,therewaseveninthecoldpretenceof dispassionatenessofthejudges,anirondeterminationtosendtheaccusedtodoom.The ProsecutingOfficermanytimesbecameirritable,nervous,aggressiveandwrathful.Thiswashow irrelevantfactsagainstBhaiRandhirSinghwerepresentedandansweredwhenquestioned. TheprosecutionstorywasthatthechangeofdateofuprisingwasdecidedatLahoreat10A.M.on February17thandconveyedtoBhaiRandhirSinghthesameevening.Duringthosedays,therewas nobusservice.NotrainortelegramcouldconveythenewssosooneithertoNarangwalor Dhandari,toenableBhaiRandhirSinghtoholdameetingonthesameday.Mr.Pitmanwhen questionedbytheDefenceCounselangrilysaid,"Wedonotknowhow,butthenewswassenton thesamedayandreachedtheaccusedonthesameday.ActuallyKartarSinghSarabhahad personallyinformedBhaiRandhirSinghon14thFebruary,threedaysearlier. PointsmenAhmadBakhshandIsaKhanofKhaiRailwayStationhadbeentutoredtosaythatthey sawBhaiRandhirSinghandhiscompanionsbuyingticketsonthemorningof20FebruaryatKhai RailwayStation.Whentheywereaskedwhatwasthecolouroftheirturbansandclothesbothof themsaidthattherevolutionarieswerewearingkhakiturbansandclothesalthoughtheywere actuallywearingblackturbans(TheoriginalcomplaintfiledbyMr.HenryVernonBarstowHare ScottSuperintendentofPoliceC.I.D.againsttheaccusedonOctober28,1915mentionsthatthey werewearingblackturbansandclothes.ScottcallsBhaiRandhirSinghaveryprominent conspiratorwhoconspiredtosendeducatedyouthtoAmericatolearnthemanufactureofarms. (LahoreConspiracyCase)). NihalKauranotherprosecutingwitnesswhohadincidentallymetthemnearKhaiStationsaidthat theywerewearingwhiteclothes.Oneapproverwhosaidthathewasapreacherdidnoteven knowhowtoreadandwritePunjabiyetoneotherapproverwasarenegadefromSikhism(Patit), thetypeofpeopleBhaiRandhirSinghneverallowedtocomenearhim.Onthebasisofthese utterlyfalsestatements,thejudgementagainstBhaiRandhirSinghruns:Thisaccused(Randhir Singh)whopleaded,'Notguiltytothechargesframedagainsthim,isnotareturnedemigrantand heisoneofthemostimportantaccusedinthepresentcaseandhasthebiggestdossieragainst him.Thoughthecounseltoldusinargumentsthattheaccused'sfatherhasbeenundergoingan operation,nodefencewitnesseswereproducedtoshowwhyhewasnotproducedasawitnessto

mostimportantfactsinconnectionwithhissonwithwhomheisapparentlyongoodterms.Ofhis guilttherecanbenopossibledoubtwhatever,andwecannotlosesightofthefactthatitwashis influencethatbroughtseveralofthecoaccusedincludingmereyouth,andoldmenintothedock. Wearesatisfiedontheevidencethattheaccusedfromanearlyperiodconspiredtowagewaron severaloccasionsasaboveindicatedandthathecommittedanactofwaringoingtoFerozepurin awarlikearraytoattackthearsenalthereandweaccordinglyconvicthimunderSection121A, 121,IndianPenalCodeandsentencehimtotransportationforlifeanddirectthathisproperty liabletoforfeiturebeforfeitedtotheGovernment"(FirstsupplementaryLahoreConspiracyCase P.301). PrisonandOrdeals: Thewholeofthisautobiographytellstheterribletaleofhissufferingsinprison.Hiselderdaughter BhagwantKaurdiedwhenhewasbroughttoLudhianaprisonafterhisarrest.Shecouldnotbear theshockorthethoughtoflivingwithouthim.HisotherchildrenBalbirSinghandDalerKaurwere tooyoungtoknowwhathadhappened.HisfatherSardarNathaSinghalsolanguishedtodeath, butbeforedyinghewrotetotheGovernorPunjab,thathissonRandhirSinghhadnopropertyof hisownandthathispropertywhichwasmeantforsupportinghiswife,hisdaughterinlawand grandchildren,maypleasenotbeconfiscatedafterhisdeath.ButcontrarytotheGovernor's assurancethepropertywasconfiscatedunderpressurefromGajjanSinghAdvocateofNarangwal andmemberofLegislativeCouncil. WhenGajjanSinghbroughtthepolicetogetthehouseconfiscated,afterthelandhadbeen confiscated,KartarKaurwifeofBhaiRandhirSinghrefusedtoleavethehouse."Eitheryoushoot meortakemeandmychildrentotheprison."ThevillagersthenputGajjanSinghtoshameand askedhimtowithdrawthepolice.GajjanSinghdiedonJune10th1929andsoonafterhimhisonly sondiedonFebruary12th1936.Aslongasthisnotoriousloyalist,GajjanSingh,whowas consideredenemynumberonebytheFreedomFighterswasalive,heresistedallproposalsto releaseBhaiRandhirSingh.AfterhisdeaththeChristianMissionarywhometBhaiRandhirSinghin NagpurPrison(seechapter23)stronglyrecommendedhisreleaseandevenpersonallymetthe GovernorofPunjabtopersuadehimtotakethematterupseriously.TheGovernorreferredthe mattertoSikhSardarslikeSirJogindraSinghwhostronglyrecommendedhisrelease.The sufferingsofKartarKaur,wifeofBhaiRandhirSingh,forseventeenyearsisalongtaleofwoeand agonyandyetshemanagedtobringuphersonBalbirSingh,anddaughterDalerKauras disciplinedchildren.Thisautobiographyrelatesnotonlytheterriblesufferinghehadtoundergoin prisonbutalsovividlyportraystheconditionsinprisonsundertheBritishrule.Theseconditions improvedgreatlyduringGandhiNehruera. TwiceBhaiRandhirSinghwasgivenupasdeadevenbythemembersofhisfamily.WhentheSikh Communitycametoknowabouthisfortydaysfastandothertortureswhichhesuffered,the wholeSikhPanthprayedandperformedardasforhissafetyandwelfareonFebruary1st1923. BhaiJodhSinghwhowastheneditingKhalsaAdvocateinEnglishandPunjabicriticisedthis unanimousdecisionoftheSikhPanthinhispaper,becauseliketypicalloyalistSikhsofthosedays herefusedtobelievethattheBritishGovernmentcouldaccordsuchaninhumantreatmentto anyone.Hiswastheonlydissentingvoice(BhaiJodhSinghwaslatermadethePrincipalofKhalsa College,AmritsarandwasgiventhetitleofSardarBahadurbytheBritishGovernment.Khalsa Advocatewhichhewaseditingwasactuallystartedtoopposetherevolutionaryandextremely populardaily"AkalithenationalpaperoftheSikhswhichcoveredallthenewsoftheAkali movement.BhaiJodhSingh'spapercloseddownaftersufferingalossofoverseventythousand rupees.ThemembersoftheChiefKhalsaDiwanboughtit,andsaysamemberwhowasthena

subscriber,thatthepeoplenevertookthispaperseriously.TheSikhmassesrefusedtotouchit evenwithapairoftongs.AtpresentapaperrunningunderthesamenameinPunjabiisgiving correctpoliticalandculturalleadtotheSikhs). CreativeandMissionaryWork: Afterfacingterriblesufferinginprisonlife(fromMay1915toOctober1930),BhaiRandhirSingh wasfortunatetolivefornearlythirtyandahalfyears.SoonafterhisreleasethefourTakhatsof theSikhshonouredhimwithHukamnamasblessinghimandpraisinghissacrifices.Heistheonly SikhwhointhelasthundredyearsofSikhhistoryhadbeengivenHukamnamasandrobesof honourbyallthefourTakhats(PontificSeats).HewasamongthePanjPyaraswhoinitiatedthe karseva(Massservice)ofTarnTaranshrine.Helaidthefoundationstoneofthenewbuildingin PanjaSahibandofShahidganjNankanaSahib,bothinPakistan.TheDelhiGurdwaraCommittee gavehisjathabusestovisitSikhShrinesinDelhi.AtPatnaSahibhelaidthefoundationstoneof AkalBunga,andatPaontaSahibhelaidthefoundationstoneofKaviDurbarAsthan.Whenhe visitedCalcuttahisadmirerSardarPalSinghofferedhimanewcar.Heusedthecaronlyduringhis stayatCalcuttabutdidnotacceptitforpermanentuse. Duringtheseyearshewrotetwentybooksontheology,philosophyandmysticism.Somesubjects like'UnstruckMusic','KarmaPhilosophy'andSikhethicshavebeenseriouslystudiedbyhimalone (AnhadShabad,CharanKamaldiMauj,SachKhandDarshan,GurmatVivek,GurmatKaram Philosophy,GurmatLekh,SantPadNirnai).

Wedonotfindsuchbrilliantexpositionofthesemysticalandtheologicaldoctrinespresentedin theformofsuchcomprehensivebooksinthewholereligiousliteraturesofearlyperiod.Hehas alsowrittenavolumeoftheAppliedGrammarofGuruGranthSahib(GurbaniIagMatradi Vilakhanta)whichdiffersconsiderablyfromtheoreticalgrammarswrittenbyotherwriters.Hehas takenupallcontroversialinterpretationsandbroughtoutrulesofgrammarwhichapply throughoutthescriptures.BadprintingofGuruGranthSahib,hepointsout,hascausedagood dealofconfusion. IntheNagpurJailhefeltinspiredtowriteaDantanianepicwhichhecalledJyotVigas,"the RevelationofLight"(JyotVigasandDarahanJhalkanarehistwopoeticalcontributions).Having nopaperandpenhewrotethewholebookofover3,000linesonthemarginalandotherspaceof abookwithacopyingpencil.Theoriginalmanuscripthasbeenpreserved.Allhisbooksweresold atcostpriceandhedidnotallowanyonetomakeanyprofitoutofthem.Heneverkeptany moneywithhim.Heneverknewwhatitwastohaveabankaccount.Hislandremained confiscatedevenafterIndiagainedfreedom. WhenCongressrulersgotthereignsofpowerintheirhandsin1947,theirscrambleforpower wenttothelimitofbecomingcompletelyblindtothesacrificesoffreedomfighterswhosuffered alltheirlife.OnlywhensomeonebroughtittothenoticeofDr.Bhargava,thethenChiefMinister, hislandswerereleasedin1950.Nopensionwasgiventohimandnobenefithaseverbeengiven uptothisdaytohissonandfamilyforallthesufferingstheyhadtofaceduringBritishperiod eitherbytheCongressorAkaliGovernmentofourday(BhaiRandhirSingh'sonlysonSardarBalbir SinghhasbeendeprivedofpromotionduetohimsinceApril1968andheartlesslyretiredin December1969withoutbeinggivenevenayear'sextensionorhisnormalpensionbythePunjab Government).

ThecallousnessoftheCongressGovernmentofrecentpastinPunjabandAkaliregimeoftoday towardssuchfamiliesoffreedomfighterswillbecondemnedbyposterityinthesamelanguagein whichtheexcessesofBritishImperialismarecondemnedbyChroniclerstoday.Historiansmayfind somejustificationfortheactionoftheBritishattitudetowardstherevolutionariesbuttheywill findnoexplanationabouttheattitudeofCongressandAkalirulerstowardspatriotsandtheir familiesexcepttheirselfishshortsightednessandcallousdisregardofrecenthistory. LastIllnessandDeath: DuringthelastyearsBhaiRandhirSinghsufferedfrompartialparalysisoflegsbecausehehadto spendmanyyearsindarkprisoncellswherehecouldnotevenliedownwithlegsstretched.He wasfondofperformingKirtanfor36hoursatastretchortositfordaysinmeditation.Hislegs becameweak.Anattackofbacillidysenteryfurtheraggravatedhisillnessduringthelastnine monthsofhislifebutfromhisglowingredface,itwasdifficulttoguesswhetherhewasatallill. OntheBaisakhiof1961,hemetinnumerablevisitors.Twodayslateronthe16thAprilhesentfor me,hissonandafewfriendsveryearlyinthemorning.Hisfacewastenseandwehadafeeling thathefeltslightlyunwell.WhenIaskedhim"Shallwegetadoctor",heheldmyhandindicating thatIshouldnotgoandthedoctorwasnotnecessary.TheverynextminuteheutteredtheName ofGod,VahGuru,thriceandplungedintoeternalsilence. ThenextdayhisbodywastakentoalonelyplacemidwaybetweenNarangwalandGujarwaland crematedtherewheremanyyearsearlierheusedtositinmeditationforlonginthecalmhoursof dawn.FromLudhianatoNarangwalthevillagerslinedontheroadtopayarespectfulhomageto him.Allalongtherouteflowerswereshoweredandpeoplewishedtotouchhisfeet.AlloverIndia andabroadover200AkhandPathswereperformedandcondolencemeetingsheldtopayhomage tohim.Withhisdeathendedanepochofthehistoryoffreedomfighters. PersonalityandCharacter: BhaiRandhirSinghwasoneofthoseraremenwhoselifeandteachingsandwhoseworkand writingsaresofused,thateachinitsownwaybearsauthenticwitnesstotheother.Everythinghe hasdonehasenrichedthepolitical,religiousandculturalthoughtofthisstate.Thoughrarely possessedofovertpower,hehaswieldedaninfluenceasmuchbythewholenessandintegrityof hisbeingasbythepracticalexampleofhisextremelydisciplinedandspirituallyenlightenedlife. NoonewhometBhaiRandhirSinghcouldeverforgethisdynamicpersonality.Hehadared glowingfacewithapostolicbeard,avastforehead,deepsetburningeyeswhichremindedoneof theeyesofBuddhaintrance.Nothingescapedthemagicofhisglance,whichattimessparkled withironyorcompassion,andatothertimeslostitselfinecstasyplungingimperiouslytothevery depthofconsciousness.Itembracedeverythinginitsirresistiblechain.Therewassomething majesticabouthispersonalityinwhichtherewasablendofaPrinceandaYogi.Wheneverhe appearedinPanthicandnationalgatheringspeopleforgotallpoliticians,ministersandother leadersinthefaceoftheimposingandgrandCharismaofhiscommandingpresence.Thegrace anddignityofhiswisdom,thefireofhismeditativeeyes,thesplendidmusicofhisvoice enthralledeveryone. Thematchlessclassicalcharmofhisdress,hisglitteringsword,aquoitonhisturban,gavehimthe historicalappearanceoftheKnightsofGuruGobindSinghwholivedanddiedforhim.Whetherin thepalacesoftheMaharajaswhichhevisitedonlytwiceorthriceinlife,orinPanthicgatherings, itwasimpossibletoimaginehiminthesecondplace.

Themostimpressivethinginhimwashisinexhaustiblefertilityandbrillianceofmindwhichcould beseeninhisrepartee,sparklingwithhumour,wisdomandstrongconvictions.Inhiswritingswe findtheglowofhismysticexperiences,hisintellectualcertaintyandthemetaphysicalclarityofhis theology.Penetratingandpassionate,emotionalandimaginative,hewasalwaysprofoundand clearinhisthinkinganddeterminedandpowerfulinhisactions. HewasGodintoxicatedman,consumedwithreligiousenthusiasmintheliteralsenseoftheworld, and"holdingaGodwithin"asonewouldsay,yetwasapracticalleadercapableofdedicated servicetohumanityandhiscountry.Hisfaithandvirtueswerenearalliedandmutually indispensible.Hewasimpetuousandcourageous,dogmaticanddecisive,domineeringand humble,inspiringandcreative,proudbeforeprincesandpoliticians,buthumblebeforethenoble andgodlymen.Withastoundingfortitudeandstoicismhesufferedallhislifefortheidealswhich formedthecornerstoneofSikhismsuchasFreedom,Justice,EqualityandTruth. HismemorywillnotonlybecherishedamongthesaintsandtheologiansoftheSikhcommunity buthisnamewillbecomeoneOfthemostgloriouslegendsofFreedomMovement,whenthe historyofFreedomMovementinPunjabcomestobewritten,honestly,correctlyand dispassionately.Thiswillhappenwhenhistoricaltruthbasedonproperresearchwillthrowinto obliviontheartificiallycreatedheroesofpropagandaworksofofficialsandsemiofficialhistories nowpresentedtothepublic.Thesebooks,knowinglyorunknowingly,condensethesupreme sacrificesoftherealheroesofFreedomMovementintoaparaorapagedevotingchaptersto underservedtributestoLalaHardyalandLalaLajpatRai,whoserolewasfundamentallycounter revolutionary,andwhodidmoreharmthangoodtothismovement.Thepatriotsandheroesof thismovementsacrificedeverything,theirverylifeandpropertyforshakingBritishruleinIndia fromitsveryroots.Inthistheysucceeded. OnretrospectivereflectiononthelifeofBhaiRandhirSinghonefeelsthatGoddemandsfromthe noblestsonsofmotherearthsacrificesateverygradeofperfection.Thegreatselfdenialofthis revolutionarySaintandpatriotforfreedomandfaithareexemplary.Hisbooksontheologyand mysticism,hisrelentlessbattleforjusticeandliberty,hiscouragetofighttheworld'sgreatest powerwiththefuryandzealofahandfulofyoungmengavetothefortymilliondeadsoulsofthis countryanewvision,anewpassionforfreedom,anewcourageandfearlessness,anew understandingoftheirfaithandculture.Theyprovethatthebloodandmartyrdomofthefreedom fightersultimatelysucceededinawakeningtheconscienceofthoseleaderswhothoughtthey couldwinfreedomthroughloyaltyandabjectsubmissiontoBritishimperialism.Itisonlywhen BhaiRandhirSingh'scompanionswenttothegallowsandotherssufferedlifeimprisonmentinthe hellishpitofBritishprisonsthatnationalleadersofthecountrytookupseriouslytheorganization offreedommovementonmorepracticallines. Historywillbearwitnesstothefactthatthebonesandbloodsoftheseearlyfreedomfighters fertilizedthearidsoiloftheircountry'spoliticalfield.Itispitythatthosewhohavereapedthe fruitsoftheirlaboursandthosewhowearcrownofgold,unearthedfromthevalleyofdeathby theseheroes,havedeliberately,consciouslyandcallouslyforgottenthosewhocarriedthecrossof freedomtothepeakofliberty.Buthistorythegreatestandultimatejudgewillnotforgetthem. IthanktheDirectorofNationalArchives,NewDelhi,theDirectorofPunjabArchives,Patiala, LibrariansofKhalsaCollege,Amritsar,CentralPublicLibrary,Patiala,andNationalLibraryCalcutta forthegenerousfacilitiestheygaveinresearchworkonFreedomMovement.IalsothankSardar SantSinghSecretaryChiefKhalsaDiwanforshowingmethecarefullypreservedresolutionsand recordofChiefKhalsaDiwan.Igratefullyacknowledgeallthehelprenderedinthepublicationof

thisworktoBabuMaiSinghandtoSardarBalbirSingh,sonofBhaiRandhirSingh,forgiving importantdocumentsconcerningthelifeofhisreveredfatherandgrandfather.IalsothankGiani HarbhajanSinghandBhaiDalipSingh,lifelongcompanionsofBhaiRandhirSinghforproviding manyhithertounknowndetailsofthehistoryofthisperiod. TRILOCHANSINGH NehruNagar Ludhiana. 2.11.1971.

COMMENTS

Prof.K.R.SrinivasaIyengar BhaiSahibRandhirSingh'sAutobiographyisaneyeopenertome.ImustadmitthatbeforeIread yourbook,hewasbutanametome.ThereisthusmuchthatIhavelearntfromthisaboutour HeroicAgeofFreedomStruggle(whichofcoursebegannotin1920,butthefirstdecadeofour century):YourIntroductoryThesishasawidesweepofcomprehensionandsetstheremarkable careerofBhaiSahibintherighthistoricalperspective. YouhaverightlydescribedBhaiSahibRandhirSinghasablendofaPrinceandaYogi,asaGod intoxicatedmanwhowasalsoascourgeoftheDivineindifficultsituation.Ifhisprisontribulations makepainfulreading,hisgiantequanimity,hissingularcapacityfortranscendenceofman's pettinessandcruelty,andhistotalrapportwiththedivinemaketheAutobiographyasagaof enduranceandtriumph.TheconfrontationwiththealchemistandlaterwithBhagatSinghare shiningepisodesinthenarrative.Afterthehellandthepurgatory,thereunionwithMrs.Kartar Kaurwhohadbeenwaitingfor16years,andotherkithandkinisentryintoanewheaven.Itisa trulymemorablestory,andyetrealandofourtime. Dr.AnilChandraBanerjee IhadheardofBhaiSahibRandhirSinghinconnectionwiththehistoryoftherevolutionary movement,butIneverknewthathewasaGodintoxicatedman.Thebookcastaspellonme.I readitcontinuouslyfortwodaysandshallreaditagain.ItshowsSikhismremainsalivingand activereligiousforceeveninthe20thcentury.Acommunitywhichcanproducesuchamancan giveourcountryandtheworldnewvaluesandideals. Dr.SurindarSinghKohli ThisBook,inlucidandexquisitestyle,translatedbythemasterlyhandofDr.TrilochanSingh, containstheautobiographicallettersofBhaiSahibRandhirSingh,therenownedSikhSaint.Inhis commendableIntroductoryThesis,thetranslatorhasenabledthereadertogetaglimpseofthe life,personalityandtimesofBhaiSahibRandhirSingh.Theautobiographicallettersofthesaint enablehimtopeepintothemultifacetedlifeofthisgreatfreedomfighter,areformeranda theologian. ThisautobiographyhasagreathistoricalvaluebecauseittracesthelifeofBhaiSahibRandhir SinghmostlyasaprisonerinthejailsofBritishIndia.TheatrocitiesperpetratedbytheImperialists ontheirsubjectshavebeenrecordedindetail.Becauseofitshistoricalvalue,thisbookhasa religiousimportancefortheSikhs,becauseitbringsforththeirspiritandpersonality.BhaiSahib's presenceamongtheprisonerswasagreatsolaceforthem.ASeekeroftruthwillalwaysfeel inspiredbytheexperiencesofBhaiSahibnarratedintheepistlesofthebook.Withthemagic touchofhispersonality,agreatpoliticalmartyrlikeBhagatSinghcoulduttersuchwords:"Your exaltedlifehasimpartedtometheelixirofspiritualityandIfeelitsennoblinginfluence."

CHAPTER1AWAKENINGOFFAITH (PrisonLetterNo.5writtentoGyaniNaharSinghdated4thMay,1922fromRajahmundaryprison (Andhra).Itrelatestheeventsoftheyear1900,whenBhaiSahibRandhirSinghwasonly22.) YOUASKME,howdidtheloveofSikhismawakeninmymind.Theimportantthingisthatitcame asaspecialinspirationfromtheDivineBeing,otherwisetherewasnothinginmetomeritit.There wasanaturalyearningfortrueloveinmyheartfromchildhood.Ihadsearchedlongandhardfora trueandbelovedfriend,whoselovecouldlastuntodeath,butIdidnotfindany.Withallthis disappointment,thesparkoflove,presentwithinmyheart,convincedmethatitwastheonlylife givingflame,whichhademergedfromamysteriousfountainwithin,andwasnowflickeringdimly inmyinnerbeing. Thesightsofnature'sbeautyhadfascinatingeffectonme.Inmyowninnocentway,Iconsidered thewholesublimecreationamiraculousphenomenon,butIdidnotintheleastknoworfeelthat behindallthiscosmostherewasthesupremeCreator.Thecolourfulbeautyofthemanifoldand wonderfulcreationinspiredmewithrapturousfeelingsoflove.Theoutwardbeautyofnature enchantedme,butwhenthecoloursfadedtherewasdisappointmentandsadness.Thedeep seatedloveforbeautywasalwaysthere.Thepresenceofthisabidingsparkofloveindicatedthat theremustbesomeeternalSpiritoflife,resemblingthisundyingflamewithinman,sothat,one couldliveinlovewithoutanydisappointmentanddisillusionment.Ihadsuchexperiencesand intimationsofimmortalityfromchildhood.Beyondthisdimintimationofinnerlife,Iknewnothing ofreligionandreligiouslife. Myearlylifethuspassedinseculareducation.Therewereanumberofencounterswitheviland sinbutmymoralnatureandcharacterremainedunaffectedbythem.Isomehowescapedthe onslaughtoffourcardinalsinswhichaSikhisexpectedtoavoid(ASikhmustnotsmoke,Hemust notcommitadultery,HemustnotcuthishairandbeardandHemustnoteatmeat[Translator]).I cannowsaythatGodprotectedmefrmtheseevils.Icouldneverhaveescapedthembymyown willpower. PrayerforaPurpose TherewerethreestronginfluenceswhichprevailedatLahoreduringthosedays.Firstly,therewas anintellectualatmosphereofseriousstudies.Secondly,therewasaviciousatmosphereofglam orousenchantmentsofsinfullife.Thirdly,thereligiousatmospherewasmadeturbulentand spiritlessbycausticdebatesanddiscussionsbetweenvariousfaithsandsects.Igotintothehabit ofattendingmostofthesediscussionsbutonfindingnothingbutcoldcriticismanddrydebates,I didnotfeelattractedtowardsanyreligion.Thedeepseatedsparkoflovewithinme,didnotfind anchorageinanyofthesefaiths.Thereligiousatmosphereofthetimecanbestbedescribedin BhaiGurdas'words:sachkinarerehgayakhaihkhaihmardebahminmaulane:Truthisleftaside, whileBrahminsandMullahsfightadeadlywarofwords. B.A.finalexaminationwasdrawingnear.IhadalsotoappearforfirstyearLawexamination.I receivedaletterfromfatherinwhichhewrote:"Youhavetoappearintwoexaminations.Ifyou wanttopass,youmustrecitetheJapji(JapjiacompositionofGuruNanakisthemorningprayerof theSikhs)prayerinthemorningandRehrasintheevening"(Rehrasistheeveningprayerofthe SikhshavingthecompositionsofGuruNanak,GuruRamDas,GuruArjanDev,GuruGobindSingh andGuruAmarDascompiledintoonewellknitcomposition).Healsosentaprayerbook.Iknew

Punjabilanguagequitewell,buthadneverreadtheGuru'shymns(Gurbani).Ihadneverreadany bookonSikhismuptothistime: Forselfishends,ImadeGodmyfriend, Eventhen,Godfulfilledmydesires, Andblessedme,withthehigheststateofliberation. GuruArjan:Gaudi,P.195. Thiswasthemiracle,whichtheLordworkedonme,whenIstartedrecitingprayersforselfish ends.Myswanlikesoul,whichwaspassionatelythirstingforthepearldropsoflove,gotitsreal foodandforgoteverythingelse.ThemysticsignificanceandthesublimityoftheGuru'shymns becamesocleartomewithinafewdaysthatIbecamearestlessseekerfortheunseenBeloved.I lostalmostallmybodyconsciousnessinthisspiritualsearchfortheloveoftheBeloved.Irecited theRehrasinsuchapoignantandsoulstirringstrainthatthelistenersweredeeplymoved.Atlast, oneday,thefollowinglinesfromRehraspiercedmysoullikeanarrowandgavemedefinite spiritualpurposeoflife. Thouhastacquiredthishumanframe; ThisistheopportunitytobeonewithGod. Allotherlabourisunprofitable. SeekthecompanyoftheholyandglorifyHisName; Strenuouslypreparetocrossthisterribleocean, Thylifeisbeingwasted,inworldlyattachments, GuruArjan:Rehras Themeaningandthespiritualfervouroftheselinespiercedmyheartsodeeplythattherearosea perpetualyearninginmysoulforaunionwiththeLord.Ilostallinterestinstudies.Eveninthe classroomIkeptatextbookonthedeskwhileIsecretlyreadvariousselectionsfromtheGuru GranthSahiblike:BaiVaran,BhagatBani.TearsrolleddownmyeyesasIreadthem. OnlyintheBibleperiod,Iappliedmymindtoreligiousstudiesanddiscussions(BhaiSahibRandhir SinghwasstudentofChristianMissionaryCollege,LahorewherethestudyofBiblewas compulsory).Whenevertherewasadebateoncomparativestudyofreligions,Isucceededin showingtheimportanceoftheSikhidealsandthoughts.Inallotherperiods,mymindwas completelyabsorbedinthoughtsaboutGodandIdidnotthinkofanythingelse.EvenwhenIcame totheNabhaHostel,myresidence,mymindwasactivelyyearningandprayingforGodandI neglectedmystudies.SomefellowstudentswrotetomyfatherthatIhadsuddenlydevelopeda religiousmadnessandwasneglectingstudies;sosomeoneshouldcomeandtakecareofme. Fatherwasseriouslyupsetandworriedbythenews.Hecameinhothasteandonhisarrivalhe sawme,readingabookofhymnsandtearsflowingfrommyeyesasIreadit.Fathergavealong homily,persuadingmenottoneglectmystudies,butIsaidinallhumilitythatitwashewhourged metorecitetheprayerseveryday.Beforethat,Iwasutterlydevoidofreligiousthoughts.He howevergavealongdiscourseandexplainedmanythingsinhisownway.Withmyheadlowered, Ilistenedtohiminsilence.Aftersayingandsuggestingmanygoodthingshewentaway,butthe conditionofmymindremainedthesame.FromthenonwardsItriedtoconcealmyinneryearning andsadness(vairagya)fromthepeople.Ididnotexpressmyfeelingsandsentimentstoanyone andcontinuedstudyingandrecitingtheSacredhymnssecretly,fearingthatsomeonemightreport ittomyfatherandupsethimagain.WhileIwasansweringB.A.examinationpapers,Iwasattimes

sooverwhelmedbyrapturousreligiousemotionsthatIcouldnotwriteaword,butattimesmy penmovedsofastthatIscarcelyknewwhatIwaswriting. MeetingaMiracleWorkingYogi AstrangeincidenttookplacebeforeIsatforexamination.Oneday,Iwasreturningfromcollege thinkingthatIshouldmeetandseekguidancefromsomesaintwhohadachievedahighspiritual state.SuddenlyIsawaYogidressedinwoollenrobes.Ashewalkedinacarefreemannerhe appearedtobedeeplyabsorbedinspiritualselfintoxication.Whenhecameclosetome,hecast suchapiercinglookatmethatIfeltintenselydrawntowardshim.Ithrewawaymybooksand followedhiminaheedlesscraze.BhaktaKabir'sfollowingSlokawasringinginmymind: SayethKabir:leavenotthecompanyofthesaint, FollowhisfootstepsonthePath. Onseeinghimthemindbecomespure. OnmeetinghimyouremembertheNameofGod. KabirSloka:p.1371 Ifollowedhimimmediately.Oneofmycompanionspickedupmybooksandfollowedme.I persuadedhimnottoaccompanymebuthewouldnotturnbackuntilIalsowentbackwithhim. AnotherSlokaofKabirremindedmethatIshouldmeetthesaintalone: SayethKabir:whenyougotomeetasaint, Donottakeanyonewithyou; Turnnotyourbackbutgoahead,comewhatmay, KabirSloka:p.1371 Suchthoughts,frommyreadingsofscriptures,cametomymindrepeatedlyandIsomehow succeededinsendingmycompanionback.IfollowedtheYogiandfeltimpelledbysomeunknown powertofollowhim.Ilostallsenseofshame,hesitationordiscriminationandfollowedhimin hypnoticfascination.IevenforgotwhereIwasandinwhichcityandonwhichroadIwasmoving.I didnottakemyeyesoffhispersonality,eventohavealooksideways.Myeyeswerefixedonthe carefreegaitoftheYogi.LikeashadowIfollowedhimatadistancebutIwasafraidtogettoo closetohim.Manysweetmeatvendorsofferedhimsweets,fruitsellersgavehimfruitbuthedid notcaretoacceptanything.Hedidnotevenlookatthem.Althoughhewaswalkingwithhisback towardsme,hismagicaleyesappearedtobefixedonmeandreflectedfromhisback.Itwasthe sightofthesefascinatingeyesthatwascontinuouslydraggingmeon. Atlast,wereachedasmallfountaininthecourtyardoftheHighCourt(thenknownastheChief Court).Waterwasperpetuallyflowingoutofthefountainandthewaterbasinarounditwas alwaysfull.Therewascompletesolitudeintheplaceandtheatmospherewasverypeaceful.The Yogitookoffhiswoollenrobesandstoodtherealmostnakedwithhismattedhairflowingathis back.Helookedatmesternly,probablytofrightenmebutIdidnotfearfromhimintheleast. FromadistanceIwatchedhisstrangeactions.Hethendranksomewaterfromthefountainbasin withcuppedhands,andthenwithclosedeyesandfoldedhands,helayprostrateonthegroundin profoundsalutation. IfeltthattheYogiwasamanwithadeepspiritualvision,capableofseeingthepast,presentand future.Itappearedthatwiththisvision,hesawtheallpervadingPresenceoftheperfectLordin frontofhimandhewasofferingdevoutsalutationtotheinfiniteSpirit.Asensationalthrillpassed

throughmybodyatthatmoment.TherecitationofJapjiresoundedwithinmywholebeingina sweetmusicaltone.Ifeltalittlegiddinessandthenalltheearthlysightsdisappearedfrommy sight.ThenIsuddenlyfeltelevatedtoasublimerstatewhichIhadneverexperiencedbefore.I couldseeonlyanendlessspaceofsublimerealm.MyearsheardtherecitationofJapjiresounding fromwithin,IcouldneitherseetheYoginorthefountainnorthegardeninfrontofme.Then therewasanotherwaveofgiddinessandIfellprostrateontheground.EveninthisfallIdidnot feelhurtbutfeltapeculiarjoy. Aftersometime,IdonotknowhowIregainedconsciousness.WhenIwasonmyfeetagain,Isaw thesamegardenandthesamefountainandwaterbasinandtheYogiwasstilllyingprostrateon thegroundindevoutsalutationtotheInfinite.IsquattedonthegroundneartheYogi.Aftersome timehegotupandpickinguphisblanket,wrappeditaroundhisbody.Helookedatmeandhinted byasignthatIshouldgoback,butIcouldnotleavehim.HewalkedontheMallinacarefreeand leisurelysportinggaitandIfollowedhim. Aftersometime,wewereabouttwomilesoutsidethetownnearLawrencegarden.Onbothsides oftheroadtherewerelargebungalows.SometimestheYogiwalkedintothesebungalowsand wellguardedhouses.Noonecheckedhim.Ialsofollowedhimandnoonestoppedme.It appearedthatwesaweveryonebutnoonesawus.InthiswaywewentbeyondLawrencegarden. Ihadnevervisitedthisareaofthecitybefore.HethentookmetosuchstrangeplaceswhichIhad neverseen.HetookmealloverLahore.Sometimeswewentupanddownanumberoftwoor threestoriedbuildings.Noonequestionedorstoppedus.Hethentookmethroughvarious classroomsofChiefs'Collegewhereprofessorsweremovingaboutandclasseswereinprogress. Noonequestionedorstoppedus.HavingtakenmeallroundthecityhecameatsunsettoShah Alamigatesquareandsatnearashop.HerethereweremanysectsofSadhussittingingroups, buthedidnotjoinanygroup.Hesatinasecludedcorner. Peopleplacedbeforehimmanythingsasofferingsbutdidnotevenseemtoknowwhatwaslying beforehim.Hiseyeswerefixedinsomedistantvisionandwouldnotevenwink.Itappearedhe sawthewholepanoramaoftheuniverseinavisionofdeepecstasy.Istoodatadistanceadmiring him.Iwasnotawarethatsomeonemightbelookingatme.ItwasgettingdarkandIsuddenly rememberedthatImustsaymyeveningprayers(Rehras). WhenIfinishedtheeveningprayer,IcouldnotfindtheYogianywhereinthatplace.Ianxiously searchedhimallroundbutcouldnotfindhim.InutterdisappointmentIcamebacktoNabha House,myhostel.WithoutspreadingthebeddingIlayonthecotinordertogetsomesleep.Idid noteatordrinkanything.Thenightpassedinarestlessmood,anxiouslybroodingoverthedesire tomeettheYogiagain. Earlyinthemorningmycollegematescompelledmetoaccompanythemtocollege.Whenwe reachedOldAnarkalioneofmyfriendsexpressedhisdesiretobuyawatch.Weallwenttoa watchseller'sshop.IwasanxiouslylookingoutlestImightbychanceseetheYogi.Iwasjust thinkingofhimwhentheYogisuddenlyappearedbeforetheshop.Hestoodthereandsmiledat me.IfeltsohelplesslydrawntowardshimthatIfollowedhim.Ievenleftmybooksthere.I completelyforgotthatIwastogototheCollege.InafitofhypnoticattractionIfollowedhim again. Asonthepreviousday,hefirstwenttothegardenfoundation.Thereheappearedtostandin meditation.Icouldnotresistgoingnearhim.Iwentforwardandbowedtotouchhisfeetbuthe

heldmeupwithhishands.Istoodtheredumbfoundedlikeastatuewhilehewalkedaway.Hehad goneonlyashortdistancewhenIregainedmyconsciousnessandIfollowedhim.Without describingthedetails,itissufficienttosaythatIfollowedhimalltheday,remainingaboutfive stepsbehindhim.HesometimesattractedmeandsometimesrepelledmebutIkeptonfollowing him.Hedidnotspeakaword.Hehadbeenobservingsilencesincemanyyears.Ihadfirmfaithin thefollowingwordsofKabir: SayethKabir:Leavenotthefootstepsofasaint, Followthepathheshows. Thoushaltbecomepureonseeinghim AndwillrememberGodonmeetinghim. KabirSloka:p.1371. SoIfollowedhimandwentonthepathshownbyhim.AtthattimeItooktheselinesofKabir literallyandunderstoodthemintheirplainmeaning.Asonthepreviousday,Isawwonderful buildingsandpalatialmansionsandmanyothersightswhichIhadneverseeneveninadream. TurningAwayfromtheYogi Likethepreviousdaythewanderingsinwonderlandendedinthesameplaceatsunset.Myfaithin himhadincreasedandmymindwasabouttodriftawayintostrangepathswhensuddenly somethingunexpectedhappened.TheYogiappearedtohaverenouncedeverythingandwas observingsilenceformanyyears.Worldlygoodsdidnotattracthimatall.Ialsobelievedthathe didnoteatanythingandwasprobablypavanahari:onewhosustainshimselfonair.People offeredhimfruitanddeliciousfoodsbuthedidnotevenlookatthem. Suddenly,Isawashockingsight.AmanbroughtanIndianpipe(chillam)forhimandwithoutany hesitationhebegantosmoke.OnseeingthisIwasdisillusioned.Mytenderfaithinhissaintliness wasshatteredandIfelttheveryearthslippingundermyfeet.Ifainted.Therewasagreat commotion. IdonotknowhowIregainedconsciousness.AssoonasIgotupIturnedawayfromhim.TheYogi whodidnotcareforanyoneandwhohadmaintainedsilenceformanyyearsspoketomesaying: "Well,isthatallyoucantolerate?Youhavebeentestedinsuchashorttime.Yourfaithisshaken andyouareturningawayfromme?"Ireplied:"Icannothaveanymorefaithinyouevenifyou becometheveryimageofGodnow"andIutteredthiscouplet; Iconsideredhimasainthavingswanlikepurity, ThatiswhyIsoughthisassociation. IfIknewhewashypocritelikecrane, Iwouldhavekeptawayfromhimallmylife. ShaikhFaridSloka:p.1384. (BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwasshockedtofindthataYogiwhohadrenouncedsomuchhadnot beenabletorenouncesmokingtobaccowhichevenanordinarySikhgivesup.) AftersayingthesewordsIlefttheplace.Amancamerunningbehindmeandafterovertakingme said:"Listenfriend,theYogiwhohasnevertalkedtoanyoneformanyyearsandhasnevercared foranyone,hascalledyouback.Whyareyouturningawayfromhim?Itisindeedyourgreat misfortunethatyouareleavingasaintandreclusewhohasattainedsuchhighspiritualstate.Heis

aKashmiriBrahminofhighcasteandhehasbeenobservingsilenceformanyyears.Asarecluse hewandersaboutdeeplyabsorbedinsupremespiritualstate.Forthefirsttimeaftermanyyears hehasspokentoyou.Whathasmadeyouturnawayfromhim?" TothisIreplied:"Nomatterhowgreatasaintheis,Imustjudgehimbytheethicalstandardsof Sikhism.HisbirthinhighHinducasteandfamilyisnotwhatreallymatterstome." Thehumblestamongthoseofhumblebirth, Thelowliestamongthelowcaste, Aremyfriendsandbrothers. WhathaveItodowiththerichandproud. GuruNanak:SriRag,p.15 "Whatevilhaveyouseeninhim"?Themanasked.Isaid,"Iamnotconcernedwiththeevilsinany man.Hedoesnotappealtome.Myfaithinhimisshaken.Ifindhimhollowandweak.Theimage ofhissaintlinesshasbeendemolishedfrommymind.Whatisthenecessityofdiscussingitbeyond this?Youmaygoyourwayleavemetomyfate."Themanhadtodepart. IwenttoGolbaghandsatthereformyeveningprayerswhichIrecitedinadeeplymeditative mood.Afterthat,IprayedtoGodthus:"OTrueLord,todayThouhastsavedthisbewilderedchild wanderinginsearchofThee,fromthewrongpaththroughThyinfinitemercy.ItisThouwho awakenedinmethisdeepthirstandyearning.ItisThouwhohastmademeapassionateseekerof yourpresence.Thoualonecantestandacceptthedeserving.Thoualonecanhelpinfulfillingthe aspirationsofmylove.BlessmewithapoisedfaithintheGuru'swisdom.MayIachieve associationwithThytruesaintsandmysticsandbethoroughlygroundedinGuru'ssupreme ethicalcodeofconduct." Thisprayerrestoredmypeaceofmind.Icamebacktomyresidenceandwenttosleep.Igotup earlyinthemorningandaftertakingmybath,IleftmyhostelwiththeideaofvisitingaSikh templewhereIcouldjoinsomeholycongregation.Isuddenlymadeupmymindtogotothe GurdwaraShahidGanjbuiltinmemoryofBhaiTaruSingh,themartyr. MeetingAMysteriousSage WhenIreachedthegatesofBhaiTaruSingh'sGurdwara,ImetaverysaintlyoldSikhwithawhite beard.Igreetedhimwithfoldedhands.Hegaveapatonmybackandblessingmesaid:"Now,go intothetemple;theGuru'sblessingiswithThee.Itisgoodthatyouwerenotattractedbythe smokerYogi.GoinsidethetempleandyouwillseetheholyGuruGranthSahib,theDivineWordof theGuru,whichisthesourceoftrueilluminationinthisDarkAge.Followitandyoushallbe liberated.Seekitssacredpresenceeverymorningandreadthehymnseveryday."Aftersaying thesewordsthemysterioussaintlysagewiththewhitebearddisappeared. Overwhelmedwithrenewedinspirationoflove,Ienteredtheshrine,bowedbeforetheholyGuru GranthSahibandreadafewhymns.Idonotrememberwhichwerethey,buttheyinspiredme withthehighspiritualidealsofGuru'swisdom.Fromthatday,readingatleastonepassagefrom theGuruGranthSahibandreflectingonitbecameapartofmydailyworship.Igotfrequent opportunitytomeetandservetheSikhSangats(congregations).Thesecrettreasuresofdivine knowledgeandtheGuru'swisdombegantobeintuitivelyrevealedtomeandasallother knowledgeappearedtobefalseknowledge,Icouldnotapplymymindtosecularstudies. B.A.examinationstarted.

ThosewerethedayswhenspiritualaspirationandthirstfortheknowledgeoftheGuru's philosophywasdeepandprofound.Everymomentofmylifewasoccupiedbyreligiousthoughts andemotions.Evenwhileansweringtheexaminationpapers,awaveofspiritualemotionwould overwhelmmeandmypenstoppedwriting.IlostallconsciousnessofthefactthatIwas answeringaquestionpaper.Icouldnotanswerthepaperanyfurther.Thepenwouldnotmove on.Whocouldmoveit?Hewhoholdeththepenwasabsorbedinsomethingelse.Mymindwasso deeplyabsorbedindivinelovethatnoonedaredtodisturbme.Inthisconditionofpassionate thirstIsomehowpassedthetime.Fatherreceivedallthenewsaboutme.Sohecameandtookme away.Hetriedtodivertmymindtosomethingelse.HeprocuredanappointmentofNaib Tehsildarformewithoutconsultingme.Iwillrelateinsomeotherletter,howIhadtopassthis time.

CHAPTER2DETACHMENTANDPREPARATIONS (PrisonletterNo.6) IHAVEALREADYrelatedmyexperienceswiththeYogiinthepreviousletter.Nowaccordingto yourwishesIwillgiveabriefaccountofmyearlylifestoryinasequence.Aftermymeetingwith theYogi,themainincidentsareasfollows: Myfatherwasthinkingofyokingmetoagovernmentservice,whenthedeputycommissionerof LudhianasentmeanappointmentletterpostingmeaspersonalassistantofInoculationOfficerin SamralaTehsil.Myelderbrother,SardarHarbansSingh,alsoreceivedasimilarappointmentletter postinghiminJagraonTehsil. Myfather,friends,andrelativespersuadedmetoacceptthisjobasamatterofduty.Myfather explainedtomethattoservehumanitywastoserveGod,andthiswasthebestopportunityto pleaseGod.Iatoncedepartedtotakeuptheappointment.AlthoughIhadnotbeenbaptizedas theKhalsa,IstartedfollowingthecodeofconductnecessaryforaKhalsamuchearlier,andtook mealspreparedbyanonsmoker.SoItookwithmeaSikhcook. IreportedtotheMedicalOfficerwhowascampinginthevillageKhedi.Hewasoneofthose MedicalOfficerswhohadjustcomefromEnglandandwerepostedassupervisorsineveryTehsil. TheydidnotknowanyotherlanguageexceptEnglish.Soonlythosewhoknewandcouldspeak Englishfluentlywereappointedastheirpersonalassistants.Ihadjustcomeoutofthecollege,soI couldspeakEnglishfairlywell.ItookchargefromtheNaibTehsildarwhodidnotknowEnglish. TheMedicalOfficerpostedasplagueInoculationOfficerhadquitealargestaffwithhim.Thefirst difficultyIencounteredwasthecorruptpracticeofdrawingmoneyforrationsofthestafffrom charityfundagainstfictitiousreceipts.Asthestaffhadcampedthereformanydays,thiscorrupt practicehadbeengoingonallthetimeandthecharityfundshadbeenmisappropriatedinallthe villages. EndingCorruption Ihadcomewiththeideaofservinghumanity,soIcouldnottoleratesuchcorruptpractices.Isent forthewholestaffincludingtheAssistantSurgeon,HeadClerk,Compounderandothers.Ialso sentforthevillageHeadmanandtheshopkeepers.Iaskedeveryonetopayhisownbills.Iwasthe firsttopayforaday'srationwhichIhadboughtandtookreceiptforit.Iwaspersuadedtoaccept therationsfreeandnottoworryaboutpaymentandreceipt,butIstronglyreprimandedthemfor makingsuchevilsuggestionandexplainedtothemthatthecharityfundwasforthepoor,the cripple,thedestituteanddiseasedpeople.Whyshouldtheycommittheshamefulcrimeof misappropriatingsuchmoney?Onbeingputtoshameforsuchpractices,everyonehadtopayfor hisrationsandwasgivenareceipt,buteveryoneturnedagainstme.Tothemthiscameasashock. PersonswhosepaywasonlyRs.10permonthhadtopayabouteightannasperday.Seniorstaff membershadtopaymuchmore. TheInoculationOfficerknewnothingaboutthesecorruptpractices.Hiscooktookmoneyfrom himforhisrationsbutacquiredtherationsfreefromcharityfunds.Hewasnowinserioustrouble. HeincitedthestaffagainstmeandtheyallreportedtotheInoculatingOfficerthatI,thenewNaib Tehsildarwasunnecessarilyharassingthem.Hesentformeandaskedmetoexplainthesituation.

IaskedtheInoculationOfficertotellmehowmuchhehadpaidtothecooksofarforhisrations. HeatoncetookouthisIndentBook,andshowedmetheamountspentbyhim.Isentforthe shopkeepersandoncheckingtheactualamountpaidtothem,forwhichreceiptswereacquired,it wasfoundthatthecookhadspentonlyonethirdofwhathehadtakenfromtheInoculation Officer.Thecookhadmisappropriatedtherest.Onbeingexposed,thecookhadnowtopaythe amount.TheInoculationOfficerwascuttothequick.Heatonceorderedthedismissalofthe servantandwantedtotakelegalactionagainsthim.Thebearerbeggedforgivenessandfellatmy feet,patheticallypleadingforbeingsavedfromseverepunishment.Ifeltpityandrequestedthe InoculationOfficernottotakeanylegalactionagainsthim,buttobecautiousinfuture.Ialso suggestedthathemayberetainedtillhegetsanewservant;otherwisehemightencountersome difficultiesduringthetour.Hecouldbedismissedassoonasanothercookwasavailable.He agreedtomyrequest.Hewasdeeplyimpressedandremarked,"IgenerallyheardthatSikhsare veryhonestandtruthful.Ihavefoundittobequitetrue".ItoldhimthatIwasonlyacandidatefor Sikhism,andnotaSikh.Ihadnotyetattainedevenaniotaoftheremarkablecharacterwhich enlightenedSikhsrevealthroughtheiractions.Fromthatdayonwardhebecameanintimate friendandevenhandedovertomehispersonalaccounts.Henowhadtospendonlythreeorfour rupeeswhereheformerlyspenttenrupeesdaily.Ialsodidnotallowanyonetouseasinglepenny outofthecharitablefunds.ForaboutamonthIkepthisaccountandwhenhisnormal expenditurewascorrectlyset,Ihandeditovertohim,becauseIcouldnotperformmyother dutieswell,asittookalotofmytime.Thuspassedsomemonths. GiftasBribery Aftersometime,todayofficialsputhimintothehabitofacceptinggifts,whichamountedto bribery.WhenIcametoknowaboutitIsentforthezaildarandothersubordinatesandordered themnottotakeanygiftstotheInoculationOfficerwithoutmypermission.Onhearingthis,the InoculationOfficerwasextremelyannoyed.Hesentformeandtoldmethatthisorderwasan insulttohim,moreso,becauseIdidnotevenreferthemattertohim.Itoldhimthatthedeputy commissionerhadgivenspecialinstructionsinthisdirection,bytellingme,thatIshouldnotlet anyuntowardthinghappenwhichmightharmhisreputationandthatIwouldbeheldresponsible forsuchathingashewasnewtothiscountry.Thesepeopleweretodayflatterersandthey broughtthosegiftswithsomeselfishulteriormotive,andcontinuedtoannoyhimwithimproper requests.SoIstoppedthemfromofferingsuchgiftstohim. InoculationOfficer:Whatisimproperinthis? I:Theybringthemastemptinggifts. InoculationOfficer:Whatiswronginacceptinggifts? I:Iconsiderittobeatypeofbribery.Idonotwantthatbyofferingsuchthingstheymaytempt youtoacceptbribery. InoculationOfficer:Didthedeputycommissionergiveyoutheseinstructions?Isnotacceptinggifts andpresentsacustominthiscountry?Ifitisnotthecustom,whydothesepeoplebringthese gifts?Ifitisthecustom,thenwhydoyouobjecttoit? I:Idonothavespecificinstructions.Iconsidergivingandacceptingbribeanevilthing.According tomyreligiousprinciplesitisasin,andaccordingtothelawofourcountryitisacrime.Ifanevil actiswidelypracticedinacountry,itdoesnotbecomeacustomarylaw.Idonotknowwhetherit

isanormalcustominyourcountry.Iknowofnocustominthiscountrywhichsanctionsthis practice,butthedictatesofmyconsciencetellmethatthisisimmoral.Suchacustomwhichtakes theshapeofimmoralandillegalactivitiesshouldnotbesanctionedinanyGodfearingsociety.I stoppedthispracticeherelestyoumaygetintothehabitofacceptingthisformofbribe. AftersuchalengthydiscussiontheInoculationOfficerfeltalittleashamedaboutit.Aftertwo days,hewenttothedeputycommissioneranddiscussedthematterofacceptinggifts.Whenhe cameback,hetoldmethathehaddiscussedthematterwiththedeputycommissionerinwhose opiniontoacceptgiftsandtospendmoneyfromcharityfundsforpersonalneedswasanordinary thingandanormalpractice.Allofficersincludingthecommissioneracceptedgiftsandeveryone usedsomemoneyforpersonalexpenditureoutofcharityfunds.Iaskedhimtotellthedeputy commissionerthatallthosewhousedthesefundsmeantforpeoplesufferingfromleprosyand otherdiseaseswillthemselvesbecomevictimsofsuchterriblediseasesiftheycontinuetousethis money.Thosewhomisusethesefundsshouldbeconsideredmentallycorrupt.Theywillcertainly bepunishedbyGodformisappropriatingthesefunds.Ialsoaskedhimtotellthedeputy commissionerthatinmyopinionacceptinggiftswasasbadasacceptingbribery,andIcouldprove ittohimifhesowished.TheInoculationofficerreportedmyviewstothedeputycommissioner verbatim.Iwascalledforanexplanation.Ifearlesslygaveargumentsandprovedfromthemoral, legal,andsocialpointofviewthatitwasacrimeandsintousemoneyfromcharityfundsfor personalpurposes,andthatacceptinggiftsfromthepeopleamountedtobribery.Thedeputy commissionerwasgreatlyimpressedandwhenhestartedpraisingme,Islippedoutofhisoffice becauseIdidnotliketohearmyownpraise. However,onthatdayIwasconvincedthatthewholestaffofthisgovernmentdepartmentwas thoroughlycorrupt,andbyjoiningthisstaffamanonlyruinedhismoralandspiritualfuture.Asa matterofduty,Icontinuedtodotheworkassignedtome.Iwasseriouslyupset.Onseeing corruptionrampantfromtoptobottom,itwasdifficulttobelievethatthegovernmentservice couldeverbetheserviceofhumanity.Farfromappearingtobeaserviceofhumanity,itnow appearedtobeacursedslaveryofimperialism.'Tosellyoursoulanddamnyourfaith,wasitsonly reward.Therewasalwaysadangerofthemindandspiritgettingmisdirected.Mysoulaspiredto leadapurelyspirituallife.Myspiritualaspirationswereattimesseriouslydisturbed.EverytimeI falteredIsoughtmoralandspiritualsupportfromGurbani(hymnsofGuruGranthSahib). Travelleronthepathoflife, Theroadisroughandstony. Beware,lestyouhaveafall Andtheinjuryleavesascar. GuruArjan:Maru,p.1095 Thisfearwasalwaystherelestamidstsuchcorruptsurroundings,ImightsufferafallIgotupearly inthemorningandaftertakingmybathIrecitedmyprayersandthusspirituallystrengthenedmy mind.AssoonasIrodemyhorsetoresumemyduty,andthesubordinatessalutedme,vanity begantooverpowermymind.Initsfinerformsomeegoismwasalwaysaroused.Butbythegrace oftheGuruIbecameawareofitimmediatelyandIsoughtthehelpofGurbanitostrengthenmy mind.Almostthewholedaythisinnerstruggleagainstthetemptationsofvanitywasalwaysthere. IntheeveningaftertheRehrasprayersIfeltrelievedofthispoison

HuntingandDiscussiononEatingMeat EarlyonemorningsomeBritishOfficersgotreadyforahuntingexpeditionanddesiredthatI shouldaccompanythem.Iwassittinginmytentabsorbedinprayers.Theyorderedmeto accompanythem,butIwentonwithmyprayers.Theytriedtodisturbme,butIcontinuedprayers undisturbed.Duringthedaytheyaskedforanexplanation.Itoldthemplainlythat,ifinfuture theytriedtodisturbmewhenIwaspraying;Iwouldimmediatelysubmitmyresignation.Itwas notmydutytotakemyofficersoutonhuntingexpeditions.IhadmydutytowardsGodalso,and allworldlydutiesmustfollowmyreligiousdutytoGod.Onhearingmyexplanationtheyrelented andextendedaformalapology. Dr.Fisherwasveryfondofreligiousdiscussionandonedaythediscussionsomehowturnedonthe questionwhethermeatisahumandietornot.IwantedtoavoiddiscussionandsaidthatIwillgive myviewsonsomeproperoccasion.Itsohappenedthatoneday,ourtourwaslengthened.Our staffincludingDr.Fisher'spersonalattendantsandthecookwereleftfarbehind.Wewerefar aheadonourhorsestryingtofindaplaceforpitchingourcamps.Dr.Fisherfeltveryhungryand hungerwasonethingthathecouldnotendure.WeweretocampatJodhanMansuran.AsDr. Fisherwantedsomethingtoeatimmediately,Isuggestedthatwecouldtakesomeberriesfroma treenearby.Ipluckedsomeberriesandgavethemtohim.Hishungersharpenedstillmore.He climbedthetreeandshookitsbranchestofelltheberries.Ipickedthemup,andwhenhecame downfromthetree,wesharedhalfandhalf.Hewaseatingtheberriesataveryslowspeed. Duringthesametime,Ifinishedeatingahandfulofthem.Justthenafarmerbroughtabouta dozensugarcanes.Ipeeledthesugarcaneswithmyteeth,whilehehadtousehisknife.Hehad takenonlyonesugarcaneduringwhichperiodIwasabletofinishfivefullsugarcanes.Hewas surprised,andaskedme,whyweremyteethsostrong.Itoldhim"ItisbecauseIdonottakemeat, nordidmyforefathersevertakemeat.Butyourteetharebadbecauseyoupeopletakemeat. Meateatinganimalsnaturallyhavesuchteethwhicharenotspoiledbyeatingmeatandthey neverbecomeweak.Meatisnotthenaturaldietofman,thatiswhywhenahumanbeingtakes meat;histeethgetspoiledinyoungage.Infamiliesinwhichmeatiseatengenerationafter generationchildreninheritweakteeth.Carnivorousanimalseatevenrawmeatandyettheirteeth remainstrongasever.Naturehasgiventhemspecialtypeofteethwhicharesuitableforeating flesh."TheDoctorwaspleasedtoheartheargumentandsaid,"Youhaveatlastansweredthe questionIraisedtheotherday." ThereweresimilardiscussionswithDr.Fisheronmanysubjectsandonesuchlengthydiscussion wasonthesubject:"IstheworshipofGuruGranthSahibidolatry"whichlatertooktheformofa book.AfteraboutayeartheinoculationdepartmentwaswoundupandDr.Fisherhadtogo. Beforehewent,hestronglyrecommendedmeforthepostofaTehsildartotheChiefSecretary andtheGovernorofPunjab.Theypromisedtogivemethepostassoonasmyapplicationreached themthroughproperchannel,i.e.throughthedeputycommissioner.Dr.Fisherwasgiven assurancethatIwouldbegiventhefirstpost.Hetoldmeabouthisrecommendationsbeforehe left.

CHAPTER3RENUNCIATIONANDBAPTISM (PrisonletterNo.6Contd) MYMINDANDspiritwerebecomingmoreandmoredetached.IwasfedupofservingBritish Imperialism.Manyattemptsweremadeandvariousmethodswereemployedtopersuademeto takeupgovernmentservice,buttheyfailedtoentanglemeagain.Oneday,fathersomehow broughtmeinthepresenceofthedeputycommissionerandDr.Fisherandbothstarted persuadingmetoacceptsomegovernmentpost.AtfirstIkeptsilent.Thentheypointedlyasked me,whyIhesitatedtoacceptgovernmentservice.Ireplied,"Iatfirstjoinedgovernmentservice withsoleaimofservinghumanity.IbelievedthattoservehumanityistoserveGod.Ialsobelieved thatitwasnotpossibletoservehumanityindividually.Iinnocentlyjoinedthisspecialwelfare organisationofthegovernmentwhichwassetupforthemainpurposeofservingthepoorand thediseased.Ibecameastaffmemberofthiswelfareorganisationtoservehumanitythroughthe government.Ithoughtthissocialservicewouldbethemostspirituallyrewarding.ButIhavehada bitterexperience,whichhasconvincedmethatthewholegovernmentiscorrupt.Eventhehighest officialswhoclaimtobetheservantsofthegovernmentandthepeople,actuallydonotserve anyone.Oneisagreaterswindlerthantheother.SoIhavegivenuptheideaoftakingupsuch misleadingservice.Secondly,IcouldcontinuetoserveasTehsildarandacquitmyselfwellinitonly ifIcoulddojustice.Whileoneisinthegovernmentserviceonecannotrespecttruthanddo justiceinthetruesenseoftheword.Itispossibletodomoraljusticeonlyifeveryoneconnected withdispensingjusticeisvirtuousandrighteousinthereligioussense.Thirdly,aslongasthelaw ofevidence(whichwasbasedgenerallyonfalseevidence)isinpractice,therecouldbenojustice. Idonotknowwhen,andunderwhatcircumstanceswasthislawofevidenceintroduced,butI havenodoubtthatwhenitwasfirstintroduced,peoplemustbeinthehabitoftellingthetruthon oathandthecharacterofthepeoplemustbegenerallyhigh.Butnowadaysfalsehoodalone prevailsandveryfewpeopletellthetruth.Therearesomepeoplewhohavemadegivingfalse evidenceaprofessionandthejudgementsarebasedonthebasisofthesefalseevidencesinmost ofthecivilandcriminalcases.Everyvillagehassuchprofessionalwitnesseswhogivefalse evidenceonpayment.Youcanstudytherecordsofallthecasesforthelasttwelveyearsandyou willfindthatthesamefalsewitnessesappearinmanycasesfromeachvillageandonthebasisof suchfalseevidencejudgementshavebeenpassed.Ihavewithmealistofsuchprofessional witnesses.ThesamemenappearaswitnessesinthecourtsofE.A.C.,thirdgrade,secondgrade andfirstgrademagistrates.ThesamemengiveevidenceinthecourtsofDistrictandSessions Judges.Ifyoudoubtyoucancheckitupfromthefilesofvariouscases.Whatisonrecordrequires nootherproof.Givingfalseevidenceistheprofessionofthesepeopleandtheydosoforafew annasorforafewrupees.Forsuchpaltrysumstheytellwhitelies.Theirconscienceisdead.How cantheyhaveanyrespectfortellingthetruth?ItisonthebasisofsuchwitnessesthattheJudges passjudgements.Doyouthinkthattheydojustice?Cantheyunderthesecircumstancesreallydo anyjustice?IfanyGodfearingJudgewishestoknowthetruth,hemaygoforanonthespot investigation. "SupposingamurderhastakenplaceinavillageandIgototheplaceforanonthespot investigation,asaresultofwhichIcometoknowwhoistherealmurderer.Buttoconvictthe murdererwerequireatleasttwowitnesses.Ifwedonotgettwowitnessesandjudgementis givenonthebasisofpersonalinvestigation,thehighercourtwillsetasidethejudgement.Onthe otherhand,sometimestwowitnessesareprocuredagainstaninnocentmanandheissentenced todeathbythelowercourt.Suchajudgementisconsideredsoundandvalidandisupheldevenby

theHighCourts.Thismeansthatonthespotinvestigationisofnouse.Alljudgementspassedon thebasisofonthespotinvestigationbutwithoutwitnesseswillbesetasidebytheHigherCourt. Notonlythat,thejudgesoftheHighCourtmayconsidermetobeincompetentandmayeven downgrademe.Forfearofbeingdowngraded,Iwillhavetogiveupthepathofrighteousnessto keepupmyposition.Iwillhavetogiveuprealjusticeandbasemyjudgementonfalsewitnesses. ThismeansIwillnotbeabletodojusticeandIwilljointhosecorruptofficersofthegovernment whoswindlethepeople.ThusIwillloseallmycharacterandspiritualfuture.WhatwillIgetexcept ultimatelyrepentovermydeeds.TheGurusays: Neverdosuchdeeds, Overwhichyouhavetorepentultimately. GuruAmarDas:Ramkali,p.918 "SoIdonotwanttotakeupsuchaserviceoverwhichIhavetorepent.Yourpoliceofficersofthe secretservice(C.I.D.)indulgeinfalsehoodandlies.Theygivethreatsanduseunderhandmeansto getfalseconfessions.Thesameisthecasewithapleaderandlawyerwhoacceptscasesonlyfor thesakeofmoney.Evenwhentheyknowthatamaniscriminalandthecaseisfalse,theytryto proveitotherwisethroughfalsewitnesses.Thusaninnocentpersonsometimesgetsdeath sentencewhiletherealcriminalescapes.Allthatamanhastodoistospendmoneyonbribes. Realjusticecanbedoneonlybythosewhohavesomerespectformoralandreligiousprinciples. Exceptmenofhighintegrityandvirtuousandspirituallife,nooneelsecanboastofdoingreal justice.Butinourgovernmentofficesandcourtsalltheofficersfromtoptobottomarecorrupt. Wherethewholemachineryislikethat,whatcanalonereligiousman,havingrespectformoral andspiritualprinciplesdo.Forapersonlikemeitisnotatallpossibletoworkinsuchan atmosphere.IhaveyettobeginmyjourneyonthespiritualpathandIshouldnotbeginina mannerinwhichImayloseallthepreciousthingswhichGodhasgivenme.Soyoucannotexpect metocontinueaworkinwhichIamtheloser." TheGoldenSparrow OnhearingthisreplythedeputycommissionerandDr.Fishersaidtomyfather,"SardarSahib,we aresorrythatyoursonisneitherofanyusetoyounortous.Notonlyarewelosinghimbuteven youwilllosehim.Itisaverysadthingthatagoldensparrowisslippingoutofthehandsofthe BritishGovernment.Itisalsoverysadthatyourwisheshavenotbeenfulfilledandwealsohave beenverymuchdisappointed,becauseneithercanthelawofevidencebedoneawaywithnorwill heacceptaGovernmentservice".ThisisthebriefstoryofhowIrenouncedtheGovernment serviceanddecidednevertogoforitagain. Althoughfatherwasgreatlydisappointed,hewasneverangrywithme,nordidheeverexpresshis displeasuretome,becauseheknewaboutmymentalandspiritualconditionandheknewIwas becomingdetachedfromworldlyinterestforthesakeofahigherspirituallife.Secondly,Iwas alwaysobedientandtriedtoservehimasadutifulson.Becauseofmyfilialpietyhealways tenderlylovedme.Hewashoweversometimesseriouslydisappointedwhenhefoundthathisson wouldnotbeabletoachieveaveryhighpositioninthegovernment.Forthispurposehehad spentthousandsofrupeesonmyeducationandtraining.Manytimeshewouldcallmecloseto himandtrytoaffectionatelypersuademetoacceptsomegovernmentservicebutitwasallin vain.Hehadgreatrespectformyreligiouslife.ThisIcametoknowafteraninterestingincident whichisgivenbelow.

HealingthroughPrayer EvenbeforeIwasbaptizedIhaddeepfaithintheprinciplesofSikhismandtheholyWord.Oneof mybeliefswasthatthedivineNameisthepanaceaofallills.Prayersandcontemplationofthe divineNamecanhealmentalandphysicalailments,andthisisthebestmedicineforalltypesof maladies.Therewasfrequentdiscussionwithfatheronthistopic.Fatherdidnotwantmetoavoid medicineswhenIfellill.Hedidnotbelievethatthereisanysuchthingashealingofphysical ailmentthroughprayerorcontemplationofthedivineName.Hehoweverbelievedthatmental diseasescanbecuredthroughprayer.Asforphysicalailment,heconsideredordinarymedicines tobeabsolutelyessential.HedidnotunderstandthemysteryorthepowerofdivineNamenordid hebelieveinit. Onceitsohappenedthathefellill.HewassoseriouslyillthathehadtobetakentoLudhiana hospital.Iwasattendinghiminthehospital.Therewereoneortwoservantsandsomerelatives andfriendstohelpus.Wehadacquiredaspecialroominthehospitalandthetreatmentstarted.I wasnotinfavourofbringinghimtothehospital,butmyrelativesandotherfriendsalmost compelledmetobringhimhere.Anyway,Iwantedtonursefatherandservehimwithmyown hands,soIalsoaccompaniedhim.FatherwasalsoveryanxiousthatIshouldaccompanyhim.The treatmentwentforaboutaweekbuthestillcontinuedtohavefeverandtherewasnotthe slightestchangeinhiscondition.MalariawasraginginthetownthosedaysandIhadtogotothe cityanumberoftimes.Oneafteranotheralltherelativessufferedfromanattackofmalariaand hadtogohome.WithinaweekIwastheonlypersonlefttoattendfather.Somemoreservants weresenttohelpmebutwhoevercamesufferedfromasevereattackofmalariaandhadtoleave theplace.ThenIacquiredanoldservantKhadkoofrommyrelativeSardarUttamSinghpleader whowasstayingatJullundur.HealsofellillwithanattackofMalariaandhadtogoback.Iwasfelt allalonetolookafterfather.Myfather'sconditionwastakingaseriousturn. OnedifficultyIfacedwasthatIcouldnotdecidewhethertostaynearfatherortobringthingsfor himfromthecity.DuringthedaytimeIhadtogomanytimestothehouseofDr.FatehChand, CivilSurgeon,whowasresidinginthecitybecausehecametothehospitalforaroundonlyonce ortwice.Fatherwasunderthespecialtreatmentofthisdoctor.Nodoubt,therewastheAssistant Surgeonandotherjuniordoctorsinchargeofthehospitalandtherewasalsothehospitalassistant whogavehimmedicinesregularlyandkepthimunderconstantvigilance.TheCivilSurgeonhad askedmetoreportfather'sconditioneverythreehours,soIhadtorunaboutallaloneinthe burningheatofthenoondaysunduringthemonthofAugust.UltimatelyIalsogotfever.For abouttwoorthreedaysIdidnotcaremuchaboutit.IwasmovingaboutwhenIhadonlyslight temperature.Onthefifthday,mybodybegantoshiverandmytemperatureroseveryhigh.SoI hadtoconfinemyselftobed. TheAssistantSurgeonofferedmesomemedicinestellingme,insomanywords,thatmylifewas indangerandpersuadedmetotaketheseregularly.TheCivilSurgeonandotherprominent doctorsofthecityalsotoldmethattheconditionofmyfatherwasveryseriousandhemayhardly survivefortwentyfourhours.Hisconditionhaddeterioratedandtherewasnocureforhim.All medicineshadfailedtobringdownhisfever.Sotheyaskedmetotakesomemedicinesandget curedsothatImaynotmisstheopportunitytolookaftermyfatherduringhislastmoments.Iwas theonlypersonleftnearhim.Allothershadfallenillandgoneback.NowthatIwasdownwith feverImusttakemedicinesandgetcured.Thiswouldgivemeanopportunitytoservemyfather duringhislastmoments,otherwiseImighthavetorepentallmylifeformissingthisopportunity.I hadcometherewiththesolepurposeofnursinghim,andIhadlookedafterhimwithgreat devotionandcarebutifIfailedtonursehimduringhislastmomentsallmyservicewouldgoin

vain.Persuadingmebythesestrongwordstheyaskedmetotakemedicines.Itoldthemthattheir medicineshadnotbeenabletocuremyfatherevenafteratreatmentofmanyweeks.Their medicinehadnotcuredanyoneofthoseservantsandrelativeswhobecamevictimofmalaria feverandhadtogohome.Howcouldthismedicinecureme?Iaskedthemnottoworryaboutme asIhadmyownmedicines."Donotannoymeanymore,"Isaid,"asIamnotgoingtotakeanyof yourmedicines".OnhearingthisplainreplytheAssistantSurgeonbecameveryangry.Helefttwo powdersonasmalltablenearmybedHeorderedme,inverystrongwords,totakethem immediately.Hesaidhewouldcomebackafteranhouragain."Itwouldbebetter",hesaid,"if youtakethesepowdersbeforeIcome,otherwisewewillthrowyouandyourdyingfatheroutof thehospital."Histhreatsdidnothavetheslightesteffectonme. Igatheredstrengthandwentnearfatherwhowasontheothersideoftheroomatadistanceof tenyards.Hewaslyingunconscious.Hispulsewasveryslowandabouttofail.Hishandsandfeet wereverycold.Hisnosewasslightlytwisted.Therewasarattlingsoundinhisthroat.Hecould neitherhearnorseeforthelasttwodays.Foraboutthreedayshewasunabletopassurine althoughthecatheterwaspassedandsomeinjectionsweregiven.ThepreviouseveningtheCivil Surgeonandotherdoctorshaddeclaredhisconditionveryserious.Hisurinehadnowbecome poisonedandinfectedthewholebody.Therewasnohopeofhissurvival.Thedoctorhadadvised thatearlynextmorningIshouldsendatelegramtomyvillagehome,butasIwasseriouslyilland confinedtobed.Icouldneithersendatelegramnoranymessage. AvoicesaidwithinmethatthedivineNameisthepanaceaofallills.Thisgavemealittlehope.My faithwasawakened.WhenIwasnowdisappointedfromeveryside,Iconcentrateddeeplyonthis innervoicewhichwasmyonlyhope.Iwrappedmyselfinablanketandinastateofmental concentrationIsilentlysaidmyinvocationprayer(ardasa)andthenrecitedtheJapji(tomeatthat timewhenIwasunbaptised,theJapjiwastheonlyDivineName).Thespiritualmysteryofthe divineNamehadnotbeenrevealedtome.IsilentlyrecitedtheJapji.BynowIwasanadeptin silentmeditationandrecitation.IrecitedtheJapjifivetimes.Thenmymindwasconcentratedon theversesofSpiritualCommunionmanai(VerseNo.12to15).Icontinuedtorepeattheseverses andcouldnotgobeyondthem.Mybodywassweating.MyfeverhadcomedowntonormalandI wasfeelinglightandhealthy.Iwipedoffthesweatandwentnearfathertoseehiscondition.I thoughthemustbedeadbynow.WhenIwentnearhimIwasdelightedtoseethathehadpassed urineandhispulsewasbetter.Hewasalsobreathingclearly.Hisbodywasalsosweating,although hedidnothaveevenacottonsheetoverhisbody.Iwasextremelyhappytoseehimrecovering. WhenIcalledhim,heopenedhiseyesandspokeasifhehadcomeoutofhissamadhi(deep concentration).Hesaid(inUrdu)"Sonsomebodyisrecitingthecommunionversesmanaikipauri ofJapji.Ifeeldeeplyelevatedinspiritualbliss."Aftersayingthesewordshebecamesilentagain.I wasastonishedtohearthis.IthankedGodfromthedepthofmyheartforsavingfather. AsIwassittingnearmyfathertheAssistantSurgeoncameandfindingmenormalagainsaid: "Welldone,youareagoodboy.Soatlastyoutookthemedicine.Thatiswhyyourfeverisgone".I toldhimthathispowderswerelyingwhereheleftthemandhecouldtakethemback.Hewas surprisedandannoyedtofindthatthepowderswerestillthere.Hefeltmypulseandaskedmein astonishment,"Howdidyourfevergo"?Iaskedhimtoseetheconditionofmyfatheralso.When helookedatfatherandfoundhimquitewell,hewasdumbfounded.Hestoodtherelikeastatue andaskedmyfather,"Whatisthismiraclethathassuddenlycuredyou".Myfathersaid,"Itisthe miracleofthecommunionversesofJapji(maniakipauri)."Hethenclosedhiseyesandremained silent.Thedoctoragainquestionedhimbutmyfathersaid,"Donotdisturbmymindwhichis

deeplyabsorbedinthemusicofthecommunionverses.Themusicofthecommunionverses manaikipauriisstillringinginmyears. Ithensaidtothedoctor,"ThedivineNameisthepanaceaofallills.Thisisamiracleandagreat wonderofwonders.Youallgaveupfatherasdeadandhisdiseaseasincurable.Contrarytoitthe greatGodhasworkedawonderfulmiracle."Thedoctorwentoutfromthehospitalandridinga bicycleheimmediatelywenttotheCivilSurgeonandtoldhimboastinglythatbysomespecial treatmenthehadcuredmyfather.TheCivilSurgeonwasalsosurprisedastohowapatientwho couldnotpassurineforthreeorfourdaysandhadatemperatureofabout106degreecouldbe cured.TheAssistantSurgeonboastedthathehadcuredhim.Theycametherediscussingthecase, whilemyfatherwasstilldeeplyabsorbedinthemusicofthecommunionversesandIstoodina thanksgivingprayerbeforemyGod.Withinanothertwoorthreedaysmyfatherwasabsolutely normalandhewasbroughthome.Fromthatdayonward,Ihada"profoundanddeepfaithinthe spiritualhealingthroughprayeranddivineName.MyfaithinthehighprinciplesofSikhism becamedeeperandsublimerafterthisincident.Noonenowpreventedmefromtakingreligious lifeseriously.Ihadalreadyrenouncedthegovernmentserviceandfeltrelieved.Iwasnow preparedforbaptism.Beforetheauspiciousdaycameablissfulincidenttookplace. ASublimeSpiritualExperience ItwastheannualfunctionofGujjarwalSinghSabha.Alargesangat(congregation)hadgathered together.MusiciansfromAmritsarweresingingAsadiVar.SuddenlyIpassedintoadeepSamadhi andblissfulstate.ForthefirsttimeinmylifetheSadhSangatnowappearedtobeaheavenon earth.Allround,Ifeltarainofnectarlavedjoywhichwassweetandthrilling.Thewholeskywas filledwithwavesofambrosia.IfeltthatImergedandbathedinaseaofnectar.Insideandoutside mybodyIfeltheavenlybliss.Thisexperiencegavemeanunusualspiritualjoyinwhichmymind andsoulweredivingasifinaseaofjoy.ForamomentIfeltthatIwasnotsittinginthisworld. TherewerethePanjPyaras(theFivebelovedKnights)whobaptized.OneofthePanjPyarascame towardsmefrombehind.ItappearedhewasdescendingfromtheheavenlyrealmofTruthonlyto takemealongwithhim.AsIsatdeeplyabsorbedinSamadhi,kirtanwasgoingoninfrontofme, whilethesameBelovedOneoutofPanjPyaraswascomingtowardsmeinalovelornmoodfrom behind.Themusicofthehighestspiritualrealmwasringingallaroundandhemovedintunewith thismusic.ItappearedthatIhadtwoeyesevenatmyback,becausewithoutturningback,Icould seethatwashappeningbehindme.Allthesethingsappearedtobehappeningintheastral sphere.Theheavenlymessenger(oneoutofthePanjPyaras)wasnowseencomingclosetome. Hesilentlycameandstoodbehindmeandtouchedmewithhismagneticastralfinger.Witha strangepowerheheldmebymyhandandtookmeinthedirectionfromwhichhecame.Hedid notutteraword,norcouldIspeak.AlthoughIdidnotliketoleavethekirtanwhichwasgoingon there,yetIfollowedhimirresistiblyingreatjoyandexpectation.Ithoughthewilltakemetothe heavenlyrealmsfromwherehecame.Indeepcontemplativesilence,Ifollowedthebelovedfigure whoappearedtobeanembodimentoflove.Ididnotevenfeelthemovementofmyfeet.Inan instantIwastakentoastrangespiritualrealmwheretherewasuntoldpeaceandbliss.Theholy GuruGranthwasplacedthereandoveritwasacanopy.Someonewaswavingthechowri reverently. ThePanjPyaras(thefiveBelovedones)oftheGurustoodtherewithhumilityandreverence beforeGuruGranthSahibandthiscelestialfigure,whotookmethere,bowedbeforetheGuru GranthSahibwithsuchdeepreverenceasIhadneverwitnessedbefore.Ialsobowedwiththe samereverenceandhumility.Iwassodeeplyabsorbedinthehumblesalutationthatthecelestial

figurebestowedbenedictiononmeandaskedmetoriseup.WhatInowsawwasthataSikhwas wavingthechowriandfiveSikhsstoodtherereadytoperformthebaptismceremony.Iwasnot abletospeakbutitappearedIwassilentlytryingtotellthemthesewords."Sir,ifyoufindthatI amfitforbaptism,mayIpleasebebaptizednow.Iamyearningforbaptism.Therecannotbea betteroccasionthanthis.Iwouldfeelgreatlyblessed."Then,oneofthemsaid"Ifyouwishtobe baptizedbringyourwifealsowithyou."WhenthesewordscametomyearsIsuddenlycameout ofthespiritualmoodofecstasy.Thewholecelestialatmospheredisappearedasifascreenhad suddenlydroppedoverit.IfoundmyselfagainintheSinghSabhaGurdwaraGujjarwal.FiveSikhs werestandinginthepresenceofGuruGranthSahibandamongstthemwasthesamemysterious figurewhohadtakenmetoahigherspiritualrealm.NowwhenIlookedathimcloselyIfoundhim tobeafriendandbrotherdisciple.InowrealizedthatIhadseenallthePanjPyarasintheirastral bodybutnowIcouldseethemintheirphysicalbodyalso.Isaidtothem,itwasbetterifthey couldbaptizemeallalone.Theysmiledandutteredthiscouplet: ByThygraceOMercifulLord Thewholefamilyhasboardedtheship Andbeenbaptized AdiGuruGranth:Kabir:Gaudip.337 Thustheyinstructedmetobringmywifeandhaveherbaptizedalongwithmeandnottoleave herbehind,onthisspiritualpath.TheysaidmanyotherthingswhichIdonotremember.Ihumbly promisedandaskedthemifIcouldagaingetsuchawonderfulopportunityforbeingbaptized. Theysaidinwordsfullofblessing"Youwillgetafarbetteropportunity".Thisblessingencouraged meandIstartedwaitingpatientlyfortheday.FormanyyearsIhadbeenpreparingasanovicefor baptismwithadeepdevotionandlonging.NowIfeltthatIwasasuitablecandidateforbaptism. InthebeginningIwasoftheopinionthatthePanjPyarasshouldbeofmychoicebutthiswasan errorandamistake.Suchadoubthadalreadybeendispelled.TheSadhSangatortheKhalsa PanthalonehadtherighttoselectthePanjPyarasandnotthosewhoseekbaptism.Thosewho seekbaptismareonlynovices.ItisnotpossibleforthemtomakeajudgementortotestthePanj Pyaras.Ifatalltheymakeajudgementorapplysometestitwouldbeofaloworder.Butthe spiritualexperiencewhichIhadonthisdayconvincedmethatifaseekerafterbaptismissincere andpurehewillgetthePanjPyarasofthespiritualorderhedeserves.Itsohappensthatthe seeker'sownvirtuesandqualitiesbearproperfruit.Nothingisachievedbyshrewdnessand ingenuity.SoIlefteverythinginthehandsoftheAlmightyGodandwaswaitingforthegreatday accordingtoHissweetWill. Ihadcompletelyneglectedmywifeinthisdirection.OfcourseIhadfoundoutthatshewould agreetoeverythingIsuggestedandshewasundoubtedlyveryloyal,devotedandfaithful.Ididnot havetotakemuchtroubleinpersuadinghertofollowmeonthespiritualpath.Onseeingmy religioustrendofmindshetriedtomouldherselfaccordingly.Ididnothavetocompelherto accepteverythingIdid.SheagreedtofollowthesamestrictcodeofconductwhichIfollowed.She hadbeendeeplyinfluencedbyspiritualassociationofayounglady,BibiJagatParkashKaur(wife ofS.MangalSinghMannofKotshera).Shewasrelatedtomywifeandwasherplaymateduring childhood.Shespentmostofhertimewithher.Ihaveneverseensodeeplyreligiousayounglady before.ShewasprofoundlyenlightenedandwasthoroughlygroundedinthenobleSikhideals. ShehadsuchagoodreligiouseducationthatIhadnotseensofaranyonewithsoprofound knowledgeofSikhism.

Thereissomuchtobewrittenaboutherthatonecanwriteawholebook,butunfortunatelyIdid notgetanopportunitytowriteherlifestory.Thissaintlyladydepartedfromthisworldatquitean earlyage.Buteveninheryoungage,thefewyearsoflifeshelived,revealedawonderfulpassion forSikhidealsanddevotiontotheGuru.TheGuruhadsentherandGurutookherback.Mywife wasdeeplyinfluencedbythespiritualassociationofthisnobleandangelicsoul.Sheimbibedmany spiritualvirtuesataveryearlyage.Sowhenmywifemetmeshereadilyagreedtoleadexactlythe samekindoforthodoxlifewhichIwasleadingandshealsopreparedherselfforthebaptismjust asIwantedhertodo.ShewassincerelyanxioustobebaptisedalongwithmebutIwassodeeply absorbedinmyinnerlifeanddevotiontoGodthatIhadhardlythoughtofher. ReceivingBaptism Atlastthedayofmybaptismcamenearer.Formeitwastobeanewspiritualbirthandanewlife. IwastodietothisworldandwastobebornagaininthespiritoftheGuru.Unexpectedly,theday wasmadeknowntome,forwhichIhadbeenwaitingimpatientlylikeahoneybeethirstingforthe beautyoftheflower.Iexpectedthatdaytobeknownatanytimesuddenly,whenIwouldgetthe heavenlynectarasagiftofGod.Atlast,oneday,Ifeltthedivine"allwhenIcametoknowthatat BakapurinTehsilPhillaur,DistrictJullundur,auniquereligiousgatheringwasbeingorganisedand animpressivebaptismceremonywastobeheld.(ThiswasspeciallyorganizedtobaptizeaMuslim divine,MaulviKarimBakhshalongwithhisfamily,intotheKhalsafaith.Afterthebaptismhecame tobeknownasSantLakhbirSingh).WheneverIcametoknowofanyreligiousgatheringIeagerly wenttheretoenjoythespiritualblissoftheholycongregation.NowwhenIcametoknowthat therewouldbeanamritparchar(baptismceremony)Iatoncewentthere. Manyotherfriendsfromourvillagejoinedme.Onthewayotherjathasjoinedus.Whenwegot downatPhillaurstationwestartedkirtanandwentonfoottoBakapursingingdivinesongsall alongthewaydistanceofthreemiles.ItwasalargegatheringoftheSikhcommunityinwhichall prominentleaders,saintsanddevoteeshadgatheredtogether.ItwasineverywayagrandKhalsa Diwan(communitygathering)whichIhadwitnessedforthefirsttimeinmylife.Itisnotnecessary towritemuchmoreaboutthisgathering.Iwasfullofhopeandjoyandwaseagerlywaitingforthe baptismceremony.Whentherewasacallforthosewhowishedtobebaptizedsomepower movedmeandIstoodupwithfoldedhandsandbeggedtheholycongregationtoblessmewith theambrosialbaptism(Amrita)iftheyfoundmesuitableanddeserving.Iwouldfeelblessed,if alongwithothers,Iwasalsobaptized.BythegraceofGodmyrequestwasaccepted.Somemore personsfromourvillagegotreadyfortheAmrita.Thenagoodmanymorecameforward.Outof themonlythosewhodeservedandwerepreparedineverywayfortheAmrita(baptism)were selected.Theywereaskedtotakeabathandwashtheirhair.Thentheywerebroughtbeforethe holyGuruGranthSahibforthebaptismceremony. Beforetheceremonystarted,amancamefromoutsideandstartedtellingusaboutthedivine Name.BecauseofthisunceremoniousmethodofimpartingthedivineName,itsspiritual significancefailedtoberevealedtous.WedidnotexperiencethemagnetismofthedivineName. ThusthedivineNamefailedtospirituallyinspireme.Itscontemplationalsowasdifficultwithout theproperinspirationfromthePanjPyaras.Buttherewasnodoubt,Iexperiencedadistinct changeandspiritualrebirthinmyinnerbeingandtrulyfeltanewlife,anewyouthandanew spiritualvisionoflife.ThePanjPyarastheninstructeduswiththeessentialcodeofconduct,which theycommandedustopractiseevenatthecostoflife.Tometheseethicalcommandsandthe principlesofSikhidealismappearedtobepersonalcommandsofGuruGobindSingh,whichhave beenimpartedfromhearttoheartandsoultosoulasperennialinspirationbytheKhalsafor centuries.Toliveandpractisetheseethicalcommands,totheletter,becamethesoleaimofmy

religiousandspirituallife.Tome,tostrictlyadopttheseprinciplesoftheKhalsacodeofconduct wastheonlypathofliberation.AfteracquiringthisspiritualbirthintheHolyOrderoftheKhalsa,I vowedtomaintainthepurityandsublimityofthismiraculousspiritualbirth.WhenIcamehome afterbaptism,everybodyfeltthattherewasadistinctchangeinme,andeveryonewassurprised atthechange.TherestofmyfamilyhadnotyetenteredthespirituallifeoftheKhalsaHolyOrder. Imadeupmymindnottotakeanyfoodfromthehandsofthosewhohadnotbeenbaptized.My wifehadgonetoherpaternalhome.Soshefailedtojoinmeinbaptism.Arrangementsforher baptismhadtobemadeonlywhenshecame.Icouldnotaskmyfatherandmothertogoinfor baptism.SoIstartedcookingmyownfood.AllmylifeIhadnevercookedanyfood.Whenevery onesawmetakingsuchkeeninterestandhavingsuchorthodoxattitudetowardsspirituallifemy parentsandothermembersofthefamilyfeltnaturallyinclinedtobebaptisedpartlythrough personalattachmentandpartlythroughthenewinspiration.Sowithinamonthallthemembers ofthefamilyincludingmywifewhohadcomebackfromherparent'shomewerebaptised.Earlier ourmarriageceremonyhadbeenperformedaccordingtoVedicrites.Nowwewereremarried accordingtoSikhritesafterherbaptism. InHolyAssociation ThewholefamilyhadnowbeenreformedaccordingtoSikhidealsandeveryonestartedleadinga religiouslife.Itwasaspirituallydetachedhouseholder'slifeinwhichweallenjoyedboththebliss ofdivineunionandthejoysofearthlylife.Wespentmostofthetimeinassociationwithholy people.WehadourownKirtanJatha(Hymnsingergroup).Manyfamiliesnowacceptedbaptism butveryfewadoptedtheorthodoxwayofviveka(Bibek)ideal(puritanideal).Wewentfrom villagetovillageperformingkirtanandpreachingfaithandwealsowenttolargereligious gatherings.Everywherewetriedtoenjoythedivinekirtan.WhereverfoodintheGuru'skitchen (langar)waspreparedbyunbaptisedpeoplethere,ourJathacookedourownfoodandspent mostofthetimelisteningtothedivinekirtan.Manyreligiousgatheringswereheldinourvillage homeatNarangwal.Manypeoplewerebaptized,thoughfewlivedanideallife.Whereverthere wasreligiousgatheringwereceivedaninvitation.AsfarasIknowwedidnotmissanyoftheholy gatheringsduringthesedays.Sometimeswewalkedfromtwentytothirtymilestoreachsuchholy gatherings.Itisaverylongstory.Ifyouwantsomedetailsofthisperiodyoucanaskanumberof otherfriends.InafewwordsImaysaythatthisperiodpassedinblissfulassociationwithreligious peopletillthetimecamewhenIhadtogotoAbbottabad.

CHAPTER4SEARCHFORTHEMYSTICWORD(NAM) THEREWASANintenseandpassionatelonginginmymindtobeinitiatedintotheHolyOrderof theKhalsa,evenbeforeIwasactuallyblessedwiththebaptismalnectar(Amrit).Ihad,aftera closestudy,developedadeepunderstandingandreverenceforthereligiousprinciplesofSikh philosophy.IdidnotconsiderthebaptismofGuruGobindSinghtobemerelyareligiousriteor ceremonywithoutanyspiritualsignificance.Ireallythoughtthatitwouldopentheportalsofmy soulandintroducemetothehigheststateofspirituallifeandevengivemeaglimpseofthelight ofGod.IfirmlybelievedthatifthePanjPyaras(theFiveElectoftheKhalsaHolyOrder),who preparetheAmritareidealSikhs,andifthenovicewhoreceivestheAmrit(thebaptism)is mentally,andspirituallypreparedforit,thebaptismworksthemiracleofatonceintroducingthe initiatetohigherspirituallife. EvenbeforetakingtheAmrit(baptism)Ihadbeenblessedthreetimeswithsuchspiritual experienceswhichhadindeeddeepenedmyfaith.SolikeanIndianmaid,eagerlywaitingforher weddingday,Iwasanxiouslywaitingforthesacredmoment.OhowIlongedforthesacred momentwhenIwouldbeHisBride.Itwaspossiblethattheweddingdaywouldalsobethedayof spiritualunionwiththeLord. OnthelongwaitedauspiciousdayofbaptismceremonyIwashappytoseethateverythingwas conductedwell.ButevenbeforetheAmrit(baptismalwaterpreparedwithdoubleedgedsword byrecitingfivecompositionsoftheGurusonit)wasdulyadministered,anoutsiderwhowas neitheroneofthePanjPyaras(theFiveElect)northeGranthi(thepriest),utteredintoourearsa (mantram)divinename.ThisactoftheintruderdisturbedmymindandsoulconsiderablyandI believedthatthismethodofimpartingthedivineName(Gurmantra)byaman,whothendidnot representtheGuru,wasagainsttheestablishedspiritualtraditionandLaw.Theresultwasthatmy mindandsoulcouldnotimbibetherealinspirationoftheDivineName. However,whenthePanjPyarasadministeredtheAmrit(thebaptism),therewasadramatic changeinmyinnerlife.Ifeltthespiritualrebirth.Thepastseemedtobedeadandforgotten.At themomentofinitiationIdidnothaveanyhighermysticexperiences,nordidIhavethemuch desiredglimpseofHisLight.NeverthelesswholecodeofreligiousandsocialconductfixedbyGuru GobindSinghforanidealKhalsabecamedeeplyrootedinmymindandsoulandwaspermanently engravedonthetabletofmyheart. Gurbani(SacredHymns)andDivineName AfterthebaptismIexperiencedauniquejoyandbetterunderstandingofthedailyprayers:Japji, AnandSahibandSukhmaniwhichIhadmemorisedbeforetheinitiation.Dayandnightthe recitationoftheseprayersbecamemysolepreoccupationandsustenance.Ihadalreadygivenup governmentservicewhichIconsideredharmfultospiritualfreedom.IbelievedGurbani(the sacredhymns)tobedifferentfromdivineName.AsamatteroffactIbelievedthattheGuru'sVani (hymns)weresymbolicofthedivineName. TherecitationofGurbani(thesacredhymns)andthecontinuousmeditativerepetitionof Sukhmanibroughtexaltationinmythoughtsandspiritualunderstanding.Inowbegantofeelthat thedivineNamewassomemysticWord,quiteapartfromGurbanianditwaspossibletorepeatit witheverybreath.IalsofeltthatGodcouldbeattainedonlythroughthedivineName,andto attainHimwasthemainobjectofmylife,asaSikh.Iwasalsoconvinced,thatinSikhism,there

wasonlyonedistinctmysticName.ButinthesacredhymnsoftheGuruGranthIfoundmany NamesofGod:(Ram,Hari,Govind,Allahetc.).YetIcouldnotmakeoutwhichnamewasthe mysticWord,essentialforthecontemplativelifeoftheKhalsa.Ibegantosearchit.Inmymind wasaninnocentfaiththattheGuruGranthSahibwillrevealittome.WhobesidestheLordcould revealitandinspiremewithit?SeekingtheaidoftheLord,Iturnedallmythoughtstoit.My thirstfortheknowledgeofdivineNamebecamedeepandpoignant.Irecitedtheprayers,sangthe sacredsongs,soughtholycompanyandlivedinanunbrokencommunionwiththeeternalSpirit. Gurbani(HymnsofGuruGranthSahib)wasmyspiritualfoodandthesolesustenanceofmylife.To jointhecongregationalsinging(Kirtanmandal)andseektheholygatherings(satsang)becomea dominantpassion.Ididnotfeelinclinedtobeseparatedfromthisspiritualcommunionevenfora moment.TheeagernesstoknowthemysticNameandhavearealvisionofthedivineLight increaseddaybyday. DuringthesedayspreparationswereafootathometosendmetoAbbottabad(nowinPakistan) onaGovernmentpost.Iwasnotwillingtogo.ButmyfriendslikeBhaiInderSinghLambardarof MehmanSinghWalaaddressedmeinthepresenceofGuruGranthSahib,andpersuadedmeto acceptitasthecommandofthecongregation(sangat).Irequestedthemtoprayformeandget theblessings.Afteracongregationalprayer,theHolyGranthSahibwasopenedandthefirsthymn ontheleft,pagewasacceptedastheGuru'scommand(thiscustomofseekingguidancefromthe scripturesprevailsamongstChristiansandMuslimsalso).Thiswasthehymn: Thedeadhasbeenrevivedthroughspiritualbreath, TheseparatedsoulhasbeenunitedwithHim. Amind,foolish,dumb,beastlyandsatanicisawakened MylipsvibratewiththesongofHisName. Lo,suchisthegloryoftheperfectGuru, Hecanneverbeevaluated(Refrain). Sorrowandsicknessofthesoulisuprooted. Itabidesnowinblissandglorification. Unawares,IhavegotallIdesired. Allmywisheshavebeenfulfilled. Hereintheworldthereishappinessforthee Inthenextworldyourfacewillshineinpristineglory. Thecycleofbirthanddeathhasended. WithHisName,intheheart,themindhasbecomefearless. TheTrueGuruispleasedwiththee, SittingorstandingthousingestHisName, Thysorrow,sufferinganddoubtsaredispelled. SaysNanak:TheywhosemindisattachedtoHisfeet,aremenofperfectdeeds. GuruArjan:RagSorath,p.624 Onhearingthisdivinecommand(hukam)amysterioushopethatwhereverIgotheGuruandthe sangatwillbetheretoguideandinspireme,filledmyheart.AstheGurusays"WhereverThou seatestme,therewillIsitOLord,whereverThousendestme,therewillIgo".Sowasmymind attunedtothewishesoftheSadhSangat(congregation).IaccepteditasthewillofGod. BhaiRurSingh,ayoungman,wassentwithmeasmycook.Theseparationfromdivine companionswasverypainful.BytheircommandIwasleaving.ThroughoutthejourneyIsatin

speechlesspensivemoodanddidnoteatordrinkanything.Idonotknowwithinhowmanyhours wereachedourdestination. IgotdownattheHasanAbdalstationfromwherethehistoricPanjaSahib(theplacewhereGuru NanakcalmedthedestructiveegoismoftheMuslimPirWaliKandhari)couldbeseen.Itookmy bathinthepondofpurity.ThenIpaidhomagetothesacredplace.IbowedtotheGuruGranth SahibandsoughttheblessingsofthelivingspiritoftheGuru.Idonotrememberthehymnwhich wasreadasthevoiceoftheGurubutitwasveryinspiringandencouraging.Afterseekingthe blessingsoftheGuru,IwenttoAbbottabadonatonga.Onreachingtheplacethesightofthe beautifulscenerythrilledme.Abbottabadwaswonderfullyencircledbyimposinghills.Allround therewerelovelyhills,whosecoolinginfluencehadaveryelevatinginfluenceonmymind.Asa matteroffact,Ihadseenahillstationforthefirsttime.BythegraceofGodIgotasmallresidence justoppositetwoSikhtempleswhichwereknownasDharmsalas(AbodesofFaith).Iwasgrateful totheGuruforkeepingmeatHisfeeteveninthatdistantland.EverynowandthenIrecited Gurbaniandletmymindandsouldelvedeepintoit. AlthoughmostofthepeopleinAbbottabadwereSahajdharis(unbaptisedSikhs),yettheir devotionwasexemplaryandimpressedmedeeply.Beforetheybegantheirday'sworkthey alwaysvisitedthetemple,paidhomagetotheLordandlistenedtotheSacredWord.Fromthe earlyhoursofthemorninguptonineo'clock,onecouldseethempouringin,likeastreamof devotion,readingturnbyturnapassagefromtheGuruGranthSahib.Thesamethinghappenedin theeveningafter3p.m. Ifeltalittlealientothewaysandmannersofthepeopleofthisareaandwasshytomixwiththem andbefreewiththem.AlthoughtherewashardlyanyonewhohadtheSikhformorfollowedthe codeoftheKhalsa,yettheywereextremelylovableandimpressedmegreatlybytheirgenuine devotion.OnSundays,therewerespecialservicesinthemorningandlecturesandsermonswere deliveredintheevening. YetIfeltalittlealoofandtornfrommyintimatefriendsandcompanions.Thelovelysceneryall aroundintensifiedmyaloofnessandlonelinesscausedbyseparationoffriendsandinspiredme withinnersolitude.Thesearchforinnerlightbecameatenderpassion,andecstaticrestlessness attimesbecameuncontrollable.ThentearswouldflowdownmyeyesandIburstintoasong. Iwenttotheofficeandworkedthereasifcompelledbyduty. Afterofficehours,Iattendedtheeveningservicesatthetemple.Toavoidbeingnoticed,I wrappedmyselfinablanketandsatfarbehindeveryoneindeepcontemplation,tilltheclosing prayerswereended.Sometimes,IsatthereallalonetillBhaiRurSinghcameandcompelledmeto havesomesupper. Intheoffice,Iworkedforaboutfourhourscontinuouslyandthenthehauntingbeautyofthehills attractedmesomuchthatIrestlesslywanderedalloverthehillswherethesolitudeofthecool valleysthrilledmetothedepthsofmysoul.Mysearchingthoughts,myaspiringfeelingssoared likearestlessbirdintotheunknown,forgettingeverythingelseandseekinganswertooneand onlyonequestion:"WhatisthedivineName,themysticWordthatmustbecontemplatedbya Sikh?"Icouldeatverylittleandhadverylittlesleep.Igenerallygotupataboutoneo'clockinthat coldseason,tookmybathwithcoldwater.Ikeptabucketofwaterinside,asitwasverydifficult togetitinthemorningwhenhandsbecamenumbwithcold.Afterthebath,whichIenjoyedvery much,Isatforprayerandmeditationtilldaybreak.UntildawnIrecitedallprayerswitha

passionatedevotionbuttheignoranceofthedivineNamecreatedavoidinmyheart.AsGuru Nanak'sbirthdaydrewnearerthisthirsttoknowthedivineNamebecameacuter. Allthesavingsfrommypaywerespentonsomeortheothercharitablework.Afterkeeping moneynecessaryforourfoodeverythingwasgivenaway.Ihadsufficientclothes.Ididnotrequire anyfurniture,noteventhecot.BoththeservantandIsleptonthefloorandwedidnothaveto spendonanythingexceptsimplefoodandtherentofthehouse.AfewdayslaterIreceiveda weeklymagazineandtworeligioustracts.Allthesecontainedinspiringreligiousarticleswhich deepenedmythirstandsearchforthedivineNamebecausethesearticlesemphasisedtheneedof divineNameandcharity.IinvokedtheGuruforthesegifts,throughprayer.Aftereveningservices, IstartedprayingtoGodforthegiftofdivineName.Prayerbecameafountainoffaithforme.In prayerIfeltanunknownpowerguidingmeandelevatingme.TearsfloweddownmyeyesasI recitedtheseprayers.Theywerethetearsofloveandtearsofpassionatethirstfortheknowledge andexperienceofthedivineName.ThecalltotheGurutorevealthedivineNamebecamea passionatecryofthesoul.Onedaysomeonewhisperedthesewordsinmyears:"Risemychild, yourtrueGuru,theGuruGranthSahibwillrevealtoyou,theLightoftheMysticWord,whichyou seek."Ididnotknowwhoitwasthatutteredthesewordsinmyears.Whetheritwasthevoiceof theUnknownfromwithinorfromwithout,Icouldhardlyguess.Somethingshookme.Iwas consciousofmynormalsurroundingsagain.InawakingstateIwasabsorbedinprayer.Amoment laterIburstintothissongofGuruArjanDevJi: IamsetapartfromThee, Asaresultofmyownpastdeeds; ThroughThyunboundedmercy Lord,uniteme,againwithThee. Wearyofwanderingendlessly, North,South,WestandEast IhavecometoThysanctuary; Acowthatgivesnomilkisofnouse; Withoutwatertheplantshrivelsandbearsnofruit, IfImeetnotmyFriendandBeloved HowcanIfindpeaceandrest? Aburningfurnaceisthehamlet WheretheLordcomesnot. Transientisallornamentation, Likethesmearingofthelipswithbetelleaves, Shortlivediseventhebody, UnlesstheBelovedfrienddwellsinus, Ourcompanionsanddearonesarelikedemons, Nanakthusprayeth; ThroughThymercygrantmeThyHolyName, UnitemewiththeBelovedLordWhoseabodeiseternal. GuruArjan:"Baramaha"p.133. ForthefirsttimeIunderstoodtherealmeaningofthisimportanthymnandfeltthepoignantpain ofseparationaswellasspiritualblissinmyheart.Myachingsorrow(vairagya)wasatitspitch.On hearingmesingingsuchaplaintivesong,BhaiRurSinghalsocameintotheroom.BhaiRurSingh knewagooddealaboutRagas(musicalmodes)andforhourswesangthehymninmovingstrains. Thelastlines,"Nanakprayeth,throughThymercygrantmeThyName"wastheburthenofour

Song.Itwastheinnervoiceofmysearchandmymindandsoulbecamedeeplyabsorbedinits deepermeaning.MywholebeingbecamealivingsymbolofthisprayerfulsongandIfeltthat thesetwolineswereparticularlywrittenbythegreatGurutodescribeandexplaintheinner conditionofmysoulatthatmoment."ThroughThygracegrantmeThyholyName,anduniteme withtheBeloved"weretwopassionateappealswhichtheLordappearedtohavewrittenonlyfor me.LiketheeverthirstyChatrikbirdIwasrepeatingthelastlinesagainandagain:"ThroughThy mercygrantmeThyholyName".Thiscrypouredforthinpatheticstrainsfrommywholebeing.I justcouldnotgiveupitssweetandsoulstirringrepetition.ThehopegivenbytheunknownVoice hadalreadymadeadeepimpressiononmysoulgroundedinfaith.ThemoreIprayed,themoreI feltthatthegreatmomentwascoming. BhaiRurSinghtookmetothebathroom.AfterthebathIfeltstrangepeaceandpoise.Irecited themorningprayers.BythetimeIwasrecitingtheSukhmani,mymindwasinastateof undisturbedbliss.Therewasboundlesspeace,faithandloveinmyheart.Theineffablejoyand faithwasbeyondexpression.Mywholebeingwasthrilledwiththejoyofgreatexpectation.Ten minutesbeforetheopeningofthetempleIgotreadytoleaveforthetemple.Iputonthewooden slippersandmovedontowardstheGurdwara. WhilegoingtotheGurdwaraImadeaprayerfulvowtoacceptthatholyWordasmysticName, whichwasindicatedbythefirsthymnreadfromtheGuruGranthSahibinthetempleonthatday. IwouldacceptitastheGuru'sWord,andadoptitforspiritualpracticeandcontemplation.A numberofNamesareusedintheHolyGuruGranthSahib.OutofthemIdecidedtoaccepttheone whichwasindicatedbythefirsthymnwhichIhappentohearorreadwhenIwenttothetemple. AllotherNamesmentionedintheGuruGranthSahibwouldbeacceptedastheattributiveNames (KritamNam).IfhowevertherewasanyindicationofthepopularlyknownDivineName"Vah Guru,"throughsuchwordsas:"GuruorVahVah"wouldacceptthisHolyWordastheMystic NameoftheLord.Eveniftherewassuchahintintheverse:Repeat"GuruGuru"thenitwould mean"VahGuru".WithsucharesolveImovedonswiftlytowardsthetemple(Inthefirstedition ofthePunjabiTextthiswaspublishedasprisonletterNo1.ItwaswrittenbyBhaiSahibRandhir SinghonMarch24,1922fromRajahmundryPrisonAndhraState(thenMadrasPresidency))

CHAPTER5ILLUMINATIONOFDIVINENAME (LetterNo.2March30,1922) ASIREACHEDtheprecinctsofthetemple,mystepsbecamesteadyandslow.Iheardamusical voicerecitingthehymns,whichthrilledmebutthewordswerenotclear.Iwassurprisedthatthe recitationfromtheGuruGranthSahibhadbegunmuchearlier.Iwonderedwhowasinthetemple soearlyrecitingthehymnsinsuchmelodiousandmovingstrains.AssoonasIenteredthetemple andbowedbeforetheGuruGranthSahibinreverentialhomage,thesewordswerebeingrecited. vemuhtajaveparvah NanakDaskahoGurvah CarefreeandunconcernedistheLord SayethNanak,repeatVahGuru. ThelastwordVahGuruhadamagneticeffect,onmymind.Everynerve,everyporeofmybody wasimbuedwiththethrillingmusicofthemysticwordVahGuru.ItappearedsomeUnstruck MusichadkeyedupmysoultothemelodyofthisWord.Everyhaironmybodywasnowatongue whichrepeatedthisName.Iwasthenatthedoorofthetemplehall.Someunknownpower pushedmeinaninstantandIwaslyingprostratebeforetheGuruGranthSahibthenextmoment. Thevoicewhichwasrecitingthehymnswasheardnomore.Istoodupandwithfoldedhands greetedtheHolyPresence.TomygreatsurpriseIsawsomeunseenhandwavingthechowriover theGuruGranthSahibandjustbelowthecanopythereflashedforthagleamofLightforming itselfintothedivineWordVahGuruandmovinginspacethroughoutthetemple. Mytenderdevotionandfaithwerenowtransmutedintoloveandmylovewasnowalivingfaith. TherewasnooneinthetempleexcepttheGuruGranthSahibandmyself.Icouldneitherseethe mannorthehandthatwavedthechowri.Thisstrangevisionraisedmyspiritandfaithtothe heightsofsublimity.WithmyhandsfoldedandheadloweredIstoodthereinutterhumility.I performedcircumambulationsofGuruGranthSahibinutterreverence.Thepriest(Granthi)ofthe templecameinatthismoment.Icoveredmyheadwiththeblanketandoutofshyness,veiledmy facealso,asIsatbeforetheGuruGranthSahib."Whohasperformedtheopeningserviceofthe GuruGranthSahib,didyou?"heasked.Igazedathimbutcouldnotgiveareply.Butnowthe wavingofthechowribyanUnseenHandcouldnotbeseen.Thosewordsoflightthatshimmered inspacealsocouldnotbeseen.TheGranthi'syoungerbrother,whowasaverydevoutsoul,came in.TheGranthiaskedhimifhehadperformedtheopeningserviceoftheGuruGranthSahib.He said"No".Idonotknowwhattheythoughtorguessed. ThentheGranthiopenedtheHolyGranthtoreadaverse.Istoodbehindhimtoseethehymnhe wasreading.IwasamazedtofindthesamehymnwhichhadenteredmyearswhenIcametothe temple.Iagainprostratedmyselfinhumblethanksgivinghomagebeforethe"WordofGod". TheGranthi'sbrotherwassurprisedtoseemeinsuchecstaticcondition.Hecametomeand askedmeinapathetictone,"Whyareyouinsuchastateofmind"."Prayformeandthenopen theHolyGranthtoseekthedivineCommand,"Isaid."Iwilloffertheprayer",hereplied,"andyou canseekthedivinecommand."IaskedhimtorevealthedivinecommandbyreopeningtheHoly Granth,andIwouldstandbehindhimandreadit.Tothisheagreed.Hefirstperformedtheardasa (Invocationprayer)withgreatfervourandthenopenedtheHolyGranth."Thefirstpassageonthe lefthandpagewastobeacceptedasthedivinecommand."Thiswastheverse.

UtteringVah(Guru)Vah(Guru) ThetongueissweetenedwiththeWord. ThroughthisPerfectWordGodmeetsman. TheBlessedOne'sareinspiredtoutter Vah(Guru),Vah(Guru) BeauteousaretheywhosayVah!Vah! (Wonderous!Wonderous!artthou)PeoplecometoworshipthemThroughHisgrace IstheMysticWordVah(Guru)attained, SayethNanak,BlessedaretheyAtthedooroftheTrueOne. GuruAmarDas:VarGujri:p.514. AfterreadingthispassagethemysticWordwassealedonmytongue.IhadnodoubtthatGodin HismercywillrevealHimselftomesoonerorlater.ThustheGuruGranthSahib,myeternal Teacher,revealedtomethemostprecioussecretoftheDivineName.TheGuruthusplacedthe preciouspearlofDivineNameonthepalmofmyhand. Ireadrestofthehymnandlearntmuchmoreaboutthespiritualsignificanceandmysteryofthe DivineNamewhichcanbesummedbrieflythus:"GodglorifiesHimselfthroughthemysticWord VahGuruandthroughthiswordHerevealsHimself."Ifurtherrealisedthatthiswasthetrue praiseoftheLordaboutwhichIreadintheJapji.ThroughthemysticWord,VahGuru,thetrue Onecanbeattained. DeeperExperienceofdivineName IwasnowconvincedthatthisglorificationorpraiseoftheLordwouldleadonetotruespiritual union.IwastemptedtoreadtheGuruGranthSahibfurtheron.Thehymnsthatfollowedrevealed thegreatnessofglorifyingGodthroughHisName."Thiswasindeedthepathofeternalblissand spiritualcommunionwiththeLord".Thiswasthediscipline,whichwouldinspirethemindwiththe WillofGod. FurtheronitwasclearthatthemysticNamewasthesymbolofTruth,whichtheEnlightened sages,gurmukhs,canattain.ItwasalsoclearthatthismysticNamecouldbecontemplatedin manyways: 1.Withthetongue. 2.Withthebreathandmind. 3.Withinnerconsciousnessbykeepingthepranasakti(vitalbreath)controlledinthenaval. Byeverymethodonecouldattainthehighestspiritualstate.Thishymnexplainedtheimportance andspiritualimportofthedivineName. PraisetheOneGod UtteringVahGuru:thedivineWord WhichtheGuruhasrevealed. ThesublimespiritualstateofthosewhocontemplateHisName,isthendescribed.Andyetthe hymnmadeitclearthatonlythosepeoplecancontemplatethedivineNametowhomitsspiritual significanceisrevealedbytheLord,andbycontemplatingtheNameallthedirtofegoismis removedfromthesoul.ThemysticpoweroftheWord,thegreatness,purityandspiritualbeauty ofthosewhomeditateonHisName,thesolaceoftheircompany,wereallmadeclearbythis

hymn.Tocontemplatethenamethroughspeech,breathandconsciousnessanddedicatethe body,mindandsoultothedivineTeacherwereallexplainedinthisverse.Theninthenextverseit wasmadeclearthatthedivineNameandtheLordwhoisNamedareone.Itsimmortalisingeffect anditsrichreward,particularlythatoftherealizationofGodisstatedintheclosingverseofthis hymn.Nowitwasclear,thataSikh,topleasetheGuru,mustsingthegloryofGodwithasingle mindeddevotion.Thefearofdeathwillthendepartandallthatavirtuousminddesiresis achieved. Allmydoubtsaboutthemysticnameweredispelled.IwasconvincedaboutrealdivineNameto becontemplatedinSikhFaith.Thelastlineofthehymnsuggestedthatthismeditationofthe presenceofGodthroughHisNamewastobepractiseddayandnight.Ihadattainedthe experienceofthemysticName.IwasnowanxioustoattaintheNamedOne,thatisGodHimself. Iwasnowdeterminedtotreadthepathofrealization.ThewilltoseeHisLightandpresencewas nowstrongerthanever.Ifeltthatcourage,fortitudeandthewilltoachieveHisPresencehad becomeapartofmyself.Atthetimeofmyleavingthetemplethefollowingversewasbeingread; Leadthou,alifeofspiritualeffort, Earnthylivingandbehappy; Throughcontemplationmeet,theLord, Thus,ONanak,willalldoubtanddespairdepart. GuruArjan:VarGujrip.522. Allmydoubtshadvanished.Allthewaveringofmindhadended.Icannotactuallyexpressthe revelationoftheinnermeaningofthesacredhymnwhichIexperienced.Itisstilldeeply impressedonmymindandsoul.IwashappythattheDivineNamewasrevealedtome.Iwas happythatGodhadblessedmewiththegreatergift.InowsoughtsolitudeinwhichIcould contemplatetheNameandpracticethepresenceofGod.Inmyhearttherewascontinuously goingonaneffortlessrepetitionoftheMysticName,Ihadjustattained.Witheverybreath,the drumbeatoftheDivineNamewasringinginmysoul.WhereverIwentthismiraculous phenomenoncontinued.Itappearedmyheartandsoulwerekeyeduptothissempiternalsinging oftheDivineName. YettherewasunboundedthirsttoknowthemysteryoftheInfinite.Iwenttotheofficeforsome timeandcompletedmyday'sworkasamatterofformalduty.Icamehomeatnoon.Ihadnot takenanyfoodordrinktillthennorwasinclinedtoeatanything.WithouttakingmealsIwentinto myroom.IaskedRurSinghtotakehisfoodandnotwaitformeasIwasnotfeelinglikeeating anything.BhaiRurSinghfollowedme.Hewaslookingatmehelplesslyandurgingmetoeat something.Icouldseehissadandpitiablelookanddisappointment.SoIpolitelytoldhimthatI didnotfeelhungryandwentoutagain.Iaskedhimtotakehisfoodandnottofollowme.The greenhillsandvalleyswhichpresentedbeautifulnaturallandscape,theenchantingandsoul stirringsightsofnatureandtheinfinitebeautyoftheCreatorthrilledmywholeinnerselfandthe effortlessrepetitionofthedivineNamewhichwasgoingoninanundisturbedstateofmindwent onwithadeeperconcentrationandabsorptionofmind. IdidnotknowthedifferentmethodsofcontemplatingthedivineName.Ihadnotlearntthe varioustechniquesofthisspiritualpracticefromanyone.AllIwaseagertoknowwastohavea glimpseoftheBeloved.ItwasthisburningpassiontohaveavisionofHisLightthatimpelledand arousedmywaveringthoughtsandfeelingstosublimespiritualheightsandthestraightpath.

Ihadcometotheplaceatabout3p.m.Nowthesunwasabouttoset,RurSinghfoundmeout whendarknesswasabouttofall.ItwasjustthetimeforRehras(Eveningprayer).RurSinghwas recitingthisprayerwhenhecameandstoodbeforeme.Hewasrecitingtheselines. Thouseparatest Thouunitest. GuruRamDas:Rehras Theselinessoundedinmyearsasthesweetest,theloveliestandthebest.Hispresencealso remindedmethatitwastimeforeveningprayer.IaskedBhaiRurSinghtorecitetheevening prayeralloveragain.Asherecitedit,Ifeltagreatjoyandpeace.Newinspirationandjoyseemed topourintocarryonthespiritualpracticeofrepeatingtheNamethatwasceaselesslygoingon. AftertheprayerBhaiRurSinghpersuadedmetogohome.AssoonasIhadclimbedthestairsof myhouseIhurriedlywentinandshutmyselfupinaroomandstartedtherepetitionofthemystic Name.ThedivineNamewas,strungtomyverybreath.Allthedoubtsanddelusionsandallthe anxietieshaddisappeared.Therewasbutonedeeplonging. IthirstforThyvisionalone Ilikenotanythingelse. GuruArjan:Asap.407. Thispoignantthirstbecamedeeperanddeeperandmyconcentrationonthemystic contemplationoftheNameincreased.Mymindwasnowfreefromcriticalreflectionsanddoubts. IcontinuedtherepetitionofthedivineName.Iwasnotdisturbedbyfatigueoranywavering thoughts.ManywaysofperformingthespiritualpracticeoftheNamespontaneouslyoccurredto me.Iwentonwiththepracticeinnumberofways.Witheveryupwardanddownwardbreatha newmethodandanewmodeofspiritualpracticeappearedintuitivelyinmyconsciousness. WheneveralittlephysicalfatiguewasfeltIusedtheironbeadsforthespiritualpractice.This determinedrepetitionoftheNamewiththeironrosarywasofgreathelptome.Mymindwas strungintodeepconcentrationbyit.Allfatigueandlassitudedisappeared.Theironrosary transmittedalightningpowertomyinnerselfandinspiredunbrokenrepetitionofthedivine Name.Itwentonforsometimeandthentherewasasuddenillumination.Peaceandsilence reignedwithinmywholebeing. ISeeMyownRealSelf Mysoul(atman)appearednowtobequitedistinctandapartfrommybody.ThenIlost consciousnessofthebodycompletely.ThemusicofthemysticNamerangthroughmywholeself. IfIdonothaveears,howdoIhear,Ithought.ThenextmomentIsawinthefullblazeofhigh consciousnessmyownrealSelf.Withitcamethevisualrealizationofthefact,"Iam"andIamthe Atman(Soul). Ifelt,sublimewondermentandspiritualexaltationonseeingmyrealSelf,myAtman.Butthisjoy ofseeingmySelfdidnotlastlong.Itwasovertakenbymedeeperandmorepassionatethirstto seeGod.ThemererealizationofmyownSelfdidnotsatisfymeforlong.Myunquenchablethirst toseethelightofGod,myyearningtohaveavisionoftheInfiniteLordoncemorebecamemy primethought.

CHAPTER6THEVISIONOFGOD (LetterNo.3,March30,1922) MYHOPEOFhavingavisionofGodbegantorecede.Ididnotfeelquiteworthyofit.Thismade medespondentandsadbuteveninthispassionatestate,thecontinuousrepetitionofthedivine Namewenton.ThefirmdeterminationtoseetheLightofGodthatverynightwasshattered.With theseshatteredhopesalsobrokedownmysamadhiandasana(sittingposture).Ilayflatonmy bed,yetmyhandspassedthebeadsandmytonguemovedincontinuousrepetitionofHisName. Themindremainedinperpetualcontemplation.MyhopesofseeingdivineLightweredimmed. Onlyashortperiodelapsedinthispessimisticmood.Suddenlyandunexpectedlytherewasan illuminationofdazzlingLightwithinmywholebeing.Icouldnowexperiencethatsplendorous coolinglightfacetofaceandyetIcouldnotendureitsdazzlingsplendour.Icriedoutlikeaperson overwhelmedbyanoverpoweringexperience.Ibecameaslightasaflower.Astrangeand unbearablesweetblazinglightbegantoshimmerwithallitssplendourwithinmeandoutsideme. Thenextmoment,IsawtheLightpervadingthewholeatmosphere.Myeyeswereclosed.My handswereclasped.BytheforceofsomeunseenPowerIwaslifteduptillItouchedtheroof.I prayedtoGod,"Lord,helpmetoendurethisunbearableexperience".Withinatwinklingofaneye Iwaslyingonthefloor.Itouchedtheflooraslightlyasaballoonanddidnotfeelhurt;Ihadjust beenliftedupasamangoesupinaswingandhadthencomedowninabackswing. Itnowappearedtomethatmybodywaslikeaspiritualcouchinwhichmysoul(atman)was meetingtheBelovedLordwhichwasalldivineLight.Thisuniongavesuchjoyandbliss,thatIcould neitherbearitnorleaveit.Althoughmyeyeswereclosed,IcouldseethesplendorousLightofHis Presencewithinmeandoutsideme.Inowacquiredawonderfulinnerspiritualvisionandstrange innereyes.Thiswonderfulexperiencewasalmostunbearable.Itriedtostoptherepetitionofthe divineNamehopingthatbydoingsoImayberelievedalittleofthisoverwhelmingexperience. EventherepetitionoftheNamehadnowbecomeaspontaneousspiritualcontemplation.Itdid notstopevenwhenImadeanefforttodoso.Witheverybreaththismiraculousrepetitionwent ongivingpeculiarjoyandinnerexaltation.Ittookmanyformsandmanyspiritualwaysof expression.ThemoreIgavemymindtoitthemoreabsorbingbecametheexperience.Myheart wasaglowwithradianceandbathedinLight.Ifeltaslightasathingthatcouldfly.Itwaswith difficultyIacquiredacontrolofthisspiritualstate. Godwasnowresplendentlyrevealedwithinmyinnerself.ItriedtoreturnmyloveforHis boundlessgraceandbeneficencethroughprayer,songs,andsupplicationtotheBelovedwhowas nowmanifestasKnowledgeandLightinperfectrevelation.IgaveHimthemostsanctifiedseatin myheart.IexpectedthatHewouldcometomyroomfromtheUnknownandrevealHimself outsidemyself.IdidnotintheleastexpectthatmystrangeBeloved,myLordGodwithHis unfathomablepowers,wouldmiraculouslyappearwithinmyownself,andrevealHimselfonthe altarofmyheart. Ah,blessedwasallmysearchonthenight.IcouldseeaseaofdivineLightfloodingwithinmeand outsidemeinshimmeringresplendence.IwasabletoendurethisunendurableLightonlyby prayerfulutterancesfromGurbani(sacredHymns)whichstrengthenedmymindandsoulby seekinggraceandstrength.ThemoreIwasabsorbedinit,themorewonderfulandsublimely dazzlingspiritualphenomenonwereseenbymyinnereyes(divdristi)whichcannotbeexpressed inthelanguageofourphysicalandearthlyworld.

IwouldnotnowseetheroofandthewallsoftheroominwhichIwassitting.Rightthroughthe skyIcouldseespacebeyondspace,allcrystalclearandbathedinpurity.Thewholeofthe universewasfilledwithIncomprehensibleLightwhichwaspenetratingmeandenfoldingme.The musicofHisdivinePresencefilledmyheartwithblissfuljoy.Icouldseeallthisclearlyandvisibly inawideawakecondition,buttherelurkedafaintdoubtwhetherIsawandexperiencedallthisin myphysicalexistence.Twothoughtsvaguelylingeredinmymind.OnepossibilitywasthatIhad abandonedmybodyandwasnowexperiencingandseeingthespiritualrealmsthroughanastral body.TheotherpossibilitywasthatIwasseeingallthisinadreamconsciousstate. Iactuallyfeltthatthewholevisionwasapersonalexperienceinawakenedstate,butIwondered howamanlikemecouldbeblessedwithsuchwonderfulexperience.Howcouldsuchagreatgift bebestowedonme?Suchboundlessgraceonasinnerlikemewasunthinkable.Ididnotpossess anysuchmoralorspiritualqualitywithwhichIcouldpleasetheLord.Thesenseofmyown insignificanceasadevoteemademefeelthatallthevisionofHisLightwasnotthefruitofspiritual effortinthislifebutwasprobablyadreamvisionofsomepreviouslifeinsomeotherrealm. Nevertheless,whateverIsawwasanineffableexperiencewhichgavemethehighestbliss.I abandonedmyselftoit,andforamoment,gaveupallfaintlydisturbingthoughts.Atthistime BhaiRurSinghknockedatthedoorandIheardhimsayingthatitwas2A.M.andtimeformeto takebathandsayprayers.OnhearinghisvoiceIwasconvincedthatIwasnotdeadandmybody wasunchanged.ThenextmomenttherelingeredadoubtthatImaybehearingthevoiceofBhai RurSinghinadreamonly.ThedoubtaboutdeathwasdispelledbutthethoughtthatImaybeina dreamconsciousstatestilllingeredoninmymind. IopenedthedoorandwhenIcameoutBhaiRurSinghgreetedme.Idiscernedhispresence clearlybutstillIthoughtthatIwastalkingtohiminadream.Iasked,BhaiRurSingh:"Arewe talkinginadream.Areyoualsoseeingadream?"Considerablysurprisedatmyquestionhe replied,"NoBhaiSahib,whatstrangethingsareyouutteringtoday?Itistimeforyourbath." WhenIwenttothebathroom,Isawtheusualthingsthere.MystepsfalteredbutsomehowI controlledmyselfwitheffort.Thewholeofmyinnerbeingwasinwardlydrawnandimbuedwith theindescribableexperiencesofblissfullove.WhenIstartedtakingbaththeautomaticrepetition ofthedivineNamewasstrungtomyverybreathandwitheverybreaththedivineNamewas utteredwithsuchmagneticpowerthatitisdifficulttodescribeit. AfterthebathIchangedmyunderwearandwithaturbanon,Isatinadryplaceinthebathroom andstartedrecitingtheJapji.AlthoughitwasverycoldIdidnotfeelthecoldatall.Thiswas becauseverylittleconsciousnessofthebodywasleft.Itwasalmostabodilessstatewithinthe body.Deeplyintoxicatedinthissublimestateofdivineillumination,IstartedrecitingtheProemof Japjiwhichweknowasthemulmantra(theBasicMysticRevelation).ThemoreIrepeateditthe moreIwaslostinit.IcouldnotrecitetheJapjibeyondtheMulmantra(Proem).ThedivineName whichwasnowmanifestinmeintheformofLightflashedthroughmyinnerbeinginwavesafter wavesofrevealedLightwhichthrilledeveryporeofmybody.Mysoulwasinawedlockembrace withtheBelovedwhichgavemethehighestaestheticjoy.Thesteadyrecitationofthegreat mysticcompositiontheJapjiputmeintothecontemplativepoiseofSahajSamadhi:Effortless absorptionintheDivine.Iwaspassingintoecstaticexperience.Iwassodeeplyabsorbedinthe blissfulmood,thattherecitationofJapjibecameacontinuousdeepmeditation.EverylineofJapji revealedsuchaspiritualjoyofdivineknowledgeandinnerlightasIhadneverheardor

experiencedbefore.Itriedmyutmosttocompletetherecitationattheusualspeed,butatevery linemymindstoppedandwaslostinreflectionoveritsintuitivelyrevealedmeaning.Itisdifficult todescribethisblissfulmentalcondition.Ihavenowordstoexpressit. Therearenowordsforitspraise OnlyavisionofHisLightrevealstheTruth AdiGranth:Kabir:Slokap.1370. Ateverymoment,IsilentlyprayedthatIshouldbeabletocompletetherecitationofJapji.IfIhad notbeensothoroughlydisciplinedintheknowledgeanddeepermeaningoftheGurbaniandalso ifIhadnotknownthestrengthofsilentprayers,itwouldhavebeenimpossibletoendurethe rapturousemotionsofthatmoment.Imightevenhavebecomeunconsciousintheintoxicationof thisblissfuljoyandwouldthushaveremainedfarbehindandutterlydevoidofthehighest spiritualstate.ItappearedIwouldnotbeabletocompletetheJapjithatday.Iwasstuckupinthe blissfuljoyofitsinnermeaningandwassoabsorbedinspiritualintoxicationthatIcouldnot completeevenhalftheversesofJapji.OnlythroughprayersandsupplicationsIgatheredthe spiritualstrengthandconsciousnesstocompletetherecitation.BythetimeofdawnIcould completeonlyonerecitation.ThankGod,itwascompleted.NormallyIcompletedfiverecitations ofJapjialongwithotherdailyprayersbythistime.ButevenatthistimeIhadavaguefeelingthatI maybeinadreamstate.JustthenBhaiRurSinghcameandaskedmetodressupandgetready.I nowrealisedthatIhadnotputonmydressasyet.DressingupquicklyImovedontowardsthe Sikhtemple(Gurdwara). TherestilllingeredadoubtthatIwasinadreamstate,butonseeingbroaddaylightIfeltassured thatIwasnotwalkinginadream,becauseonedreamsonlyatnightandthenightneverchanges intodayinadream.Secondly,thespiritualvisionofdivinelightwhichIsawwithinandoutside myselfwasunique.Thissupernaturallightwasshiningallaroundindifferentformthanthe ordinarydaylight.Isteppedoutwithalittleeffortandcametotheveranda.Isawthewholesky bathedintheradianceofthisdivinelight.WrappingablanketaroundmyselfImovedtowardsthe Sikhtemple.MyfeetfalteredasIwalkedanditappearedmyfeetdidnottouchtheearth.Imoved onsaunteringandtumblingandyetwassurprisinglyonmyfeetagain.Againcamethethought, haveIreallyattainedavisionofthedivineorwasitjustadream?Iwasnowgoingtothetemple, whereIexpectedthattheeverpresentGuru(theHolyGuruGranthSahib)wouldrevealtomemy truestate.ThevoiceoftheGuruwoulddispelalldoubtsandIwouldknowwhetherIwasreally enjoyingblissofspiritualunionwiththeLordinconsciousstate.WhenIenteredthetempleI heardthishymnbeingsung. Friend,IhaveattainedtheBestowerofeternalhappiness; IhaveespousedtheBridegroomofmychoice. Itisamomentofgreatfelicity. Themysticunionhasgivenmegreathappiness; TheCompassionateBelovediseveryoungandromantic, Inholycompany,ImetHimbythegraceoftheGuru; Allhopesandwisheshavebeenfulfilled. TheBelovedhasembracedmeinperfectunion, SayethNanak:IhaveattainedtheBestowerofhappiness; ThroughthegraceoftheGuru. GuruArjan:Jaitsirip.704

Thishymnoffelicitationdispelledallmydoubts.Iwassurenowthatitwasnotadreamstate.I circumambulatedtheGuruGranthSahibandbowinglowopeneditandfoundtheAnandSahib (SongofBliss)atthefirstreadingontheleftpage.Ireaditinamusicalandmovingtone.Itwasso enchantingarecitationthatitcastaspellonthehearers.Thatday,Iunderstoodthedeeper meaningofthisgreathymn.Inowrealizedthespiritualimportofsuchlinesas; Everyonespeaksofjoyandbliss ButrealblisscanbeknownonlyfromtheGuru. GuruAmarDas:Anand:917 Myjoyknewnobounds.Iwasdumbwithrapturousjoy.Myeyeswerefixedinatrance.Myheart wasdrinkingambrosialnectarwithoutbeingcompletelysatiated.Atthismomentamansaidin myear,"LetusgototheotherGurdwara(Temple).Thecompletecontinuousrecitationofthe GuruGranthSahibAkhandPath)istobeginjustnowincommemorationofGuruNanak'sbirthday, andthereyoucanenjoygreaterbliss."Iwasveryhappytohearthis.WitharefreshingzealIwent totheotherGurdwarawherealarge Holycongregationwasgathered.IbowedtotheHolyGuruGranthSahibfromadistanceand quietlysatinacornerinthebackrowfromwhereIcouldseethewholecongregationbutnoone couldseeme.IwasalsofacingtheGuruGranthSahib.WrappedinmyblanketIsatthereinblissful contemplation.Divinesongswerebeingsung.IfeltimpelledtojointheKirtan(divinesinging)butI didnotfeellikegettingoutofmyblissfulstateofspiritualabsorption.TheKirtanendedandprayer forstartingtheAkhandPath(nonstopreadingoftheGuruGranthSahib)wassaid.Thiswasthe firsttimeinmylifethatIgotanopportunitytoseeanAkhandPathbeingperformed.Afterthe readingofJapji(whichistheopeningcompositionofGuruGranthSahib),theKarahparsad (sacramentalpudding)wasdistributed.Mostofthepeoplewentawayafterthis.Veryfewofthem wereleftandaftersometimetheyalsostartedmovingout,andoneofthemshookme,indicating thatitwastimetogo.IbowedbeforetheGuruGranthSahibwiththeideaofgoingawaywhenan innervoicesaid"keepsitting;wheredoyouwishtogo".ThisalmostcameasacommandwhichI couldnotbutobey.TomeitwasthecommandoftheGuru.Therewerefiverecitersreadingone aftertheotherandafewdevoteeattendantsandIwasthelonelisteneratthattime.Peoplecame forsometimeandwent,whileIsatthereboundinthebondageoflove,andnothingcoulddisturb menow.Thespiritualilluminationbrokeallbarriersofinnerconsciousnessandtherewasa gradualincreaseinthespiritualpowersandrevelations.Isatthereduringthewholereading, unshaken,undisturbedandunmoved.BythegraceofGodIsatthereinanunbroken concentrationandlistenedtothewholeAkhandpath(nonstopreadingoftheGuruGranthSahib) forfortyeighthoursanditwasthroughHisunknownpowerthatIlistenedtothecomplete readinganditwasbyHisgracethatIlistenedtothewholereadingoftheGuruGranthSahibina wideawakeconsciousnessandneverforamomentfeltsleepyortired. Thiswasthygift,OLord.TheUnstruckMusic(AnhadShabad)begantoringinallitsmelodious measureswithinmyinnerconsciousness.Thetenthdoorofconsciousnessturiyaleadingtothe realizationofthetranscendentalLight,openedrevealingwondersofthespirituallife. Mother,Iamwonderstruckatthisvision TheUnstruckMusichasenchantedmewithitsmelody. Wonderfulisitsineffablesweetness. GuruArjan:Sarang:1126

ThecontinuousandcompletereadingoftheGuruGranthSahib(AkhandPath)ended.TheArti,the Songwiththelamps,wassung.Inmyheartawonderfulandcolourfulworshipwiththelampswas revealed.ThespiritualmeaningoftheArtihymnwasrevealedinallitssignificance.Themusicof themusicalinstrumentsceased.WithinmeIcouldheartheUnstruckMusicofthecelestialworlds whichrangthroughthewholeuniversewithenchantingdivinemelody.Ah,whocouldopenhis eyestoseetheoutsideworld?ShimmeringLightwithallitsresplendentglorycouldbeseen thrillingmywholebeingandspreadingthroughoutthevastspaceintheuniverse.Evenonthe HolyGuruGranthSahibtherewasradiantLight,whichhadasoothingeffectbutwasdifficultto endure.RaysofLightwerespreadingtowardsthewholecongregation,gatheredinlargenumber andeveryonewaslookingatme.

CHAPTER7BLESSEDNESSANDDIVINEVISION (LetterNo.4,April4,1922) ITAPPEAREDeveryonewantedmotojoinhymnsinging.Iwasalreadyfeelinglikepouringoutmy heartinkirtan(divinesinging).SpontaneouslyIsangapsalm(Shabad).Idonotrememberwhich wasit,butIsangitinaverythrillingandmelodiousmusicalmode.Therewasamagneticeffecton allandafterthepsalmendedtherewasarapturoussilence.Mymindalsomergedintoecstatic silence.ThecongregationresumedtheKirtan. Ifeltlikeanewlyweddedbrideandeveryoneappearedtobesinginginjubilationofmywedded life.Tomeitappearedthatthosewhowerealreadyfaradvancedintheirlifeofspiritualmarriage withtheLordwerelookingatmewithgreatexultationandelation.Isatthereforquitesometime wraptupinthejoyofspiritualrevelation. SuddenlyIsawamanturningoverthepagesoftheGuruGranthSahibthiswayandthatway disrespectfully.Icouldnotbearthesightofthisirreverence.Kirtan(divinesinging)hadstopped. Thespiritualpeaceandblissfulatmospherewasdisturbed.Controllingmyfeelingswithsome difficultyIsatthere.ThemanwhowasirreverentlysearchingtheGuruGranthSahibfoundouta passageandstartedsermonising(katha)overit.Hisinterpretationwashopeless.Ibowedin salutationandstooduptoleavetheplace.Somethingimpelledmetomoveonandwhenmysteps faltered,someunknownpowersavedmefromfalling.Iquietlyslippedfromthereandwenttothe otherSikhtemple. AsIwalkedIseemedtotouchtheearthverylightly.Mybodybecamelighterthanaflower.My bodywassolightthatIfeltitcouldbeblownlikeaballoon.Mylovebewitchedeyesthatwere filledwithlanguidintoxication,shedastrangeblissfulenchantmentandImyselfwasfilledwith inexpressiblejoy.WhenIbowedlowtotheGuruandsatintheothertemple,anoldladywhowas distributingthesweetpuddingsaid,"BlessedsaintofGod,youhavenottakenanythingformany days.Heretakesomekarahprashad".Iacceptedtheprashad,butonbeingcalledaSaintIfelt terriblyashamed.IwonderedhowtheladycametoknowthatIhadnottakenanythingforsome days.Islippedawayfromtheretoo,anddistributedthekarahprashadtosmallboys.Ihadhardly steppedoutofthetemplewhentheGranthi'sbrotherandBhaiJawaharSinghadevotedfriend, fellonmyfeetandsaidwithtearsintheireyes"Giveusalittlebitofit."ItoldthemthatIhad distributedallthekarahprashad."Wedonotaskforkarahprashad,butabitofthespiritualgift whichyouhavereceivedfromtheLord".Ireplied,"YoutoomustgetitfromtheLord.Whybegit fromabeggarlikeme?"SosayingItriedtogetawayandescapefromsuchadmirers.They followedmebutImovedfaster.Imovedthroughthestreetstryingtoavoidthemandatlast succeededinhidingmyselfinthesolitudeofthehillsandvalleys.Theyevenfollowedmetothe hillsbutcouldnotfindme.Allthesurroundinghillsappearedtobebathedinagoldensplendour. Withinmyhearttherewasastrangerevelation.InwhicheverdirectionIlooked,IespiedonlyHis shimmeringLight. Aftersometime,Iagainheardthesoundofmusicalinstrumentsandkirtan(congregational singing).Attractedasifbyamagnet,Imovedinthatdirectionveryfast.ItappearedIhadwinged feet.InamomentIreachedawidecrossingandsawtheSangat(congregation)comingtowards me.Therefrainoftheirsongwas:

ThesangathascomeforaglimpseofThee RevealThyselfOLordtous. ItappearedthatthesedevoteesoftheLordweresingingaprayerfulsongforanoviceloverofthe Lordlikeme.ItalsoappearedthateveryonewasilluminedwiththeLightofGod.Eachwasmore enlightenedthantheother.Inhumbleadoration,IprostratedbeforetheholySangat,but someoneliftedmeupandputmebackonmyfeet.Foldingmyhands,Igreetedthewholesangat. Anointingmyforeheadwiththedustofthesangat'sfeet,Icircumambulatedthecongregationas itmovedon,inreverence,fivetimes.ThenIjoinedthesangatinkirtan(hymnsinging).Many groups,onefollowingtheotherweresinging.Mostofthepeoplegatheredaroundtheplace whereIwassinging.Theystoppedsingingandjustlistenedtomyvoice.Aftercompletingthe singingofonehymn,Imovedintothecrowd. ItriedtoconcealmyselfwithmyblanketbutIcouldnot.Icouldnotevenproperlykeepthe blanketaroundme.Onseeingmycarefreegaitandselfintoxication,peopleweretalkingabout meinwhispers.WhenIaskedthemtosingahymntheystartedthekirtan.Whoevercamenear mestartedpeepingintomyeyesingreatwonder.ItbecamesoannoyingthatIaskedthemwhy theyweregazingatmyeyeslikethat.Twoorthreeofthemwhowereverymuchfascinatedbymy eyessaid:"Thereisastrangelightandattractioninthoseeyes.Thereisamagneticcharminthem whichfascinatesus".IfeltveryshyonhearingthesewordsandItriedtokeepawayfromthem somehow. Asthesangatmovedonperformingkirtan,Iwentalongwithit.Aftersometimewereachedthe sameSikhtemple(Gurdwara)whereAkhandpath(continuousreadingoftheGuruGranthSahib) hadbeenperformed.Assoonasthesangatreachedthedoorofthetempleandstartedentering it,Iturnedback.BhaiJawaharSinghandthetemplepriest'sbrotherfollowedme.Iranawayand hidmyselfinthehills.AftersometimeIheardthesoundofthemusicalinstrumentsagain. Anotherkirtanpartywascomingfromadifferentdirection.Ifollowedittillthisgroupalsoreached thesametemple.ThethirdtimeIagaincamewithanotherkirtanparty.NowIfoundthatavery largekirtanprocessionwasabouttobetakenout.ThepalkiinwhichtheGuruGranthSahibwas tobecarriedwasbeingdecorated.ThemanwhowaswavingthechowriovertheGuruGranth Sahibsaid"ItappearsGodhasblessedyoutodaywiththesacreddutyofwelcomingthejathas (congregationalgroups)." Averygrandprocessionwastakenoutwithdrumbeats,wavingflagsandthrillingkirtan.Ialso followedit,somehowneartheGuruGranthSahibandsometimesperformingkirtanwithsome group.Peoplewouldbendlowandpeepintomyeyes.Ikeptonsingingthesacredhymnsanddid nottalktoanyone.BhaiJawaharSinghandthetemplepriest'sbrotherkeptclosetome.I remainedabsorbedinkirtananddidnotgivethemachancetotalktome.Whentheyinsistedon talkingtomeIkeptquietandtriedtolosemyselfinthecongregation.Itwasaverylong procession.PunditWaryamSinghandSantGurbakhshSinghofPatialaalsometme.Theyalso lookedatmyeyesandremarked."Whathashappenedtoyoureyes?Whyaretheylikethis?We hearthatyoulistenedtothewholeofcontinuousreadingofGuruGranthSahib".Itriedtoexplain awaytheconditionofmyeyesbytellingthemthattheyarelikethatprobablybecauseIhavenot sleptforthreedays. Thekirtanprocessionendedintheevening.Whatistheneedofmultiplyingstories?BysunsetI camebacktomyresidence,avoidingateveryturn,frombeingfollowed.BhaiRurSinghwhowas waitingformeimpatientlysaidinapathetictone,"Youhavenottakenanyfoodforthelastthree

days.YesterdayItookavowthatIwouldnottakeanyfoodtillyoualsotakeit.Atthemoment,I amfeelinghungrybutIwillnottakeamorseloffoodtillyoualsoeatsomething." Iwasdeeplymovedbyhistouchingappeal.Iaskedhimtopreparefreshfoodwhichhedidina veryshortperiod.Iwasnotfeelinghungry.Asamatteroffactlackofhungerandsleepputmeina strangeconditionforanumberofdays.IfItookfood,sleepwouldatoncecome.So,assoonasI tookalittlefoodmyeyesbecameheavyandIsoonfellfastasleep.Afterafewhoursofdeepsleep Iwokeupagain.MyspiritualconditionbecameexcellentassoonasIsatmeditatingandrepeating divineNamewitheverybreathtilldaybreak. Absencefromtheoffice Thenextday,BhaiRurSinghtoldmcthatIhadnotattendedtheofficeformanydays.Ialso realizedthatIhadneitherattendedtheofficenortakenanyleaveofabsence.Whatexplanation shouldIgivetomyofficersandwhatwilltheysay?AnywayIgatheredcourageandwenttothe office.Buttomygreatsurprisenoonequestionedmeaboutmyabsence.Neitheranysuperior officernoranysubordinateaskedmewhyIhadbeenabsentforsomanydays.SoIalsokeptquiet. WhyshouldIraisethequestion?WhenIsawtheattendanceregisternotasingleabsencewas marked.ItindicatedthatIhadbeenpresentonalldays.EventheworkIhadleftundonewas complete.IrealizedthatitwasnothingbutamiracleofGodwhosomehowsavedmefromthe awkwardsituationthroughHisGrace.Ikeptquietaboutitdidnotletanyoneknowaboutit. ButnowIcouldnotapplymymindtowork.Ijustsatthereinspiritualintoxication.Ijustcouldnot liftmypenandwrite.ThehandfalteredasIwrote.Apoignantpainoflovearoseinmyheartand disturbedmyworkseriously.IfearedthatImightnotwritesomethingwrong.AsImovedmypenI hardlyknewwhatIwaswriting.YetonreadingIfoundthatitwascorrect.SometimesIleftwork andwentoutintothehills,andcamebackafteranhourorhalf.Butnoonequestionedme.Thus abouttwomonthspassedinthisblissfulstate. NowcameGuruGobindSingh'sbirthday,tocelebratewhichakhandpath(continuousreadingof theGuruGranthSahib),wastobeperformed.Iagainmadeupmymindtohearthewhole readingoftheGuruGranthSahibwhichgenerallylastsaboutfortyeighthoursforthesecond time.IalsoprayedthatasablessingforthismeditativehearingoftheholyscriptureImaybeable toseeinavision,thesameresplendentformofGuruGobindSinghinwhichheappearedonthe earth,andwhichinitsastralformcouldbeseeninatranscendentstateevennow. BythegraceofGodIwasabletohearinonecontinuoussittingtherecitationofthewholeofGuru GranthSahib.WhenthereadingwascompletetherewassuchaspiritualrevelationwhichIfind difficulttodescribe.Ijustcannotdescribeit.Itisamysticexperiencewhichisnottobetalked about.GodaloneknowswhereyouwillspreadthesethingswhichIamwritingtoyou,very confidentially.EvennowIamfallingintoanecstasyasIwriteandmypenfalters.Itisneitherthe propertimenor.Itappears,Godwillsmetocontinuethestory.WhatcanIdo?Iamlosingmy consciousnessandthewilltowrite.Mymindisnowundergoingachange.Idonothavethe patiencetoreadwhatIhavewrittenforthesecondtime.Pleasecorrectthespellingsetc.,ifthey areamiss(ThisletterNo.4waswrittenfromprisononthenightofApril4th1922whenBhaiSahib RandhirSinghwasundergoingthesixthyearofhissentenceoflifeimprisonmentinRajahmundry Prison). VahGurujikaKhalsaVahGurujikiFateh

CHAPTER8HOLYMOTHERGULABKAUR (ConnectedpartofletterNo.6) NOWCAMETHETIMEtoleaveAbottabad.Ihavealreadydescribedthespiritualexperiencesof thisperiod.Manyothersimilarmysticalexperienceshavesofarremainedaclosesecretwith intimatefriends.Theyshouldbekeptstrictlyconfidentialandnotdiscussedwitheverytypeof person. ThespiritualexperienceswithwhichIwasblessedonGuruGobindSingh'sbirthdayshouldnever bepenned.Theyshould,asfaraspossible,berelatedonlytothoseenlightenedpersonswhohave aprofoundunderstandingoftheilluminationoftranscendentexperience.Afterthisspiritual experienceIwasimpelledtoresignfromgovernmentservice.Therewasaprayerfullonginginmy hearttoliveonlyinsuchaspiritualatmosphereofAkhandPathgatheringsanddivinefervour.A voicefromtheUnknownappearedtosaytome"YouwillnowenjoymanymoreAkhandPaths (continuousreadingsofGuruGranthSahib).Go,drinkdeepfromthisfountainoflifeandenjoythe richtreasureslefttousbyourspiritualforefathers(theDivineGurus)." Ifelt,Ihadadistinctcalltogobackhome.Whocouldstopme?Peopledidtrytopreventmefrom leavingtheplace,butinthefaceofthismysteriouscallfromwithin,Icouldnotbutleavetheplace atonce.Ihardlyknewwhowaspullingmefromwithinmyheart.Itwasanirresistiblecall.It becamedifficultformetostayatAbbottabadanylonger.Peoplebegantopraiseandbestow unduereverenceonmebycallingme"BhaktBabu"andtriedtotouchmyfeetasIpassedby them.Ifearedthatthispraisemightcreatevanitywhichmightdestroyallthespiritualitywith whichIhadbeenblessed.Thebestwaywastoescapefromsuchanatmosphere.Overandabove ittherewastheinwardcall.ThesangatofAbbottabaddidnotwishthatIshouldgo,butthedivine callwasirresistible.AftersayingmylastprayersIlefttheplace.Manypeopleaccompaniedmeup toHaripuroutofdeeploveandrespect.IwenttoHaripurtoseeaveryenlightenedwomanSaint, whohadachievedthehigheststateofillumination.TheSikhsofHaripurwhoknewmealsocame tomeetme.ButIwasanxioustoseethiswomanSaintwhompeoplecalledMotherGulabKaur, andthetalesofwhosesupremerenunciationandsaintlinessimpressedmedeeply.Itwouldbe propertowriteherebrieflyabouttheearlylifeofthiswomanSaintwhohadachievedthehighest spiritualstate.ShewasthefirstrealSaintImetinlife.HerstoryastoldtomebyaSikhfrom Haripurisasfollows: GulabKaur'shusbandwasaveryreligiousperson.Thespirituallyenlightenedhusbandhada devotedandverypiouswifeinGulabKaur.Theloveandserviceofherhusbandwastoher,the loveandserviceofGod.LiketheinseparableSheldrakeandthemoon,shecouldnotliveapart fromherhusbandevenforamoment.Accordingtothewishesofherhusbandshehadmemorised theSukhmaniandBavanAkhariandsherecitedtheseprayerseveryday.Shewashowevernot leadingmuchofacontemplativelife.Shewastooabsorbedintheloveofherhusband.Shedid notasyetknowthespiritualsignificanceofthedivineName,whenherhusbanddiedatquitea youngage.Thedeathofherhusbandcameassuchablowtoher,thatsheturnedhermindaway fromtheworldandlikeatrueSati(shewhosacrificesherselfalongwithherdeadhusband);she diedtothephysicalworldaroundher,onlytoliveinspiritualecstasyofdivinecontemplation.The lightofGodbegantoshineinherpuresoul.Theloveforherhusbandgraduallychangedintoan intenseloveforGodinwhichshebecamedeeplyimbued.

Shewasbeautifulandquiteyoung.Thespiritualgraceonherfacerevealedherradiantsoul.Itwas difficulttolookstraightintothered,dazzlingglowofherface.Sherenouncedtheworldandleft herhome.InthisfearlessstatethisyoungChildofLightwanderedaway,detachedandfreelikea bird.HermindwasalwaysfixedonGodandshespentherdaysindeepmeditativemood.She appearedtohavelostallherbodyconsciousness.DeeplyabsorbedinthedivineName,Mother GulabKaurmovedaboutwitharadiantcharmonherface.Thereareinnumerablestoriesabout hersaintlinessandspiritualpowers,whichforwantofspacecannotberelatedhere.Wherever shewent,hermeditativesilenceandspiritualbeautyattractedpeople.Thestreets,thevillagesor eventheforestsbloomedwithlifeandwiththespiritofreverence,whenshewasthere.She becameverywellknowninHaripur,Hazaraandthesurroundingareas.Shewassodeeply absorbedinhermeditativemoodsthatsherarelyspoketoanyone. Inecstasyhelaughs Inecstasyheweeps. Attimeshebecomessilent. GuruNanak:VarAsa,p.473. Suchwasthespiritualconditionofthissaintlylady.Shebecamecarelessaboutherclothes.Allshe hadwasanunderwear(kach)andablanketwrappedaroundherbody.WhenIexpressedmy desiretomeether,peoplesaid:"Shedoesnotallowanyonetocomenearher.Shedrivesaway everyonebythrowingstonesatthem.Outoffearnoonegoesnearher.Noonehasseenher talkingtoanyone.Sometimessheisseenmumblingsomewordsinasoliloquy.Itisnoteasytogo nearher.Ifyouwanttoseeherfromadistancewecanshowhertoyou.Ifyouwishtogonear her,youmaygoatyourownrisk.Otherwisewedonotdaretogonearher." Aftersayingashortprayer,IsetouttomeetMotherGulabKaur.Icametoknowthatshewas sittinginfrontofashopwhichwasclosed.Peopleshowedhertomefromthecornerofastreet. Shewassittingwithablanketaroundherbodyandherbackwastowardsus.Whileotherpeople turnedback,Imovedontowardsher.Evenherfacewascoveredwiththeblanket.AsImovedon withreverenceanddevotionclosetoher,theHolyMotherthroughherinnervision,having divinedmypresence,stoodupwithelectricsuddenness,andturningtowardsmewithfolded hands,shegreetedmewiththeKhalsagreeting: VahGurujikaKhalsaVahGurujikiFateh TheKhalsaisofGodVictoryuntotheWonderfulLord. Iwasdeeplymovedandthepeoplewholookedonwerequitesurprised.Oneortwodarednowto comenearer.MotherGulabKaurstillstandingwithfoldedhands.Inhumbleadoration,Imoved forwardtotouchherfeet,butwithherlotuslikepurehandsshepreventedmefromdoingso.She wasabouttospreadherblanketaskingmetositonit,butIbeggedhernottodoso,asahumble personlikemecouldnotbeartoseesuchadivinesoullikeherbestowsounusualarespectand reverenceonme,whichIdidnotdeserve."IseekahumbleplaceinthedustofthyfeetHoly Mother",saidI.Isatnearheronthegroundleavingtheblanketwithher.Shesatthereinacalm meditativemood,andIcanstillvisualisehersaintlyfiguresittinginsilentcontemplation.The profoundimpressionofherdivinepersonalityisdeeplyengravedinmyheart.Itisdifficultto describethespiritualinfluenceofthegreatpersonalityanditscoolandthrillingeffectonmyheart andsoul.Ifeltpurifiedandexaltedandmyheartbegantobeatlouderwiththerhythmofdivine Name.Therewasaspiritualunionofoursoulsandinthismysticsilenceweconversedwitheach other.Thethoughtwavesemanatingfromonewereunderstoodbytheother.Whatneedwas

theretospeak.AftersometimetheHolyMotherspokeinamelodiousvoicesaying:"Iamonlya lonetraveller.HowshallIentertainyou?Iamjustalonetraveller." Inaverysweetandmusicalvoicesherepeatedthesewords.Thenshesuddenlygotup,askingme tokeepsittingthereforawhile.Shetookherblanketandinanintoxicatedmoodmovedtowards afruitshop.Shepickedupsomefruitsfromtheshop,broughtthemthereandofferingthemto mesaid:"AcceptthishumbleofferingofonewhoisdedicatedtotheLord".Iacceptedthegreat Saint'sofferingofloveandfeltgreatlyblessed.Thenshesaid:"Mayyoueverbeblessed.All blessingsonyou,nobleSikhoftheGuru.TheGuruhasindeedlightedawonderfullamp".Ina sublimestateofmindsheshoweredblessingsandloveonme.IbeggedtheHolyMotherto bestowbenedictionmeandpraythatthislampwhichhadbeenlightedbytheGurumayeverkeep onburning.Shesaid:"Itwillkeeponburningwitheverincreasinglight."Wewerebothstanding andshenowwishedmetodepart.IaskedtheHolyMother,"WhenmayIgetachancetohavea glimpseofherdivinepersonalityagain".Tothisshereplied:"Spirituallyunitedsoulsneverfeelany separation.Onthephysicalplanetheremaynotbeanymeetingbutwewillmeetagaininthe PresenceoftheLord,"andtheninatoneofblessingshesaid,"youhavenowreceivedthedivine calltoperformAkhandPaths.Go,beblessed,andenjoyspiritualenlightenment.Onthewaypay homagetothePanjaSahibGurdwara." Thesewerethefewwordsshespokeintheshortmeetingbetweenus.Ibowedlowtotouchher feet.Thereweretearsinhereyes.Itoowasoverwhelmedwithtears.Pattingmeonmybackshe blessedmeagainandhelpedmetorisetomyfeet.AftercompletingthepilgrimagetoPanjaSahib andAmritsar,IcamebacktothevillageandmetthedivinefriendsfromwhomIhadbeenlong separated.BythegraceoftheGurutherewasoneAkhandPathafteranotherandmyspiritual conditionbecamemoreandmoreexalted.Idonotknowforhowmanyyearsandmonthsthis undisturbedpeaceandblisslasteduntilsuddenlythehawksoffatepouncedonacarefreebird andthenstartedthesagaoflongprisonlife.

CHAPTER9INTHEKHALSACOLLEGE (RemainingpartofletterNo.6.) SARDARHARBANSSINGHATTARImetmeandpersuadedmetojointheKhalsaCollegeandserve thepremierSikhinstitution.Myfatherwasalreadyveryanxioustofindsuchapostforme.Iwas toldthatbyservingthisinstitutionIwouldbeservingtheSikhPanth(community).Ididnotknow thateventhisPanthicservicewouldleadtomanytroubles.Afterfixingmeuponthestaffof Khalsacollege,SardarHarbansSinghAttarikeptawayfromtheCollegeaffairs,whileIhadagood manybitterexperiencesandsawmanyupsanddowns.Ididnotwishtonarratethosetragic experiencesandpollutemymindagainbypenningthemdown.Ifyouwanttoknowthedetails youcanhavethemfromBhaiAtmaSinghofMoga.Mentallyandspirituallymymindsuffered considerably.Mypeaceofmindwasseriouslydisturbedbytheunpleasantatmosphere,butthe Lord(throughHisGrace)savedmefromgettinginvolvedanyfurther.WhenIcamebacktoSadh SangatandperformedkirtanandAkhandpathsIregainedmynormalspiritualpoiseagain. AtDamdamaSahib AftersometimesomefriendstookmetoDamdamaSahib,IwasmadethesecretaryofKhalsa DiwanDamdamaSahib.Iservedtheinstitutionforconsiderableperiodwhichpassedinpeaceand tranquillity.IjoinedtheRagiJatha(themusicians)inperformingkirtaneveryday.Wewentfrom villagetovillageperformingkirtan.Duringthisperiodalotofmoneypouredinwhichwasusedfor buildingaKhalsaHighSchool.AfterthatIremainedatDamdamaSahibforashortperiodand startedenjoyingthepilgrimageandsewaofTakhatSahibandDarbarSahib.Mymindwasrestless. Ididnotwishtosticktooneplace.Theschoolwasnowfounded.Idonotknowwhatisthe conditionofthatschoolnow. BabuTejaSinghthenpersuadedmetoaccompanyhimtoBhasaurwherehehadfoundedthe PanchKhalsaDiwan.There,asyouknowverywell,dayspassedveryhappily.AlthoughIgotagood opportunitytoperformthekirtanthere,somehowIcouldnotsticktotheplace.Itisnotnecessary tomentionherewhyIleftPanchKhandindisgust.OffandonwhenIreceivedaninvitation,I continuedtovisitthatplace(AfterBhaiSahibRandhirSinghwenttotheprisonBabuTejaSinghof BhasaurintroducedsuchthingsintoSikhceremoniesandpracticeswhichcausedgreatresentment. TheclimaxofhisfollywasreachedwhenheremovedthehymnsofBhaktaslikeKabirandFarid fromtheGuruGranth.HisactsweredenouncedfromtheAkalTakhtandhewasexcommunicated. WhenBhaiRandhirSinghcameoutoftheprison,BabuTejaSinghtriedtomeethimbuthe refusedtoseehimuntilheatonedforhissacrilegiousacts).BhaiJoginderSinghknowsmuch betterthestoryofallthathappenedthere.Ifyouwanttoknowthedetailsyoucanaskhim. BhaiAtmaSinghofMogaalsoknowsquiteagooddeal.ItisatPanchKhandIfirstmetBhai JoginderSinghanddevelopedadeepfriendshipwithhim.ForhissakeIvisitedPatialamanytimes. Anaffectiondevelopedforhimwhichsurpassedloveforrealbrothers.AlthoughmystayatKhalsa CollegeendedinsomebitterexperiencesbutthemeetingwithBhaiAtmaSinghheredeveloped intoalastingspiritualfriendship.DuringmystayatPanchKhandIacquiredanoblefriendlikeBhai JoginderSingh.BoththesefriendswerestayingatPatialaandtomeetthemIhadtogotherequite often.DuringonecongregationalgatheringImethereBhaiMaiSinghandthestrangemeeting developedintoalifelongandlovingfriendship.Itwouldbeworthwhiletogetthewholestoryof ourmeetingfromhisownmouth.YoualsoknewhowtheKhalsaYoungmenLeaguewasformed whichlaterdevelopedintoKhalsaHighSchoolLudhiana.Asyouwereassociatedwithityoucan

describethembetter.ItisnotproperthatIshouldkeeponwritingaboutallthethingsIdid,andif youpublishthestoryasrelatedbymeitmaynotbeinteresting.Tofulfilyourwishesandthe commandoffriends,Ihavebrieflytoldyouthestoryofmylife,butfranklyspeaking,Iamwriting alltheseautobiographicalaccountsagainstmyownwishes.Whateveryoulikemetowritebeyond whatIhaveexpressed,youmayaskinyournextletter.Hereintheprison,Ineitherhavethetime, northefreedom,noreventhematerialtowritemylifestorywithaconcentratedmind,leastofall insuchdetailsasyoudesire.IamnowspendingmoretimeoncompletingmybookGurmatBibek (thisbooklateronwaspublishedwithTranslator'sForward.ItgivesBhaiSahibRandhirSingh's expositionoftheKhalsacodeofconduct(Rehat)inthemannerinwhichalifeofprayer, meditationandobediencetoreligiouslawsshouldbelived). YouarenowcompellingmetowritemyownlifestorywhenIamnotatallinamoodtodoso.I nowhearthatwemayshortlybetransferredtosomeprisonnearPunjab.Wehavetoabidebythe WillofGod. ThenosestringoflifeisinthehandsoftheLord, Ourdeedsdriveus,andthetruthis,Nanak, ThatmanmustpasturewheretheLordprovides. GuruAngad:VarSorath:p.663

CHAPTER10ARRESTANDDEFENCE

(LetterNo.7) IWILLNOWRECOUNTandrecordasfarasIcanremembermyanswerstothepolicequestionsfor investigation,firstbySardarGurdialSinghSuperintendentPoliceNabhaState,andthenbyDeputy SuperintendentMr.AttaMuhammedatthelatter'sresidencesometimebetween19thand25th June1915(BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwastakenintocustodybyNabhaStatePoliceon9thMay 1915andbroughttoLudhianapolicecustodyon17thJune1915): Superintendent,Police,Nabha:SinghSahibji,youareatrueSikh,soIhopeyouwilltellthetruthin replytoallthequestionswhichIask. I:AreyouafalseSikh,whoconsidersmetobeSikhandyetsuspectthatImaynottellthetruth.A SikhwhoishimselftruthfulsincerelybelievesotherSikhstobetruthful. S.P.:IamnotatrueSikh;youcantakemetobeafalseSikh.JustasIhavefranklyandsincerely toldyouthatIamnotatrueSikhinthesamewayIhavesincerelytoldyouthatIconsideryouto beatrueSikh. I:IfyoureallyconsidermetobeatrueSikhthenIwilltellyouthetruthaboutwhateveryouask meinyourcapacityasapoliceofficer.Butfromyourstatementitappearsthatyoustillsuspect thatImaynottellyouthetruth.Afalseperson,asyouassertyourselftobe,hasnorightto suspectapersonwhomheconsiderstobeatrueSikh. S.P.:IamnottryingtoinvestigatewhetheryouareatrueSikh,ornot,butknowingthatyouarea trueSikhIexpecttoknowthroughyouthetruthaboutcertainincidents. I:Itisastrangethingthatyouwanttoknowthetruthaboutcertainhappeningsthroughaman whomyouhavearrestedasacriminalandwhomyouarekeepinginchains. S.P.:AttheveryoutsetIofferedtotakeoffyourchainsandaskedyoutositonachair,butyoudid notcomplywiththerequest. I:Iknowthatevenyourofferofthechairisatrap.Youaretryingtomisleadme.Itisthroughyour cleverdesignthatIamnowunderarrestandinchains.Nowbymakingashamofferofchairand freedomyouonlywishtoensnaremeinyourtrap. S.P.:Iamnotresponsibleforwhathasbeendonetoyou.AsaGovernmentOfficermydutyhas compelledmetodoso.Personally,Iwouldbethelastpersontoseeyouinchains.Itisonlytotake yououtofthistroubleIamtryingtoprobeintofacts. I:IhavelefteverythingtotheWillofGod.IwillfacejoyandsorrowaccordingtoHisWilland endureeverythingasHisSweetWill:"OLordifThougivestmehappinessIwillrememberThee,if ThougivestmesorroweventhenIwillworshipThee".Iamnottryingtocomplaintoyouabout mypresentsorrowandgrief.NoramIcomplainingwhyIhavebeenthrownintoprison.Youare actuallytryingtodoublecrossmeanditisyourdoubledealingsthatpainme.Whateveryouare

doingorinvestigatingisapartofyourroutineofficialduty.Youdonothaveanyrealsympathy withme.Itisbetterifyougoaheadwithyourinvestigationsinsteadofbeatingaboutthebush. S.P.:BelievemeSir;Ihavegenuinesympathywithyou. I:Itisgoodforyoutoexpressyoursympathyforme,butitisdifficultformetobelievewhatyou aresayingnoritisquitenecessaryformetobelievethatyouhaveagenuinesympathy.Youhave assertedthatyouindulgeinfalsehood.Ifyouaresincereandtruthfulthenonlycanyouhaveany sympathywithme.IdonotknowwhetherIshouldbelieveyourfirststatementthatyouarea falseSikhindulginginfalsehoodorthesecondstatementthatyouhavesympathywithme.My Guruhastaughtmenevertohaveanyfaithinfalsepeople. S.P.:AllrightyoucantakemetobeafalseSikhbutatleastyouareatrueSikhoftheGuru.Itis yourdutytotellthetruth.IfIknowthetruthaboutcertainhappeningsImaybeabletotakeyou outofthistroubleandImaygetsomecluetosaveyou. I:TheGuruhastaughtmenevertoseekfreedomandsafetyfromfalsemenorsympathyoffalse officers.MydutyasatrueSikhistoseekjusticeandfairnessintheeyesofGodandintheeyesof Hisloversoftruth.Howcanafalsepersondiscriminatebetweenthetrueandfalse,norisit necessaryformetogetyourverdictonthismatter.Howcantruthappealtoapersonwhoactson falsehood?Whatrighthavefalsepersonsandliarstoquestionatruthlovingperson? S.P.:IfonthebasisofthestatementoffalsepersontheGovernmentaccusesyouofacrimewhich youhavenotcommittedandifonthebasisofthestatementofthatfalsepersonaloveroftruth likeyouisinnocentlyinvolvedinaseriouscase,isitnotnecessaryforyoutotellthetruthtomake thingsclear?Iamtryingtosaveyoufromfalseaccusation. I:SolongasIamtruthfulandinnocentintheeyesofthetrueLordandsolongasIabidebytruthI amnotintheleastworriedifsomefalsepersonsoreventhewholeworldmakesfalseaccusation onthebasisofwhichtheGovernmentputsmeintochains.TheGovernmentwhichhasarrested meonthemeresuspicionandfalsestatementofprofessionalliarscannotbeexpectedtobelieve mystatementoftruth,andIdonotthinkthatsuchaGovernmentwillsuddenlybegintobelieve thatIaminnocentmerelyonthebasisofmytruestatement.Allthisisshamsympathy. S.P.:Icangiveyouaconcreteexample.AchhraSinghtheapproverhastoldthetruthandthe Governmenthasassuredhimhisfreedomandsafety. I:Iamreallyashamedofyourhypocriticalconversation.Doyouputmeinthesamecategoryas AchhraSinghandwishtomakemeanotherapprover?Strangeisyoursympathy.Itisbetterifyou donotmakeanysuchsuggestionstome.Iamnotpreparedtotalktoyouinthisconnection. S.P.:Forgiveme,mysuggestionhasannoyedyou.Idonotintendtoputyouinthesamecategory asAchhraSingh.IgiveyouahigherplaceandIconsideryouatrueSikh.Itisonlyoutofthis genuinesympathyIwillnowtellyou,someofourofficialsecrets.ItisAchhraSinghwhohasmade somestatementsagainstyouonthebasisofwhichyouhavebeenarrested,butwearenotgetting anysolidevidenceinfavourofthosestatements.Thatiswhyyouhavebeenkeptinthelockupfor allthesedays.Butnowtheyhavearrestedanothermanwhohasrevealedsomemorefactsabout aconspiracyinthepresenceofMr.Donald,S.P.Ludhiana.Hehastoldhimthatthereareabout fiftymorepersonswithyououtofwhichheremembersthenamesofsixorseven.Thenamesof

therestareknowntoyou.ThismanhasalsorevealedmanyotherimportantfactswhichMr. Donaldbelievestobetrue.HisstatementhasbeenrecordedinthepresenceofaMagistrate,butI tookpermissionfromtheS.P.toquestionyouonthismatterasyouknowthetruth,andbeinga saintlypersonyouareexpectedtotellthetruth.Mr.Donald,S.P.hasgladlyagreedtothe proposal,thatiflikeAchhraSingh,youalsotellthewholetruthhewillatonceacceptyouasan approverandassureyouyourfreedomandsafety. I:Ididnotexpectyoutohavecomehereonlywiththeintentionofmakingmeanapprover.Onlya manwhohascommittedacrimemayseekforgiveness.DoyoubelievethatIhavecommittedany crime? S.P.:No,Idonotbelievethatyouhavecommittedanycrime,buttheGovernmentbelievesthat youhave. I:ThengoandtellyourGovernmenttopunishthecriminal.Ihavenotcommittedanycrime.If yourGovernmentwishestoaccuseinnocentpersonsofthecrimeswhichtheyhavenot committedthenitisaGovernmentthatwouldbecommittingacrimeandwillhavetofacegreater punishmentbeforeGod.Iconsidermyselftobeabsolutelyinnocent.Ifyouwantmetobeg forgivenessonlyunderthreatIamnotpreparedtodoso.Iconsideritahumiliatingsuggestion. "Healonefearswhohascommittedasin.Therighteouspersonsareeverhappyandcarefree".So darejopapkamanvda,dharmivigset.Thosewhocommitsinsliveinfearandoutoffeartheybeg forgivenessandthuscommitmoresins.Buttherighteousandsinlesspersonswhohavenot committedanycrimearenotafraidofeitheranythreatortorture,buttheyliveinpeaceandjoy. S.P.:BhaiSahibji,inthiscaseitisnotmerelyquestionoftorture,theymayevensentenceyouto death.Mr.DonaldS.P.toldmefranklythatifyoudonotseekforgiveness,youmaybehanged. I:Thisisfarbetterthansufferingtorture.Afterallthisearthlybodyislikeanearthenvesselwhich mustbreak.ShameonAchhraSinghforhavingbecomeanapprover.Tosavehisownbodyhehas putintotroublemanyotherinnocentpeopleandthuscommittedaheinouscrime.Afterall,how longwillhelive.Atlasthewilldieandhewillfaceamiserabledeath.Itisapitythatthe Governmentofficialsshoulddojusticeonthebasisofevidenceofsuchapproverswhoseonlyaim istosavetheirownskin.ThesepeoplehaveneitheranylovefortruthnorfearofGod.Thismanis nowpreparedtotellliesandmakesstatementswhichthepolicewantshimtomake.Nowyou havearrestedanewmanwhomusthavecommittedaveryseriouscrime.Tosavehislifeheis nowtryingtoinvolvemoreinnocentpeopleintotroublethroughhisfalsestatements.Doyou thinksuchamancanevertellthetruthanddoyouconsidersuchamantobeatrueman? S.P.:(Withtearsinhiseyes).Forgiveme,BhaiSahibRandhirSinghji,forpersuadingyouto becomeanapproverandthusannoyingyourpuresoul.Ididnotknowthattherestillaresuch nobleSikhslikeyou.YouhavebehavedlikeatrueSikhandInowfeelthatSikhismissecure. AchhraSinghisacursetotheSikhsandhehasbroughtshameandblotonthecommunity,which yournoblecharacterhaswashedaway.Iamconvincedmorethaneverthatyouareabsolutely innocentandtruthful.Infuturetherewillneverbetheslightestsuspicioninmymindagainstyou.I amgoingbacktoNabhaandIamgoingbackwithgreatjoyandsorrow.Thereisjoyinmindthat youhaveupheldthehighidealofSikhismandtheseedofthefaithissafe.Iamgoingwithsorrow inmyheartthatsuchaninnocentpersonlikeyouwillnowundergotortureandpunishmentfor thecrimeyouhavenotcommitted.Thisconversationmaybeconsideredaprivateone.Imay informyounowthatthereismoretroubleinstoreforyou.Theywilltrytotortureyouandforce

youtoadmitfalsethings.Youareamanwithpureheart.Pleaseseethatyouarenotinvolvedor trappedinanyfalsecaseorcrime.Pleaseholdyourownlikearock.Ifsomeotherofficersucceeds inpersuadingyouthenitwillbeaverygreatshocktome.Thisismylastrequestandmylast appealwhichIrequestyoutokeepsecret.NowIseekforgivenessfromyouandbidyougoodbye. (Tearsrolleddownhiseyesashespokethelastwords). DiscussionwithD.S.P.,Ludhiana ThenextdayAttaMohd.,DeputySuperintendentofPolice,Ludhiana,cametomeandthe followingquestionsandanswersensued. D.S.P.:(inUrdu)TheGovernmentisdoinganextraordinaryfavourtoyoubygivingyouagolden opportunitytosaveyourself.Itisbetterifyoumakegooduseofthisopportunity. I:Whatopportunity?BettertalktomeinPunjabi. D.S.P.:(inPunjabi)TheGovernmentisgivingyoutheopportunitytobecomeanapprover. I:IspitonthisofferandIdonotknowwhatwordstouseforthosewhomakethisoffer. D.S.P.:Thenyouwillhavetoundergogreattortureandintheendyoumaybehanged. I:Aslongasmysoul(Atman)isfearlessandsinlessnopainandsufferingwillcometoit.Itlivesin peaceanditwillcontinuetosurviveinafearlesspeace.ThemorephysicaltortureIundergo,the greatermaybetheblissfulexaltationofthesoul. D.S.P.:ButifyoumakeastatementaccordingtothewishesoftheGovernmentyouwillbe forgivenandsetfree.Besidesthis,youwillbegivenmanyotherrewardsforyourworldlyluxury andhappiness.IcanjustnowbringyouawrittenstatementoftheSuperintendentofPolicegiving assuranceofyourfreedomandsecurityifyoubecomeanapprover.Mysuperiorofficersalso promisetoimmediatelyappointyouasanHonoraryMagistrate.Besidesthis,wheneveryou attendtheViceroy'sDurbarortheEmperor'sDurbaryouwillbeentitledtoaseatinthefrontrow. Whatgreaterpeaceandhappinesscanyoursoulhavethanthisandwhatistheuseofdyinga miserabledeath. I:MyGuru'steachingshavealreadyconvincedmethatalltheworldlypleasuresaretransientand insignificant.Allthesehighofficesandpositionswhichyouareofferingarenothingmorethan dusttome.Youareofferingmemagistrateshipasarewardtofeedmygreed.Imaytellyouthat evenifyouoffermethewealthandpleasuresofalltheworldIwillnotbecomeanapprover.Iwill notgiveupmyfaithinTruthandDharma.Idonotcareastrawforallthesehonoursandwealth.I recitedthefollowinglinesfromtheGuruGranthSahib: ThosewhohavefaithintheNameofGod. Theydonotgivetheirmindtoanythingelse. Evenifearthmadeofgold IsgiventothemastheirKingdom, Theywillnotgivetheirmind ToanythingexceptHisName. GuruRamDas,Asa,p.444

D.S.P.:Howwillyouloseyourreligionandfaithbybecominganapprover?Ialsohaveareligion andfaith.AsaMuslim,Iconsideryourreligiontobeasgoodasmine.JustasIdonotliketolose myreligionandfaithatanycostsoalsoIdonotwishyoutogiveupyourfaith. I:(Interruptinghim)Religionisnotamereformalfaithorcreed.Religionistoabidebyandlive accordingtotheprinciplesofspiritualfaith.YouPolicemenhaveactuallynoreligionorfaithin yourheart.I,asadiscipleoftheGuruconsidersuchserviceofBritishImperialismasacurseandit isashamefulchainthatyouarecarryingaroundyourneck.AsfarasIknow,yourreligion,Islam, alsodoesnotallowaMuslimtoacceptsuchslaveryofBritishImperialism.Nowtellme,howmuch oftrueIslamisthereinyourheart.Reflectseriouslyontheslavishandfaithlessdeedswhichyou dointheserviceoftherulersandthentalktomeaboutreligionandfaith. D.S.P.:NowIunderstandyourrealmeaning.YouquestionmewhyIamservingtheBritish Government.ItellyouonoathoftheSupremeAllahandLordMohammedthatifIwereconvinced thattheBritishRajwouldsoonendIwouldimmediatelygiveupthisservice.Youpeoplearein hasteandyoustartedyourrevolutionaryactivitiesmuchtoosoon.Youdidnotwaitfortheproper time.IamalsoatheartagainsttheBritishGovernmentbutIconsideritfoolishandshort sightednesstoriseinarevoltonflimsyandbaselessgrounds.IswearbyAllah,thePureOne,that atheartmysympathyiswithyou.IamnotagainstfightingforfreedombutIamboundasa GovernmentservantbythecommandoftherulersandIhavetoobeythem.Iamwaitingforsuch periodwhensomerulerslikeAmirKamalfromtheIslamicworldwouldgiveuscommand,tofight forourfreedom.Thenwewillcomeintotheopenandwillfightfearlessly. I:Allyourideasareofaman,wholackstruereligionandfaith.AMuslimwhohasasincerelove andfearofGodwouldneversweareitherbyAllahorbytheProphet,eventhoughtheoathistrue orfalse.AmanwhoswearsbyGodisneitherreligiousnorfaithfultohiscreedinmyeyes.Thereis aworldofdifferencebetweenyouroutlookandmineandtherecanbenocompromiseor understandingbetweenpersonlikeyouandme. D.S.P.:(Interruptingme)Whycan'ttherebeanunderstanding?Wearealsoasmuchagainstthe BritishRajasyouare.Theonlydifferenceisthatyouwantarevoltinhothastewhilewearealittle morefarsightedandcautious.Weareservingthesamepurpose.Ourobjectistowinfreedom andindependenceandthusweareequallypatrioticandwealsoseekpoliticalpower. I:Theobjectofmystruggleisnottorulemycountry.Tocovetforkingdomandrulershipisagainst thespiritualidealofmyfaith,asissaidinGuruGranthSahib: Iseeknotkingdom Iseeknotliberation MymindyearnsfortheloveofHislotusfeet. GuruArjan:DeuGandhari,p.534 Nowtellmehowcantherebeacompromiseorunderstandingbetweenyouandme. D.S.P.:AlltherevolutionaryactivitiesandyourfightagainsttheBritishRajwasfornoother purposeexcepttocapturepoliticalfreedomfromtheforeignrulers. I:Itisagainstmyfaithandcreedtohaveacrazeforpoliticalpower.Allyourexplanationofour struggleforpoliticalfreedomisnonsensical.

D.S.P.:Well,leaveasidethisreligiousdiscussion.Wearenotconcernedwithit.Cometothereal point.Now,tellmeforthelasttimewhetheryouwillavailyourselfofthegoldenopportunity whichisbeingofferedtoyouofbecominganapprover? I:Never,never,never.Pleasedonotbothermeanymorewithsuchfutilesuggestions. D.S.P.:Wellthen,youwillbereceivingyourfoodfromoutsideaccordingtoyourwishesforthe lasttimetoday.Then,Iwillseehowlongyouabidebyyourreligiousbeliefs.Betterreflectonthis offer.Youaregivenadaymoretothinkaboutit. I:MyGuruiseverwithme.Itishewhowillhelpmetoliveaccordingtotheprinciplesofmyfaith. Youcansendmetotheprisonjustnow.Yourneednotgivemeaday'stimemore. OnJune25th1915,IwassenttoLudhianaJail.TwiceorthricetheC.I.D.Inspectorscamefor furtherquestioning.IdonotrememberallthediscussionsthattookplacewiththembutI rememberoneortwothingswhichIamrecordinghere. C.I.D.Inspector:Nowthewholeconspiracyhascometolightandeverythinghasbeenproved.Itis stilltimethatyoushouldconfesseverythingotherwisetherearesomeotherpeoplewhoare readytobecomeapproversandexposeyouractivities. I:Whatistheuseofquestioningmewheneverythinghasbeenproved?Ifyouhavebeenableto getsomeapprovergoaheadandbuildthecaseandserveyourevilpurpose.Whatisthedelay about? Inspector:Ifyoualonebecomeapproverwewilldismissallotherapprovers.Inthefeetofthe elephantcanbeincludedallsmallfeet.Theimportanceofyourevidencewillbemuchgreater thanthecollectiveevidenceofallthoseapprovers.Besideseveryonebelievesthatyouwillspeak onlythetruth.Yourstatementwillstrikelikeanarrow.Ifyouagreetobecomeanapproverwewill throwallthosepeopleintotheprisonwhoaretryingtoinvolveyouintheconspiracycase. I:Howsadandwhatapitythatyourcaseisstill60shaky.Itisbetterifyougivethesepromisesto thoseapprovers.Theymustbeveryfoolishandmeanpeoplewhoaresoeasilymisledbyyouand arepreparedtosayanythingandtorepeatallfalsehoodwhichyoudictatetothem. Inspector:(Interruptingme)Ithinkitisproperforyoutopunishsuchpeoplewhohavebroughtso seriousallegationsagainstanobleandvirtuouspersonlikeyou.Youmusttakeadetermined revengeagainstthem. I:Idonotbelieve,nordoIfeelnecessarytotaketherevenge."Sinispowerfulenoughtodestroy thesinner"."FalsepeoplewillnotfindaplaceinHisPresence.Theirfaceswillbeblackenedand theywillbedriventohell.ThosewhoareabsorbedinThyName,victorywillbetheirs.Thosewho trytocheatwillfaceadefeat." Inspector:Wellifyouhatebecominganapproversomuchwewillnotcompelyou.Willyouplease tellusthenamesofthepeoplewhowerewithyouwhenyoupassedthefirstresolution (Gurmata)?

I:Youjustnowtoldmethatallthefactshavebeenprovedandthosewhowishtobeapprovers havetoldyoueverything.Whydcyouaskmenow?Thetruthisthataliardoesnotremember whathehassaidearlier. Inspector:Weknowpracticallyeverything.Theonlythingwedonotknowisthesecretresolution ofyourExecutiveCommittee.Nooneknowsbetterthanyouaboutthoseresolutions. I:(Interruptinghim)Ohnowyouwanttolayatrapformeandfoolishlydrivemeintothetrap.I amreallysurprisedatyourunderstanding.Doyouthinkthatamanwhohasspurnedyouroffers andrefusestobecomeanapprovercanbemovedbyyourpersuasivetricksandtalks?Supposing, whatyouthinkwassecretlydecidedbyusisinmymind,doyouthinkthatIwilltellapersonlike you?TherewerenoreligiousgatheringsorAkhandPathwherewedidnotmakesomesecretand confidentialdecisions.SuchcloseddoordecisionshavebeentakenbytheSikhleadersforthelast threecenturies.Theycannotberevealedtoanyoutsider.IfanySikhdoessohewillhavetoface punishment.ThereareevensuchresolutionswhichcanbediscussedonlyintheExecutiveand cannotbediscussedeveninthegeneralbody.Sowhateverwasdecidedinthemeetingcannever betoldtoanyone,evenifIlosemyheadforit. Inspector:Tellusonlythenamesofthepersonswhowerewithyou.Atleasttellusthenamesof thosewhohaveturnedagainstyoubecausetheirnamesarereallynomoresecrettous. I:Nowyouwantmetospinliesbycoachingtheapprovers.Youhavealreadyblackenedtheir faces.Iconsideritasintotalktopersonslikeyou. Inspector:(Disappointed)Itisourdutytocomehereanditisourdutytoquestionyou. I:YouhavenorighttoaskmeanyquestionbecauseyouareneitheraJudgenorJury. Inspector:Itisontheirbehalfweareinvestigating. I:Beitso.Thenyourcourtsandyourmagistratesandjudgesalsomustbeasfalseasyouare.I wanttomakeonethingclear.Ihavefullcontrolovermyownselfandnobodycancompelmeto tellalie.Afterthisdiscussiontheywentaway. Nowyouaskme,whydidIputupadefenceatall?ImusttellyouplainlyandfranklythatIdidnot putupmydefenceeithertosavemylifeorforpersonalends.Iamnotworriedaboutwhatpeople think.IwasneverafraidtodieandbythegraceoftheGuru,thethoughtofsavingmylifenever cametomymindevenforamoment.AtthattimeIdidjustwhatIfeltwaspropertodo.Iwould liketomakeitveryclearthatifinnumerableotherfriendswerenotinvolvedinthecaseandifI alonehadbeenarrestedIwouldnothaveputupanydefence.InthatcaseIwouldeitherhave remainedsilentorfearlesslygivenouttheplan. Mymindthesedaysrarelygoestooldhappenings.Youhavehowevercompelledmetorecordall theseincidentsmuchagainstmywishes.Whatisthereinanautobiographyofapersonlikeme? Thesooneryougiveupthiscrazethebetter.Ihavealsodevelopedaweaknesstofulfilyour wishes.NowadaysIdonotreflectaboutthepast,thatiswhyIrequestyoutowritewhateveryou likeaboutmylifeandworkaftermydeath.ButyoukeeponinsistingonitsomuchthatIamalso driftinginthechannelofyourdesires.

Eventhoughyouwereimprisonedforashorttime,youwereallalongwithusduringthe prosecutionperiodandthecourtproceedings.Itisstrange,thatofallthepeopleyouaskmenow, asifyouwereanoutsiderthen,astowhatwasthecauseofputtingupdefence.Doyounotknow thatwhateverwassaidanddonebymewasdoneafterconsultingallfreedomfighterswhowere imprisonedalongwithme?IfyouhaveanyapprehensionevennoworanyinformationthatI joinedtheideaofputtingupdefencejusttosavemylife,thenwhoismorecompetentaseye witnessthanyouandothercoprisonerswhoarestillinprisontoclearlystateallfacts.Whatisthe necessityofaskingme?Youcanfearlesslystatethetruthandexpressyourviewsonthesubject.It isquitepossiblethatifImadeamistakeatanystage,Ihaveremainedignorantofsuchfactsso far.PossiblyIdonotknowmyownpersonalweaknesses,becauseIamanordinaryhumanbeing withallhumanfrailties.GodandtheGurualoneareperfect.Everyoneisliabletoerror.Beyond thisIcannotsayanythingonthesubject. IdonotrememberwhattheimmediatecauseofputtingupdefencewasbutIdorememberand thisisdeeplyengravedonthetabletofmyheartthatIdidnotputupthedefenceeitheroutof fearofdeathoroutoffearofanyphysicalsuffering.Whateverhappenedwasdoneaccordingto thecollectivewishesoftheSangat.

CHAPTER11INTHEMULTANPRISON (letterNo.8fromRajahmundryPrisontoGianiNaharSingh.) IDIDNOTwishtowriteanythingmoreaboutmylifestory,butsinceyouinsistsomuchIfeelit difficulttodisappointyou.IamnowwritingtoyouabriefaccountoftheprisonlifeafterIwas sentencedtolifeimprisonment(BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwasgivenlifeimprisonment transportationforlifeandhispropertywasforfeitedtotheGovernmenton30thMarch1916,after whichhewasimmediatelytakentoMultanPrisoninthefirstweekofApril1916).Iwasnotinthe leastdisturbedwhenlifesentencewaspronounced.Butintheprisoncellwhenaboutsevenor eightpeople,forciblydeprivedmeofmyturban,thekach(trouser),thecombandtheironbangle, theresuddenlyfellaterribledarknessbeforemyeyes.SimilarlytheagedBabaRamSinghwhowas intheprisoncelloppositeminewasforciblydeprivedoftheSikhsymbols. WhenIfurthercametoknowthattheprisonersintheeasternBlockwerebeatenandmaltreated, IwassoseriouslyupsetthatforthefirsttimeinmylifemyusualfortitudetoabidebytheWillof GodwasshakenandIfeltextremelygrievedanddisillusioned.FortunatelyBhaiAttarSinghwasin thethirdcelladjacenttomine.IbeggedhimtorecitetheGurbani(sacredhymns).Hewasalready thinkingofdoingso.Heatoncestartedpouringtheambrosialshowersofthesoothinghymns.The spiritualpoweroftheinspiringhymnsrestoredthepoiseofmymindandgaveitstrengthand moralsupport.Oncemorethespiritsoaredhighandtearsofloveandsorrowrolleddownmy eyes,andtheinscrutablewillofGodappearedtobesweeterthanever. ThefruitswhichIwasgivenfromoutsidewerestopped.Iwasnotallowedtocookmyfoodnor couldIhaveitpreparedbyanybrotherSikh.SoIhadtogoonfast.Onthesecondnightafterthe eveningprayerHeadWarderPohuRambroughtabasketoffruitwhichwassecretlysentbyJailer NawabBeg.Hehadsentitespeciallyformeandspentmoneyfromhisownpocket.Heinstructed theHeadWardertogivethemtomeonly.IaskedtheHeadWarderhowcouldaheartlessand callouspersonlikehimbesogenerous.HeinformedmethatintheeveningtheJailer,the Superintendentandtheirstaffcametoseeme.Hewasalsowiththem.Iwassittingindeep meditation.ForfifteenminutesthewholestaffstoodtherewatchingmebutIwasnotconscious oftheirpresence.Iwassittingindeepmeditationandinundisturbedsamadhi.Thestaffcouldnot evenhearmybreathing.Onseeingmeinsuchaconditiontherewasastrangeinfluenceonthem andnooneevendaredtocallme.Silentlytheyallwentback.Onseeingmeinthisconditioneven thestoneheartedjailerwasdeeplymovedanditisunderthisspiritualinfluencehesentabasket offruit. TheHeadWarderexpressedthehopethatIwouldacceptit.Heopenedthebasketinmy presence.ItoldhimthatIwillhavetoshareitwithmybrotherprisonerssomeofwhomdidnot getanyfood,soIaskedhimtodistributethefruittotheprisonersandtakebackwhatwasleft.I alsoaskedhimtothankJailerNawabBeg.Unhesitatinglyhequietlyacceptedmysuggestionand distributedthefruittotheprisonersandshowedmethepeeledoffskinsofthefruittoconvince methathehadgiventhefruittothem.Onlythen,Iacceptedmyshareofthefruit.Hecarried awayallthepeeledoffskinsfrommycell.Iaskedhimnottodosuchmenialservice,ashewasa Brahmin.HerepliedthathewasnotaBrahminindeedsbutagreatsinnerandasinnerdeserved todosuchajob.Besides,hetookpleasureindoingwhatIrequestedhimtodo.Hedidnotwishto leaveanysignofthefruitsintheprisoncells.ThiswasallIwasgiventoeatduringmystayinthe Lahoreprison.

OnthesecondorthirddayweweretakenouttostartourjourneytoMultanprison.Itwasatthis timeImetsomebrotherprisoners.ImetBhaiDalipSinghforthelasttimehere.Alongwithyou (GyaniNaharSingh)wesetoutforMultanbytrain.Youknowverywellhowweallgottogetherin greatjoyandloveandhowwemetBhaiRamSinghofGujjarwal,BhaiArjanSinghofJagraonand MaiHarKauronourarrivalatthestation.MaiHarKaurgavemetworupees.Igaveonerupeeto mycompanionandtheotheronerupeewasspentongettingsomefruitwhichalltheprisoners sharedatMultanRailwayStation.YouwereseparatedfromusatMontgomerystation.I rememberthatpainfulmomentofseparationwhenBabaRamSingh,BhaiHarbhajanSingh,Bhai MohinderSinghandotherspartedfromus,intearsandsorrow.ItwasourlastmeetingandIhave notbeenabletomeetyoualltillnow. Idistinctlyfeltatthatmomentthatitwasalongseparationlikethestreampartingfromtheriver, butIamconvincedthatthespiritualunionistherealunionandwearespirituallyneverseparated. Thisfeelinginspiredmewithgreaterblissanddeepfeelingsoflove.Otherbrotherprisonersalso feltsadatthemomentofourseparation.WhenwereachedtheMultanstationagenerous InspectorofPolicebroughtfruitsworthtwelveannasandsugarworthfourannas.Thus,arupee wesavedoutofthetworupeesgivenbyMaiHarKaur,wasusedforacquiringsimplefood.We hadtakenthislittlefoodaftermanydaysofstarvation.SuchwasperhapsthesweetwillofGod. Anywaywegotthisfoodjustbeforefacingmorehardships,trialsandtribulations.Thuswe reachedMultanjail. TorturesbyJailerSadaNand Onseeingourbareheads,theDarogaSadaNandofMultanprisonbecameenraged(Turbanswere forciblytakenfromallSikhprisonersandprisoncapsoffered,whichtheyvehementlyrefusedto wear).Heimmediatelygaveorderthatweshouldwearcaps.Iangrilyretorted,"Donotdareto forceustowearcaps.Itisagainstourfaithandwewillnottolerateanysuchinsultingthing.You shouldnotevenmentionthenameofcapstous.Thereisnopowerintheworldwhichcancompel ustoputoncapsonourhead.Wewillsacrificeourlifebutwewillneverallowyoutoputacapon ourhead". Onhearingthisstrongroaringresentment,thatrascalkeptquietandslippedawaybuthewas boilingwithbitterrage.Heatoncewroteordersthatweshouldbeimmediatelyputtohardlabour. Weappealedtohissenseofhumanityandrequestedhimtogiveusatleastalittlerestaftersuch alongtiresomejourneyinchainsandtopermitustotakesomefood.Wehadtakenourbathon therailwaystation.ButSadaNanddidnotcareastrawforanyofourappealsandheimmediately issuedwrittenordersforthehardestlabour. InthemeanwhiletheMedicalOfficeroftheprisonMr.NarainDascamethere.Hewasavery gentleandnobleperson.ItoldhimofthestrangeordergivenbyJailerSadaNandforhardlabour evenwithoutgettingourmedicalinspection.TheJailerwasnotauthorizedtodoso.TheMedical Officerimmediatelystartedthemedicalinspectionoftheprisonersandevenagainsthis recommendation;theJailergaveordersforhardlabour.Hehimselfwrotetheorderonourtickets whichcanstillbeexamined.Myweighthadfallenfrom134lbsto108lbs.OverandabovethisI wentwithoutfoodformanydays.ThejourneyfromLahoretoMultanwastiresomeandaddedto physicalexhaustion.Therewasnoarrangementforprovidingfood.UndertheseconditionsIwas givenfifteenseersofwheattobegroundintoflour,althoughtheMedicalOfficerhadorderedthat Ishouldbegivenrestandfood.Otherprisonerswerealsogivenfifteentoeighteenseersofwheat. Someofusweregiventheworkofpumpingwater.Alltheprisonerswerethrownintoseparate darkcells.Afterthiswedidnotseeeachother.Iwasveryweak.Icouldnotevenliftagrinding

stone.Isilentlylaythereinmycell.Evenwithinthecellwehadtosleeponthefloor.Foranumber ofdaysnooneopenedthedoorandIwasnotevenpermittedtogotothelavatoryortotake bath.JailerSadaNandwasanextremelyruthlessperson.HewasafanaticAryaSamajistandhe considereditpartofhiscreedtoinsultandcauseinjurytomyfaithandcreed.Thirdly,Ispokevery stronglytohimassoonasIarrived.Fourthly,ontheveryfirstdayheorderedeachprisonerto cometohimwhenhegavehisorderforhardlabour.Whenmyturncamehesaidtome"Ihear thatyouaresonofaveryrichman.YourfatherisaHighCourtJudgeandyoualsowerea Tehsildarforsometime.Youwillbeabletopassyourdaysinpeaceifyoudosomethingtoplease me.YoucanunderstandwhatImean".Iatonceunderstoodwhathemeant.Ifearlesslytoldhim thatitwasagainsttheKhalsadharmatoeithertakebribeortogivebribe.Bothwereequally sinful.Secondly,Iwasnotarichman.Iwasonlyarecluse,whohadrenouncedeverything. Personslikemecannotbeforcedtodosuchathing.Iaskedhimalsotoseriouslyconsiderthatwe werethepoliticalprisonersoftheLahoreConspiracycase.Tousjoyandsufferingwerealike.Iwas alreadygreatlyindebtedtomydearfatherforhavingspentthousandsofrupeesonmyeducation uptoB.A.outofwhichhedidnotgetanythinginreturn.Ihadbeenabletodonothingforhim. Thenagainhespentthousandsofrupeesonourdefence.Iwouldnotliketobeaburdenonhim anymore.Iwouldnotcausehimanymoreunnecessarytrouble.Iwouldenduremytroublesand facemydifficultiesmyself.IaskedtheJailernevertomentionsuchathingeithertomeortoany ofmycoprisoners.Onhearingthisreplyhelosthistemperandsaidtome,"AllrightIwillseehow deepyourfaithinSikhismis".ThesewerethereasonswhySadaNandmademeaspecialtargetof physicaltortures.ForanumberofdaysIwaskeptlockedupinadarkandmurkyprisoncell.After manydaysamancameandafteropeningthedoorshookmesaying"Come,youhavetoappear beforetheSuperintendentjail.IwastakenbeforetheSuperintendent. Superintendent:Whydidyounotdotheworkgiventoyouforallthesedays? I:MayIknowwhydidyounotmakeanyarrangementforgivingmesomefoodorwaterorpermit meeventotakebathbutinsistedonlyonhardlabour?DidIgetthishardlabourwiththe permissionoftheMedicalOfficerorbyyourownorders?Youcanseemyphysicalcondition.CanI grindfifteenseersofwheatinthisphysicalcondition?Issuchaseverepunishmentofhardlabour enteredinmywarrantsofsentence?Canthosepoliticalprisonerswhoaregivenlifesentenceor transportationbeevergivensuchhardlabourwhichhasbeenorderedbyyou?Areyoureally authorizedtodosuchathing? Forsomeminutes,theSuperintendentkeptsilent.ThenheaskedJailerSadaNand:"Whyhashe notbeengivenanyfoodforallthesedays?" JailerSadaNand:Sir,herefusedtoeatthefoodwhichweofferhim. Superintendent:(Addressingme)Whydoyouwantaspecialarrangementforyourself?Thisisnot yourhouse.Thisisaprison. I:IamnotworriedaboutanyspecialarrangementImustbegivenmyfoodhoweversimpleitisin accordancewithmyreligioussentiments,otherwiseIwillnotacceptit. Superintendent:Noreligioncanbepractisedintheprison.Youwillhavetoeatwhatyouget, otherwiseyouwillbepunished.

I:Myfaithandprinciplesaredearertomethanlifeitself.Iwillnotbreakmyreligiousprinciplesto savemylife.Youcandowhatyoulike. Superintendent:(Addressinghisassistant)Goandthrowhimintothesameprisoncellandkeepa goodwatchonhim. FortyDaysFastinMultanPrison IwaslockedupinthecellandnoneotherthantheMedicalOfficerandtheJailerwerepermitted tocome.TheMedicalOfficerwasaverygentleandGodfearingmanwhoseheartwasfullofthe milkofhumanity.Hetalkedtomewithsympathyandkindness.Iwouldliketodescribemy conversationwithhimindetailbutIwilldosoatsomeothertimeseparately.Hediscussedthis issuewithmefromthereligiouspointofviewandhewasconvincedthatmyobjectionswere correct. Afterthishedidnotpersuademetotakethefoodwhichwasofferedtome,butstarted recommendingmyfoodaccordingtomyneedsandwishes.Anumberoftimeshetoldthe SuperintendentthatIwantedonlysimplefoodcookedbyaSikhwholivedaccordingtothe principlesofthefaith,andIdidnotseekanyspecialfood.ThiswasmyvowandIwasdetermined tokeepit.TheprisonofficersdidnotlistentotheadviceoftheMedicalOfficerbutwentsofaras tosaythattheydidnotcareifIdiedofhunger. Afterthatnoonecameeithertoannoymeortolookaftermeforsomedays.OnlytheMedical Officercametwiceadayandafterseeingmypulsehewentaway.Wheneverhefoundmeinmy normalconsciousnessheexpressedafewwordsofsympathyalso.Butwhenhefoundme absorbedindeepmeditationhewentawaysilentlywithoutdisturbingme.Whenhesawmeinmy normalconsciousnessheaskedmevariousquestionsaboutreligiouspractices.Hewasdeeply influencedbythesediscussionsandspiritualfeelingswereawakenedinhim.Oneortwospecial guardswerealwayspostedatthedoorofmycell.Sonoonecouldexpresshissympathytome. EverydaytheMedicalOfficergavemetheassurancethathewouldnotinterferewithmyavowed principles,butwouldhelpmeinmyownwishes.Onedayhegotalittlesagopreparedbyaso calledSikh.IwastouchedbyhissympathyandtoldhimtheSikhwhohadprepareditdidnotlive accordingtoanyoftheprinciplesofSikhism.WhenhemadeinquiryhefoundoutthattheSikh hadcommittedallthepatitkarmas(fallendeeds)whichaSikhisnotsupposedtocommit.ASikh ceasestobeaSikhifhedoesso.TheMedicalOfficerwentawaybuthisassistantlefttheboiled sagoinmyroom.TheBrahminwhocleanedtheroomateit.TheBrahminthenreportedtothe AssistantMedicalOfficerthatIhadtakenthefood.BoththeMedicalOfficerandhisassistant camerunningtometoexpresstheirjoy. Iwassittinginmeditationwhenhecamebuthesattheretillmymeditationwasover.Thedoctor askedmewhetherIhadtakenthefoodofferedtome.ItoldhimthatIhadnottakenanything andIdonoknowanythingabouttheplateofsagowhichhadbeeneatenawaybysomeone.The MedicalAssistantleftittherewhentheBrahminwasthereandtheBrahminhadreportedthatI hadtakenit.WhentheBrahminwasstronglyquestionedhesaidthatItriedtotakeitbutcould noteatit.ThenIaskedtheBrahmintogiveittothesweeper.Whenthesweeperwasquestioned healsodeniedthathehadtakenit.Theguardwhowaspostedsaidthatnooneexceptthe Brahmincametomycell.TheBrahminwastrappedinhisownlies.IbeggedtheMedicalOfficer nottopunishhim.FromthatdayeventheBrahminwhocleanedmycellwasnotpermittedto cometomyroom.

ForcedFeeding TwicetheMedicalOfficercametoexaminemeandafterseeingmypulsewentaway.Myinner spiritualconditionwasfullofpeaceandbliss.Dayafterday,Iattainedsublimerstatesthrough meditation.Thus,forfortydaysthefastcontinued,duringwhichperiodIdidnottakeevenadrop ofwater.SomehowthenewsleakedoutthattheSuperintendenthadkeptmewithoutfoodfor manydayswhichhadresultedinmydeath. ForthefirsttimetheSuperintendentwasseriouslyworriedaboutmyconditionandorderedthe MedicalOfficertogiveforcedfeeding.WhentheMedicalOfficergottheseordershewasseriously upsetandcametomewithhisstaff.Hetoldmethathewasnowdutyboundtosendsomefood insidemybodythroughforcedfeeding.Hesoughtforgivenessforbeingcompelledtodosoand nottoblamehimforanyuntowardconsequences.Everythingwasreadyforthisforcedfeeding.I toldtheMedicalOfficerthatIwouldsacrificemylifeformyprinciplesbutIwouldnotallowadrop ofliquidfoodtogoinmybody. MedicalOfficer:Howcanyoupreventusfromforcefeedingwhentheauthoritieshavegivenme somanystrongmentouseforceandcompelyoutoeat?Idonotwishtopracticeanycruel methodnorwillIusemuchforce.Iwillsendsomemilkthroughforcefeedingintoyourstomach andforthisIbegyourforgiveness. I:Ihavenobodilystrengthforanyphysicalstrugglewithyourmen,butIwillcertainlyusemy spiritualpowerstopreventit. MedicalOfficer:Howcanyoudothat? I:WhenyoutrytopumpmilkintomybodyIwilltakemyparanashakti(vitalbreath)totheTenth SeatofConsciousness(dasamduar)asaresultofwhichmybreathingwillstopandnotadropof liquidwillgointomybody.Itisonlywiththehelpofthebreathingprocessthatliquidcangoin. Whenthatissuspendednothingwillgoinside.Evenifadroportwoarepushedin,itwillnot mattermuch.Iamnotworriedabouttherisksinvolved. MedicalOfficer:Isthereanyriskordangerinthat? I:Iwouldnotliketoexplainanyfurtherbutbecauseyouhavebeenverysympatheticandkindand yourgenerosityhasdeeplyimpressedmeIconsideritasinnottotellyouthewholetruthandto revealthesecretofthisspiritualaction.WhenyoutrytousephysicalforceIwillwithdrawmyvital breathandcarryittotheTranscendentState.Asmybodyisveryweakandmybrainwhichisthe seatofsuperconsciousnesshasalsobecomeverysensitive,itisquitepossiblethatinthisspiritual struggleagainstforcedfeedingmyparanashakti(vitalbreath)maybreakthroughtheskulland leavethebody.Iamnotworriedaboutthebody,nordoIconsidersuchadeathtobesuicide.My mainpurposeistokeepmyvitalbreathinsuperconsciousstatetillyouaretiredofforcedfeeding butitisquitepossiblethatitmayleadtomydeath.WhatIamreallyworriedaboutisthatyou maybeblamedforkillingme.Youwhohavebeensokindandsympathetictomeshouldnotbe blamedforunwittinglykillingyourowncountryman.Thisistheonlythoughtthatworriesme.For methereisnootherwaylefttoprotectmyprinciplesexceptthisone.Iwillcertainlyusethese spiritualpowers.NowIleavethewholemattertoyouandIbidyougoodbye. Onhearingthis,theMedicalOfficerwasseriouslyupset.Heatonceorderedhismentotakeaway theinstrumentsofforcedfeeding.Hesaidthathewillneveruseforcedfeedingonme,evenifhe

wasremovedfromhispostimmediately.Hewassodeeplymovedthathefearlesslygaveorders thatIshouldbegivenfruits.Butnoonecompliedwiththisorder.Hebroughtonemuskmelonfor mewhichIjoyfullytook.AfterthistheMedicalOfficerkeptmeunderhisownspecialsupervision, andregularlybroughtfruitsforme. Hewrotethreepagesonmyhistorysheetaboutmyfortyday'sfastandexplainedtheconditions andreligiousprinciplesonwhichIundertookthatfast.Healsowrotethataftertestingmeforty dayshegaveordersthatfruitsshouldbegiventome.Healsowrotemanyothergoodthings aboutmeforwhicharestillonmyhistorysheet.Hewrotethathehadneverseenanymansurvive withouttakingfoodorwaterforfortydays.Ihaddefiedthelawofnatureandperformedalmost animpossiblefeat.ItisonlythroughsomesupernaturalpowersthatIsurvivedwithoutanyfood andwaterforfortydays.Thushemadesomesincerelyfrankandfactuallytruthfulstatements aboutmyfast.ThisnobleMedicalOfficerstruggledveryhardtoprocuremyrightsforme. Otherprisonofficersdideverythingtoputobstaclesinhisway.Thefirstthingtheydidwasto refusetosanctionanymoneyforfruits.TheMedicalOfficergavetheordersforprovidingfruitson medicalgroundsbuttheJailergottheorderscancelledbytheSuperintendent.Nowandthenone ortwomuskmelonswerebroughtwhichItookwithalittlesalt.ThentheMedicalOfficer persuadedtheSuperintendenttoprocuremilkformethroughagoodSikh.Itwasnotpossibleto liveonmuskmelonalone.Myweighthadfailedto96lbs.Hemadearrangementtoprocurethe milkinthefollowingway.HewenttotheMultanGurdwaraandenquiredwhethertherewasa SikhwholivedaccordingtothetenetsofSikhismandwhocouldprocuremilkandcarryitina cleanironvesseldailytotheprison.Healsotoldthemmywholestory.Atlasthewasabletogeta SikhwholivedaccordingtotheSikhcodeofconductthoughheconfessedthathecouldnotclaim tobeasorthodoxasIwas.HelivedaccordingtothemajortenetsofSikhismbutinmattersof discriminationinfoodhecouldnotfollowsuchstrictrulesasadoptedbyme.Buthegenerallysaid hisprayersbeforehepreparedhisfood.OnthewholeheledafairlywelldisciplinedSikhlikelife. TheMedicalOfficercametomeandtoldmeallthethingsaboutthatSikh.Ireadilyaccepted anythingbroughtbyhim.IknewtheMedicalOfficerhadinvestigatedproperlyandhewastelling thetruth.JailerSadaNandwhohadgreatinfluenceonSuperintendentoncemoreinterferedin thematterandsaidthatnoonecouldentertheprison.TheMedicalOfficersuggestedthatI shouldgototheprisongateandgetthemilkfromthemanwhobringsthemilkfromoutside.The gatekeepercouldpreventmefromtalkingtohim.TheJailersuggestedtotheSuperintendentthat someservantoftheprisonwillhavetocarrythemilkfromthegatetomycell.TheMedicalOfficer toldthemandIwillnotacceptsuchathing.TheMedicalOfficerthenaskedmewhetherIwould haveanyobjectionifhebroughtthemilkvesselinabasketthroughaSikhinmateoftheprison. SeeingtheaffectionandthegoodwishesoftheMedicalOfficerIagreed.TheMedicalOfficerwas extremelypleased,buttheJailerSadaNandagainstoodinthewayanddidnotallowhimtobring milk.Ijustboiledsomesagoinwaterandtookit.Thensomeroastedgramseedswerealso brought.ThusIspentnearlyayearandahalfinMultanprisononsuchpoordiet.Ihavenowords toexpressmygratitudetoBhaiIqbalSingh,BhaiSunderSinghandBhaiBakhshishSinghwhotook extraordinarycareofmyhealth. TheSuperintendentwasthensuddenlytransferred.HecametomeandtoldmethatIhadgivena badnametohimandwasthecauseofhistransferbecausehehadbecomeveryunpopular.He hadbeentransferredtoaplacewherehedidnotwishtogo.IaskedhimhowwasIresponsiblefor scandalisinghim.Hesaid,"SomebodygaveoutthenewsthatIhadstarvedyoutodeath.On hearingthis,yourrelativescameherebutIdidnotpermitthemtomeetyou,becauseIwas seriouslyannoyedbyyou,sotheyhadtogoback".

Ireplied,"Soyouhavegotwhatyoudeserved.Howdoyoublamemeforit?Ihavenotscandalized you,butyourcrimesandsinshavescandalizedyou.Youtriedyourbesttokillmebylettingme starve.Youalmostgavemeupfordead.BythegraceofGodIhavesurvived.Thewayyouhave treatedmyrelativeswhocametomeetmetothisfarflungplaceshowsyourheartlessnessand folly.Eveniftheyhadsomedoubtsaboutmydeaththroughtortures,youractionmusthave convincedthem,thatyouhavekilledme.Ifyouhadallowedthemtoseemetheywouldatleast haveknownthatIamliving.Butyoudidnotallowthemeetingforfearthattheymaycometo knowhowcruellyIwastreated." Thenextdayhelefttheprisonontransfer.Idonotknowhowfarhewastellingthetruth.Itis fromhimthatIcametoknowthatthenewsaboutmyilltreatmenthadleakedouttothepress.I alsodidnotbelievethatthenewspaperscouldfindcouragetoprintsuchnews.Duringthosedays horribletortureswereperpetratedandthenewspapersdidnotdaretoprintawordaboutthem. ThetorturesandthecrueltreatmentwhichIandmaycompanionshadtoundergowereso terriblethatcomparedtothemthedifficultieswhichpoliticalprisonersofthenoncooperation movement(ofGandhiperiod)areencountering,arequiteinsignificant.Atpresentthepresshasa littlemorefreedomandthereisconsiderablepoliticalawakening.Eventheslightestoppression andcrueltyoftheprisonofficialbecomesknowntotheworldatlarge.Allthepoliticalprisonersof thenoncooperationmovementwhohavecomeherearesurprisedtoreadonmyhistoryticket therecordofthetorturesIhaveundergone.Therealstoryoftheprisonlifecanbeknownby copyingthishistorysheetwordbyword,butitappearsthatitisnotpossible. WhenthenewSuperintendentcameheeasilybecameavictimoftheevilinfluenceofJailerSada Nand.Myonlysympathizer,thegenerousandkindMedicalOfficerDr.NarianDaswasalsotrans ferredearlier.JailerSadaNandoncemorestartedputtingmetohardlabourandtorture. PhysicallyIwassoweakthatIcouldnotperformanyhardlabour,butitwasforcedonme.It becameimpossibleformetoworkbeyondmyphysicalstrength.Asaresultofthis,Ihadto undergoonepunishmentafteranother.Attimesanumberofpunishmentsweregiven simultaneously.IntheburningheatofMultanwheretemperaturewentupto120F,Iwastiedto thetreeswithcrossbaronmyfeetandhandsfetteredabove.Overandaboveitacanvasstrait jacketwasalsoputon.Ourironchainsandhandcuffsbecamesohotthatmyarmsbegantobleed. Bloodstarteddrippingfromthebodyandevenfromthenose.Wewereleftallaloneinthis conditionintheopensun.Notadropofwaterwasgiveneithertodrinkortocleanthebleeding nose.AstheSikhsstood,tiedtodifferenttrees,theysangloudlythehymnsoftheGuruGranth SahibandinpeaceandsilencesufferedthetorturesacceptingitastheWillofGod.Ouronly sustenancewasthespiritualhymnsoftheGuruGranthSahibwhichgaveusunboundedmoral andspiritualcouragetoendurethoseterribletortures.Thesetorturesweregivencontinuouslyfor daysandmonths.Whennightswerecoldweweremadetostandwithhandsupallnightsinthe openthroughoutthebittercoldseason. AtlasttheSuperintendentgaveusanewpunishment.Heorderedthatweshouldbefloggedbut theNewMedicalOfficerwroteonmyhistoryticket,"healthveryweak,unfitforflogging".Butmy companionsBhaiHarnamSinghofGujjarwalwasgivenfifteenwhipsandBhaiHariSinghof Amritsardistrictwasgiventhirtywhips.TheauthoritieswereannoyedwhentheMedicalOfficer refusedtoallowmetobeflogged.Theyhowevergothimtransferred.ThenanewMedicalOfficer aMuslimcamethere.BoththeSuperintendentandJailerSadaNandapproachedhimtosanction floggingforme.Theyaskedhimtoallowatleastfivewhippingswithacane.Alltheprisonersin Multanprisonwereseriouslyupsetwhentheycametoknowaboutit.

ThenewMedicalOfficeraskedmetomeethiminthehospital.WhenIwenttherehesaidtome "theSuperintendenthasaskedmetorecommendfloggingonyourbody". I:Itisgoodnews.TheyhavebeenwaitingforalongtimeforsomeMedicalOfficertorecommend flogging.Theyaredeterminedtosatisfythisruthlesscraving.Theyareyoursuperiorofficers.Ifyou donotobeythemtheywillputyouintotrouble.AsformeyouneednotworryIwillacceptitas theWillofGod.Itappearsmybodywasmadetoenduresuchtorture. MedicalOfficer:Iwillcertainlyneverdothat.Iamnotgoingtofavouranybody.Iwillonlydo justice.Hethenstartedexaminingmybodyveryclosely.Afterthoroughexaminationforhalfan hourhewroteonmyhistoryticket"Heartveryweak,unfitforflogging,fitforlightworkonly". AtthattimemyheartwasbeatingloudlywiththerhythmofdivineNameanditsmusic.The MedicalOfficerthoughtthatmyheartbeatwasabnormal.WhentheMedicalOfficerwrotethese wordsonthehistoryticket,theSuperintendentandJailerSadaNandfeltterriblycrushed.Outof angertheymademestandintheopensunalldayandsometimesallnightforanotherweek.The bodywasnowsoweakandfrailthatIwasreducedtoaskeleton.BythegraceofGuruandbythe constantmeditationandsingingofGurbani(Guru'shymns),myspiritualstrengthandpowers wereattheirhighestpitch.Thencamewinter.Justasitisextremelyhotinthehotseason,Multan isextremelycoldinthecoldseason.Dayandnightbitingcoldwindwascontinuouslyblowing. Nowtheytookawayourcanvasstraitjacketsandalsoourblankets.Duringthethreeextremely coldmonthsofNovember,DecemberandJanuaryweweremadetostandallnightwithchainson ourhandsandfeetandwithnoclothesexceptasmallunderwear,andalittleheadcover. Sometimesweweremadetositallnightonthecoldfloor.TheinnerwarmthofdivineSongsand thedivineNamewastheonlythinginwhichwemergedourmindandsoulandspentthemost bitterlycoldmonthsoftheyear.Ourbodiesbecamenumbandlostallphysicalconsciousness,but bythegraceoftheGodwecontinuouslyrecitedandcontemplatedtheSukhmaniandthe meditationofthedivineNamecontinuedwithunbrokenconcentration.Thusinthatterribleagony wedidnotfeelthepain.Insorrowweknewnosorrow.Otherwisethefreezingcoldmighthave endedourlifeinafewdays.ThisisthebriefaccountofourlifeinMultanjail,buttherealstory canbefullystudiedifmyhistorysheetiscopiedwordforword.Ihavebrieflynarratedthefew thingsIremember.FromMultanwewenttoHazaribagh.Youcanknowtheaccountsofour HazaribaghprisonlifefromBhaiAttarSingh.Itisnotnecessaryformetowritethem.Whatever happenedafterheleftHazaribagh,Iwillwriteinsomeotherletter.NowIfeeltiredandexhausted andallthepaperswhichIhadarealsoexhausted. Thisisthestoryofmyplight Overithasfallenthenight ItissohotherethatIamsweatingasIamwritinganddonotknowwhatmoretowritenow.The conditionintheseprisonsisfarbetterthanthehellishlifeIhadtoleadinthePunjabprison.There isnodifficultyhereandthereisnotmuchworkhere.Thewaterinthisplaceishealthierbutthe climateofHazaribaghanditsbeautifulsceneryallaroundwhichwasgoodforspiritualconcentra tionismissinghere.Thereishowevermuchmorefreedomhere.Theofficersaregentleand generous;thatiswhywedonotfeelheatoftheclimate.WecanmoveaboutfreelyandIam perfectlyhappyandinblissfulcondition.Itishowever,veryhotherethoughtherehasbeensome rainrecentlyandheatisless.Conveymyhumblegreetingstoallthefriends.

CHAPTER12FROMMULTANTOHAZARIBAGHPRISON BEFOREWRITINGABOUTourexperiencesinHazaribaghprison,Imustdescribeanimportant incidentaboutwhichIforgottowriteinmyaccountofMultanprisonlife.Afterfortydays'fast, withoutevenadropofwater,MedicalOfficerwassenttomycellforforcedfeeding,butonhis ownresponsibilitytheMedicalOfficergaveordersthatIshouldbegivenfruits.Hisorderswere notobeyed.IprayedtoGodtosavethiskindhearteddoctorfromanyfurthertrouble.Aftersome timethedeputycommissionerandsomeotherofficerssuddenlycametomycellandgavemea turbanandreligioussymbols,suchasironbangleandcomb.Theyinformedmethattheprovincial GovernmenthadstronglyrecommendedthedemandthatallSikhprisoners(politicalorotherwise) begiventurbansinsteadofcapsandtheyshouldbegiventherighttokeepreligioussymbolsalso. ThematterwasnowwiththeViceroy'sCouncil,whereabilllegalisingtherightsoftheSikh prisonerstowearturbanandothersymbolswasexpectedtobepassedshortly.SoonallSikh prisonersinIndiawouldgetturbansandreligioussymbols.Butthedeputycommissionerhad givensecretinstructionstoallowmetowearturbanandreligioussymbolsonhisown responsibility.Nowthatoneofmymajordemandshadbeenaccededto,Iwasaskedtogiveup fastandexpressmygratefulnesstotheGovernmentforit.Indeepinwardthankfulnesstomy GuruandGod,IpassedintoSamadhiuttering,Glory,GloryuntoGod.Thedeputycommissioner askedmewhatIwasdoinginsilence: I:IamexpressingmygratefulnesstoGod. D.C.:WhydoyounotthanktheBritishSarkar(Government)? I:IamgratefultomytrueSovereign(Sarkar). MymindwasthenoverwhelmedbytheblessednessofGod,andinthismoodIquietlylaydown onmymattressandbroodedoverHisgrace.TheD.C.andotherofficersleftmeinthiscondition. Intheeveningmynoblebenefactor,theMedicalOfficer,broughtawatermelonforme.Ithanked himforallhehaddone,becauseitwashisreportandcorrespondencewiththehigherauthorities thathadsecuredmetherighttowearSikhsymbolsandthefoodIrequired.Dr.NarianDas humblysaid:"ItisyourdeepFaithinGodthathasbeenrewarded.Youaregivingmethecreditfor itfornothing.AnywayweshouldbegratefultoGodforthegracioushelpHehasrendered."Iwas deeplymovedbythesenoblewordswhichremindedmethatIshouldbegratefultoGodalone, andnotflatteranyhumanbeing:"ForgetThyselfandliveinutterdedicationtotheGuru."Any way,IhadnotexpressedmygratefulnesstotheMedicalOfficertoflatterhimortowinhisfavour. HisnobilityhadtouchedmedeeplyandIhadgenuineadmirationforhischaracter.Ithankedhim, andpraisedhim.IprayedthatGodmayinfuturesavemefromanytendencytoflatteranyhuman beingforanybenefitthatImayreceive.HardlyfifteenminuteshadpassedwhentheJailDaroga SadaNandcameanddeprivedmeofmyturban.Ifeltmyvanityhadbeenpunished: Wellitwas,thatreverencewasrestored, Iutterlyforgotmyself. AfterthatdayIwouldgetfromsomesourceortheotherturbansandunderwears.Manytimeswe weredeprivedofthembytheJailauthorities.ThuspassedtheterribledaysinMultanPrison.The winterandsummerwerebothtortuous.Thesummerseasonwasparticularlyunbearable.Either weweremadetostandintheopensun,chainedinburningfetterswhenthetemperatureroseto

nearlyboilingpointorweweregenerallylockedincellswhichwereashotasanoven.Thesight wasunbearableandtheagonyandsufferingmighthaveendedourlifewithinthreeorfouryears.I tookitasapenanceenforcedbytheWillofGod: Whatmattersifmybodyisfrailandweak? IwouldbeseriouslyupsetifThylovedeparts. AdiGranth:RaviDas:Asa:p.486 ThiswasmyfeelingandIwasnotafraidofdeath: Iamnotafraidtodie, Iaspirenottosurvive. GuruNanak:SriRag:p.20 ThisdetachmentofthespirithadinfusedinmethedeepermoodofabidingbytheWillofGod. ThosewholovetheGurusincerelyareunderhiseternalprotection.ThemercilessPrison authoritieshadleftnostoneunturnedintheircruelattemptstokillme.ButGodwilledit otherwise.WesuddenlyreceivedorderstobetransferredfromMultanJail.Butwewerenottold whereweweretobetaken.SadaNandgaveusonlythismuchinformationthatallpolitical prisonerssentencedtosevenormoreyearswouldnotbekeptinPunjabJails.Norwouldtheybe takentoAndamanIslands.SomenewconcentrationcampsandprisonsinIndiahadbeenallotted tous. SixofusweretakenunderstrongguardtotheMultanCantonmentRailwaystation,withintwo hoursafterthetransferorderarrived.OntheRailwaystationwemetfivemorecompanionsfrom theMultanDistrictJail.Althoughwewereheavilychainedweembracedeachotheratthishappy meeting.Wewereextremelydelightedatthischancemeeting.WenowsawthatthePrison authoritiesweremakingarrangementsforaverylongjourney.Specialcarriagesclosedfromboth sidesbyironbarswerereservedforus.Largeearthenvesselsfullofwaterwerekeptinside.Ialso keptone,especiallyformyself.Ididnotgetanytimetopreparemyfood.AtSahiwalrailway stationtwomorecompanionsjoinedus.ItisatSahiwalwegotsomeinformationthatwewere beingtakentoHa2aribaghPrison.Asthetrainmovedon,aSikhDarogaandaSikhDoctorwere attachedtoourtraintolookafterus.AlargecontingentofpoliceunderthecommandofMr. Beattywassentasvigilanceforcealongwiththeseprisoners.(Thenamesofthefivecompanions ofBhaiSahibRandhirSinghfromMultanDistrictjailwereBhaiGujjarSinghBhakna,Amritsar District,BhaiGandaSinghNihang,Vill:SurSingh,Lahore,BhaiKaramSinghTatKhalsa,KotlaAjner, DistrictLudhiana,BhaiMastanSinghNarangwal,Ludhiana,BhaiSunderSinghDolunangal, Amritsar.TwowhojoinedfromSahiwalwereBhaiKirpalSinghLangmajari,BhaiHamamSinghof KalaSingha.ThenamesofhisCentraljailMultan,fivecompanionswereJinderSinghVill.Choudhry, Amritsar,BhaiGandaSinghNihangII,BhaiPakharSinghofDhudike,BhaiHariSinghofKakar, Amritsar,BhaiSuchaSingh,Cholha,Amritsar.) ThisMr.Beatty,wasthesamemanwhowasthepoliceofficerondutyduringthetrialofthe ConspiracycasesbeforetheSpecialTribunalatLahore.Hewasnowpromotedforhisservice duringthatperiodandmadetheSuperintendentofpolice.Lateronwecametoknowthathewas themanpostedondutyduringtheGurukaBaghtragedywhereheposedasatigerbeforethe nonviolentagitators.Butinourpresencehestartedbehavingastimidlyasalamb.Wewondered howsuchachickenheartedpersonbecamesuchaterrorduringthelaterperiodoffreedom movement.Hetriedtoterroriseusbutwhenwesnubbedhimheavoidedaclash.UptoDelhi Railwaystationhedidnotgiveusanythingtoeatalthoughhewassupposedtogiveusfoodworth

Rs.2daily.AllmycompanionsbecamemutinousassoonastheyreachedDelhistation.Oneof themloudlyproclaimed:"Ifwearetodieofhunger,letusbeatthisrascalBeattytodeathbefore wedie."Everyonewasinamoodtorevoltandpreparedtofightforfood. Mr.BeattyunderstoodPunjabitosomeextent.HeatoncerelentedandaddressingmeinEnglish urgedmetocalmdownmycompanionsandhewouldprocurethemwhatevertheyaskedfor.He gavemeassuranceofexcellenttreatmentofprisonersandbeggedmeinthenameofGodtosave himfromfurthertroubleandcalmdownmycompanions.Hepromisedtoprovideeverythingwe required."Savemyhonour,"hesaid,"otherwiseImaynotonlylosemychanceoffurther promotionbutalsomaybepunishedforfomentingtrouble."Iassuredhimthatifhistreatment continuedtobehumaneduringthetrainjourney,heneednotfearanything.Noonewouldcause himanytrouble.Hewasextremelydelightedongettingthisassuranceandimmediatelystarted reprimandinghisIndiansubordinatesforneglectingtheprisoners.Heatonceprocured, sweetmeats,fruits,ice,milk,andhalwapuris.Hewouldtelegraphicallyorderdeliciousfoodon everymajorstation,sothattheprisonerscouldgetitassoonasthetrainreachedthatstation.He wouldagainandagaincometomeandask:"SardarSahib,doyourequireanythingelse.Justorder andIwillmakearrangementforit,"andthenhewouldwhisperinmyears:"Pleasesavemy honour.Ishouldnotbeblamedforannoyingtheprisoners."Hetrembledfromheadtofoot whenevertheideacametohimthatiftheprisonersrevoltedtheywouldbeoutofhiscontrol.He knewthatthesepoliticalprisonersdidnotbelieveinanysheepishnonviolence.Throughoutthe journeyheshoweddeepconcernfortherequirementsoftheprisoners.Ihadtodependonsome fruitswhichwerenoteasilyavailable.Astherewasnoarrangementforcooking,Iwentwithout food.Afewbagsofjaggeryweretherewhichtheprisonersconsumed.Theprisonersuseditfor makingcolddrinks.Ialsogotmyshareofit.Thewatervesselsweregenerallyrefilledonbig stations. Thustheprisonersmovedoninthetrainhappilyenjoyingfoodandsingingdivinesongstothe tuneoftheirclankingchains.Kirtan(SingingoftheGuru'shymns)continuedthroughoutthe journey.WheneverthetrainstoppedonastationwelookedoutofthewindowforsomeSikh brotherorpatriotwhomwecouldgreet.Butthoseweredayswhenthepeoplewerecompletely petrifiedandutterlydemoralizedbytheterrorsofBritishRaj.Noonedaredtocomenearthe train.Ourveryfacesfrightenedthosewhomwegreeted.Wewerethirstingforaglimpseofa brotherSikhbutthegeneralattitudeofthepeoplewasverydisappointing.EvenattheAmritsar RailwaystationwheretherewerecrowdsofSikhsnoonedaredtogreetus.Assoonaswegreeted themtheyranawaywithoutansweringus.SuchwastheterrorcreatedbyBritishImperialism duringthosedays.Jullundurpassed.ThencameourhometownLudhiana.Exiled,imprisoned, cruellyseparatedfromeveryone,Iyetthought,Ludhianatobemyownhometown.Thoughall tieswerebrokentheattachmentforLudhianastilllingered.Andyetthethoughtwaspainfulthatit wasatLudhianaIwasinterned.Thepeopleandfriendsofthisplacehadbetrayedmeandwere thecauseofallthesorrowofprisonlife.Mostofthefriendshadprovedtreacherous.Stillsome personalattachmentforLudhianalingeredinmymind.Itwasfalsevanity. Whenthemindisexiled, Thewholecountryisalien; TowhommayIshow, Mydeepwoundsofsorrow. GuruNanak:RagSuhi,p.767.

YetIwasanxioustomeetsomebrotherSikh.Ihopedtorecognisesomeoneandgetsomenews aboutmywifeandchildren.ButGodwilleditotherwise.Heperhapswantedtoremovethelast tracesofhumanattachment.Notasoulwastobeseenontheplatform.Noonedaredtocome nearus.WecouldseegroupsofSikhsatadistance.Igreetedthematthetopofmyvoicebutfrom theirfrightenedlooksitappearedthattheydidnotdaretoanswermygreetings.Itwasacrimeto greetapoliticalprisoner.Theyfearedthattheymightbearrestedandpunished.Mymind withdrewitselfintopatientdetachment.ThetrainmovedonfromLudhianaaswesangsacred hymns.PassingthroughSanehwal,ChawaPail,GobindGarh,Sirhind(wherewebowedin reverencetotheholyshrineofFatehgarhSahib,theplaceofmartyrdomofGuruGobindSingh's motherandchildren.)AtAmbalaHiraSinghChardandotherpoliticalprisonersjoinedus.AtDelhi ourtrainwasfullandwebadegoodbyetoPunjab.Wegaveupthethoughtofmeetingourbrother SikhsofthePunjab. Thesunroseandset.Wecrossedlandsandrivers.AtMughalsaraiwetookourmealsandthenext daywereachedHazariBaghRoadstation.Alargemilitaryunitstoodthereunderthecommandof InspectorGeneralPrisonsandInspectorGeneralPolicetoreceiveus."HailGuruji","Victorytothe Guru"weshoutedaswegotdownfromthetrain.Weweretakentoanopengroundand hundredsofsoldiersstoodguardwithbayonetsandguns.Deliciousfoodwasservedtoeveryone: milk,fruit,sodawaterhalwaandpurisetc.weregiven.Iwashedmyhandsandfeetandtooksome coldwatermixedwithsugar.HereMr.BeattyhandedusovertotheBiharpoliceandafter thankingmedepartedfromtheplace.HeextendedhisarmforahandshakebutIwastakingmy meals,andsogreetedhimfoldedhands."Goodbye",hesaid,andthenwentaway. Thenwemettheprisonersfromotherprisonsandtoldoneanotherthetalesofoursorrowsand sufferingsinvariousprisons.HazariBaghwasfortymilesfromtherailwaystation.Wethen hurriedlypassedafewresolutionsofourdeterminationtogetourfundamentalrightsthatwere deniedtous.WedecidedtohaveourownPunjabikitchenandwealsodecidednottodoanyhard labour.Wewereinallthirtytwopoliticalprisoners.Eachlorrycarriedaboutfiveprisonersandten militaryofficers.BeforewegotintothebusestheCongregationalprayer(ardasa)wasperformed. TheprisonerssangthehymnsofGuruNanakwhichimpressedtheBiharipassersbyverymuch.As wewereallbareheadedwithtressknotsandbeards,theyconsideredustobeSadhus.After singingfiveShabadswetalkedtoeachotheraboutJailexperiencesindifferentjails.Thelorries speededthroughtheforests.Thescenerywasveryimpressive.Theforestswerefullofwildlife. Thelorriesstoppednearastreamwhereweweregivencoldwater,butwerenotallowedtoget downforurinating.WeweretoldthatonlytheChief(BaraSahib)couldgivesuchpermission.This ChiefhappenedtobeaPunjabiwearingahatandlookedlikeaEuropean.HewasInspector GeneralofPrisons,BawaJiwanSingh,anapostateSikhwhohadtakentheresponsibilityof controllingourbatchofpoliticalprisoners.EvenAndamanIslandPrisonhadrefusedtoacceptus, becausetheprisonersoftheFirstLahoreConspiracycasehadalreadyharassedthemalot,and founditdifficulttocontrolthem.NoStateGovernmentwouldlodgeus.AtlastBawaJiwanSingh tookthesoleresponsibilityofkeepingupinHazaribaghPrison,ontheconditionthatthePunjab Governmentgavehimallthemoneyandauthoritytohandlethepoliticalprisoners.ThePunjab Governmentagreedtoallhisconditionsincludingfullpaymentofthedailyallowancestowhich thepoliticalprisonerswereentitled. ThePunjabGovernmentacceptedalltheconditionsofBawaJiwanSinghandsentusto Hazaribagh.Althoughthereweremanyseniorofficerswiththeconvoy,everythingwasreferredto InspectorGeneralBawaJiwanSingh.ItookhimtobeaEuropean.InEnglishItoldhimthatthe

prisonerswantedtourinate.Hesaidthattheprisonerswouldbegivenpermissiontodosoonly afterreachingtheprison.IhappenedtosayinPunjabi:"Thisiscruelty".Hereplied:"Itisnot crueltybutadministration."Iagainretorted:"Thisisnotadministrationbutrevengeandalsofirst ratecowardiceonyourpart."Heaskedme:"Whydoyoucallitcowardice?"Ireplied:"We prisonersarechainedhandandfootwhileyouhavesomanypoliceofficersthattheyareabout fourtimesthenumberofprisoners.Thewholerouteislinedbyarmedmilitarymen.Yetyouare afraidthattheprisonersmightescape.Ifthisisnotcowardicewhatelseisit?"Heremainedsilent buttheInspectorGeneralofPolicesuggestedthatwemayurinatewhilestandinginthelorries, whichofcoursewerefused.ItoldthemthismaybeaWesternpracticetowhichwewerenot accustomed.Wetoleratedeventhiscruelty."Kaihredarweshbarjanedaresh:TheCurseofSaint fallsbackonhim."Weremainedsilent.AssoonaswereachedtheHazaribaghprison,BawaJiwan Singhcametomeandsaid:"Nowtherewillbenocruelty.Ofthisyoumayrestassured."Hefelta littleashamedofhispreviousorder.Wealsohadsomeconsiderationforhimwhenwecameto know,hewasaPunjabiandnotaEuropean. Ineveryprisoncellwefoundbucketsofwater,twonewuniformsandatowel.Therewereiron utensilsforallprisoners.Therewerethreeblocksofsixteenprisoncellseach.Theclimateinthis placewasquiteacontrasttothatofPunjab.FromscorchingheatofthePunjabwenowfelt transportedtoapleasanthillstation.Theprisonwasanancientfortcutoutandbuiltontheridge ofahill.EventhePrisonCellswereneat,clean,attractive,andairy.Therewerehugewallsaround thecellsbuttheaircouldfreelymoveinandout.HadtheybeenbuiltonthepatternofPunjabor Madrasprisonstheymighthavebeenextremelysuffocating.Theplacewasverygoodfor meditationandprayer. Assoonaswereachedtheprisonitbegantorain,anditcontinuedtorainformonths.Itwas drizzlingallthetime.ThepeopleofBiharsaidthatithadneverrainedbeforelikethat.Itappeared thatthecloudsmadlydancedwelcomingustotheplace.Afterenduringthescorchingheatof Multan,theclimaticchangerevivedourspiritandweexperiencedthejoysofwinterseasoninthe middleofsummeratHazaribagh.Thehighwallsaroundtheprisonshieldedthebeautifulscenery ofnatureallround,buteventhesightofthecoolandcloudyskyinspireduswithdeepemotions andmeditativereflections.DayandnightthemindwasabsorbedintheLivingPresenceofGod. EvenforamomentIcouldnottakemymindawayfromtheremembranceofGod(Simrin). "WonderfulareThyWaysOLord.Strangeindeedwasthewayinwhichheconvertedtheprison cellintotheMeditationCell". GodHimselfprotectsHisservant, HeHimselfmakeshimcontemplateHisName; WherevertheservantneedsHishelp, There,Godhelpshiminhiswork. GuruArjan,Asap.403 GLORYUNTOTHEEOLORD. GLORYUNTOTHEEOCREATORSUPREME WhereverIgoIseeThee, ThouarteverywhereOTrueCreator, ThouartDispellerofSorrow,Lord; WhateverThouwiliesttakethplace. Millionsofsinsofman,

AreerasedbyTheeinafewhours; Thoucanstpeepintoeveryheart, AnddistinguishbetweentheSaintandthehypocrite, ThouarteverywhereTrue,Lord, WhereverIgoIseeTheealone. GuruNanak:Asa,p.438 StrangeindeedwastheLord'swayofgivingustheexperienceofjoyinsorrow,andofhisabiding love.Eveninthemostdifficultsituations,GodmakeshisservantabidebyHisWill,otherwisefor ordinaryhumanbeingsitisverydifficulttounderstandtheagonyandsufferingoflife. OnwhomeverThoubestowethmercy, HeabidethbyThyWill, Thatworshipistruedevotion, WhichpleasethTheeOLord, ThouarttheSustainerofall. MyBeloved,theSaintsdependonThee. WhateverThouwiliestIaccept, ThouarttheSustainerofmymindandbody, OBountifulOne,ThouartMercifulandGracious. Thouartthefulfillerofallwishes. AlltheBhaktasaredeartoThee, ThouarttheBelovedofBhaktas. ThouartBoundless,InfiniteandSupreme, ThereisnonelikeThee. Thisismyonlyprayer,Lord: DayandnightmayIsingThypraises ThroughThyfavour. NanakseekspeaceofHisName, ThroughHisgraceIwillachieveit. GuruArjan:RagSuhi,p.747. "GloriousartThouOTrueGuru,whoguidedmesafelythroughhellishfiresandnowgavesoothing peaceandrest.Hehasbestowedcoolingblissintheburningheat;sorrowisdispelledandjoy rains."Intheallconsumingflamesofsorrow,Hesavedme.Whereveramanremembersand contemplatesHim,heissaved. Lord,ThysavingHand Hasprotectedmefromburningflames; ItakerefugeinThee; MyheartleansonTheeforstrengthandhonour; Inowdependonnoother. Lord,hewhoremembersTheeissaved. Thouartmyhopeandsupport; ThosewhocontemplateThyNamearesaved. Thouhastbeenmerciful, Andhasttakenmeoutofthedarkpit; TakingmeunderThyprotectivecare, Thouhastgivenmealljoyandhappiness.

WhenGodisgracious, Hebreaksthefettersandliberatesman. HeHimselfsowstheseedofdevotion AndHeHimselfinspiresmanwithtrueservice. Allattachmentiseliminatedanddoubtsaredispelled, Allsorrowandgloomhasdisappeared. Nanak:theLordhasblessedmemercifully AndnowIhavemetthePerfectGuru. GuruArjan:Suhi,p.744 Onedivinesongafteranothergushedoutinunceasingflowfrommyheartinuncontrollable spontaneousinspiration.Ah,whocouldcheckthisinflowofinspiration?Theforestofloneliness becameagardenofjoy.Thedarkprisoncellbecameasacredcellofmeditation.Myheartburst forthintothissongandcontinuedsingingitforalongtime. LordGod,theTrueEnlightener, OCreatorSupreme: ThyservantseeksThydust, IamasacrificeuntoThyPresence, Lord,IwillliveasThoukeepestme; WhenThousowiliest,IrememberThee;HappinessisThygiftOLord. ByThygraceoneservethTheeAndattainsliberationandtheartofperfectlife. ThatplaceisheavenwhereThypraiseissung:Thoualonesowesttheseedsoffaith.

CHAPTER13JAILERVADHAVARAM'SATROCITIES THESEHAPPYDAYSofundisturbedprayerandmeditationlastedonlyforabouttwomonths.The wheelofkarmanowbegantomoveinanunhappydirection.Wewereenjoyingallthisliberty becauseofaBengaliJailerwhowasverykindandconsiderate.TheSuperintendentoftheJailwas ashorttemperedpeevishEnglishmannamedMr.Husband.Hedidnotdaretointerfereinthe arrangementandsupervisionoftheJailerbecauseBawaJiwanSinghInspectorGeneralhadgreat faithinhim.BothBawaJiwanSinghandthisangelicBengaliJailerkepttheprisonersveryhappy andyetshowedtremendouslotofsavingstotheGovernment.TheBiharGovernmenthadgreat faithintheirintegrityandability.TheJailerreceivedthetitleofRaiBahadurasarewardforhis excellentservices.Hetreatedtheprisonerswithgreatcompassion.Wealsohadgreatrespectfor him.Wheneverhecame,westoodupoutofrespectforhim,exceptattimeswhenwewere sittinginprayers.ButwheneverMr.Husbandcame,hecompelledustostandevenwhenwewere sittinginprayer,butweneverobeyedhisordersandnevercaredforhisthreats.Atfirstwe showedhimsomerespectbystandingupwheneverhecame,butwhenhisattitudebecame threateningandoverbearingwestoppedstandingupevenwhenwewerenotpraying.It happenedmanytimesthatwhentheangelicBengaliJailercamewestoodupasamarkofrespect forhim,butwhenimmediatelyafterthatMr.Husbandcametherewesatdowntoshowthatwe didnotcareafigforhim.ThisannoyedMr.Husbandverymuchbuthewashelpless.Hereported themattertoI.G.Prisonsandwhenherefusedtotakenoticeofithesentthereporttothe GovernorthroughtheD.C.TheangelicJailercametoknowaboutthesemischievousreportsofthe Superintendentagainsthim.HeatoncerequestedtheI.G.Prisonstotransferhimtosomeother place.AtfirstI.G.Prisonsdidnotagreebutwhenheinsisted,hewastransferredtosomeother place.Hereendedourhappydaysinthisprisonandfatebroughtusfacetofacewithanother PunjabiJailerwhoexercisedauthoritywithavengeance.HewasaBrahminandhisnamewas VadhavaRam.TheI.G.PrisonsconsideredhimhisownmanandhesentaPunjabiJailerinthe hopethathewouldbekindandconsideratetothePunjabiprisoners.Forthisverypurposehehad justbeenpromotedandmadeSeniorJailer.HejoinedhandswithMr.Husbandandbothstarted treatinguswiththeutmostbrutality.TheythuscreatedalotoftroubleforBawaJiwanSingh,I.G. Prisons.ContrarytothespecificinstructionsoftheI.G.,hestartedtreatingusinaverycruel manner. Hewasrevengefulunderonemoremisapprehension.In1915somepoliticalrevolutionarieshad lootedthevillageChabaChakandkilledoneofhisrelativesnamedBeliRam.ACanadian revolutionarynamedSajjanSinghofKhakhrana,FerozeporewasarrestedandtriedintheLahore Conspiracycaseandsentencedtodeath.ThisJailertookoneofourcompanions,namedSajjan Singhtobethemurdererofhisrelation,BeliRam.AlthoughweexplainedtohimthatSajjanSingh ofLahoreConspiracycasehadbeensentencedtodeathandwasnotalive,hestillbelievedthat ourcompanionSajjanSinghNarangwal,DistrictLudhianaofSupplementaryLahoreConspiracy CasewasthemurdererofBeliRam.Thusheletlooseatrocitiesonuswithavengeance,andhe madeuphismindtoinflictasmuchpunishmentonthewholeofourgroupashisauthority permitted. Mr.Husbandwasalreadyannoyedwithus.SoassoonasVadhavaRamtookoverchargeasJailer, hefixedupgrindingwheelsineverycellandaftergettingusmedicallyexamined,hesecuredthe Superintendent'sorderforhardlabourforeveryoneofus.Heexaminedourhistoryticketsand enforcedonusalltheoldbrutalmethodsofexactinghardlabour.TheSuperintendentandthe Jailerwouldcomewiththewholestaffandcompelustostandupandsalutethem.Theydidso

particularlywhenwesatforprayersearlyinthemorning.Butweignoredtheirordersand presenceanddidnotmove.Weneitherstoodupnorrespondedtotheirorders.Aftermaking somefutileattemptstomakeusstandwiththehelpofthestaff,theywentaway. ThenVadhavaRamtookamischievousstep.Hetookawaybyforceourprayerbooks(gutkas),and increasedourhardlabourduties."Wrathwasaroused,whenthearrowstruck".Theydidnotknow thatmostoftheprisonershadmemorisedthemajorprayers.WerecitedtheprayersandSacred hymnsallthemoreloudly.Wecompletelyignoredtheordersforhardlabourandloudlyrecited Gurbani(theGuru'shymns)allday.Wemighthaveagreedtoareasonableamountoflabourifit hadbeenenforcedinanormalway,butwerefusedtosubmittotheseatrocitiesinflictedinthe spiritofvengeance.Iwasgettingsomefruitswhichhestoppedprovidingafterputtingsome derogatoryremarksonmyhistorysheetashisplea.Hismainchargeagainstmewasthatallthe prisonerswererecitingprayersundermyordersandtheyhadstruckworkbecauseIaskedthem todoso.SoIwastobetakentotaskfirst.TheMedicalOfficerwassenttoexamineandcertify thatIwasfitenoughtodchardlabour.TheMedicalOfficerwasaBengaligentleman.Hewas annoyedtoseeonmyhistoryticketthattheJailerhadstoppedgivingmefruitswithoutreferring themattertohim.Hethenexaminedallthenotingsofthemedicalofficersofpreviousprisons.He thenexaminedmybodythoroughlyandwroteonmyhistoryticket:"Onlytobegivenlightworkif necessary".ItoldhimthatIcoulddoeventhisamountofworkonlyifIwasgivenproperfood; otherwiseIwouldnotdoanywork.TheMedicalOfficerconsideredthisobjectionlegitimate.He toldmethattherewasnoreasonwhyIshouldnotgetmynecessarydiet.Butnoonepaidany attentiontotheordersoftheMedicalOfficer.TheresultwasthatIwascompelledtogoon hungerstrikeandworkstrike.Allotherprisonersexceptperhapsoneortwostruckwork.HadI beengivenmynormaldietIwouldnothavegoneonhungerstrike.ForaboutfourorfivedaysI waskeptinsolitaryconfinementduringwhichperiodmyveryexistencewasignored.Afterfive daystheyaskedtheMedicalOfficertoputmeonpenaldiet.TheMedicalOfficerwasstanding nearby.HeburstintolaughterandtoldtheJailerironically:"Heisalreadyundergoingpenaldiet." Thisdidnotputthemtoshame,buttheyimpudentlywroteonmyhistoryticket:"Solitary punishmentforaweek."Aheapofpulsesandgrainswaskeptintheroomtobecleaned.The weekpassedwithoutamorseloffood.Iwasthengiventhepunishmentofkeepingstandingin fetters.Onhearingthis,theprisonerswhoweredoinglightworkalsostruckwork.Withthesole exceptionofonemaneveryonestruckwork.Alltheprisonersweretiedwithchainstopillarsand keptstanding.EveninthisconditioneveryonerecitedGurbani.Forusthismomentoftrialand sufferingsbecameamomentofprayerandpenance.TheSuperintendentandJailertriedtostop usfromrecitingGurbanibutwereciteditallthemoreloudly,thesweetPsalmsofSukhmani. Theyshoutedatusbutwecarednotabitforthem.Theygotexasperatedandgaveordersthatwe shouldbemadetostandinthesun.Buttheheatofthesundidnotsilenceus.Totortureusstill moretheyorderedthatstraitjacketsmadeofcanvasshouldbeputonourbodiesandweshould bemadetostandinthehotsun.IwasorderedtobetakentoaplacefaroffwhereIcouldnot heartherecitationsofGurbanibymycompanions.TheythoughtthatifIwascompletelyisolated fromthemtheymightstoprecitingGurbani.TheSikhprisonersthenstartedshoutingthevictory criesofSatSriAkal.Alltheprisonersstoodinrevolt.Thesituationwasalmostoutofcontrol. TheSuperintendentandtheJailerwereunnerved.Theycametome,unchainedmeandofferedto relent.Theyimmediatelyagreedthatnoonewouldbegivenhardlabour.Noonewouldbe compelledtodoanywork.Iwasaskedtogiveuphungerstrike.Theypromisedtogiveusbackour prayerbooks(gutkas)andwecouldreciteGurbaniaslongasweliked.Itoldthemthattheyshould firstshowinpractice,decentbehaviourandgoodtreatment,andthenonlycouldweagreeto

reasonableterms.Everyonewasunchained.ThePrayerBooks(gutkas)werereturned.Allthe ordersofhardlabourwerewithdrawn.Butmycompanionswouldnotagreetoanyconditionuntil Iwastakennearthem.TheyinsistedthatIshouldbekeptinthesameblockwiththemandthey woulddoasIbidthemtodo.Otherwisetheyrefusedtoobeyanyorder.TheJailauthoritieshadto agreeeventothis.Iwastakenclosetothem.Irequestedeveryonetogiveupresistance. Everyonewasquiet. TheSuperintendentandJailerhoweverwerestungbythishumiliation.Theyfeltdegradedtofind thattheprisonersturneddowntheirrequestbutatonceacceptedmysuggestiontogiveup resistance.TheyimmediatelyreportedtoI.G.PrisonsthatRandhirSinghwastheringleaderand wascausingagooddealoftrouble.Aftersendingthisreporttheystartedthesameoldbrutalway oftreatingme.Nofoodwasgiventometoenablemetobreakthefast.Iwascompelledto continuefastingformanymoredays.MycompanionsaskedmeeverydaywhetherIhadbroken thefast.IavoidedgivingtheanswerinthehopethattheJailauthoritiesmightfulfiltheirpromise. EarlyonemorningtheSuperintendentbroughtawholegangforforcefeeding.Atfirsthe threatenedbutfindingmeunshakeninmydeterminationtoresist,heorderedthatIshouldbe immediatelytakentothehospital.TheMedicalOfficerwasgivensternorderstocarryoutforce feedingimmediately.WhileIwasbeingtakenthroughthewards,Itoldmycompanionsevery thing.AsIhadfastedformanydaysIwasveryweakandIdidnothopetosurviveanyphysical torturesofforcedfeedings.ItoldmyfriendsasIwasmovingon,thatitmaybethelastmeeting withthemandasseparatedstreamsnevermeet,wemaynevermeetagain.Alltheprisonersburst intotearsandcriedhelplessly.WithinamatterofminutesIwastakentoasecludedroom attachedtothehospitalwherenoonecouldseewhatwashappening. Theroomhoweverwasveryclean,airy,withlargewindowsandexcellentventilation.Throughthe ironbarsofthewindowsIcouldseethewholesky.Thecementedfloorandthelovelywallsand thesweetscentedsurroundingsmademefeelthatIwasforamomentlodgedinapalacehall. BroodingoverthethoughtsofBelovedGod,Isatdownonthefloorinsilentmeditation.Opposite thewindowlovelyroseflowerscouldbeseeninflowerpots,fragrantandinfullbloom.Light showersofrainbathedthewholeatmosphereinpristineglory. Mybroodingspiritsoaredthroughthesixchakras(lowerseatsofconsciousnessinthespinal chord)tothehighestseatofconsciousness(inthebrain)andwaspoisedinthemelodyofinner CelestialmusicandcontemplationofHisPresence.Deepandpoignantlovetiltedmysoulandmy mindwasabsorbedinthespontaneousutteranceofthefollowinghymn: WithThylotusfeet, Ismymindattached, Oceanofpeace,liberateme, LetmeholdthehemofThygarment. Mymindisintoxicatedwithlove. BysingingThygloryThyloveisawakened, Thesnareofmayaisdestroyed. EverywhereIseethePerfectLord. Icarenottoseeanythingelse. SayethNanak,HehasunitedHisservantwithHim; MyloveforHimwillneverdecline. GuruArjan,Nat,p.979.

Themembersofthehospitalstaffcrowdedaroundtheroom.Theofficestaffoftheprison,though faraway,heardthesongandrushedtotheroom.Mr.Husbandalsostoodthereseriouslydis turbed.BythetimehehadcomeIwasdeeplyabsorbedinthePsalmsandasIsatinsamadhi,I wasnotquiteconsciousofmysurroundings.Awholecrowdstoodlisteningindumb astonishment.Noonedaredtotouchmeortodisturbme.AfteraboutfortyfiveminutestheChief HeadWarder,whowasaSikh,wasorderedtoopenthedoorandmakemetalk.Boundbythe ordersofthesuperiorshecamenearmeandplacingonehandonmyshouldersanotheronmy feetsaid:"TheSuperintendentisstandingoutsidetheroomandwishestotalktoyou"."Iamnot inamoodtotalktohim,"saidI. AtthismomentMr.Husbandcameinandshouted:"WhydidyounotstandupwhenIcamein?" "SuchwastheWillofmyHusband."Isaid."WhichHusband?"heasked."TheTrueHusband."I said."Yournameisamisnomerandyoudonotdeservethisname.MyTrueHusbandiseverwith me.WhocaresforthefalseHusband?""Yousaidyouwerebusyandnotinamoodtotalktome. Tellmewhatkeepsyoubusy?"heasked."Youcannotunderstandit,"Isaid."Whydidyousingso loudly?"heasked."Icouldnothelpit,"Isaid,"Itwasnotpreplanned." Mr.Husband:Nowwhatdoyouwant?Whattypeoftreatmentdoyouexpectfromus? I:Youcanaccordmeanytypeoftreatmentyoulike,butatthismomentpleasedonotdisturbmy peace. Mr.Husband:(addressingtheChiefHeadWarder):Forcehimtostandup. Ch.HeadWarder:SirIcannotdoit,pleasedonotcompelmetouseanyforceonhim.WhenI touchedhisbodyalittlewhileago,myarmbecamenumb.Ifeelhelpless. Mr.Husband:Willyounotobeymyorders? Ch.HeadWarder:Iwouldratherresign. Mr.Husband:Iwillsuspendyou. Ch.HeadWarder:Whydon'tyouyourselftrytomovehimorasksomeotherofficertodoso? Mr.Husbandmovedtowardsmeandthenstoppedshort.Thenheturnedbackandorderedthe doorofmyroomtobelockedfromoutsideandkeptwellguarded.Ithoughthemaynowgive ordersforwhipping.Butsomethingstrangehappened.HedidnotpunishtheChiefHeadWarder fordisobeyinghim.Hedidnotissueanyneworderbutkepttheorderforforcedfeedingstillin force.TheBengaliMedicalOfficerandhisAssistant,aMarathagentleman,thencametomeand addressedmeverypolitely.Theytookofftheirhatsandsaidtomewiththeutmostreverence: "Anyserviceforus,Sir?Canwedoanythingtohelpyou?"Isaidhumorously:"AskyourHusband, thebosshere."Bothofthemburstintolaughterandsaid:"WealsobelieveintheTrueHusband andwillobeytheordersoftheTrueHusbandlikeyou.Wedonotcaremuchfortheordersofthis man.WewillseethatthisimposterHusbanddoesnottortureyouanymore.Wewillissueorders immediatelyandyoucanhaveasmuchfruitasyoulike.Youwillgetfruitsbyourorderstoday.We willtreatyouasourpersonalguestandnowyouwillseewhatwedoforyou."

Afterashort,whiletheMarathaDoctorbroughtabasketfulloffruits.Hehadthespecificorders oftheMedicalOfficerrecordedinmyhistoryticketthatIshouldbegivenfruitregularly.ThusI brokemyfastafterthreeweeks.TheMarathaDoctor(whosenameIhaveunfortunately forgotten)toldmethattheBengaliDoctorhadnowreportedtotheI.G.PrisonsthatRandhirSingh wasonhungerstrikeonthequestionofreligioussentiments.Hehasneitherdisobeyedanyone's ordersnorhashebeenobstinateinanymatter.Hegenerallylivedonfruitorfoodcookedby himself.Hehasnowbeengivenfruitsbutthedietoffruitsaloneisinsufficienttobringhimbackto normalhealth.HehasbeencompelledtogoonfastforthelastthreeweeksbecausetheJailer securedanorderfromtheSuperintendenttostopthedailysupplyoffruitstohim.Hehasnow beenadmittedtothehospitalandgivenfruits.Heistakingthemwithoutanyresistanceor objection.Butasthisdietisinsufficienttomaintainproperhealthheshouldbeallowedtocookhis ownfoodandtakeit." TheMarathaDoctorassuredmethatmycasehadbeenstronglyrecommendedandheandthe MedicalOfficerwouldnotobeytheSuperintendent'sorderforforcefeeding.ThisMarathahad genuinesympathyformeforonemorereason.HisbrotherMr.Pinglayhadbeensentencedto deathalongwithKartarSinghSarabhaintheLahoreConspiracyCase.Hedisclosedittomeatthis juncture.TheI.G.Hospitalsonreadingthereport,stronglyrecommendedmycasetotheGovernor BiharandOrissa.TheGovernorimmediatelysentthesanctiontotheI.G.Prisonsandtheorder reachedtheprisonauthoritieswithinthreedays.Mycompanionsnowthreatenedtocreatehavoc inprisonifIwaskeptinisolationevenforadaylonger.Mr.Husbandwasseriouslyupset.On receivingtheordersoftheI.G.PrisonstoallowmetocookmyfoodasIliked,hecamerunningto meandgaveoutthathehaddecidedtotakemetomycompanions,whereIwouldbeableto cookmyfoodasIliked.Hethuswantedtotakecreditforthebettertreatmentthatwastobe giventome."WhyareyouconcealingthetruthfrommeMr.Husband?"Iasked:"Itisthe Governorwhohadorderedyoutogivemefreedomtocookmyfood,whileyouwanttotake creditforitunnecessarily." Mr.Husband:(Surprised)TellmewhotoldyouabouttheGovernor'sorder.Itappearsthatyou mysteriouslycometoknowabouteverythingthatishappening. I:IfyouaresurethatImysteriouslycometoknoweverythingthenwhydoyouaskme? Theorderwasrecordedonmyhistoryticket.ButVadhavaRamwouldnotgivemetheiron utensilsforcookingandthefastcontinued.Withredinkhewroteonmyhistoryticket:"Heisvery obstinate."Afterthreedays,confirmingfrommycompanionsthatIhadtakenavowofSarabloh Viveka"(totakefoodinironutensilspreparedbyonlythosepersonswholivedbythecodeof conductofGuruGobindSingh),IwasgivenironutensilsandIstartedcookingmyownfood.Inthe courtyardfacingmycellIwasgivenafireplace,whereIcookedmyfoodunderthevigilanceofa JemadarandaSepoy.ThebattleforSarablohVivekawasthuswon. Duringthisveryshortperiodmanysepoysoftheprisonwerestronglyinfluencedbythelifeand deedsoftheSikhprisoners,andshowedgreatsympathyforthem.Someofthemlistenedtothe recitationofGurbani(SacredHymns)forhours.Somekepthairandbeardandbecamebaptized Sikhs(theKhalsa).Manyothersgaveupsmoking.Nooneeverdeliveredanysermonstothem,nor didanyonegetchancetopreachanything.ThesaintlylivingandheroicdeedsoftheSikhsbrought themunderthespiritualinfluenceofSikhfaithandsomeofthembecameverykeendevoteesof theGuru.ProminentamongstthemwassepoynamedRadhaSinghwhowasbynatureavery devoutsoul.WhileondutyhewouldkeeplisteningtothesweetstrainsofSukhmani(theSongof

Peace),whichhadamagneticinfluenceonhistendersoul.Forthreehourshewouldcontinuously listentotherecitationofGurbani,whichdispelledalldrossfromhisheartandmadehiswholelife pureandluminousasgold.Hislittledevotionalactsaresomanythatabookcanbewrittenabout them.HefeltthatGodhadsentustothatprisononlyforhisredemption.Forhourshewould comeandstandnearmycellandtalktomewithdeeploveanddevotion.Everyonecalledhim Sadhu(Saint)RadhaSingh,andsohewas.HewasaKshatriyabycasteandnowaftertakingthe baptismhebecameatrueKshatriya.Hisfamilyandhisbrothersandothernearrelativesbecame SikhsandhememorizedmanyhymnsoftheGuruGranthSahib. ThussometimepassedinpeaceandHolyCommunion.Manysepoysmemorizedthehymnsofthe Guru.Butwewereconfinedtoourprisoncells.Hardlysixmonthshadpassed,when12prisoners ofthesecondsupplementaryLahoreConspiracycaseswerebroughttoourprison.Buttheywere takentoablockwhichwasjustbehindourownblock.Itwaseasytotalktooneanotheracrossthe wall.Thenewcomerswerestrictlyorderednottotalktous.Theyweregivenassurancethatthey wouldbegivenpreferentialtreatmentiftheydidnottalktous.Butwhocouldpreventus,theold timersfromtalkingtothem.Wesangasongofwelcome: Belovedfriendshavecometoourhouse. Afterthesongwasover,wegreetedthemwiththeKhalsaSalutation:"VahGurujikaKhalsa,Vah GurujikiFateh."Buttherewasnoanswerfromtheotherside.Wecalledanumberofprisonersby namebuttheywerestillsilent.AtlastoneBhaiBudhSinghhintedthattheyhadbeenorderednot totalkontheassurancethattheywouldsoonbegivenpermissiontomoveaboutintothe courtyard.AnywaywesucceededinconveyingtothemthefactsofthesituationinJail.BhaiHira SinghCharadandIwereconsideredtobethemaintroublemakers.Weweretakentoanother blockreservedforBengaliprisoners.Uptotheyear1920wewereconfinedtothecellsonly.We werenotallowedtotakeevenfiveminuteswalkinthecourtyard.Withhandcuffsandmanacles chained,wespentallthetimewithinourcells.Thehandcuffsandthefettersonthefeethad becometheornamentsofourbody.Andwhocarestotakeoffornaments.

CHAPTER14THEARTOFMAKINGGOLD WEFELTHAPPIERinourspaciousisolatedprisonward.Therewereaboutthirtyprisoncells,witha bigcourtyard,andacookingplacenearourcells.Onlytwoofus,BhaiHiraSinghCharadandI, werelodgedinthislargebarrack.(BhaiHiraSinghCharadwassentencedtodeathinthe SupplementaryLahoreConspiracycase,butthesentencewaslaterchangedtolifeimprisonment. HediedinMadrasCivilHospitalonFebruary3rd1929andhislastriteswereperformedbythe SikhMilitaryOfficerspostedthere.) BhaiHiraSinghwasanobleanddistinguishedpatriot,whofaceduntoldsufferingforthesakeof hiscountry'sfreedom.Thetorturesofprisonlifehadreducedhisbodytoaskeleton.Hehadspent lakhsofrupeesforthefreedomstruggle,andstillhehadpropertyworthlakhs.Hishealthhad deterioratedsomuchthathehadgivenuphopeofsurvivinglong.Hewantedtomeetme separatelyanddiscusssomeproblemsofinnerlife.Henowgotthisopportunitywhenwewere keptapartfromallotherprisoners.Onenight,whenhesawmesittingabsorbedindeep meditation,hecameclosetomeandtoldmethatalthoughhehadmeditatedlongonsome mantram(whichhecalledbhajan)hehadnotattainedanythingspiritually,andnowwithhisend sonear,hewasanxioustoacquirespiritualpeace. Iwasdeeplymovedbythehelplessnessofhisspirit,andfranklytoldhim,thatwhathecalled spiritualpractise(bhajan)wouldleadhimnowhere.Aslongashemeditatedonthemantram: Soham(AVedanticmysticwordmeaningIAMHE),hewasnotlikelytoachievemuch,because undersuchmentalconditionashis,andinthepresentKaliageofignorance,thismantramonly increasedegoism,whichwasahindrancetoallspiritualprogress.Itwasagainsttheprinciplesof Sikhismtocontemplateinthismanner.Thus,inthepast,thismantramhadonlystrengthenedhis egoism. HiraSinghwastakenaback.Hesaidthat,eversincehestartedmeditatingonthismantram,he hadnevertoldaboutittoanyone,norhadheeverrepeateditloudly.Hekeptitstrictlyasecret practise."Howdidyoucometoknow,BhaiSahib,thatImeditateonthemantramSoham(IAM HE)?"heasked. "ForamanwhocontemplatestheDivineNameoftheGuru",saidI,"thisisnotdifficult.Itiseasy forhimtoknowthespiritualconditionofthepeoplenearhim.Onecanclearlyknowthemental andspiritualconditionofotherpeoplebycontemplatingtheGuru'sWord.ButthemysticWordis acquiredafterbaptismfromPanjPyaras(TheFiveElects).Itisonlybyreceivingcollectiveinspira tionfromthem,whoactastheGuru,thatthemeditationoftheDivineNamebecomesfruitful. Yourconditionisindeedpitiable.Youhavemadesuchstrenuousspiritualefforts,yetthepractise hasnotyieldedanyfruitfulresult." BhaiHiraSinghwasnowanxioustoacquiretheinspirationoftheDivineName.Hefeltsadthatit wasneitherpossibleforthePanjPyaras(TheFiveElects)togettogetherinthepresenceofthe GuruGranthSahibinprison,nordidheexpecttolivelong.Inapathetictonehesaid:"Suchan initiationceremonycanbearrangedonlywhenIamreleased.ButIdonothopetolivethatlong. ButarenotgreatSikhslikeyouempoweredtoofferspecialprayersforamaninmyhelpless position?WillIendthislifewithoutthegraceofthisspiritualgift?Canyounotdosomethingfor me?"

Ifeltaninnerurgetooffersilentprayerforhim.Immediately,IrequestedHiraSinghtositinsilent contemplationinhiscell,thinkingoftheindwellingSpiritoftheGuru,whileIstartedpraying silentlyforhiminmycell.Idonotknowwhenmysilentprayerended,andwhathappenedafter that.Atabout2A.M.,SadhuRadhaSingh,theprisonguard,camenearmycellandstoodnearme inastrangecondition.HewaspractisingtheDivineNameinamannerknownonlytotheinitiate.I wassurprisedhowhecametoknowaboutthesecretofthisspiritualpractise.WhenIaskedhim aboutithesaid:"BhaiHiraSinghisdeeplyabsorbedinthiskindofspiritualpractise.Iamjust imitatinghim.Idonotknowanythingaboutit."Igotreadytotakemybath.IaskedBhaiRadha SinghtotrytobringBhaiHiraSinghtonormalconsciousness.Heshouldtakehisbathandrecite theSukhmani. Aftersometime,amelodiousrecitationofSukhmanibyBhaiHiraSinghwasheard.Althoughhis recitationwasnotverycorrect,yetitwasfullofdevotionandfervour.BhaiRadhaSinghsatthere listeningindeepabsorption,andthusheperformedthedutyofasentryinafineway.Assoonas theprisondoorswereopened,BhaiHiraSinghrushedtomycellandfellatmyfeetsaying: "GloriousistheGuru,blessedarehisSikhswhosesilentprayerscanworksuchwonders."Iwas happythathehadachievedwhathewaslongingtoacquire.Butthematterdidnotendthere.I warnedhimthatheshallhavetofacemanytemptationswhenthespiritualpractisesgivepower andpowerbeginstocorrupt.Heshouldbecautiousagainstsuchwindsofmisguidedpassions. Thenextnight,inamoodofthanksgiving,BhaiHiraSinghsaid:"Becauseofyoursilentprayers,I havebeenenlightenedbytheDivineNameandnotonlyhasmyspiritualhungerbeencompletely satisfied,butIfeeltheinspirationofHisDivinepresenceineveryporeofmybeing.Thereis nothingsopreciousintheworldwhichIcangiveyouinreturnforthisblessing:Butthereisalittle gill,whichIwouldliketooffertoyou,asamarkofgratitude."Ireplied,"WhoamItogiveany spiritualinspirationtoanyone?IamahumblecreatureoftheOneeternalGuru.AllIdidwasto offersilentprayersforyou.Theseedofyourvirtuousdeedswasalreadytheretosproutinfull bloomofspirituality.ItwastheWillofGod,thatyoushouldhavereceivedtheDivineNameinthis way.Whatcanamanlikemedo?ItwasmydutyasaSikhtoprayforyou." Iwasnotatalleagertoreceiveanygiftinreturnforthisfromhim,butheinsistedonlisteningto him.Hegavemethesecretofmakinggoldoutofcopper,saying:"Today,BhaiSahib,Iwillreveal toyouthegreatestsecretofmylife,whichIhavenotgivenouttoanyone.Idonotwishtocarryit withmetothegrave.Iwaslookingforonewhoreallydeservedtoknow,andwhocouldpreserve andusethegiftfortheserviceofhumanity.Ihavetestedyouandfoundyoutobetheonlyone whodeservedtopreservethisgreatsecret.AchemistofChinarevealedtomethescientificartof makinggoldoutofcopper.ItisfromtheknowledgeofthisalchemyIbecamerich.Icaneasily makegoldoutofametal.Iknowaboutthreeorfourformulaswithwhichyoucanconvertbaser metalsintogold.Thealchemyneverfails.Goldthusmadehasbeentriedandtestedmanytimes asthepurestone." WithintwoorthreedaysHiraSinghprocuredfromoutsideapieceofcopperandsomechemicals, throughsomeinmate.HegavemetheformulaaccordingtowhichIexperimentedwiththechemi cals,andthecopperwascompletelychangedintogold.Throughanextremelyreliablepersonwe sentittotheassayerinthebullionmarket,andthepurityofthegoldsoformedwasestablished. HiraSinghhadwrittendownthechemicalformulasforme,andnowheurgedmetomemorize themasitwasnotsafetokeeparecordofsuchpreciousformulaswithintheprison.Impressedby hisloveanddevotionformeIagreedtomemorizetheformulasofmakinggold.

Thefeatofmemorizingthechemicalformulaswasanordealforme.Ifeltthatmymind,whichhad attainedpurityandpeace,oncemorestartedaccumulatingpoison.Myminddriftedtoallthe vagariespossibleoutofthelustforgold.Likeamanbuildingcastlesintheair,IfeltIhadalready becomeamillionaire,andsubconsciouslyevenplannedtousemostofthemoneyforcharitable purposes.AfewdaysearliermymindwasabsorbedinthecontemplationofDivineName, repeatedwitheverybreath,andIenjoyedthehighestblessingsofspiritualenlightenment.The lightandloveofGodhadbecomeapartofmyinnerbeing.Butnowtheconcentrationand peacefulpoiseofmymindwasterriblyshaken,andIthoughtofnothingelsebuttheuntold capacitytomakegoldandinfinitematerialpowerIcouldaccumulate.Theloveanddevotionto Godrecededtothebackground.IcouldnotevencontemplatetheNameofGodnorrecite Gurbani,withthesamezealandregularity.Myinnerconditioncanwellbedescribedbythe followinglinesfromthescriptures: HewhoforgetstheWordofGod, Criesinagonylikeasuffererfromchronicmalady. GuruNanak:RagDhanasrip.661 Forthefirsttimeinmylife,thepeaceofmymindandmycontemplativelifewasseriouslyupset. Forthefirsttimemymindfelltosuchalowlevel,andwasthrownintoastateofconfusion.Ever sinceIenteredthelifeofdivineilluminationthiswasthefirsttimemymindwasunbalanced,and thefirsttimemymindwaspollutedbythethoughtofwealth.Thewholenightpassedinbrooding overallthethingsIcouldpossiblydowiththeartofmakinggold.Theformulaofmakinggold inflamedmyearthlyambitionsandmademypureasgoldheartandsoulascoarseandlifelessasa stone.EarlyinthemorningIfoundmyselfinthispitiablecondition.Justthen,theservantbrought alightedstoveformetocookmymeals.BhaiHiraSinghalsocamethereandaskedme:"Haveyou memorizedalltheformulas,BhaiSahib?"Itookoutthepieceofpapercontainingtheformulasof makinggoldandthrewthemintothefire.IthenstoodinsilentprayerbeforeGod,withfolded handsandsoughttheLord'sforgivenessforlettingmyminddriftintogreedandlustforgold,andI alsoprayedthatImightcompletelyforgetallthatIhadlearntaboutit.Ididnotliketothinkofthe goldformulaeveninadream. BhaiHiraSinghwasstunnedandshockedatwhatIdidandsaid:"Whataterriblethingyouhave done?Peoplewerepreparedtopaymelakhsofrupeesfortheknowledgeofbutoneformula.I gaveyouallthatIknew.Kings,jewellersandmillionaireswerepreparedtostakealltheirfortune fortheknowledgeofthisformula.Youhavedestroyeditinaminute.Youhavethrownawaythe world'sgreatesttreasure.Imaynotlivelong.Imaynotevengetanopportunitytoexplainitto youagain.Thereisverylittlehopeofmylifebeingprolonged.Itisnotpossibleforustomeetin seclusionagain.Idoubtwhetheryouhavememorizedasinglechemicalformulaforchanging copperintogold.Idoubtifyouwouldcaretorememberwhateveryouhavealreadymemorized. Yourfacetellsmethatithasupsetyouverymuch.Whyshouldpersonslikeyouwhoare dedicatedtothewelfareofhumanity,beeverdepressedbytheknowledgeofthisart?Youarenot oneofthosewhowoulduseitforyourpersonalbenefitortosatisfyyourgreed.Giveupthis moodofdejection.Iwillwritetheformulasforyouagain.Youcaneasilymemorizethemwithina week.Iwillputyoutotestwhenyouhavememorizedthem." "Iamgratefultoyou,myfriend?"repliedI,"forrevealingtomethesecretofmakinggoldwhich youwithheldfromyourdearestandnearest,butIamnottherightcustomerforit."'Ifonesellsa preciousthingtoanundeservingcustomeritwillgocheap;butifonefindswillingcustomerone's

preciousgiftwillsellforlakhs.'Youwantmetodogoodtotheworldthroughgold,under compulsionofmaterialisticidealinwhichIhavenofaith: Servicedoneundercompulsion Isneitheravirtuenorcharity; "IfeelIwillhavetopayagreatpriceforthisbusinessofgold,whichIcannotaffordtopay.Ihad juststartedonlymemorizingthegoldformula,andnotmakinggold,whenmymind,heart,and soulhavebeenthrownintoaterriblestateofconfusion.Godknows,howlowImighthavefallen, ifIhadactuallystartedmakinggold.ThetrueGuruhassavedmefromthepitandturnedmymind awayfromit." BlessedIamthatHesavedmefromdrowning ButBhaiHiraSinghwouldnotlistentome.Hemadeuphismindtooncemorepersuademeto learntheartofmakinggold.ButGodwilleditotherwise.Thesamenightwewereputinprison cellsfarapartfromeachother.Wecouldnottalktoeachothernorheareachother'svoice.Ifelt thattheGurusavedmefromfallingintothepitagain. Thenextdaywecametoknowthatourcompanionshadlaunchedamorcha(agitation)asa protestagainstkeepingusisolatedfromotherpoliticalprisoners.Theyallstruckworkandwenton fast.Theprisonauthoritieswereunnerved,andtheyapproachedthemforcompromise.They acceptedtwoimportantconditionsforliftingtheprotestmorcha.Theyagreedtotakeusback amongotherprisoners.Theyalsoagreednottoputthenewpoliticalprisonerstohardlabourand forcethemtowork,andtogivethemthesamedietthatwasgiventous. MoreTorturesBegin Somedayspassedpeacefully.ButtheJailerwouldnotrestuntilheinflictedsomeinjuryonthe prisoners.Crueltywasingrainedinhisnature,andhegaveventtoitbyimposingmanykindsof punishmentsontheprisoners,andkeepingthemfarapartfromoneanotherindifferentblocks. Oneofourcompanions,BrotherDalSingh,wasseverelyflogged.Isomehowmanagedtoinform theInspectorGeneralofprisonsaboutthegravesituationintheprison,andwarnedhimtotake timelyactiontoputthingsright,otherwisethesituationmighttakesuchaseriousturnthathe mighthavetorepentlater.TheInspectorGeneralwasatRanchi,sixtymilesaway,fromwherehe rushedtoHazaribaghassoonashereceivedthisinformation.Hecamestraighttomycell.Hewas accompaniedbyprisonstaff,includingMr.HusbandandtheJailer.Ahotdiscussionbegan immediately. I:Didyou,MrInspectorGeneral,sendthisman,VadhavaRamtothisprisontolookafterour comfortsortotortureus? InspectorGeneral:HebeingaPunjabi,Ithought,hewillbehelpfultothePunjabiprisoners,andhe willunderstandyoubetter.Thus,Itoowouldbesavedfromunnecessarytroubleandworryabout youall.Ibelievedthathewilllookintoyourgrievancesanderadicatethemimmediately.Because heowesthepresentpostandpositiontome,Ithoughthewilldothosethingswhichwould enhancemyprestigehere.Iinvitedyou,theprisonersofLahoreConspiracycasefromPunjab, becauseIfeltthat,beingaPunjabimyself,Icouldtakegoodcareofyou.Myconfirmedopinion wasthataPunjabiJailerandHeadWarderalonecouldlocktothepersonalcomfortsofthe

Punjabipoliticalprisoners.ThatiswhyIgotthismanVadhavaRamandKirpaSinghHeadWarder, speciallytransferredtothisplace. I:ButVadhavaRamstartedtormentingandtorturingusassoonashecamehere.Heisobsessed bythewrongimpressionthatwearethepoliticalprisonerswhomurderedoneofhisBrahmin relativeintheChabewaldacoityincident.Wehavetriedhardtoconvincehimthatwehave nothingtodowiththatincident,buthisbitternesscontinuestobeinflamedbythiswrongnotion. Secondly,thismanisextremelyhaughty,vainanddespotic.MrHusbandisatoolinhishands. Becauseyoutrusthimmuch,hethinksheisallinall.Becauseyouhavereposedsomuch confidenceinhim,hethinkshecanactwithyourauthority,andhehasnothingtofear.Heposes asthesolemasterandcontrolleroftheprison.Thatiswhyhedaredtoinflictthepunishmentof floggingononeofourcompanions. InspectorGeneral:(expressingsurpriseandshock):What,heorderedflogging? I:Yes,pleaseexaminethehistoryticketofDalSingh,andseeforyourself,forwhatfaultofhis,he hasbeenflogged. InspectorGeneral:(addressingtheSuperintendent):DidyouorderfloggingofDalSingh,ifsofor whatfaultofhis? Mr.Husband:Herefusedtowork. InspectorGeneral:Politicalprisonerscannotbefloggediftheyrefusetowork. Mr.Husband:Besidesthis,heoffendedaprisonstaffmember.Wehadtodosomethingto maintaindiscipline. I:Willyoupleaseaskthisgentleman,whooffendedandwhowasinsulted?DidDalSinghinsult himorsomeotherman? InspectorGeneral:(addressingtheSuperintendent):Whowasoffendedandbywhom? MrHusband:HeinsultedKirpaSingh,Headwarder,inchargeofJail InspectorGeneral:(addressingKirpaSingh).Well,KirpaSinghdidheinsultyou? KirpaSingh:NoSir,nooneinsultedme.IwasnotinchargeofthePunjabiprisonersevenfora singleday. InspectorGeneral:(inathreateningtone)WhydidyoupostaBihariWarderoverthePunjabi prisoners,whenIespeciallyorderedthatHeadWarderKirpaSinghshouldbeinchargeofallthe cellswherePunjabiprisonersarelodged?IparticularlysentKirpaSinghtothisprisonbecause theseBiharipeopledonotunderstandtheirlanguage. I:Youarequiteright.ThisBihariBrahminwhohasbeenappointedWarderoverourcellsdoesnot understandevensimplewordsofPunjabi,leastofallthepurePunjabi.Itisduetohisinabilityto understandPunjabithatoneofourinnocentcompanionswasflogged.

InspectorGeneral:(addressingtheBihariBrahmin):DoyouunderstandPunjabi? BihariBrahmin:YesSir,IunderstandPunjabiquitewell. I:(addressingtheBihariBrahmin)AlmostallBiharipeopleareinthehabitoftellinglies.(For'all'I usedthewordsareinPunjabi,whichtheBihariBrahminoncemoreunderstoodtobeawordof abuse.InBiharithewordsareisequivalenttoPunjabisale,whichisawordofabusewhoseliteral meaningis,yourbrotherinlaworitmeans"yoursisterismywife.") BihariBrahmin:(addressingtheInspectorGeneral).LookhereSir;heisabusingmeinyour presence.TheotherdayDalSinghalsocalledme"sare". InspectorGeneral:(burstintolaughterandthenangrily)Whatdidhesay?Whatworddidheuse? BihariBrahmin:Sir,heabusedmesaying"yousareBiharipeopleareannoyingandharassingus." Thisishow,Sir,DalSinghcalledmesare(inBihari,wife'sbrother),awordofabuse. InspectorGeneral:(addressingtheJailer)IfyoufloggedDalSinghforthisoffence,youhavedonea greatwrong.Peoplelikeyou,bringabadnametotheGovernment.Andnowyouwillbringabad nametomeandtheSuperintendent,(addressingtheSuperintendent)youpeoplefloggedan innocentman.Youareguiltyofgrossmisconductandcruelty.Youdidnotcaretounderstand whatDalSinghmeantbysare.ThewordsareinPunjabimeans'all'.Itmeansthesamethingsas Biharisagre.Youhavetreatedaninnocentmaninaverycruelmanner.Supposingtheprisonerdid useoneortwoabusivewords,wherewasthejustificationtoinflictsuchcruelpunishment?Inthis particularcase,howwereyouinsulted? MrHusband:(putoutofcountenance)Iwantedtogivehimlightpunishment.Asamatteroffact,I atfirstorderedthatheshouldbehandcuffedatnight.ButDalSinghshouted:"Whynotgivesome morepunishment?"SoIorderedthatheshouldbeputinastraitjacket.Onhearingthis punishmentDalSinghsaid"Thismaynotsatisfyyourlustforcruelty,whynotgiveseverepunish ment?"Iwasannoyedandorderedthatheshouldbechainedhandandfoot.DalSinghagainsaid tauntingly:"Isthatall?Whydon'tyoudoyourutmost?"Iorderedthatforsevendaysheshouldbe keptstandingwithhishandstiedabove.DalSinghwasstillveryhaughtyandsaid:"Isthereany punishmentleft,theseverestyoucaninflict?Whynotgivethatalso?"Forthisinsultingbehaviour Icancelledallthepunishmentandorderedflogging. VadhavaRam:(interrupting)IaskedthismantoapologizeforhisbehaviourbuthesaidinPunjabi: "WhyshouldI?HaveItouchedtheass?"(APunjabiidiommeaning,haveIannoyedyou.Somelow castepeopleforwhomanassisaverypreciousanimaleasilygetirritatedifsomeonetouchesan assbelongingtothem). Mr.Husband:(whodidnotunderstandthePunjabisaying)Thushemademeanass.Whatcanbe moreinsultingthanthis? InspectorGeneral:Bothofyouareassesasfarasyourintelligencegoes,(addressingtheJailer VadhavaRam).Itisallyourmischief.Iwilltakesevereactionagainstyou(addressingme).Please pacifyalltheprisoners,andaskthemtobreaktheirhungerstrikeandstarteatingfood.Alsoask themtodosomework.Iwillseethattheygetjusticeandyouaretreatedinthepropermanner.

I:Iamnotpreparedtotakeanyresponsibilityforthebehaviouroftheprisoners,becausewhenI didpacifythemandpreventedthemfromcausingtroubleonthreepreviousoccasions,theonly rewardIgotwasthattheJailerandtheSuperintendentdubbedmeas"theringleader"ofallthe troublemakers.Iconsidersuchaccusationsaninsulttome.Iamnotassociatedwiththemasa ringleader.IdeemthemtobemySikhbrotherswhoparticipateinthedailyrecitationofprayers andmeditations.Thefactisthatmostoftheseprisonerswhohadneverrecitedprayers,now regularlyrecitedprayers,butyourprisonofficials,particularlytheJailerandtheSuperintendent, causedtroublebyrepeatedlysnatchingawayourprayerbooks(gutkas).Youevenassuredusthat someday,youwouldgiveusabighallintheprisonwherewecankeepourHolyGranth,theGuru GranthSahib,andconvertthehallintoaprisontemple.Butseeingtheattitudeoftheseofficials towardsourprayerbookswethoughttheymightrepeatedlycommitactsofsacrilegebyprofanely handlingtheGuruGranthSahib.ToavoidthispossibledisrespecttotheGuruGranthSahibwe gaveuptheideaofatempleintheprison.Itmighthaveledtopainfulsacrilegiousactsof disrespecttotheHolyGranth.Wecannoteventoleratethedisrespectthesepeopleareshowing toourprayerbooks.Youassuredusthatyouwillallowusstrappedcases,madeofclothforour prayerbooks,sothatwecancarrythemwithus.Butthesepeoplehavenotevenhesitatedto handleourprayerbookswithuncleanhands.Everynowandthentheytakeawayourprayer booksexpectingustostoprecitingourprayers.Nowtheprisonershavememorizedallthe prayers,andtheycannotstopusfromrecitingthembysnatchingawayourprayerbooks.Wehave nowreturnedalltheprayerbooks;becausewecannottoleratetherepeateddisrespecttheyshow totheprayerbooksbymishandlingthemwithuncleanhands.Ifyouwantustokeeptheprayer bookspleaseinstructthesepeoplethattheywillnothandlethemdisrespectfully. Theinescapablefactisthataslongasthisman,Mr.VadhavaRam,ishere,hewillneverleaveusin peace,norwillheletyourestinpeace.Maliceandbitterdeterminationtoilltreatusarein grainedinthisman.Whenhehasdaredtofloutyourorders,howdoyouexpecthimtobe humanetous?Mr.Husbandisatoolinhishands.Youmaygivehimasmanyhelpfulordersasyou like,wearesurehewillnotcarryoutanyoneofthem.Hedoesnotcareafigforyourorders.Ican giveyouoneconcreteexample:Youperhapsrememberthatyournoblewife,Mrs.BawaJiwan Singh(whomtheprisonersaddressedasMaiDoi)paidusavisitandaftermeetingmesheatonce persuadedmetoagreetoherkeendesiretogetmyconfiscatedpropertyrestoredtomywifeand children.SheprocuredyourconsenttoappealtothePunjabGovernmentonbehalfoftheprison authoritiestorestoremypropertytomyfamily,asMrsBawaJiwanSinghfeltthattheymustbe destituteandingreatdistress.YougaveorderstoMr.Husbandtopreparemycase,fillupthe particularsinsomeapplicationforms,yettheyhavenotcarriedoutthatorder.Ihavealwaysfelt thattheGuruandtheSikhPanthwilltakecareofmychildren,andIstillwishtoabidebythe sweetWillofGod,butIwouldliketopointoutthattheseprisonofficialsdidnotcareastrawfor yourorders.IremindedVadhvaRamanumberoftimesandtoldhimthatitwasveryungrateful onhisparttoflouttheordersoftheInspectorGeneraltowhomheowedhispresentposition.He notonlydidnotcarryoutyourordersbuthadtheaudacitytotellmethathewaspowerful enoughtocanceltheordersoftheInspectorGeneral.Hetoldmethatwhenaprisonpoliceofficer securedleavefromtheInspectorGeneralwithoutreferringittohim,hecancelledtheleaveofthe manandtoretheInspectorGeneral'sorderinhispresence.Givingmethisexamplehesaid:"What doIcareforapoliticalprisonerlikeyou."So,suchisthehaughtinessandvanityofthisJailer, VadhavaRam.Thatisthepoliceofficer,standingnearyou,whoseleaveordersanctionedbyyou wastorntopiecesbythisman.Pleaseaskhim.Thisisthemostglaringexampleofhis insubordination.Hehasnotallowedthepoormantogoonleaveuptothistime.

Onhearingthis,theInspectorGeneralwasenragedandheangrilyshoutedatVadhavaRam:"You willhavetoanswerforallthisandpaydearlyforyourdisobedience.Thenaddressingmehesaid: "IassureyouthatfromtodayonwardsnoonewilltreatanyprisonerharshlyandIwillpunishthis Jailerforallthemischiefhehasdone."Ireplied,"Ifyoudonottakeanyactionagainstthisman theprisonerswilltakemattersintotheirownhands.Thatwillbeunfortunate.Iknow,thisman willbegandcringebeforeyou,toforgivehim,andheiscleverenoughtodothat.Hewillfallat yourfeetandsticktothisprison.ButImusttellyouveryfranklythatifhestickstothisprison,he willbringyouabadnamesoonenough.Whatharmcanhedotous,beyondwhathehasalready tried? TheInspectorGeneralwentawayseriouslyupsetoverallthathadhappened.TheJailer,itislearnt fellatthefeetoftheInspectorGeneralwhoeitherpitiedhimorwasmisledbytheflatteryand falseassurancesofthisman.

CHAPTER15PRISONERS'ESCAPE DURINGHISLASTVISIT,theInspectorGeneralofprisons,BawaJiwanSinghgavewrittenorders thatpoliticalprisoners,whosebehaviourwasgood,shouldbesenttospecialcells,andthey shouldbefreetomoveaboutintheprisoncompoundduringthedaytime.Heevenwrotedown thenamesofsomeprisonerswhoweretobesenttothespecialcellsimmediately.Mynamewas inthelist.Weweretobecompletelyunchained.Heorderedchainsaroundmyfeetandhandsto betakenoffimmediatelyinhispresence.Iwasthefirsttobechainedbytheprisonauthorities andIwasalsothefirsttobeunchained.ButJailerVadhavaRamdidnotsendmeorthosewhose namesweresuggestedbytheInspectorGeneraltothespecialprisoncells.Ontheotherhandhe selectednotoriousprisonerslikeNathaSinghtobetakentothespecialcells.Whenbaddaysare ahead,amanstartsdiggingapitforhimself.Heselectednineteenprisonerstobetransferredto thespecialcells,andunchainedotherstakinghisowntimetodoso.Manywerekeptinfetters. Buthedidnotsendthemajorityofthepoliticalprisonerstothespecialcells.Hedidnotsenda singlepersontothespecialcellsoutofthosewhosenameswerespeciallyrecommendedbythe InspectorGeneral. Heconsideredmehisswornenemy.Sohestartedtorturingmeallthemore.Thosewhowere takentothespecialcellswerealsonottreatedwell.Hestartedcuttingdownmyrations,and misappropriatedourrationfunds.Thenhestartedmixingsandormudinflour.Thewaterof Hazaribaghwasalreadybad.Contaminatedwaterandadulteratedfoodbegantodamageevery one'shealth.Whenthesituationbecameunbearableallthepoliticalprisonersmadeuptheirmind toteachVadhavaRamalesson.AtfirstweverballywarnedtheJailerandthesuperintendentto desistfromactionsoverwhichtheyhavetorepentandwroteaseriouscomplainttotheInspector Generalthroughtheprisonauthorities,butafterweeksofwaitingwelearntthatitwasneversent totheInspectorGeneral.WehadwarnedtheInspectorGeneralthatifJailerVadhavaRamwasnot immediatelytransferredsomethingseriousmighthappenastheilltreatmentaccordedbythis mantotheprisonershadmadethemquitedesperate.Whennoreplywasreceivedfromthe InspectorGeneral,eighteenprisonersofthespecialblockmadeuptheirmindtobreakloosetheir chainsandattemptanescapefromtheprison. ItwasFebruary1918.Iwasinthehospital.Theseprisonerssoughtmyconsent,throughaletter senttomesecretly.Istronglyadvisedthemnottoattemptanescapeatthatmoment.Itoldthem thattheGreatWar(WorldWarI)wasabouttoend.Whateverbetheendofthewar,many politicalprisonerswerelikelytobereleased.Onlyoneortwomightbedetainedforalonger period.Butmostoftheprisonerswouldcertainlybereleased.Itwasbettertofightforrelease fromwithintheprisonthantoleadtheunhappylifeofrunawayconvictsalltheirlife.Ialso receivedamessagefromBengalipoliticalprisonersthatIshouldrequesttheseeighteenPunjabi prisonersnottoplananescapethen.TheyshouldwaitatleastuptoHolifestival(springfestival whichfallsinMarch).Afterthattheywouldcontactsomepeopleoutsideandplananescape.I conveyedthemessageoftheBengaliprisonerstomycomrades.Iwassurethattheywouldnot attemptanescapewithoutaunanimousdecision.ButaRajputprisoner,namedKesariSinghhap penedtotaunttheSikhssayingitwaseasytotalkaboutescapingbutitwasnotpossibletodoso. Reactingsharplytothereproach,theSikhprisonersofthatblockatoncedecidedtoshowKesari Singhthattheycouldescapethatverynight. ThesameeveningIwasdischargedfromthehospitalandcametoPunjabicellnumber3.1was almostsurethattheprisonershadgivenuptheideaofbreakingthroughtheprisonandescaping,

forthetimebeing.Icouldnotimaginethattheywoulddecidetoattempttheescapesosuddenly. Intheevening,justaftersupperandprayersIreceivedamessagethatthenationalgreeting:"Sat SriAkal"(GodisTruth),shouldbeutteredimmediatelyaftertheardasa(congregationalprayer)as loudlyaspossible.Onlyafewminutesearlier,theSuperintendentandtheJailerhadcometome andtoldmethatifwestoppedshoutingthis,jaikara(victorycry)loudlythenalltheprisoners wouldbelodgedinthespecialblock.Iimmediatelysentamessageappealingtoalltheprisoners nottoshoutthevictorycrythateveningloudly,sothatwecouldallgettogetherthenextday. Idonotknowwhethertheyreceivedthismessageornot,becauseatthetimeofsendingmessage, thelockupforthenightwasabouttotakeplace.Iftheyreceivedthemessagetheydisregardedit. Howcouldtheylistentosuchadvicenowwhenduringthedaytimetheyhadmadeall preparationstoescape?Wewerecompletelyignorantoftheplans. AsusualIgotupat2a.m.,tookmybathandBhaiAttarSinghJiwhowasinaprisoncellcloseby, startedrecitingtheBawanAkhari(GuruArjan'sAcrostic).Mymindsoaredhighintheupper planesofconsciousnessandIbegantoheartherecitationofBawanAkhariinthatstate.Assoon astherecitationofBawanAkhariwascomplete,Isawastrangevision,whichatthatmoment appearedtobearealincidentandnotavision.Isawthatthedoorofmycellwasopenandfour people,BhaiHiraSingh,BhaiSuchaSinghandtwoothersstandingoutsidemyprisoncell,were tryingtocomeintomycellbutwereunabletodoso.Astheywerenotabletocomeinside,Imade upmymindtogooutandmeetthem.AsIrushedoutoftheprisondoor,thebarsoftheprison cellstruckhardagainstmyforeheadandcausedaninjury.Ithenrealizedthatitwasonlyavision andtheprisondoorwaslocked.InanotherminuteBhaiHiraSinghandBhaiSuchaSinghcame thereandtriedtounlockmycellbuttheycouldnotfindtherightkey.Iaskedthemwhether,what Isawwasadreamvisionorreality,becauseaminuteagotheywerenotthere.Theyaskedmeto getreadytoescape."Theprisonersofthespecialblockshaveallcomeoutoftheirprisoncellsand arewaitingforyoutoescapewithus",theysaid. Oneofthesecomradescarriedalampandtheotherhadabunchofkeys,andweretryinghardto openthelockofmyprisoncellbutcouldnotdoso.Whenweexaminedthekeyswefoundthem tobethekeysoftheinnerandouterdoorsofBlocknumbertwo.Iaskedthemnottowastetheir timebutmakegoodtheirescape.Twoofthemrantothespecialblocktogettherightkeys.At thatverymoment,theprisonalarmalertedalltheprisonofficialsandarmedguards.Theythen askedmewhattodo.Myfirstsuggestionwasthattheyshouldgobacktotheircellsandstay there.Godperhapsdidnotwillthattheyshouldattemptanescapeatthatmoment.Butitwas nowdifficultforthemeventogobacktotheircells.Armedguardswererushingtowardsour block.Itoldthem,"Youhavealreadybecomeabsconders.Ifyouarenotabletogobacktoyour prisoncells,makegoodyourescapebyjumpingoverthenearestboundarywall.Butbecareful, whenyoujump.Godownthewallcautiouslyandavoidcausinganyinjurytoyourselfwhenyou jumpdownontheothersideofthewall."Theyallrushedtotheboundarywallwhichwasnotfar frommyprisoncell. Thewallwasveryhigh.Threepeoplehadtostandononeanother'sshoulderstoenablethefourth onetoreachthetopofthewallandjumpdownontheotherside.LedbytheTilakdhariBrahmin Warder,armedsentriescametothespot.ASikhwhohadreachedthetopofthewallshoutedto hiscomrades:"Whyareyouwastingyourtime.Nowisthetimetothrowhandgrenadesand destroythem.Whydoyouhesitate?"Anyweaponatacriticalmomentismoreusefulthanthe bomb.Theyhadnobombsofcourse.BhaiGujjarSinghlightedamatchstickandimmediately threwaheavylockatthearmedguards.ItwasaimedattheBrahminWarderandithithimonthe face.Hetooktohisheels.Anothermatchstickwaslighted,andtheverysparkoffirefrightened

theBiharipolicemensomuchthattheyranfortheirlife,leavingthepatriotsfreetomaketheir escape. Excitedwiththeircourageandheroismtheprisonersjumpeddownfromthetopofthewallinhot haste,andallthefiveorsixwhodidsoreceivedverysevereinjuriesontheirfeet.Someofthem receivedsuchsevereinjuriesthatitwasimpossibleforthemtorun.Otherscamedownthewalla littlecautiously.BhaiInderSinghwasthefirsttolandsafelyontheground.Hehadjustlanded whenfourarmedguardssurroundedhimandcaughthim.ThewoundedSikhscouldnotbearthe sightofarrestandbeatingofInderSingh.OneofthemBhaiLallSinghofNarangwal,findinghis comradeintrouble,stooduponhiswoundedandbleedingfeet,andsnatchingalathifroma policeguardhiteveryonerightandleft.Manyofthemwerehitsohardthattheyallranfortheir life,andevenpreventedthearmedguardssenttoreinforcethem,fromcomingneartheSikh prisoners,saying"TheyarePunjabiSikhs.Donotgonearthem.Theywillkillyouwiththelathi. Runawayforyourlife."Thewholemilitaryforcesenttoarresttheseunarmedwoundedprisoners ranfortheirlife.Nowthewaywasclearforthemtoescape. Alltheeighteenprisonersjumpedoverthewall.Therewasaterribleuproarintheprison.Asit wasthemiddleofnightnoonedaredtocomenearaSikhprisoner.Theyevendidnotdareto touchtheSikhprisonerswhowerefreelymovingwithintheprisonwalls.Likecowards,allthe armedguardshidthemselvesfrom12P.M.to3A.M.Thestoryoftheirsuccessfulbreakthrough thedoublelockedcellsisalsoheroic. InthemiddleofthenightBhaiNathaSinghandBhaiSuchaSinghmadeanopeningintheroofand wentoutofitonthetopoftheroof.BhaiArjanSinghandBhaiGandaSinghNihangstartedsinging theChandidiVarandSabadsintunewiththemusicalsoundmadebystrikingtwometalplates againsteachotherlikecymbals.Theyhadprocuredironchiselsfromoutside,afewdaysearlier. (Unfortunatelythechiselswerenotstrongenough).Theymadeanaperturewhichwasnotlarge enoughtoenableapersontogetthroughit.NathaSinghhowevergotthroughitbutSuchaSingh gotstuckup.NathaSinghsomehowmanagedtopullhimthroughit.Stealthilytheymoved forwardandpouncedontheBiharisentry.Theygavehimafewblowswhenhetriedtoshoutand tiedhismouth,handsandfeet.AtthismomentthefollowinglinesofChandidiVarweresung: Brothersattackedbrothers TakingthemtobeDurga. Assoonasthepoliceguardwasgiventhefirstblow,heshouted"whydoyoubeatme,Iamyour Indianbrother?Hewasbeatenbecausehewastheguardonduty;otherwisehewasgenerally verysympathetic.Hewastriedhandandfoot,andSuchaSinghputonhisuniformandbeltand stoodonguard.Heansweredthecallofotherpolicemenondutybysaying"everythingisalright here."SoontheJemadarcamethere.Hecarriedallthekeysoftheprisoninabag.Hewascaught andtiedtoapillarandwasgagged.HisuniformwasputonbyNathaSingh.Whilehewas struggling,theJemadarInchargethrewthekeysoftheprisonawayonthegrasscloseby.Thefirst bunchofkeyswhichSuchaSinghwasabletogetwasthatofthespecialblock,whichhetookand immediatelyopenedalltheprisoncells.Alltheeighteenprisonerscameout.Thenineteenth prisonerVasakhaSinghJunior,wasafraidtojointheprisonbreakers. Overjoyedwiththesuccessoftheirbidtowinfreedom,theybypassedthesentrywatchingonthe towerandcametomycell.Inahurrytheywerenotabletogetthekeysofmycell.Theyhadplans totieupthesentryontheprisontower,andtogiveagoodthrashingtotheTilakdhariBrahmin

WarderandalsotopunishVadhavaRamforallhismisdeeds,buttherewasnotimeattheir disposal.Itwasalready3.A.M.Iftheyhadtimetheywouldcertainlyhavetrouncedandchastised VadhavaRam.WhilecomingtothePunjabiblocktheygaggedthesentryofblockNo.landthenof No.3.Twoofourcomradescametoopenthelockofmycellwhiletheothertwoheldthesentry ofblockNumber2,whoalmostfaintedwhentheycaughthimandgaggedhim.Frommidnightto 3.A.M.theprisonwascompletelyunderthecontroloftheSikhpoliticalprisoners.Whenanew batchofguardscamefromoutsideat3.A.M.thealarmwassounded. Almostalltheprisonersplanningtoescapewereasyetwithintheprisonwhenthealarmwas heard.Thosewhohadjumpeddownfromthewallinhothastewereunabletomoveon.Thirteen otherswhowereabletowalkwerepreparedtocarrythembuttheyrefusedtoputtheircomrades intosuchdifficultywhichmightpreventtheirescape.Theyadvisedthemtomakegoodtheir escapeandnottoworryaboutthem.Theywouldfacetheworst.Twooutofthesethirteen prisonerscouldwalkbuthadwoundedfeet.Thesetwo,BhaiHiraSinghandSadhuRajinderSingh accompaniedtherunawayprisonersbutfounditdifficulttogobeyondtwomiles.Their companionscarriedthembyturnforanothersixorsevenmiles.Whentheyreachedaforest,they refusedtobecarriedfurtherandthuspreventtheescapeoftheotherelevencompanionsalso. Theycompelledtheirelevencompanionstorunawayfromthedangerzoneasfastaspossible. Fivewoundedcomrades,BhaiPakharSinghofDhudike,BhaiLallSinghofNarangwal,BhaiSunder SinghofDauluNangal,BhaiHarnamSinghofKalaSangha,andBhaiKesarSinghofSursinghquietly movedtosomenearbybarleyfieldsandhidthemselvesinapitinthefields.Therewasan intensivesearchbythemilitarypolicefarandnearbutnotasingleprisonerwascaught.Atabout 10A.M.thesearchwasalmostgivenup.Soonafterthatagroupofvillagerswerepassingbythat field.Theirdogbegantobark.TheyturnedbackandfoundthedogbarkingataSikhprisoner hidinginapit.Theyinformedtheprisonauthoritiesthatsomepeopleinuniformwerehidingin thepit.ArmedpolicemencamethereandstartedbeatingBhaiHarnamSingh,whowasthefirstto befound.BhaiSunderSinghofDauluNangalcouldnotbeartoseehiswoundedcompanionbeing beateninthisway.ItappearedthatapackofJackalshadpouncedonawoundedtiger. AlthoughSunderSingh'sfeetwerewounded,hecameoutlikelighteningandwrestingalathi,with aspearend,fromoneofthepolicemen,hehitthemrightandleft,andbroughttothegroundsix ofthem.Othersranfortheirlife.TheythenbeggedSunderSinghtosurrenderpeacefullyonthe conditionthatheandhiscompanionswouldnotbebeatenormaltreated.Assoonashe surrenderedhewasbeatentopulp.YetSunderSinghdidnottakethebeatingwithoutretaliating withhishandsandwoundedfeet.Everyonewasstunnedbyhiscourageandunconquerablespirit. Thentheysearchedthefieldandfoundtheotherrunawayprisonerswhowerehidingcloseby. Thecowardspouncedonthesehelplesswoundedlions,andtorturedthemwithvengeance. Althoughallthefivefreedomfighterswerehalfdeadandmadeunconsciousbybeating,notone ofthembeggedformercyandnotoneofthemutteredacryofpain.Noonedaredtocomenear themaslongasSunderSinghhadthelathiinhishands. EveryonewasastoundedattheheroismandcourageoftheSikhs.Theywonderedwhattheywere reallymadeof,andwhatmadethemsofearless.Thereissomespecialqualityinthislandoffive rivers,whichmakesthesonsofthissoilsofearlessthattheymockatdeathinthefaceofgreatest sufferingandpain.Theywouldneverbehavelikecowards.Whentheywerebeatensomuchthat theybecamehalfdead,theyweretakentotheprisonandlockedindarkcells.Fordaystogether, theywereneithergivenadropofwater,noranymedicine,norweretheirwoundsbandaged.Even

unwanteddogsarenevertreatedthatway.Itwasthecoldseasonandthosemercilesstyrants neithergavethemacotnorevenablankettocovertheirbody. Whenwecametoknowofthisinhumancruelty,ourbloodbegantoboilinangerandresentment butwewereutterlyhelpless.Wehadnothingtoofferthemexceptsilentprayerandthehopethat Godwouldhelpthemtofacetheterribleordeal,theywerefacing.Everyonehadturnedagainst them;thedoctorsandcompounderswerestrictlyorderednottogonearthem.Everyonewas aftertheirlife.Theystruggledforsurvivalwithgreatwillpower.Withoutamorseloffood,and withoutadropofwater,theywerelefttostarveanddieofthirst.Itappearsthatthetyrantswere determinedtoletthemdieofthirstandstarvation.But: Whocankillhim? WhomGodwishestosave; Whocanbringdeathtohim? WhoisprotectedbyGod. Thehuntermaytryhardtokilladeer, ButitwillnotbeinjuredifGodwishestosaveit. Thestoryofsufferingofthesefreedomfightersislongandbitter.Itissufficienttotellitinasfew wordsaspossible.Theothertwowhohadfledtotheforestwerealsocaughtandwerebeatenstill moremercilessly.Theywerealsothrownintoseparatecellsalmosthalfdead.NowIwilltellyou mystory.Thedaythepoliticalprisonersescapedwewerekeptlockedupinourcellsforthewhole dayandnight.Wewerenotgivenanyfoodorwater.Wewerenotevenallowedtogotothe latrineortourinateoutsideourcells.Nooneremovedthefilthandpots...outofourprisoncells.I wasextremelyworriedaboutthemiseryandsorrowfulplightofmycompanions.Wehelplessly groanedandmoanedtheterriblelotofourcomrades.Noonecamenearus.Strongguardswere postedonallsides.Theprisonauthoritiesfearedthattheprisonerswhohadescapedmighttryto helpustoescape.Armedguardswerepostedonallprisontowersandkeypoints. Thenewsspreadlikewildfireandthenewspapersgaveafairlygoodaccountoftheescape.The Statesman,Calcutta,publishedastoryundertheheadline"Adaringdeed".Theverynextevening theInspectorGeneralPrisons,BawaJiwanSinghcamethereboilingwithrage.Thefirstthinghe didinhothastewastotakeverystringentmeasurestocontroltheprisonerswithanironhand. Chainsandcrossbarswereclampedaroundourhandsandfeet.Provisionofgoodfoodwas stopped.Themostrottendrybreadwasprovided.Weweredeprivedofallclothesexceptthe kachh(underwear).Allourgospelbooks(gutkas),andreligiousliteraturewastakenawayfromus. Aftertakingthemostseveresteps,hecameforaroundinourbarracks.Afterinspectingother cells,hecameandstoodbeforemyprisoncell,redwithuncontrolledwrath.Hewasshakingfrom headtofootwithrage.Eyingmewithangrylooks,heordered:"Hewillnomorebepermittedto cookhisownfoodfromtodayonwards." Iquietlyreplied:"SoIhavetosufferforthemisdeedsofsomeoneelse.Thecowandthesheep arenowclassedbyyouinthesamecategory.Whatsortofjusticeisthis?" InspectorGeneral:Yes,Bhaiji,onebuffalohasspoiledthewholepond.Youarethecauseofallthe troubles.Allhaveescapedunderyourcommandandplan. I:IfIhelpedthemtoescape,thenwhydidInotescape?

InspectorGeneral:Youcouldnotgetoutofyourcell,andjointheprisonbreakers.Theytriedto openyourlockbutcouldnotdoso.Theyhadthewrongbunchofkeyswiththem.Hadthey succeededinopeningyourlock,youtoowouldhaveescaped. ASentry:NoSir.Herefusedtoaccompanythem.Theywerereadytobreakthelock,butthisSaint advisedthemtogobacktotheircells. InspectorGeneral:Thealarmwassounded;otherwisehewouldhavemadegoodhisescape.I havegotdefiniteproofofthefactthatheplannedandabettedtheescape. I:Youhaveabsolutelynoproof,butVadhavaRamhascertainlymisguidedyou.Youarenow besideyourselfwithanger.Whenyourmindisalittlecomposed,andyouinvestigatefacts,the truthwillberevealed.Iamnotworriedaboutmyself.Youcanstopgivingmemyfood.Ihave patienceenoughtofacethebitterestordealasthesweetWillofGod.Godwilltakecareofmein thewayHethinksbest.ButIamshockedattheinhumanityandinjusticeheapedonourwounded companions.Well,theytriedtoescape.Theyhavecommittedacrime.Punishthemforit accordingtothelawofthecountry.MayIknowaccordingtowhichlawhavetheybeentreatedin suchinhumanwaythat,theywerebeatentopulpalthoughtheywerealreadybadlyinjured? Whentheywerehalfdeadandunconscioustheywerethrownintothedungeon.Theyhavenot beengivenadropofwaternoranymedicaltreatmentfortheinjuriestheyhavesufferedfrom barbaricbeating.Whatlawhasauthorizedyoutotreatthesepoliticalprisonersinthisway?After seeingthemtreatedinsuchaninhumanmannerIwasmyselfgoingonhungerstrike.Yourorders aremeaninglesstome.Aslongasyoudonotlookaftermywoundedcompanionsandaslongas theyarenothumanelytreatedIwillnottakeamorseloffood.Whiletheyaresufferingsuch inhumantreatment,eventodrinkwaterwouldbelikedrinkingblood. InspectorGeneral:(angrily)Youpeople,andparticularlythosecompanionsofyourswhohave escapedhavebroughtmeaverybadname.Theharsherthetreatmentaccordedtothemthe better. I:Itisyourmaladministrationthathasbroughtyouabadname.NeitherInormyrunaway companionsaretobeblamed.WhenyoucameforavisittothisprisonItoldyoufranklythatyou shouldtransferVadhavaRamfromhere,otherwisehistreatmentoftheprisonerswouldgivea badturntotheaffairsoftheprisonhere.Youpromisedthathewouldbetransferred,butGod aloneknowshowheinfluencedyouagaininthewrongdirection,andyouretainedhimhere.He startedheapingmoreinsultsandinjuryupontheprisonersanditishisilltreatmentthatmadethe prisonersmuchmoredesperatethanbefore.Hisdisobeyedallyourorders.Hemixedsandwith atta(flour)andadulteratedourfoodinvariousways.Weservedhimanumberofnoticestodesist fromthisbarbarictreatmentbuthedidnotcareafigforourrepeatedwarning.Wethenwrote downallourcomplaintsagainsthimandsentthemtoyouthroughtheSuperintendent,buthe suppressedthemanddidnotallowourletterstoreachyou.Andwhentheprisonersbecame desperate,theytooktheextremestep.Theytriedtoescapefromthishellishtreatment.Whatelse couldtheydo? Afterlisteningtothisstrongprotest,theInspectorGeneralwentawayquietlyandmyhunger strikebegan.Norationwassuppliedtomeandnothingwascooked.GodaloneknewwhenI wouldgetmynextmeal.Forme,mylifewasinthehandsoftheAlmighty.IfHewantedmybody tosurvive,He,astheGiverofsustenance,wouldalsohelpmetosurvivewithoutfoodaslongas

Hewilledit.ThemainsustenanceofmySpirit,thedivineName,waswithme.Noearthlypower couldtakeitawayfromme.HewhoisblessedwithHisName,caresnotforanyotherfood. MyclashwiththeInspectorGeneralhadonegoodeffectonhim.Thewoundedprisonerswere givenmedicalaidandsomefoodandthehungerstrikeofotherprisonersended.Thetreatmentof otherprisonerswasbetterthanwhatitwasexpectedtobe.ButIwentwithoutfoodfordays together.Afterstoppingthesupplyofdailyrationstomeeveryoneforgotmyveryexistence.Such torturehaditsnaturalreactions,buttheGuruhasbyhisgracegiveninfinitetoleranceandpowers ofendurancetohisSikhs. IfThougivestmehappinessIshallworshipThee, IfThougivestsorrow,eventhenIwilladoreThee; IfThougivesthunger,Iwillremaincontented, InsorrowIwillsingthesongsofjoy. GuruRamDas:Suhi,p.757 ItappearedtomethatGodwasputtingmetotest,whetherasadevoutSikh,Icouldlivein tranquilpeaceundersuchtribulationsandsufferings.Hewasgivingmeanobjectinconsidering joyandsorrowalike.BygivingmethegreatspiritualgiftofhisNameallhungerhadbeen dispelled.Afortnightpassedinpeaceandcontentment.Gettingnofood,Ipassedmydaysand nightsinthecontemplationofdivineName.Inthejoyofitsspiritualexperienceandillumination ofitslight,Ifeltnohungerorthirst.IretainedthismentalpoisebythegraceofthetrueGuru.I hadgonethroughsuchtrialsbefore.Sotheexperiencewasnothingnew. LiveOBrotherasGodWiliesttheetolive Namdev:Bhairon:p.1164 Godhadalreadyseasonedmewiththedeterminedfaithinhighspiritualideal.Aboutseventeen daysnowpassedwithoutamorseloffoodoradropofwater.AllthesedaysIsurvivedonthesole spiritualsustenanceofcomtemplatingtheDivine.ThenIsawsomestrangevisionsofabetter futurewhichpassedfirstthroughmymindandthenwerealsovisualisedbyBhaiKirpaSingh, whosesuddenturntospiritualpractisegavehimsomeclairvoyantpowers.

CHAPTER16CLAIRVOYANCEOFKIRPASINGHANDMOREHARASSMENT ONEOFOURCOMPANIONS,BrotherKirpaSingh,wassufferingfromaveryseriousdisease,which couldneitherbeproperlydiagnosednortreated.Hebecamesoweakandfrailthathisbodywas nothingbutashakyandtumbledownskeleton.Hisbodybecamesothinandbloodlessthatall onecouldseeinhisfragilebodywasabreathingskeleton.Thedoctorsgaveanumberof medicinesbutnonewashelpfulincuringhim.Inthisutterphysicalhelplessness,heaskedmeif therewasanyremedy.Isaid:ThegreatestofallremediesistoacquiredivineName."Heasked: "Howcanthatbeattained?"Iunconsciouslysaid:"ReflectonthedivinepresenceofGuruNanak," andwentawayfromthere.KirpaSinghwasnotafraidofdeathandhehadabsolutelynohopeof livinglong.HestartedcontemplatingthedivinepresenceofGuruNanakandsoonacquireddeep concentration.Hehadalreadylostallphysicalstrengthandenergy,andnowhismental concentrationbecamesodeepthatheacquiredanunbrokenstreamofconsciousness.He acquiredclairvoyanceanddeeperpowersofinsightoverwhichhedidnotexercisepropercontrol. Itwastheseventeenthdayofmyfast.Ispentmydaysinprayerexpectingtobreakmyfastwhen Godwilledit.Iwasneitherworriednorimpatientaboutit.Ididnotexpectthefasttobebroken soonenough.Butonthenightofseventeenthdayofmyfast,Iwassurprisedtoseeadreamvision at2A.M.AfterIhadsaidmymorningprayerandbathedmysoulandmindinthenectarofdivine Name,andafterenjoyingtheblissandpeaceofmysticunionwiththeBelovedinatranscendent state,duringwhichmymindwassatiatedwiththejoyofinnerexaltation,Isawaroundmea heavenlyplacefulloffruits.JustbeforethedoorofmycellIsawawishfulfillingtree,whichwas loadedwiththemostdeliciousfruitslikewatermelon,ripeandjuicymangoesandcantaloupes whichIhadnotseenbefore.Theybrokefromthetreeandrolledonthegroundtowardsme. Sweetandripemelonswerenowpiledupontheground.WhenItookupandtastedoneofthese fruits,itssweetnesshadtheflavouroffourdifferentfruits,likemangoesandthreedifferenttypes ofmelons.Mymindnowdriftedtowardstheuniquetasteofthesefruitsandmysamadhiwas disturbed. Suddenlytherewassomenoiseoftheclangingoftheprisonbarsandmydooropened.Asentry hadjustunlockedmydoorandhewasstandingthereinbroaddaylightwithhiskeysandburcha.I wenttothewaterpumptotakemybath,whenBhaiKirpaSingh,whosecellwascloseby,said: "Pleasecomeforawhilenearme.Ihavetosaysomethingveryimportant."Wewerenotallowed tomeeteachotheroreventotalktoeachother.Sowhentheprisonguardmovedawayfromthe placeIwenttoBhaiKirpaSingh'scell.Hehadseenavisionofthefutureandstartedprophesyinga chainofeventsthatweretohappen. BhaiKirpaSinghsaid:WellBhaiSahibji,fromtodayonwardsyouwillgetfivepapayasdaily.Ina visionlastnightIsawyourroomfullofpapayas.""Whatarepapayas?"Iaskedhim."Theyarea typeofmelons,"hesaid.Ihadheardofthisfruitbuthadneverseenortastedit.Hisdescriptionof ittalliedwiththefruitwhichIhadseeninmyvision.Iadvisedhimnottofritterawaythelittle spiritualgifthehadreceived,inforecastingevents.Heshouldlearntoresistthetemptationof misusingthesepowers,anddisplayinghispowerstoforeseeevents.Ididnotexpectthatthe eventsheforetoldwouldcometruesosoon. Afteraboutanhourandhalf,theInspectorGeneralprisons,theMedicalOfficer,andthe Superintendentcametomycell,andafterexchangingafewwordsbetweenthemselves,theytook myhistoryticket.Abouthalfanhourafterwards,myhistoryticketwasreturnedtome.Theman

whobroughtit,handedovertomethreepapayasalso.OnmyhistorytickettheMedicalOfficer hadwritten:"Fivepapayasonmedicalgroundsforbothmorningandevening." AfterreadingtheMedicalOfficer'sorder,Iaskedthemanwhohadbroughtthepapayaswhyhe hadbroughtonlythree,whenonthehistorytickettherewasorderforfivepapayas.HesaidthatI wouldgettwomoreintheevening.SoIstartedgettingfruit,andthedreamvisionbecamea reality.KirpaSingh'sforecastalsoprovedtobequitecorrect.ThusIbrokemyfast.WhenItasted thepapayaitwasindeedverydeliciousandtastedlikefourdifferentfruits.Foraboutamonthor twoIlivedonlyonfruit,mostlypapayas,and,itappears,duringthisperiodImusthavetaken heapsofthemjustasIsawtheminmyvision. ThenIsawanotherstrangevision.Isawamarblepalace.Totheouterwallofthiswhitepalace wereattachedrubbertaps.Itriedtotakesomewateroutofthetaps.AssoonasItouchedthem, thetapsbecameuddersofacow,andoutofthemcameoutmilk.IforgotallaboutthisvisionasI tookittobeadreamvision.Earlythenextmorning,ourcelldoorshadjustbeenopenedwhen KirpaSinghcamerunningtomycellandsaid:"BhaiSahib,Youwillgetacowwhichyoucanmilk yourself.Itwillbeawhitecow.Itwillbeofgoodheightanditshornswillbebentlow.Itwillhave afinewhitecalfwithit.Ihaveseeninmyvisionthatyouwillgetmilkofthiscowmeasuredin seersandyoumaygetmilkfromonetofourseerseveryday.Justasmyforecastaboutpapayas wascorrectmyforecastaboutthecowwillalsoturnouttobequitecorrect". IreprimandedKirpaSinghforwastinghisspiritualpowersinforecastingandwarnedhim:"You thinkyouhavebecomeanauliya,agiftedsaint;youarenotabletomaintainacontrolevenover thesepettypowers.Youarefritteringthemaway.Youhaveabsolutelynoselfcontrol.Becareful. Donotusethesepowerssofreely.Ifyougetinvolvedinthem,youwillmakenospiritualprogress. ThesepowersarenothingtothosewhowalkonthepathofSikhism.Theyareacquiredveryeasily. Thosewhoseekspiritualenlightenmentareneverinterestedinthesethings.Iftheydoso,they arelikelytogetstuckupinoccultachievements(ridhisandsidhis). Occultpowersarealllowdesiresandattachments, ThosewhogivethemselvesuptothemremaindevoidofdivineName "Comparedtothehighestspiritualjoy,thejoyderivedfromoccultpowersisalowtypeof pleasure.Itisanunspiritualjoy".IfurtheradvisedKirpaSinghnottotakethesethingsseriously. HehadnotevenacquiredthegiftofdivineName.Hehadacquiredtheseoccultpowersmerelyby contemplatingthepresenceofGuruNanak.Iwarnedhim,"Ifyoukeepthesepowerstoyourself, youcanmarchaheadandyouwillacquiregreaterspiritualillumination.Ifyoufritterawaythis littlebitofspiritualenergyindisplayingyouroccultpowers,youwillnotbeabletomoveastep forward.Gotoyourcellandspendyourtimeinsilentmeditation.Goawaynow." KirpaSinghquietlywentbacktohiscell.Istartedcleaningmybucketandutensilsforgettingthe milk,becauseIknewthatthisforecastwasboundtocometrue,asdidtheearlierone.Evenaday earlierIdidnothavetheslightestintimationofthepossibilityofgettingmilk.Afterafewhours thisforecastbecameafact.TheDeputyCommissioner,theInspectorGeneral,theMedicalOfficer andtheSuperintendentcametomycell.Iexpectedsomethingnewtohappen.ItwastheMedical Officerwhospokefirst.ItappearedthatGodwishedtomakehimtheinstrumentofHisWill. MedicalOfficer:RandhirSingh'shealthisgoingdown.Fruitdietisnotsufficienttobringhimback tonormalhealth.Hemustbegivensomesolidfood.

InspectorGeneral:Ican'tallowhimtocookhisownfood.Wecangivehimmilkifyourecommend it. Superintendent:Buthewillnotacceptthemilkwhichwemayofferhimfromthehospital. DeputyCommissioner:Isthereadairyfarmwithintheprison? MedicalOfficer:Yes,quiteagoodone.IftheInspectorGeneralpermits,Icanofferhimacow becauseIaminchargeofthedairyfarm. InspectorGeneral:Howcanhetakethewholemilkgivenbyacow?NorcanIofferhimthewhole milkoutputofacow. MedicalOfficer:Ihavesomecowswhichgiveonlytwoorthreeseersofmilk. InspectorGeneral:Youcangivehimthecowwhichgivestwoseersofmilk.Youcanappointa Jemadartosupervisethemilkingofthecow.Hecantakehimtothedairyfarm. Thisorderwasrecordedonmyhistoryticket.Soonafterthisdecisionwasreached,Iwastakento thedairyfarm.AcowwasbroughtoutandIwasaskedtomilkit.Itwasactuallyawhitecowwith itshornsbentdownwards.Ithadawhitecalfalso.EverythingwasexactlyasKirpaSinghhad describedit.Hisclairvoyantvisionturnedouttobetruetotheminutestdetail,butthesepowers whichhepossesseddidnotlastlong.Forsomedayshekepthimselfunderrestraintunderthe influenceofmyrepeatedreproval.Butthenhestartedfritteringawayhisenergyandtelling everyoneabouthisoccultpowers.Helostalltheacquiredpowerswithinafewdaysandbecame anemptyshellrepentingoverthelosseverafterthat(OnApril13,1919,theBaisakhiday,Kirpa SinghreportedtotheOfficersandinmatesoftheprisonallthathappenedonthatdayatthe JallianwalaBagh.HegaveavividpictureoftheJallianwalaTragedy,inwhichinnocentpatriots werekilledbytheindiscriminatefiringbytheorderofGeneralDyer.Theprisonauthoritieswere astoundedwhentheycheckedthesefactsfromnewspaperreportslateron16April). Withoutdeservingonegetsnothing, Nomatterhowmuchamanhankersafterit. ThosewholiveinthecontemplationofthedivineNamerealizethattheoccultpowersare"the wellcontrolledservantsofthosewhoareabsorbedinHisPresence:"ridhisidhinamaikidasi." Occultpowersfollowaspirituallyenlightenedmanlikeashadow.Tofollowitistofollowthe shadowoftruespirituality.Tomoveawayfromitistomovetowardstrueenlightenment.Thisis realizedbythoseenlightenedSikhswhoaredevotedtocontemplationofHisPresence.ASikhmay usethesepowersunconsciouslyforhumanwelfare,butheneverusesthemfordisplayinghis spiritualachievements.Thisisasubjectquiteapart.Iwillcontinuemystory. Afterthislongfast,Iwasabletogetacowwhichgaveaboutfourtofiveseersofmilkdaily.After leavingthemilkofoneudderforthecalf,Isometimegotsixseersofmilkdaily.Iwasalsogiven somesagoandsugar.Igenerallypreparedsomemilkpuddingandshareditwithotherbrother prisoners."LiveasGodwilleththeetolive."Thisattitudetothesorrowsofprisonlifeultimately yieldedthedivinefruitofgraceandcontentment.

PlightoftheRunawayprisoners Asaresultoftheilltreatmentaccordedtorunawayprisoners,VadhavaRamandthe Superintendentwerebothdegradedandshuntedoutoftheplace.Althoughtherunaway prisonerswerefurtherpunishedbytwoyearsincreaseintheirprisonsterm,theytaughtthesetwo cruelofficersagoodlesson.Threeofthemhavenotbeenarrestedsofar:SuchaSingh,TejaSingh andBudhaSingh.Sevenothershadalreadybeenbroughttotheprison,wounded,andbadly injured.Eightotherssurrenderedafteramonthandhalf,aftershowingthecourageofdaredevils. Fordaystheywanderedintheforestwithoutamorseloffood.TwoofthemreachedBenaras. Theysplitthemselvesintothreesmallgroupswhichaddedtotheirdifficulties.Hadtheymoved together,noonewouldhavedaredtofacethem.Thepoliceannouncedbythebeatofthedrum thattheyweredacoitsandthousandsofpeopleweresentafterthemtocapturethem.Armed withlathis,daggers,swords,spears,thousandsofpeoplesurroundedthesethreeunarmed,naked, starvingSikhs,GandaSinghNihangofKhapadkhedi,InderSinghofSheikhDaulat,andArjanSingh ofJagraon.Andyettheydidnotsurrenderwithoutgivingatoughfighttothepoliceandthe crowd.Theothergroupofthree,namelyBhaiDalSinghofDhudike,BhaiGujjarSinghBhakna,and BhaiSajjanSinghNarangwalweresimilarlysurroundedbyalargearmedpoliceforceandanangry crowdwhowastoldthattheyweredacoits.Theysnatchedthearmsandthelathisfromthe policemenandfoughtforhoursbeatingeveryonewhocamenearthemtopulp.Thewholeof BiharandU.P.resoundedwiththestoriesofcourageofthesesixSikhs.Atlastanarmedcrowdof thousandscloseduponthemandoverpoweredthesebravepatriots,whohadnottakenamorsel offoodforweeks,bysheerforceofnumber.(Theadventuresoftheserunawayprisonersforma thrillingtale.Bareheadedandwithoutevenashirt,theonlythingtheyhadweretwostaffspicked upfromthecremationground.TheycrossedtheSonrivereventhoughhalfofthemdidnotknow howtoswim.Eventheinquirycommissionwassurprisedatthisfeat.Whenoncesurroundedby hundredsofvillagers,theybroketheirwaythroughthemwithonlytwolargesticksandmade goodtheirescapeintotheforests.Whentheywereextremelythirstytheyprayedforwater. Immediatelyaftertheprayertheyheardfrogscroakingatadistanceandfoundsomewateratthe place.Whenotherssleptoneofthemkeptguardatnight.Awildbearoncecamenearthemand findingoneSikh,hecamewithacompanionbeartofighthim.WhenthebearreturnedtwoSikhs wereawake.Thebearwentawayandnowfourofthemcame.FindingfourSikhsawaketheneight ofthemcame.FindingeightSikhswerereadytofightthemtheywentawayandnevercameback.) Theyfoughtwithfierydetermination.Afterreceivingmanyswordcuts,woundsfrom indiscriminatelathicharges,bleedingfromheadtofoot,theyfellunconsciousontheground.The valourandcourageBhaiGujjarSinghshowedatthismomentcannotbeexpressedinwords. Daggersandswordhadcauseddeepinjuriesonthewholeofhisbodyandyethefoughttillhe becameunconscious.EvenwhiletheseSikhswerelyingunconsciousandhalfdeadontheground, noonecamenearthemforfearthattheymightgetupsuddenlyandkillthefirstmantheygot holdof.Theywerebroughtinthisprecariousconditiontotheprisonandtoeveryone'ssurprise theirwoundshealedsoonenough.BhaiNathaSinghDhunandHariSinghofKakadwerearrested atBenarasandbroughttothe,prison. AjudicialinquirywasheldandalltherunawayprisonerswereconvictedofbreakingtheJail. Althoughalltherunawayprisonerswerepunishedbytheextensionoftheirtermofimprisonment bytwoyears,VadhavaRam'streatmentoftheprisonerswascondemnedbytheJudgesandhe wasdowngradedandseverelycensured.TheInspectorGeneralBawaJiwanSighwasalso censured.TheGovernmenttookaseriousnoteofhisinabilitytohandletheprisonersproperly,by whichhefeltextremelyhumiliated.Heavengedthishumiliationbynotgivingeitherfreedomor reductionofprisontermswhichwassanctionedbytheGovernmentforallpoliticalprisoners.

AlmostallpoliticalprisonerswerereleasedbuttheInspectorGeneraldidnotrecommendthe releaseofrunawayprisoners.Heevendidnotrecommendmyreleaseandhestillaccusedmeof havingincitedtheprisonerstoescape.Ilearntlaterthatherepentedoverthishastyaction,which harmedmeconsiderably,whenhistempercooleddown. Heexpressedhisregretlateronthathehadunjustlyharmedaninnocentandsaintlyperson,but whatwasdonewasdone.Ihadtosufferimprisonmentforanothertenorelevenyears.Noneof theeighteenrunawayprisonerswasreleased.Outoftherest,nineteenwerereleased.Iaccepted thisastheWillofGod.TheDeputyCommissionerandtheInspectorGeneraladmittedthatitwas thisreportofBawaJiwanSinghwhichpreventedmyreleaseatthattime. WhateverisThyWill, Ittakethplace. WhereverThoukeepestme, ThereIshallstandandwait. GuruArjanVarGujrip.523 Whatistheuseofblaminganyone?ThewillofGodcouldnotbealtered.Myfaithandoutlook was:"WhereverThoukeepestme,Lord,thatplaceisheaven."Ihadnocravingwhatsoevertoseek orbegliberty.EveninthefaceofuntoldsufferingsIhadundergone,mymindandsoulremained poisedinperfectpeaceandineffablejoy.InthecommunionoftheHolySpirit,mysoulfedonthe LightofHispresencelikeabirdabletogetfareinallclimesandalllands.Thusmymindandsoul werealwaysabsorbedinilluminatingoptimism(charhdikala).Iwassodeeplyabsorbedinthis perennialjoythatmythoughtscarcelywenttoanythingelse.Aslongasthesenineteenpolitical prisoners,whowerenowreleased,werewithus,therewasaspiritualatmosphereoftheholySat Sang.BhaiAttarSinghwhocouldreciteoverfiftycompositionsofGuruGranthSahibandDasam Granthkeptthedivinesongsringingintheearsoftheprisonersallthedayround. Everyonewaseagertorecitesomeortheothercompositions,andwefeltambrosiarainingallday intheprison.Thefollowingisthelistofthepoliticalprisonerswhojoinedtherecitationofthe majorcompositionsofSikhScriptureslikeGuruGranthSahib,DasamGranth,VarsofBhaiGurdas andWorksofBhaiNandLai.Besidesthenumberofmajorcompositionswhichtheyhad memorized(givenbelowinbracketagainsteachname),theyhadmemorizedhundredsofSlokas. BhaiAttarSingh(30) BhaiUdhamSingh(4) BhaiArjanSingh(8) BhaiInderSingh(5) BhaiSuchaSingh(2) BhaiSajjanSingh(18) BhaiSujaSingh(2) BhaiSunderSingh(2) BhaiHarnamSingh(Giyjarwal)(18) BhaiHarnamSinghRasulpur(13) BhaiHarnamSinghKalasanghia BhaiHariSinghKakad(4) BhaiHariSinghChotia(13) BhaiHiraSingh(5) BhaiKesarSingh(3)

BhaiKeharSingh(1) BhaiKahlaSingh(3) BhaiKartarSingh(9) BhaiKirpaSingh(3) BhaiKaramSingh(7) BhaiGujjarSingh(9) BhaiGandaSinghKhapadKhedi(5) BhaiGandaSinghofSursingh(3) BhaiJinderSingh(12) BhaiTejaSingh(1) BhaiDalSingh(16) BhaiNathaSingh(1) BhaiNarainSingh(11) BhaiPakharSingh(5) PunditPyareLai(1) BhaiBoghSingh(18) BhaiBaghelSingh(3) BhaiBudhaSingh(1) BhaiBattanSingh(11) BhaiBalwantSingh(3) BhaiBudSingh(7) BhaiMastanSingh(3) BhaiMaharajSingh(14) BhaiMangalSingh(2) BhaiMunshaSinghDukhi(10) BhaiLabhaSingh(3) BhaiLalSingh(11) BhaiLalChand(Nil) BhaiVasakhaSingh(6) BhaiAttarSinghcouldrecitethefollowingprayers:JapjiwithSabadHazare;JapwithSabad Hazarepatsahidas;20Sweyas:33SweyasPat10;AsadiVar;AnandSahib,Sukhmani,Bawan Akhari,SiddhGosht:Onkar,BaramahaMajh;BaramahaTukhari,JaitsiridiVar,VarMarudhakhne; DinRain,Gunwanti,Birhae,Karhale,SweyeBhattande,SukhmanaSahib,AkalUstat,SriKaljiki Ustat,Rehras,KirtanSohila,Slokas,andPhunhe,3VarsofBhaiGurdasandmanyKabitSweyas. (BhaiAttarSinghisstillliving,leadingaquietlifeofmeditationandprayeratJodhpurTranslator.) Thosewhocouldnotrecitetheprayersfrommemoryreadthemfromsmallprayerbooks (Gutkas).Notaminutewaswasted.Everyonetookhisturn.Themindsandmemoriesofour companionswereoverflowingwithsinglemindeddevotiontoworshipandprayers.Eachrecited withadistinctpassionatedevotionandmelodioustune.Onesurpassedtheotherinmusical intonationofrecitations.Assoonasonecompletedacomposition,anothertookupthenext. WhomeverIaskedtomemorizeaparticularcomposition,hedidsoinamatterofdays.Someof themhadsuchsharppowersofmemorizingthattheymemorizedquitelonganddifficultprayers likeSukhmaniandAkalUstatwithinafewdays.Themomenttheymemorizedanycomposition, theywereeagertoreciteittome. SoonaftertheWorldWarIwasover,thefollowingprisonerswerereleasedinMarch1920:Bhai AttarSingh,BhaiUdhamSingh,BhaiSujaSingh,BhaiHarnamSinghRasulpuri,BhaiHariSingh

Chotian,BhaiGandaSingh,BhaiNarainSingh,PunditPyareLai,BhaiBoghSingh,BhaiBattan Singh,BhaiBudSingh,BhaiMastanSingh,BhaiMangalSingh,BhaiMunshaSinghDukhi,BhaiLabh Singh,LallaLaiChandandBhaiVasakhaSingh.BhaiKeharSinghdiedjustbeforebeingreleased. Thosesetfreealsoincludedthreerunawayprisoners.Twentythreeofuswereleftbehind,outof whichallexceptthefollowingeightwereabscondersthathadbeeneithercapturedorhad surrendered:BhaiKirpaSingh,BhaiKaramSingh,BhaiHarnamSingh(Gujjarwal),BhaiKartar Singh,BhaiBhagelSingh,BhaiBalwantSinghandBhaiMaharajSingh.IwasnotreleasedbecauseI wasincorrectlydubbedasringleaderoftherunawayprisoners.Othershadbeensentencedto deathfirst,andthenthissentencewaschangedtolifeimprisonment.Theywereallconsidered dangerousrevolutionaries.Sotheywerenotreleased.Someofthemwereconsidereddangerous politicaldacoits. MostofmyfriendslikeBhaiAttarSinghwhorecitedGurbanialldaylongwerereleased.Afew devotedanddivinesoulslikeBhaiKartarSinghCanadianwereleftbehind.BhaiKartarSinghwas withmewhereverIwassentuptothetimeofmyrelease.ItwassoordainedbyGodthatwewere neverseparatedfromeachother.Wewerebothtransferredfromoneprisontoanother,together. Associationwithhimwasinstrumentalinformingsmallgroupsofsatsang(holycongregation). Realfriendsarethose, Whoevenaccompanyapartingsoul; Andstandasfriendsandsaviours, Evenwhenonerendersaccountforhisdeeds. GuruNanak:Suhip.729 SlatesCauseTrouble SomanythingshappenedduringtheHazaribaghprisonlifethatitisdifficulttopenthemall.Iwill brieflynarrateafewimportantevents.Towardstheendoftheyear1919,beforeourcompanions werereleased,Iwasoncemoreavictimofseriousinjustice.WhenVadhavaRamwasdown gradedandwentawayfromthere,hewasreplacedbyaWhiteman,aBritishOfficerfromthe army,whowasasfatandstoutashewasadoltandablockhead.Hewasextremelysuspiciousand credulous.OnedayIhadjustcometomycellaftermilkingthecow,whenIfoundaslatewith somemessagefromBhaiDalSinghinmycell.WhenIreadthemessageIfoundthathehadasked someserioustheologicalquestions.HehadalsoaskedsomeinterpretationofafewSlokasof Kabir.IwroteanswerstoallthequeriesandsentthemtoDalySingh.Themanwhocarriedthese slates,dulypermittedbytheauthorities,fromoneprisonertoanother,hadhardlygoneafew stepsfrommycell,whenanewlyappointedWarder,whowasalsoanEnglishmancameonhis usualroundandtooktheslate.ThisEnglishmanwasaverymischievousandobstinateperson.He tooktheslatetotheJailer,whowasalsoaWhiteman,andreportedtohimthatimmediatelyafter comingfromthedairyfarmIwassendingamessagewrittenontheslatetomycoprisoners. Withoutmakinganinquiryastowhatwaswrittenontheslateherecordedthereportandsentit totheSuperintendenttotakeimmediateactionagainstme.Icouldnotintheleastimaginethat suchanuglyturncouldbegiventoasimplethinglikethat,andacompletelyfalsestory constructedaboutit.HerecordeditonthehistoryticketthatIprocuredsomemessagesfrom outsiderstomycoprisonersinside,whenIwenttomilkthecowinthedairyfarm.Onreadingthis reporttheSuperintendentstartedburningwithrage.Heatoncewroteaseverepunishment,of keepingmestandingfetteredhandandfoot,onmyhistoryticketandthencametomewithin aboutfiveminutesandaddressedmethusinEnglish: Superintendent:WhatisthematterRandhirSingh?

I:AndwhatmayIaskistheuseofaskingthisquestionwhenyouhavealreadywrittenanundue punishmentonmyhistoryticket? Superintendent:Whosaysso? I:Myhistoryticketspeaksforitself. Superintendent:Thehistoryticketisnotwithyou,norhasitbeenshowntoyou. I:EvenwhilethehistoryticketiswithyouIcancometoknowaboutitscontents.Thisisthegiftof theSatgurutous,hisSikhs. Superintendent(AddressingtheCellInchargeClerk).Itappearsyoushowedhimthecontentsof thehistoryticket;doyouthinkheisaseerwhocanhaveapremonitionofallthesethings? JailerMr.Meak:NoSir,eversinceyouwrotetheorderonhishistoryticketithasbeeninmy custody.Myassistanthasnotevenseenit. Superintendent:Thenyouaretobeblamed.Youmusthaveshownittohim. JailerMr.Meak:WellSir,assoonasyouwrotetheorderIcameherefollowingyou.Onthewayto thisplaceIbroughtmyassistantwithme.Thehistorytickethasbeeninmyhandeversincethen. Myclerkalsohasbeenwithmesincethen.WedidnotmeetRandhirSinghatall. Superintendent:ThenRandhirSingh,youcametoknowthesethingsinsomesupernaturalway. I:Idonotknowwhatyoumeanbysupernaturalpowersbutitisclearfromyourdiscussionthat youhaveorderedpunishmentwithoutmakinganyinquiry. Superintendent:(angrily)WhosaysIhavenotmadeanyinquiry?Theorderwaswrittenafterfull investigation. I:Whattypeofinvestigationitwaswhichwascompletedwithinfiveminutes? Superintendent:(gettingallthemoreangry)Howdareyoutoraiseobjectionagainstmyinquiry andinvestigation? I:Wellthen,goaheadandexecutetheorderofpunishment.Whydoyouaskmewhatthematter is?Goaheadwithyourtyrannicalorders. Superintendent:WellIdonotbelieveintyrannizinganyone.Iamnotatyrant.IfIwantto tyrannizeoveranyone,whyshouldIaskwhathashappened?IamaskingyoubecauseIwantto dojustice. I:Ifyouwishtoaskmewhathashappenedyoumustfirstcancelthepunishment.Ifyouhavenot madeevenpreliminaryinquiry,thenwhereforethepunishment?Ifyouinsistongiving punishment,andhavealreadyrecordedit,thenwhereforetheinquiry? Superintendent:(putoutofcountenance)Well,ifyouareinnocentIwillcancelthepunishment; otherwiseitwillremainasitis.

I:ButIhaveneverheardofsuchathingthataninquiryshouldbemadeafterrecordingthe punishment. Superintendent:Well,suchathingwillnothappen.Youwillgetjustice. I:Wellthen,tellmewhataretheallegationsagainstme?Whatisthereportofchargesagainst me? Superintendent:Ithasbeenreportedagainstyouthatyoucarryonillegalcorrespondencewith yourcoprisoners. I:Whatproofhaveyoutothateffect? Superintendent:Thisslateisanirrevocableevidenceofthischargeagainstyou. I:Everyonehasbeengivenslatesforreadingandwriting.Theyweregivenbyyou. Superintendent:Buttheywerenotgivenforillegalcorrespondence. I:Haveyoureadwhatiswrittenonit? Superintendent:TheJailerhasreportedthatyougotothedairyfarmandaftergettingsomenews fromoutsiders,youreportthemontheseslatestoyourcompanions. I:WhenIgotothedairyfarm,asepoyandaJemadaraccompanyme.Theyneverleavemealone foramoment.Theironlydutyistowatchmymovements.HaveyouaskedthemhowIwasableto getnewsfromoutside?InthediaryfarmImeetnootherpersonexceptonecowboy.Thiscow boyisacompletelyignoramusperson.Heisilliterateandisnotallowedtogooutsidetheprison. Yourprisonguardsarealwaysclosetome.MayIknowwhichisthesecretnewsagencyinthe dairyfarmwhichbringsmethisnews?DoIreceivethenewsfromoutsidethroughsomewireless setinthedairyfarm? TheSuperintendentlookedattheJailerinquestioningsilence.HehadnoanswertowhatIsaid andexpectedonefromtheJailer. Jailer:Sir,itisquitepossiblethatthisJemadarandthesepoywhoareonguardgethimsomenews fromoutside. I:Ah,whatafineanswer?IfthissepoyandJemadarbringsomenewsfromoutside,cantheynot giveittomeinmycell?WhyshouldtheygivemereportsfromoutsidewhenIgotothedairy farm?Theyareheredayandnight,asprisonguards.Theycangetabetteropportunityherethan inanyotherplace.Well,ifyoudonottrustyourownstaff,whydoyoucensuremygoingtothe dairyfarm?Youarenotabletoproveanyofyourcharges.Youcannoteventellwhatiswrittenon theslate. Superintendent:DoyouthinktheJailerhasreportedwithoutknowingwhatiswrittenontheslate. I:DoestheJailerknowPunjabilanguageinGurmukhiscript?Hashegotitreadbysomeone?Ifhe hasdoneso,bringthemanwhohasreaditherebeforemeandthetruthwillberevealed.

Superintendent:YouaretalkingasifyouhaveactedasaMagistrate. Jailer:Quiteso,Sir,hewasaTehsildarinaState.Thenheturnedarevolutionaryandbecamea traitortotheBritishGovernment I:Itisnousebringinginirrelevantthings.Itisnousetalkingabouthappeningswhichare unrelatedtothecase.TheJailershouldtellwhoreadtheslateforhim.Icansaywithconsiderable certaintythatnoonehassofargotthisslateread.Ifanattemptwasmade,themanwhotriedto decipherithasnotbeenabletoreadit.Ifsomeonehasreadit,thenthisfalseallegationhasbeen broughtagainstmewithsomeevilintentions.InthewholestaffonlytwopeopleknowPunjabi Language:theInspectorGeneralandKirpaSinghHeadWarder.TheInspectorGeneralisfaraway atpresent,sowillyoupleaseasktheHeadWarderKirpaSinghwhetherhewasaskedtoreadit. Superintendent:(addressingtheChiefHeadWarder)Haveyoureadwhatiswrittenontheslate? ChiefHeadWarder:NoSir,nooneaskedmetoreadit I:Ifthismanhasnotreadit,didtheJailercometoknowaboutthecontentsofthewritingthrough supernaturalpowers?(Everyoneburstintolaughter). Superintendent:(addressingChiefHeadWarder)KirpaSingh!Readandexplainwhatiswrittenon theslate. KirpaSinghreaditandexplainedthattherewassometheologicalinterpretationofGurbani.Some SlokasofKabirhadbeenexplainedandreligiousdoctrineshadbeendiscussed.TheJailersaid somethinginwhisperstotheSuperintendent,whichIatonceunderstoodandsaid,"Itisnouse talkinginwhispers.Saywhatyouhavetosayplainly.First,youbroughtafalseallegationagainst me,andnowyouaresuspectingtheHeadWarderandaccusinghimofgivingyouwrong informationbecauseheisaSikh.Beingmycoreligionisthecannotsayanythingharmfulaboutme. IfyoudonottrusttheChiefHeadWarder,sendtheslatetotheInspectorGeneralPrisons.Then youmustacceptwhathedecidesonthewholematter."BoththeSuperintendentandtheJailer feltashamedofwhathadbeendone.Sotheytriedtosidetracktheissue. Jailer:(addressingme)Canyoutellmewhichsepoybroughtthisslatetoyou? I:Thequestionisquiteirrelevant.Youhavegiventheseslatestous,sothatthosewhowishto learnanythingmaydosowiththehelpoftheseslates.ThosewhodonotunderstandGurbani (hymnsoftheGuru)askotherstoexplainthemontheseslates.Whicheversepoyisonduty,he carriestheseslatesfromonecelltoanother.Thisfreedomtoexchangeideasthroughtheslates hasbeengivenbyaspecialorderoftheprisonauthorities. Superintendent:Iamgoingtotakeawayalltheslates. I:Whatabigfiefyouaregoingtoconfiscate.Iamnotsorrytolosetheslate.Iamsorrythatyou havecompletelylostyoursenseofjustice.Inthenameoflawandorderyouaretakingawaythe slatesandgoingagainsttheordersofyoursuperiors.Thestigmaofyourinjusticewilldefinitely comeonrecordsomeday.Yourshamandshallowjusticewillbeexposed.

Onhearingsuchstrongwordsfromme,theSuperintendentandtheJailerfeltalittleashamed. Withhisheadlowered,theSuperintendentlookedatthehistoryticketwhichwasinhishandsand cancelledthepunishmentwhichhehadordered.Hedidnotwriteanyotherpunishmentonit.All theslatesweretakenaway.HehandedoverthehistorytickettotheJailerandwentaway. TheJailerrantedandravedandmadeafranticefforttogivemesomeotherpunishmentandhe didnotresttillhehadgluttedhisevilpassionbydoingso.Idonotknowwhetherhetook permissionoftheSuperintendentornot,butunderhisownsignaturehewroteanorderonmy historyticketstating:"RandhirSinghcannotinfuturegotothedairyfarmandmilkthecow.Asthe cowcannotbebroughtintotheprisoncompound,hewouldbegivenmilkfromthehospital."In theeveningamanbroughtsomemilkfromthehospital,somesugar,andalittlesago.Ikeptthe sugarandthesagoandsentthemilkaway.Iwasgivenalightedstove.Iboiledthesagoinwater andmixedsomesugarinit.AftertakingthispreparationIrestedcontentedandhappyinmycell. EarlynextmorningtheSuperintendentagaincametherewithhiswholestaffandstartedfretting andfumingaboutmyrefusaltotakethemilk.Ahotdiscussiontookplaceasfollows: Superintendent:WellRandhirSingh,therearetwomorereportsagainstyoutoday.Firstly,you havedisobeyedtheordersandreturnedthefoodsenttoyou.Secondly,youaretryingtocommit suicidebygoingonhungerstrike. I:Boththereportsarenotonlyincorrectbututterlyfalseandarebaselessallegations.Ihavenot disobeyedanyordersnorhaveItriedtocommitsuicide.WeSikhsconsidercommittingsuicidea greatsin"Onewhocommitssuicideisthegreatestsinner",saysourGuru.Sohowcanyouexpect metocommitsuicide? Superintendent:Thenwhydidyousendthemilkback? I:AsktheJailer,Mr.Meak.HeknowsfullywellandsodoallthehighofficialsincludingI.G.Prisons, D.C.,andtheMedicalOfficerthatIhavetakenareligiousvowtotakefoodbydiscriminationor thatpreparedbyaSikhwholeadsaSikhlikelife.Iwasthereforespeciallyallowedtomilkacow andpreparemyownfood.Thesubjecthasbeendiscussedoverandoveragainandtheprison authoritieshavetakenfinaldecisionsonit.Youhavenowstartedtheoldstoryagainonlyto tyrannizeoverme.Whatmorebaselesschargescantherebethantodubmysimpleeffortto maintainareligiousvowasanattempttocommitsuicide? Superintendent:Youshouldnothaverefusedthemilkandsentitback.Itamountsto disobedienceoftheordersoftheJailauthoritiesandalsocreatesasuspicioninourmindthatyou aretryingtocommitsuicide. I:Myrefusaltoacceptmilkneitheramountstodisobediencenordoesitcreateanysuspicionof mydesiretocommitsuicide.IfIwantedtocommitsuicideortocompletelydisobeytheorders thenwhydidIacceptotherthingslikesugarandsago?Iwouldhavereturnedthosethingsalso.As theuseofdryrationdidnotinterferewithmyreligioussentiments,Iacceptedthemandmadea preparationoutofthemandateit.Ireturnedthemilkbecausemyreligioussentimentsbasedon mypersonalvowofViveka(takingfoodondiscrimination)didnotallowmetotakethefood.So whenIwasnotgoingtodrinkthatmilkwhatwastheuseofkeepingit.Ireturnedit.HadIkeptit, itmighthavebeenspoiledandwastedbynow.

Superintendent:(inamildertone)Soyoudidnotreturnallthethings.Youtookthesagoandthe sugar,(addressingtheJailer)Whydidyou,Mr.Meak,reportthathehasdisobeyedyouandwas tryingtocommitsuicide? (Withhisheaddowncast,theJailerremainedsilent.) I:ThankGodthattheJailerwroteonlythereportandrefrainedfromwritingthepunishment withoutreferringthemattertoyou. Superintendent:Howisthispossible?TheJailerisnotauthorisedtogiveortorecordpunishment. I:ThenwhohasrecordedthepunishmentthatIshouldnotbeallowedtobringmilkfromthedairy farm? Superintendent:Thisisnotpunishment?TheJailerisauthorisedtotakesomeactioninmattersof Jailadministration. I:TheJailercanonlygivehissuggestionsinadministrativemattersbuthemusttakewrittenorders fromyoutotakeanyaction.Hecannotwriteanyorderswithoutconsultingyou.Hecannotrecord anysuchordersonthehistoryticketsunderhisownsignature.Noonehastherighttoalterthe ordersgivenaboutmyfoodrequirementsbytheInspectorGeneral,withoutconsultingtheI.G. Pleaseexaminethewholeofmyhistoryticket.RightfromthedaysofMultanprison,tothe presentday,ordersaboutmyfoodhavealwaysbeenrecordedeitherbytheSuperintendentor theMedicalOfficers.Alltheseorderswerewrittenmostlyinmypresence.Allordersaboutthe permissionofallowingmemilkortocookmyownfoodoreventhewithdrawalofsuchpermission hasalwaysbeenrecordedandsignedeitherbytheSuperintendentortheMedicalOfficer.They generallydidsoinmypresence.Yesterdayyoucancelledthepunishmentwhichyouhadrecorded withyourownhands.Youdidnotrecordanynewpunishmentnordidyougiveanyoralorderto thiseffect.Theonlyverbalorderwasinconnectionwiththeseizureoftheslatesallowedtous. Youdidnotgiveanyverbalorderaboutthecancellationofthefacilitiesaboutfoodgiventome. AlltheseordersaboutmyfoodwereaddedlaterbytheJailerwithoutyourknowledgeand withoutyourpermission.Insteadofcomplyingwithyourorderstowithdrawtheslates,hehimself wentagainsttheordersofhissuperiorsandstoppedthemilkthatIacquiredfromthedairyfarm. SoitistheJailerwhoshouldbechargedwithdisobedienceandinsubordination.Butyouare bringingthatchargeagainstmewithoutanygroundswhatsoever. Superintendent:Whatsurprisesmeishowdoyoucometoknowwhathashappened?Howdid youcometoknowthatitistheJailerwhowrotetheorders? I:WhyworryastohowIcometoknow.Tellmefrankly,isitnotcorrect? Superintendent:Itisnodoubtcorrect,butitisnotapunishment.Youtookitasapunishmentand asaprotestyougaveuptakingfood. I:Certainlynot,Ihavedonenothingofthesort.Iamkeepingmyreligiousvow. Superintendent:(addressingtheJailer):Canyouarrangetobringthecowtothecellblock? Jailer:Itisdifficult.Itispossibleforadayortwo,butitcannotbedoneeveryday.

I:Hecancertainlydoeverythingifhesincerelydesirestodo.Hisrealintentionsaretoputmeinto trouble.Whatharmhascomefrommyvisitstothedairyfarm?Noevidencehasbeengivenin supportofthesuspicionthatIgetnewsfromoutside.Hehasgivennoargumentsandnoreasons fordisallowingmetogotothedairyfarm. Superintendent:WellMr.Meak,whatharmisthereifheisallowedtogotothedairyfarm? Jailer:Idonottakeanyresponsibilityforit. ThisattitudeoftheJailermadetheSuperintendenthelpless."WhatcanIdonow?"saidheand wentaway,followedbyhisstaff.Thiswasthejusticedone.Whatjusticecananofficerdowhenhe isledbythenosebyhissubordinates?SothemischievouselementthatledtheSuperintendentby thenosesettheballoftroubleandturmoilrolling,andItookrefugeinthemoralandspiritual strengthoftheLord.TheonlydietIreceivedforawholemonthwasalittlesagoboiledinwater andmixedwithsomesugar,twicedaily.Ilostweightconsiderably.TheSuperintendentandhis staffwouldcomeontheirdailyroundeverydayandfindingmeabsorbedinthesilenceof meditationandprayerwentawaywithoutaword.Theydidnotseemtobeintheleastworried aboutmenordidIcareafigforthem.Ilivedwithoutanydesireorexpectationsfromthemwhile theyweredevoidofanyhumanefeelingformyfastdeclininghealth. MysufferingandsorrowisgreatOLord, WhoexceptTheecanknowmyagony? GuruGranthSahib:Ravidas:Suhip.793 WhoelsecouldknowthedeeperagonyofthesoulexceptthetrueLord?ThedivineGuru,the SupremeSustainerandHealergavemeallthemoreambrosialspiritualsustenance."Keepme absorbedinThyLove,OLord",wasmyonlyprayer.AndthenwhatdidIcareforanyoneelse?Idid notevenrequirethesagosoupbutforpeopletomakebelievethatIwassurvivingonthisearthly sustenanceitwasquitesufficient.ItwasGod'smysteriouswayofhelpingtorestrainmydietand concentrateonthecontemplationofHisLight.IwishednothingbuttoabidebyHiswill.Iwas happythatGodkeptmywholebeingsatiatedwithHisdivineName.Whereforeanyotherfearor hope?BythegraceoftheGuruIspentawholemonthinbeatitudeoftranscendentstate.He neverallowedmyspirittocometothelowerplanes.AfteramonthIsuddenlyfoundthedoor unlockedbutthesamadhiinthesupremestateremainedundisturbed. Iwasstillabsorbedintheblissofspiritualexaltation.Iwasnotconsciousofthepeoplewhocame thereandwentaway.AsIdidnottakeanysolidfoodtherewasnoquestionofeasingnature.I spentdaysinsamadhiandnoonedisturbedme.Oneday,afterawholemonth,the Superintendentcametomycell.Ididnotknowhowlonghestoodthereandwhathedid.Iwas toldlateronthatwhenhecameclosetome,noonedaredtotouchmeoreventocallmeloudly anddisturbmysamadhi.Ialsowassittinginsuchstateofabsorption,tranquillityandgracethatI wascompletelyunconsciousofmyphysicalsurroundings.OnseeingtheblazinglightofHisgrace onmyface,theydidnotdaretodisturbmeinmysamadhi.Afterwaitingforalongtimetheywent away. Thosewhowerepresenttheretoldmelateronthattherewasastunningeffectontheirminds whichpreventedthemevenfromtouchingmybody.Whenhecameonanotherroundinthe evening,Iwasinmynormalconsciousness.Assoonashecamenearme,hetookmyhistoryticket inhishands,andtalkedtomeinaconciliatorybutquestioningtonethus:

Superintendent:WellRandhirSingh,wouldyouliketotakesomegoodfood?Ifyouwantmilk,we havethesamecowreadyforyou.Ifyouwanttocookyourownfood,wewillgiveyoutherations. I:Idonotseekorbeganythingfromyou.Iamyourpoliticalprisonerandnotabeggarthatwould appealtoyouforanything.Alldesireshaveceasedtoexistforme. SodetachedandunconcernedwasI,thatseekingnothing,IhadgainedallinHislove.Inthe radianceofsupremejoyandabsolutefreedomoftheSpirit,IburstintothefollowingSongs: ThebestLightinone'scourtyard, IsthedivineLightthatshinesintheheart; Thebestofallmeditations, IsthecontemplationoftheNameofGod; Thebestofallrenunciations Istorenouncelustandwrath; ThebestthingtobegoftheGuru, Istobegthegiftofdivineknowledge; Thebestvigilistokeepawake, InthemusicoftheSongsofGod; Thebestofallhumanattachments, IstobeattachedtoHislotusfeet; Blessedisthesoulwhohasachievedallthis. SayethNanak:HewhohathtakenrefugeinHim Findseverythinggoodanddelightful. GuruArjanMarup.1018 Happyandprosperousisthelifeofman, WhoeverlivesincontemplationofGod. HedrinkeththeElixirofdivineNamewhichquenchesalldesiresandthirsts. Suchaoneeateththebreadofcontentmentandlivesincompletesatiationandpeace. Heweareththegarmentofhonourwhichcoverstheshameofhissins. Thereafterhenevergoesnaked. Heenjoysthepleasuresofspirituallife. WithinhisownmindandSelf HeiseverincommunionwithTruth. Withoutanyneedleorthread, ThemindisthussewnintheloveofGod. HewhoisinebriatedwiththejoyofHisLight, Ishenceforthfreefromalltroublesandsorrows. Hegetsalllife'streasures WhoisblessedbytheCompassionateLord. Truth,ONanakisattainedatHisFeet. OneshouldwashthefeetofaSaint Anddrinkthenectarofhumility. GuruArjanMarup.1018 Someoftheimportantlinesfrombothhymnsbecametheburdenofthedivinesong.Whatother replycouldIgivetotheSuperintendentofJail?Thechiefwarderhintedtomethatthe

superintendentwashighlypleasedandwasreadytoofferanything.Iburstintoanotherdivine Song. MyGraciousLordisimmenselypleased. MercifulandCompassionateismyLord, WhogivesallgiftstoHiscreatures. WhyareyouvexedandworriedOman, TheCreatorshalleverprotectThee. Hewhohasgivenyoulife, Shallalsogiveyousustenance. Hewhohascreatedtheearth, TakethcareofHiscreation. TheTrueSustainerandProtectorAbidethineveryoneandknowethall. GreatistheSupremeLordHispowerscannotbeevaluated. AslongasyouhavebreathOmanLiveeverindevotionalworship. MybeingandSpiritareThineOPerfect,Ineffable,UnseenLord. ThereisjoyandhappinessinThyMercy. NanakeverprayethforThyGrace GuruArjan;Tilangp.724 Thelasttwolinesbecametheburdenofthesong.TheSuperintendentfeltflatteredwhenhe foolishlythoughtthewordLord(Sahib)usedinthedivinesongwasappliedtohim.Theignoramus officerdidnotknowthatmysongwasaddressedtotheOnesupremeLordoverall,whoisthe truebestowerofgiftsandsustenance.HetakescareofallHiscreatures.Butthisignorantfoolfelt soflatteredthathesaidboastfully,"TellmeRandhirSingh,doyouwantthesamecow?" I:Youwanttotrapmeagaininsomenewplan.IamhappywhereIam.IfIgotothedairyfarm yoursuspiciousmindwillagainbringinsomenewallegation.Youareeasilymisledbyyour mischievoussubordinates.Afterafewdaysyouwillagainbringsomebaselessstorytocauseme trouble. Superintendent:Allright,thenyoucanatleastcookyourownfoodhere.Prepareanythingyou like. Ikeptsilent.Heacceptedmysilenceasacquiescence.ThenheorderedtheJailertoissueallthe rationsIwasgettingearlier.ButtheMedicalOfficerintervened: MedicalOfficer:Weshouldnotgivehimsolidfoodasyet.Hecannotdigestitatonce. Thustheystartedgivingmerationsinsmallquantities.Theyincreasediteveryweekandonlyafter amonthIstartedgettingtheamountofrationwhichIwasgettingbefore.Therationincludedrice, flour,sugar,potatoes,gheeandpulses.Ironutensilsandstovewerealsoprovided.ThusIstarted cookingmyownfoodandenjoyingnormaldiet.Butitwasabittoomuchforme.IprayedthatI mighthavesomeonetoshareit.GodwasmercifulandIdidgetsomecompanionstoshareit.The P.W.D.hadstartedconstructingsomethingwithintheprison.Theyemployedextremelypoor labourers.Anumberofhalfstarvedboyswereemployedontwopaisaadaywages.Withthe wholeday'swagestheycouldnotgethalfameal.Theirbodieswerereducedtoskeleton.Poverty andhungercouldbevisiblyseenfromtheirfamishedbodies.Itookonemealadayandfedall thesechildrenwithmyownhandswiththesecondmeal.Evensepoysondutyhelpedmetoinvite

alltheboyswhowereworkingintheprison.IsharedallthefoodIpreparedwiththeseinnocent boysandtookonlymybitoftheshare. Thesehungryboysatetotheirfill.SadhuRadhaSinghandhisfriendsweregenerallythesepoyson duty.SadhuRadhaSinghtaughtGurbanitotheseboysandtheysangthesabadsinmelodious tunes.Ahappyatmospherewascreatedwithintheprison.Manyboysshowedkeeninclinationto studyGurbani,IstillrememberoneboywhosenamewasLukna.Althoughhewasonlytenyears old,hewasextremelyintelligentandhiswitbaffledmanyoldheads.Hewasthefirsttotakeup thestudyofSikhismseriously.Heevenkeptlonghairandworeturban.Oncehefellillandwhile hewaslyingunconsciouswithhighfever,hishairwereremoved.Whenherecovered consciousness,heweptbitterlyoverthewayhishairhadbeenremoved.Hehesitatedtojoinwork intheJailanddidnotcometillhehadgrownsomehairandwasabletowearturban. ThisyoungLuknawassointelligentthatasheflitpasttheprisoncellshewouldcarrymessages fromonetoanotherprisonerinamatterofminuteswithoutlettinganyonebecomesuspicious abouthismovements.Noonesuspectedhismovements.Theprisonerslovedhimbecausehe kneweveryonebynameandranerrandsforall.Theprisonersalsolovedoneanotherverymuch. BhaiSajjanSingh'sOperation OnedayBhaiSajjanSingh,whowaslodgedintheadjacentcellstartedrecitingprayeraftertaking hismorningbath.SadhuRadhaSinghwhowasondutyassentrycameandinformedmethatBhai SajjanSingh'sfingerhadbeencutandwhilehewasrecitingtheprayerthefingerwasbleeding. SadhuRadhaSinghwaswonderstruckatwhathesaw.BhaiSajjanSinghwasquiteunconsciousof hisbleedingfingerandhismindwasconcentratedintheblissfulthoughtsoftheprayer. "WonderfulisthespiritualpoiseandachievementoftheSikhs,"criedSadhuRadhaSingh.I interruptedBhaiSajjanSingh'srecitationatapointwherehehadjustcompletedonehymnand askedhim"WellBrother,whatisthematter?Howdidithappen?""Oitisnothing,"herepliedand continuedtherecitation.SadhuRadhaSinghbroughttomethefingertipthathadbeencutaway fromhishandtoshowmehowseriousthematterwas.Iaskedhimtoattachthefingerpieceto hishand.Whenhetriedtodoso,SajjanSinghrefusedsaying:"SuchisthewillofGod.Youneed notworryaboutitanymore.Ithasremainedcutoffforalongtime."ThushedisobeyedwhatI askedhimtodo.Overandabovethisheappliedoiltothecutendofthefingerinsteadofkeeping itcleanwithwatertillsomemedicinewasapplied.Firsthishandandthenhisarmbecameseptic. Theswellingspreadalloverhisarmandthewholearmbecameaninflatedballoon.Thematter wasatoncereportedtothehospital. AnewSuperintendenthadjustjoinedtheoffice.HewasanexpertSurgeonfromtheIndian MedicalService.HisnamewasDr.Fredrick.HealsoperformedthedutiesofaMedicalOfficer.He wasknowntobeaveryefficientphysicianandsurgeon.AssoonasheexaminedBhaiSajjanSingh, heorderedthatheshouldbetakentothehospital.Iparticularlyrequestedhimtomakeaspecial efforttotreatBhaiSajjanSingh.SomeofusevenagreedtoaccompanySajjanSinghtonursehim butDr.FredrickassuredusthathewouldtakegoodcareofBhaiSajjanSingh.Hedidnotevenwait toinquirehowthefingerwascutbecausehethoughtthattheinquirymightobstructordelay immediatetreatmentthatwasnecessary. IntheeveningtheassistantsurgeoncameandinformedmethattheconditionofBhaiSajjan Singh'sarmhadworsened.Therewasadangeroftheinfectionspreadingtotherestofhisbody. AnotherSurgeonhadbeeninvitedfromtheCivilHospitalforconsultation.ThewholeMedical

Boardofexpertsurgeonshaddecidedthatthearmshouldbeamputated.Astherewasnoother wayout,theamputationofthearmwaslikelytotakeplacethenextmorning. Isentthissadnewstoallthecomrades.Itwasdecidedthatearlythenextmorningeveryone wouldreciteJapjifivetimesandprayforBhaiSajjanSinghwhicheveryonedid.AfterIcompleted therecitationofJapjifivetimesnextmorning,Ifeltaninnerurgetosaythecongregationalprayer (ardasa).Itwasasilentardasawhichwasperformedwithoutinforminganyone.Iprayedinthe ardasathatBhaiSajjanSingh'sarmmaynotbeamputatedandifhewascuredhewouldoffer kadahprasadattheGoldenTempleassoonashewasreleased.Thiswasthefirsttimeinmylife thatIperformedsuchanardasa.Ididitunconsciously.Ididnothaveitinmindevenafew minutesearlier.Andthisiswhathappenedontheothersideinthehospital. ThePhysicians,thesaintsofGod, Havegatheredtogether, Thetreatmentishopefulandeffective, BecauseGodHimselfisawitnesstothehealing; Lo,thepatientisridofallsins,maladiesandsorrows. GuruArjan:Phunhe ThedoctorswerenowaroundSajjanSinghwholayabsorbedinsilentprayerreadyforamputating hisarm.Dr.FredrickexaminedthearmandthinkingthatBhaiSajjanSinghwasasleep,hewoke himupsaying:"Wakeup,wehavetoadministerchloroformtoyou"."Why?"askedSajjanSingh. "Becauseyourarmhastobeamputated,"repliedthesurgeon."Itisnotnecessarytokeepme underchloroform.Youcanamputatethearmwithoutit.YouwillfindthatIwillnotmovenor complain,intheleast,ofpain.Goahead,"saidSajjanSingh. TheSurgeonwastakenabackatthecourageandendurancepowersofthistwentyyearoldyoung man.HewonderedwhattheseSikhsweremadeof.Evenatsuchayoungagetheycouldlookat sufferingandpainwithsuchstoicindifference.Foramomenthehesitatedtoamputatethearm. Anideaflashedacrosshismind.Henowdecidedtotrysomeminoroperationbywhichhecould takeoutthepusoutoftheabscesses.Someunknownpowerimpelledhimtosavehisarm.Itdid notstrikehimbefore.Butnowhemadeanefforttosavethearm.Assoonastheabscesseswere clearedofthepus,theswellingsubsidedandthelacerationbegantoheal.Thejoyofthesurgeon, Dr.Fredrick,knewnobounds.HehadgivenuphopeofsavingSajjanSingh'sarm,butnowhefelta miraclehadworked.Hepersonallycametodressthewounds.Heorderedhisassistantstotake extraordinarycareinnursinghiswounds.Happyatthesuccessofhisoperation,hecametome andsaid,"Well,RandhirSingh,yourcompanionisperfectlyalrightnow.Donotworryabouthim. Hisarmhasnotbeenamputated.Itiscompletelyhealedup. I:Youhavebeenverykindandgenerousandyourlabourshavebornefruit. Superintendent:Nono,Ididnothing.Itwasamiracle.Iwasreadywithmyinstrumentsto amputatethearmandjustasIwasabouttodoso,somethingcheckedme.Inaflashcamethe ideatomethatIshouldtrytosavehisarmandwhatstruckmesuddenlyhadnotoccurredtome before.Mymindsuddenlychangedwhentheyoungmanaskedmetoperformtheoperation withoutthechloroform.Theminoroperationwasperformedwithoutthechloroformandhedid notstirinpain,evenonce.Hedidnotevenknowonwhicharmtheoperationwasbeing performed.EvenifIhadamputatedhisarm,hewouldnothavefeltthepain.Itappearshewas underthetranceofsomespiritualinspiration.AftergivingexpressiontohisfeelingsinEnglishhe

wentaway.Isatinthanksgivingprayer(LateronBhaiSurjanSinghcametomeetmealongwith mywife,IaskedhimtoofferkadahprasadattheGoldenTempleonbehalfofBhaiSajjanSingh. (BothBhaiSajjanSinghandBhaiSurjanSingharelivingatthemomentoftranslationTranslator.) Dr.Fredrickperformedhisdutiesveryconscientiouslyandinspiredconfidenceandefficiencyinhis staff.IhaveneverseensoconscientiousaBritishOfficer.HehimselfbandagedthearmofSajjan Singheveryday.HeorderedoneortheotherAssistantSurgeontobealwayspresenttowatch SajjanSingh.Theyhadtoremainwithhimfortwohoursbyturn.Evenatnighthisassistantshadto bepresentnearthepatient.HeworkedevenonSundaysandeverynighthecametoseeSajjan Singhatleastonce.Weexpressedourgratefulthankstohimforhissympathiesinsomanywords. HisrelationswiththepoliticalprisonerswereverycordialbutsoonMr.Meakstartedinstigating himagainstus. MeetingwithBhaiNirbhaiSingh BhaiNirbhaiSingh,anoldfriend,cametomeetmein1920onhiswaybackfromCalcuttawhere hehadgonetoattendtheCongresssession.Unfortunatelywedidnotgettimetotalktoeach other.BhaiNirbhaiSinghwassooverwhelmedwithsademotionsthatforthefifteenminutesof interviewpermitted,tearsrolleddownhiseyes,utteringafewwordsnowandthenwithasorrow ladenheart.Godaloneknowswhyhefeltlikethat.Inlovelornsadnessheweptlikeachildashe talkedafewwords.Ithoweverturnedouttobethelastmeetingbetweenus.Shortlyafter meetingmeforfifteenminutes,hediedinanaccidentandleftforhisheavenlyabodeforever. Earlyinthemorningwhenhewascomingonfoottomeetme,heheardsomeonerecitingGurbani inasweetandmelodioustone.HewonderedwhocouldberecitingGurbanisodevotedlyinthose forestswheretherewasnotraceofSikhism.TherewasnooneresidingthereexceptBihariforest dwellers.TherewasnoSikhinthatregionbutsomeonewasrecitingtheSlokasofGuruTegh Bahadurinaverymelodioustune.ThesingingoftheSlokasofGuruTeghBahadurbecameclearer asthesingercamenearerhim.Hesawthatasepoyfromtheprisonwascomingclosetohim. FromhisappearanceandgaitheappearedtobeaBihari.Hewasyoung,cleanshaven,witha fringeofmoustache.Hehadsmallcurlyhaironhisheadanditappearedthathehadnottrimmed hishairforsometime.Overhisuntrimmedcurlyhairheworealooseturban.Thecarelesstyingof theturbanshowedthattheselfintoxicatedwearerwasindifferenttowardshisdress.Hewas singingtheslokasofGuruTeghBahadurinaplaintivemood.Hiseyeswereglisteningwithtearsof separationfromtheBeloved.Hewalkedlikeamoodypoetsingerlostinthedeepthoughtsofthe Slokas.HishalfclosedeyesseemedtoconcentrateonnothingexcepttheloveoftheOneBeloved. Hislovelorneyes,wereshiningwiththetearsofoverwhelmingsadness(vairagya)thatprepares themindforserenecontemplation.Inthisvairagya,hiseyeswerefixedinthedeeper concentrationofwaitingforHim'. Fixedarehiseyesinintoxicationoflove, Likethoseofacatwaitingforarat. GuruRamDas:Bilawalp.845 BhaiNirbhaiSinghdidnotliketodisturbtheselfabsorbedmysticmoodofthesepoy,buthewas deeplymovedbytheplaintiveandmysticmoodofthesepoy.Heboweddowntotouchhisfeet butthesepoypreventedhimfromtouchinghisfeet.HestoppedrecitingtheSlokasandafterthey hadgreetedeachotherwithfoldedhands,BhaiNirbhaiSinghasked,"Towhichstatedoyou belongSir?"

Sepoy:WellSir,IbelongtothisstateofBihar.IhailfromKaservillageinAradistrict. NirbhaiSingh:HowdidyouimbibethespiritofSikhism?FromwheredidyoulearntheseSlokas? Sepoy:HereinHazaribaghprisonsomesaintlySikhfreedomfightersandpatriotshavecomefrom Punjab.Itistheirspiritualinfluencewhichhasbroughtthischangeinme.ActuallyGodsentthese patriotstosowtheseedsofGuruNanak'sfaithandweweremostfortunatetobeblessedwithits fruit NirbhaiSingh:Canyoutellmethenameofonepersonoutofthesesaintlyprisonerswhose associationhasgivenyouthepreciousgiftsofthisspirituallife. Whenthesepoymentionedmyname,BrotherNirbhaiSinghwasoverwhelmedanddeeply moved.Controllinghisemotionshesaid,"Ihavecometomeethim.MayIknowyourname please? Sepoy:MynameisKalpuSingh(KalpuSinghwasnephewofSadhuRadhaSingh.NirbhaiSinghwas baptisedsomeyearsearlier.BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwasamongthePanjPyaras.Atthetimeof baptism,hehadfeltagreatspiritualtransformation.Hediedinafatalaccidentin1925, Translator).IamaKshatriyabutwearegoodfornothingKshatriyas.TheSikhsofGuruGobind SingharetherealKshatriyas.Theyareverybravesaintsoldiers.Wehavebeeneyewitnessesto theirheroicdeedsforthepastfewyearsandwehavebeenwonderstruckbytheirheroicdeeds. Theirholyliving,heroicdeedsandlovefortruthinword,speechanddeedshadamagnetic influenceonus.Blessedartthouthatyouhavecometomeetthesainthere. SosayinghetriedtotouchthefeetofBhaiNirbhaiSinghwhoembracedhim.KalpuSinghthen askedhimifhecouldbeofanyservicetohim."Youareourguestfromadistantplace.Yourhostis intheprison.Itismydutytolookafteryourcomfortsandserveyouasahost." NirbhaiSingh:Yoursweetwordshavegivenmegreatjoyandcomfort.Whatelseisnecessary? (Takingoutmoneyfromhispurse)PleasegivethesetwentyrupeestoBhaiSahibRandhirSingh. Thiswouldbeagreatservicerenderedtome.Youcanverballycarrymymessagetohim.Also pleaseacceptthishumblegiftoffiverupeesforthegreatserviceyouarealreadyrendering. KalpuSingh:Godforbidsuchathing,Sir.ThetrueGuruhasgivenuseverything.Pleasedonotput metoshamebymakingsuchanoffering.IamabondslaveofthetrueLord.Eventhesaint(Bhai SahibRandhirSingh)doesnotneedanything.BythegraceoftheGuruhegetseverythingthese days.Whenheneedsanythingthenwearereadytoofferallweearnandallwehave.Soplease donotworryaboutsendinghimanymoney.Aslongaswearehere,thesaintcannothaveany difficulties.Thereisnocauseforanyonetoputhimintodifficulties.Iwillgobacktotheprisonand breakthenewsofyourarrivalheretotheSaint.Bytheway,mayIknownyourname? NirbhaiSingh:MynameisNirbhaiSingh.PleaseinformthesaintthatIwillmeethimsoon.Iam justnowgoingtoputupanapplicationformeetinghim.Ifitisaccepted,Iwillmeethim immediately. Aftergreetingeachothertheyparted.AfteraboutanhourNirbhaiSinghmetme.Themeeting withKalpuSinghremindedhimofthedayswhenhewasfirstbaptizedatLudhiana.

Ididnotgetanynewsoftheoutsideworldinthisshortmeetingoffifteenminutesduration.Bhai NirbhaiSinghwasmeltingintearsandsorrowoflongseparation.AstheSuperintendentwas presentatthemeetinghehesitatedtotellmemuchaboutwhathappenedoutside.Itwashardlya meeting.Itwasjustthelastglimpseofafriendwhowasnevertomeetmeagain. EversincewehadcometoHazaribaghprison,thiswasourfirstmeetingwithanoutsider.No relativeorfriendhadbeenallowedtomeetus.Inthismeetingthesorrowofseparationfrom friendswasoncemorerevived.AfterthemeetingwhenIcamebacktomycell,mybrother prisonersshoutedfromtheircells:"Whatisthelatestnewsfromthe'worldofmen'(matloka)? Whatishappeningthere?"AllthatIhadcometoknowfromBhaiNirbhaiSinghwasthata resolutionofstartingnoncooperationmovementsagainsttheGovernmenthadbeenpassedat theCalcuttasessionoftheIndianNationalCongress.Afterwaitingforyearsforsomenewsfrom theoutsideworld,thiswastheonlynewswegot.Eventogetthisnewswasagreatthing.

CHAPTER17STRUGGLEFORRIGHTSANDJUSTICE ONHEARINGTHATpoliticalleadershaddeclaredtheirintentionofnoncooperationwiththe government,manypoliticalprisonerswereanxioustobreaktheirchainsandmakegoodtheir escape.Theywereeagertoseewhatwashappeningintheoutsideworld.Theywerefedupofthe drearylifeinthedarkanddingycells,andtheywantedtobreathetheairoffreedom.Allthe politicalprisonerswerekeptlockedupinthecells.Theywerenotevenallowedtotakeafew minuteswalk. SoonorderswereissuedbytheGovernmenttoallowatleastanhourforawalkintheopenair. TheJailauthoritiesoftheHazaribaghprisonwerespeciallyaskedwhytheydidnotallowthe prisonerstotakeawalkintheopenair.Thecauseofthisspecialinquirywasthat,wheneighteen ofourcompanionswerereleased,someofthemdiedontheway.Theysufferedfromserious ailmentslikepneumoniaandwhilesomediedontheway,afewothersdiedassoonasthey reachedhome.ThePunjabinewspaperstookaseriousnoteofitandstartedanagitationagainst thisilltreatmentoftheprisoners. Membersofaninquirycommitteesetupespeciallytoinvestigateintothismatter,reportedaftera deepprobethattheprisonerswhowerereleasedwerenotgivensufficientclothes.Theycouldnot standthesharpwinterwindoutside,becausetheyhadbeenkeptconfinedtotheirdarkanddingy cells,andwerenotevengivenanopportunitytotakeawalkinthecourtyard.Aftercontinuous confinementinthedarkcells,whentheywerereleased,thecoldandsharpwindofthefast movingbusesandtrainshadanadverseeffectontheirhealth.Evenduringtheirbusjourneyfrom theprisontotheHazaribaghrailwaystation,theopenairwindhadsuchaperniciouseffecton theirhealththatmostofthemfellillbeforeboardingthetrain.Othersfellseriouslyillduringthe trainjourney. Afterthereportofthisinquirycommittee,theGovernmentseverelycensuredtheHazaribagh prisonauthoritiesandaskedforanexplanation.Theyorderedthattheprisonersshoulddailybe takenoutintheopenairforawalk.Icametoknowaboutthisorderfromsomesecretsources. Theprisonauthoritiestookusoutforawalkinsmallgroupsforaboutfifteenminutes.Wewere nevertakenoutforanhour.Eventhis,theytoldus,wasanextraordinaryfavourdonetous.After permittingustowalkforaboutfifteenminutesoratthemosthalfanhourwewerelockedup again.Insteadoftakingusoutintoopenairweweremadetowalkinthesmallcourtyardsofthe specialcellblocks.Prisonersweretakenoutforawalkingroupsoffourorfive.Thewholedaywas wastedintakingtheprisonersoutandbringingthemin.Allotherworkgiventotheprisonerswas donewithinthecells. Agroupofforeignobservers,mostlyretiredInspectorGeneralsofprisons,cametostudythe conditionsofIndianprisoners.Astheywerevisitingalltheprisons,theycametoHazaribaghalso. Astheycameunexpectedly,theyfounduslockedinthecells.Theprisonauthoritieswere informedabouttheirarrivalonlyafewminutesearlier.TheInspectorGeneralofprisonswasalso withthem.IncidentallytheycametotheblockcellinwhichIwaslockedupandstarted questioningme.Ilodgedallthecomplaintswehadagainsttheprisonauthoritiesandexplainedto themtheinhumantreatmentwehadundergone.Theylistenedtouspatiently.Asaresultofthis problem,hardlabour,ofcompellingprisonerstoworkonthegrindingwheels,wasabolished.The grindingwheelsfixedineveryprisoncellweredemolished.Theyorderedtheabolitionofwhipping

forpoliticalprisoners.Weweretobekeptinopenbarracksinsteadofbeingkeptindingycells. Theprisonauthoritieswereannoyedwithmefortellingthetruth. Hardlabourongrindingwheelswasnodoubtabolished.Whippingofthepoliticalprisoners becameless.Butwewerenottakenoutofthedarkanddingycells.Eventheperiodofopenair walkswasnotincreased. Thefreedomfighterswereenraged.Theycouldnotenduretheseintolerableconditionsanymore. Theywereanxioustoenjoyfreedomatanycostandassoonaspossible.Theyquietlyprepared escapetunnels.Ididnotknowanythingaboutthem.OnedaytheycomplainedtomethattheJail authoritieshadmadetheirlifeextremelymiserable.Reportsandordersfromabovehadno influenceonthem.Allattemptstochangetheirattitudehadfailed.Theysoughtmypermissionto teachtheprisonauthoritiesalessonsaying,"Lasttimewetriedtoescapewithoutyour permission;nowpleasegiveusyourblessingsandwewillshowthemwhatwecando.Thereisno otherwayout.Wehavedugoutescapetunnelswithoutyourpermissionbutwedonotdareto escapewithoutyourknowledgeandpermission.Lasttimewesufferedbecausewedisobeyedyou andmadegoodanescapeagainstyourwishes.Youurgedustochangeourplansbutwedidnot listentoyou.Nowpleasegiveuspermissionandyourblessingsandthenweknow,nothingwill standinourway." "Iamgratefultoyou,"saidI,"thatyoucaretotakemyopiniononthematterandyouvalueitso much.ButImusttellyoufranklythatmyinmostminddoesnotfeellikeadvisingyoutoescape now.Ithinkyouhavemadeamistakeindiggingescapetunnelsinsuchahurry.Iknowyoucan easilyescape.Idonotknowwhattypeofescapetunnelsyouhavedugout,butIknowyoucando everythinghumanlypossible.HoweverIadviseyoutobealittlemorepatientandwait.Ihave cometoknowfromanimportantsourcethatfreedomfighterswhoweresenttoAndamanIsland arebeingbroughthere.Eitherthisprisonwillbechangedintoaspecialprisonforthosedeported forlifeimprisonmentorthereisamovetosetusallfreeinduecourse.Thismuchiscertainthat theprisonersfromAndamanIslandarebeingbroughttothisplace.Sopleasewaittilltheycome. Donotbeinhurry.Youmustwaitforthem.LetusseewhatGodhasinstoreforus." Butmycomradesoncemoreappealedtometoaccepttheirproposalsaying:"Wehavealready dugoutescapetunnels.Whatarewetodowiththem?" Iadvisedthem,"Iftheyarevisiblefillthemup,otherwiseletthemremainforsometime."They informedmethatnoonecouldeasilyknowaboutthem.Ihoweveradvisedthemagaintoremove allvisiblesignsoftheescapetunnelsassomeweakmindedpersonmightblurtoutandputthem intounnecessarytrouble. OnedaytheSuperintendentandtheJailercameonaroundandstartedboastingaboutthestrict measurestheyhadadopted,andtheircontrolovertheprisonerswhichmadeitimpossiblefor themtoescape.OurcompanionsGandaSinghNihangandNathaSinghDhunhadbeentakenfora strollinthespecialblockcourtyardandwerelockedupinspecialcellsonthatday.WhenGanda SinghNihangoverheardthemboastingoftheiradministrationhelaughedatthemandbelittled theiremptyboast.AddressingGandaSinghtheSuperintendentsaid:"Nowyousee,howfirm, rigorous,andstringentourcontrolandadministrationis?Nowyoucannotrunaway,however hardyoumaytry.Wehaveyouallnowfirmlyunderourcontrol."

GandaSingh:Thatiswhyyoukeepuslockedupintheprisondayandnight,althoughtheordersof thegovernmentaretokeepusfreewithinthewallsoftheprison.Soyouareindeedveryloyaland dutifulservantsofthegovernmentwhocompelustorevoltagainstyoubecauseyouyourself disregardtheordersofthegovernment. Jailer:Here,weareresponsiblefortheadministration,andwecandowhatweliketofulfilour responsibility. GandaSingh:Itisnotyourcurbsandcontrolthatiskeepingushere,sodonotbragaboutit. Superintendent:Ifitisnotourstrictcontrolandadministrationwhatelsehaspreventedyoufrom makinggoodyourescape.Justtrytorunaway.Yousimplycannotdoit. GandaSingh:Donotswaggeraboutyourcurbsandcontrol.Wecouldhavegivenyouasliponany daybut Jailer:Well,well,goon;saywhatyouwanttosay.Whyhaveyoustoppedinthemiddleofthe sentence? GandaSingh:Wecouldhaverundownyouradministrationandsmasheditlongagobutwedonot getpermissiontodoso.Whatarewetodo? Superintendent:Whosepermission? GandaSingh:Hewhohaspreventedusfromescaping. Jailer:Whoelsebutourstrictadministrationhaspreventedyoufromrunningaway? GandaSingh:Whykeeponswaggeringandpuffingaboutyouradministration?ButBhaiSahibhas madeushelpless.Hehaspreventedusfromrunningaway.Otherwisewemighthavegivenyou thesliplongago. Superintendent:(addressingtheJailer)WhoisBhaiSahib? Jailer:TheyaddressRandhirSinghasBhaiSahib(ReveredBrother).Generallytheyaddressone anotherbysaying."BhaiSahib"buttheyespeciallycallRandhirSinghas"BhaiSahib"Randhir Singhaddresseseveryoneas'BhaiSahib".SotheygenerallycallRandhirSinghas"BhaiSahib". Superintendent:ThatisnottheonlyreasonwhytheycallRandhirSingh,"BhaiSahib".Allofthem haveadeepandprofoundrespectforhimasheisaveryreligiousman.Ithinkthereis considerabletruthinthefactthatBhaiRandhirSinghhaskeptthemunderhiscontrolotherwise theymighthavecreatedhavocbynow.ButIdonotbelievethatitisRandhirSinghwhohas preventedthemfromescaping.Itisourstrictcontroloverthemwhichhasnotallowedthemto runaway.HowcouldRandhirSinghpreventthem?LasttimealsoRandhirSinghtriedhisbestto preventthemfromescapingbuttheydidnotlistentohim.Thefactisthattheycannotrunaway now.Ourstringentmeasuresleavenoroomforthemtoescape. GandaSingh:Youradministrationisrottentothecore.Itistrash,anduseless. Superintendent:(Strikinghisfootagainsttheground).Ouradministrationisexcellent.

GandaSingh:Itisnothing,absolutelynothing.Itisjusttrash,Irepeat. Superintendent:Canyourunawaynow? GandaSingh:Yes,wheneverIlike,Icanescapewithoutanydifficulty. Superintendent:Canyougetoutofalockedcellinourpresence? GandaSingh:IcouldcertainlyshowyouhowIcangetoutofalockedcell,butwhatistheuse.You arenotgoingtorewardmyfeatbygivingmemilkandbutter.Youwillputusintomoretrouble. Youwillstillnotbelievethatwecouldeasilyescapewheneverweliked. SuperintendentandJailer:(withonevoice).Whynot?Wewillthenbeconvincedthatitisnotour stringentmeasuresthathavepreventedyoufromrunningawaybutthemoralcontrolofRandhir Singh. GandaSingh:YoumustpromisethatyouwillnotkeepuslockedinthePunjabicellsinfuture. Superintendent:Ipromisethatyouwillbeimmediatelytakentothespecialblockandyouwillbe givenquitealotoftimeforopenairstroll.Thenaftersometimeyouwillbesenttotheopenair barracks. GandaSingh:Doyougivetheassurancethatyouwillnotbreakallthesesolemnpromises? Bothofthemwithonevoicesaid:"Certainly".Athearttheylaughedandmockedatthepossibility ofanyprisonergettingoutofthelockedcells.TheythoughtGandaSinghwasonlyboastingofan impossiblefeat. GandaSingh:TakeanyoneofustothePunjabicellsandhewillperformthefeat. Superintendent:Allright,letanyonecomeout.Youcannameanyoneandwewilltakehimtothe Punjabicells. GandaSingh:(addressingNathaSinghDhun).NathaSingh,youbettergoandshowthesepeople themiracleofChandi. NathaSingh:Allrighttakemeout,IwillshowyouthemiracleofChandi. NathaSinghwastakentothePunjabicell.ThewholeJailstafffollowedtheSuperintendentand theJailertoseethewonderfeat.HewasbroughttothePunjabicellswherewewerelocked.All alternatecellswerekeptvacantforBihariprisoners.AssoonasNathaSinghwasbroughttothis block,hesaid:"Nowinwhichcelldoyouwishtoputmetotest."TheJailerpointedtoacellclose by."Allright,openthelock",saidNathaSingh.ThelockwasopenedandassoonasNathaSingh gotintothecellhesaid:"Lockitupfirmly." Afterhewaslockedinsidethecell,hesaid:"Nowyoucanlocktheouterdooroftheblockandgo asfarasthesentrygoeswhenheisonduty."Theyhadhardlygonetotheotherendoftheblock whenNathaSinghshoutedfrombehindComeback,thetrickisdone."Whentheycametothe spottheyweresurprisedtofindthatthedooroftheprisoncellwasstilllockedandNathaSingh

wasstandingoutsideit.Boththedoorandthelockwereinorder.Suspectingthattheremaybe somethingwrongwiththiscell,theylockedNathaSinghinanothercelloftheirownchoice.After lockinghimuptheyhadhardlygonehalfwaytotheendoftheblockwhenNathaSinghagain shouted,"Comeback".TheyfoundthedoorintactandNathaSinghstandingoutsidethelocked cell. Superintendent:Howisthispossible?Isthisamiracleorblackmagic? NathaSingh:WellSir,Iamneitheramagiciannoramiraclemonger.Thereissomethingwrong withtheironbarsofthecelldoors. Superintendent:Whatisthewrongwiththem?Showusthedefect? NathaSinghtookthemtoacellthatwaslocked.Heliftedoneofthebarsupbyplacinghisfooton thecrossbar.Thelowerendcameoutaboutnineinchesabovethelowerband.Hethenpulled thebaroutandtherewassufficientspaceforhimtogetin.Hegotintothecellandthen straighteningitagainhefixeditinitsproperplace.TheJailer,whowasasstoutasabullanda militaryman,triedhisbesttopullthebaroutagainbuthewasnotabletomoveitfromits position.HedidnotknowthatNathaSinghandhiscompanionshadloosenedtheendsofone particularbarineverycell.ButtheJailerandtheSuperintendentcouldnotbendthebarsthey handledevenwiththehelpofoneortwosepoys. ThenNathaSinghtookthemtothesecondblockandtherepulledthebaroutwithsuchafierce joltthatthebarbrokefromthemiddleandtheprisondoorwascrippled.Theythenacknowledged thecourageandtheabilityofalltheSikhprisonerstoescapeandpraisedandpattedNathaSingh. Theyimmediatelyorderedthatthepoliticalprisonersshouldcomeoutofthosedingycellstothe specialBengaliprisoncells.Theythankedthemallfornotmakinggoodtheirescape,whenthey couldnodoubteasilydoso. Theytookmeasideandsaid"WelldoneRandhirSingh!Youhavesavedourhonour.Thereis absolutelynodoubtleftinourmindsthatprisonerscouldhaveescapedwhenevertheyliked.Itis youwhohavesavedusfromaveryserioussituation.Hadalltheprisonersescaped,the governmentwouldhavehangedusall.Weallmighthavebeenruined.Youhavesavedusfrom greathumiliationandpunishment.Wewillneverforgetthisactofgratitudeyouhavedone.No onewillcauseyouanytroublenow.Youwillbekeptingreatcomfort.Youhavesavedourhonour fromgoingtoruin,wewillrepayyouallwithexcellenttreatment.Sikhsarereallyverybrave, courageousandgenerouspeople." I:TheSikhsarealwaysreasonableandgenerousbutyourrulersarealwaysthanklessand ungrateful. SuperintendentandJailer:(pattingmeontheback)Odonotsaythat.Forgetthepastgrievances andforgiveusforallthewrongthingswedidinthepast.Youwillnowseethatourtreatmentis humaneandgenerous. I:Allright,letussee.TheKhalsaiscleanandpureinmindandheart.Youwillagainchangeforthe worst.

Jailer:No,no,suchathingwillneverhappenagain.Restassuredthatwewillkeepyouveryhappy. Youhavereallysavedourhonour.Afterrepeatingtheseassurancestheywentawaygleefully. Forabouttwohourstheprisonersmetoneanotherintheopenforthefirsttime.Theyembraced eachotherandtalkedfreelyandintimatelytillsunset,andthentheywenttotheircellsforthe night.Thesenewspecialprisoncellshadacommonverandaandwecouldenjoythefreeair comingfromthehills,visibleacrosstheouterwalls.Wecouldseethefinemountainsceneryasfar astheeyecouldseeandthecellswereclean,airyandshining.Wespreadourbeddingsonthe floorofthecellsandstartedrecitingGurbani.Mymindsoaredinspontaneousflightsofspiritual meditations.Ah,whocouldnowholdthesoaringspirittakingflightlikeasingingcraneintothe unknowndeep?IgavefreereintothewingedsoulinsearchofunionwiththeBeloved.Thewhole nightpassedinthewakingstateofilluminatedcontemplation.Whoknowswhatmighthappen tomorrow?Takethetimebytheforelocktoday. Myfearswerejustified.Hardlyanighthadpassedwhentheprisonauthoritieswereagain seriouslyupsetbythefreedomtheyhadgivenus.Someonewhisperedintotheirsuspiciousminds thatthebarshadbeenloosenedbytheprisonersandtheywerereadytoescape.Theysuspected thatIplannedallthis.So,assoonasitwasdawnIwastakentotheeasternendoftheprison, wheretherewerethreeprisoncellsforsolitarypunishment.Iwaslockedinoneofthesecells. Therewerenooneintheothertwo,andnotasoulcouldbeseenasfarastheeyecouldsee.I couldseeafewemptybarracksandaverylargeopenlawn,studdedwithgreentreesandlovely rosesandmanycolouredflowers.FarawayIcouldsee,potatofields,mangoandpapayatrees.I wasallowedtomoveaboutinthedaytime,butbeingundersolitarypunishmentIwasnot allowedtomeetortalktoanyone.Asepoywaspostedandaservantgiventolightfireforme.All mycookingutensilsweresenttothisplace.Icouldfetchwaterfromapumpfixedonapucca groundatsomedistanceandIwasallowedtocookintheverandaoftheprisoncell.Ifeltthe separationfrommycomradesbutIenjoyedthesolitudeandthebeautyofthesurroundingswhich liftedmymindandsoulintothefragranceofcommunionwithHim.Myheartwaswellingwiththe unitiveloveforthedivineBeing. AssoonasItookmybathearlyinthedarkhoursofthemorn,myheartandsoulwereablazewith thefireofHislove.Likeaflashoflightning,IfeltthetouchofHisSpiritandgraceandIforgotall aboutmycellandsurroundings.Likeahoneybeecaughtinthefragranceofthelotusflower,Iwas sooverwhelmedbythelightofHisgracethatIsatthereonthegrassoftheopenlawnindeep samadhi.Alltheagonyandsorrowsofpoignantseparationwereforgotten.AbsorbedinHisLove andLight,myrestlesssoulburstintothefollowingsongandmymindrestedinthepeaceof spiritualwedlock: HowcanIdescribemyinwardagony? IamathirstforaglimpseoftheenchantingBeloved, MymindisrestlesslyyearningforHim; IbroodoverthepangsofmyloveforHim. OwhenwillImeetmyBeloved? Itrytoexerciserestraint, Butmymindisrestless; Ah,isthereanydivineManofGod, WhowillunitemetoHim? Iwouldsacrificeallmeditations, Iwouldgiveuppenancesandoblations

IwouldrenounceallhappinessforaglimpseofHim. IfasaintcanrevealHisLighttome, Iwouldbeasacrificeuntohim. Inutterhumilityandselfdedication Iwouldservesuchasaint, Andgiveupallglory,prideandhonour, ForhimwhorevealsHisLighttome. TheGuruhasrevealedHisLighttome, IamwonderstruckonseeingHissplendour, IhavefoundtheCompassionateOneinmyownheart. AllmythirstforHisLightisappeased. GuruArjan:Sarang:p.1206 IdonotknowhowlongIremainedabsorbedinthemelodyofthisdivinesong.Mymindwas restinginthepeaceofitsecstasywhenlikealightningflash;mymindwaspiercedbythethrilling soundofcelestialMusicagain: Justasadiamondpiercesadiamond, ThedivineSpirithaspervadedmymind Andhasgivenitpoiseandpeace; AllthesoulsarepermeatedbythisshiningDiamond:HisLight; HehasbeenrevealedbytheGuru'sWord. GodisunveiledbythesymphonyofUnstruckMusic. Hewhoispureasaswan. CanvisualisetheDiamond:HisLight; SayethKabir:IhaveseensuchaDiamond WhoseLightpervadeththewholeuniverse. TheunseenDiamondhasbeenrevealed TheGuru'swisdomhasshownittome. GuruGranthSahib:Kabir:Asa:p.483 Themagneticeffectofthehymnwasfeltevenbydistanthearers.Ontheothersideofthewallof mysolitarycellIcouldhearSadhuRadhaSinghsingingtheabovehymninanintoxicatedmood. Tearsfloweddownhiseyesashesanginanextremelymelodioustune.Hesangeverylinea numberoftimesasifhewasdeeplyabsorbedinitsdeepmeaningandexperience.Hetimedhis singinginsuchawaythatherepeatedeverylinethatIsanginarhythmicduet.Twosoulswere unitedinthemusicofthedivinesong. Thispartoftheprisonwasabsolutelysecluded.Otherwisetheremighthavebeengoodgathering there.Thesepoyondutystoodlisteningindumbsilence.Theoldmanwholightedthefireforme satthereinmutewonderment.Itappearedthattheleafofeverytreeandeverygrassbladewas singingthedivinesong. Whenthesongended,Iregainedmynormalconsciousness.Icookedmymealsandaftertaking whatlittleIhadprepared,mymindagainbroodedindeepcontemplation.Noonecameand disturbedme.Therewasnotasoultoutterawhisper.EventhePrisonauthoritiesdidnotcome foraroundherefordaystogether.ForthewholedayIsatthereabsorbedinthethoughtsofthe Beloved.

IntheeveningIwastakingawalk,whensuddenlytheJailer,Mr.Meak,camethereandstarted strollingalongwithme.HestartedtalkingtomeinEnglish. Jailer:Ihopeyouhavelikedthisquietplacebecauseofitsfinesurroundingsandsolitude. I:"WhereverGodwillethtokeepme,thatisheavenforme"IamhappyhereifitisHiswillthatI shouldstayhere,butwhathastemptedyoutoaskthatquestion? Jailer:Ijustwishtoexplainthatyouhavebeenbroughtherebecauseyoulovesolitudewhichsuits yourmeditativewayoflife.Itisbeautifulandattractivespotandisexcellentforprayersand meditations.Hereyoucanprayandsingandmoveaboutasyoulike.Thereisnoonetodisturb youhere.Iamaskingyouallthislestyoumaynotmisunderstandwhyyouhavebeensenttothis solitarycorner. I:IverywellunderstandwhyIhavebeensenthere.Nothingwhatyoudo,remainsunknownto me.Whyareyoubeatingaboutthebushandcreatinganerroneousimpressionaboutyour motives?IknowwhatyourevilintentionsareevennowandIwouldrequestyounottodisturbme bytryingtotrapmeinyourevildesigns.Youwillreapthefruitofyourevilactionandintention. Theycannothaveanyeffectonme.Yourmindisalwaysspinningthewebofblackdeeds.Please donottrytoinvolvemeinthem.Leavemealoneinmysolitudeandpeaceandgoawayfrom here. TheJailer,Mr.Meak,lookedatmewithshockingsurprise.Helookedatmyfacewitha concentratedattentionbutdidnotspeak.Heopenedhismouthtosaysomethingbutremained silent.Bothofussatoppositeeachotheronaraisedplatform.Hekeptonlookingatmyface. I:Whyareyoulookingatmelikethat? Jailer:Iamreadingyourface.IhavebeenworkingintheCriminalInvestigationDepartmentandI havestudiedfacereading.FromyourfaceIcanknowwhatisinyourmind. I:Whatisthenecessityofreadingmyfaceatthismoment? Jailer:Forgiveus,RandhirSingh.Welevelledsomeseriouschargesagainstyou.Boththe SuperintendentandIbelievedthesechargestobetruebutnowIfeelthatwehavecommitteda grievoussin.Yourfaceshowsthatyouareabsolutelyinnocent.Yourinnerinnocencerevealsthat youareblameless. I:ButItoldyoubothyesterday,thatyouareungrateful,thankless,anduntrustworthywithout readingyourfaces.Withintwentyfourhoursyouhavethrownyourpromisesandassurancesto thewindandyourwholeattitudehaschanged. Jailer:Iamreallyverysorryoverallthathashappened. I:Whatistheuseofexpressingregretwhenthedamagehasbeendone?OurGurusays:"Neverdo suchathingoverwhichyoumayhavetorepentlateron." Jailer:Wehavenotdoneanyharmtoyou.Youareperhapsjusttryingtofindoutwhatwehave done.

I:'jinmanhormukhhoraekadhekachian.' Jailer:Pleaseexplainthemeaningalso. I:Itmeansthatyoupretendtobefriendlybutatheartyoustillhaveevilintentionsanddesigns andtherebyyouarefalseandunreliable. Jailer:Well,wesinnedagainstyouandIhaveconfessed.IfIhadanyevilintentionswhyshouldI havetoldyouaboutit? I:Butyouhavenotconfessedthewholething.Youhavelaidaserioustrapformeandmade utterlyfalsereportsagainstme. Jailer:Ihavenotdoneanysuchthing. I:Thenyouhavegotitdonebysomeoneelse.ButrememberGodwillprotectmeandyoursins willreboundandstrikeyoudownlikeaboomerang.Youcannotharmme. Jailer:TheSuperintendenthasgivenstrictordersthatyoushouldbekeptinseclusion.Thatisthe onlysincommittedbyus.Wehavenotdoneanythingbeyondthat.Youfeelquitehappyinthis solitudehere. I:HaveyounotreportedtotheGovernmentthroughtheDeputyCommissionerthatI,Randhir Singh,amresponsiblefordamagingthebarsandincitingtheprisonerstoescape. Mr.Meakwasstunnedandhisfacebecamepale. I:Icanreadyourfacenow,withouthavinghadanytrainingintheCriminalInvestigation Department.Icanseeyourhiddensinsspeakingforthemselvesonyourface. Jailer:Iadmitthatyouareright,buthowdidyoucometoknowaboutourextremelyconfidential report?Youcanneverknowsuchsecretdocumentmerelybyfacereading.Totellyouthetruth,I badnointentionofconcealinganythingfromyou.Ijustforgottotellyou.Wehavereally committedagreatsinbymakingthisfalsereportagainstyou.ButIassureyouthatwearegoing tocontradictthisreportonthebasisoflaterfindings.Iamnowgoingtomyofficeandthisisthe firstthingIamgoingtodo.ButIwanttoaskyouonequestion;Ihopeyouwilltellusthetruth. I:Nowyouhavecometothepoint.Nowyouwillrevealtherealpurposeofyourvisittome.What isitthatyouwanttoknow? Jailer:(feelingalittleashamed).Wearenowconvincedthatyouhadnohandindamagingthe prisonbars,butwehavesufficientevidencetoprovethatyourmoraleffortpreventedthe prisonersfromescaping.Wemighthavebeencompletelyruinediftheprisonershadmadegood theirescape.Yousavedusfromthiscalamity,andnowweseekyourhelptoknowwhowasthe authoroftheseplansandwhowasresponsibleforlooseningthebarstomakewayforescape?No onecanhelpusinthismatterexceptyou. I:(shoutingathim).Howdareyou,Mr.MeaktosuggestthatIshouldbetraymyfriendsandbea traitortomycomrades?YoustillbelievethatIwasapartytothisplan?

Jailer:No,no,byGod,never.Ihaveneverhadanysuchthought.Ihavealreadytoldyouthatwe areconvincedthatyouhavenothingtodowithit.Wejustwishedtoknowwhetheryouknowwho hasdoneit. I:HowamItoknowwhohasdoneit? Jailer:Youareabletotellprofoundsecrets.Herealsoyoucanuseyourspiritualpowersandknow it? I:Iamnotamagicianorajuggler.Iconsideritasinindisplayingoccultpowers.SometimesI naturallycometoknowaboutyoursecretmisdoings.Thatisnotmiraclemongeringorforecast. Jailer:WellSardarSahib,thefactisthatyouknowallyourcompanionsintimatelyandnoone knowsthembetter.YouknowwhoisexpertinbreakingJails.Youcouldeasilyguess. I:Formeeveryoneisasaint. Jailer:Wellthenwhohasdamagedthesebarsandloosenedthemfrombothends? I:Soyoususpectthattheseironbarsofprisondoorsweredamagedbysomeparticularperson. Evenifitistrueitisimproperforyoutosuspectanyonewithoutsolidproof. Jailer:Isolemnlypromiseyou,thatifyoucanhelpusinanywaytofindouttherealculprit,not onlywillwecontradictourfirstreportagainstyoubutwewillalsostronglyrecommendyour release.Wewillnotletanyoneofyourcomradesknowthatyourevealedthenameofthereal culprit. I:Iconsidersuchareleaseaninsultandacurse.Damnedbethepersonwhoacceptssucha releaseanddamnedbethepersonwhoofferssucharelease.Idonotcarewhetheryoucontradict yourearlierreportornot.Icareafigifyoudonotcontradictit.Evenifyoumakeanother thousandreportsagainstme,Iwouldcareafigforthem.Doyoucomeheretomisleadand misguideme?Pleasegoaway;Idonotwishtodiscussthematteranymore.IfIspeakmore harshlyyoumayfeelinsulted. TheJailerwentawaywithoutaword.NeitherhenortheSuperintendentcametomeformany daysafterthisincident. VisitoftheInspectorGeneral ThePunjabiInspectorGeneralBawaJiwanSinghhadbeentransferredbynow.Hewasreplacedby aBritishInspectorGeneral.SevendaysafterreceivingthereporthecametoHazaribaghprison. AccompaniedbytheD.C.,andtheSuperintendent,hecamestraighttomycell.Iwasstandingwith mybacktocellbarswhenthewholestaffcamethere.AssoonhecamenearmetheInspector Generalremarked:"Isthistheman?"TheSuperintendentwhisperedintohisears;"Heknows English".TheInspectorGeneralwassilentforamoment,andIburstintolaughter.TheInspector Generalchangedhistoneandthecontextbysaying:"Isthisthemanwhomtheprisonerscallthe saint,andcookshisownfood."Thenaddressingmehesaid:"Areyouhappyhere,SardarSahib? Thisplaceisquitegoodforprayerandmeditations?Doyouhaveanyotherdifficulty?Ibelieveyou liketostayinsolitude.Ihopeyouhavenoothercomplaint."

I:Ihavecomplaintagainstyour'justice'.Idonotlodgethiscomplaintbeforeyou.ThetrueJudge willchastiseallevildoersandwilldojusticetous.Healonewillsifttruthanddojusticeonthe basisoftruth.Yourprisonofficialshaverecentlygivenproofoftheirfollyandinjusticeandhave startedrepentingoverwhattheydid.Theywillrepentstillmore.Ifeelquitehappyhere.Iamfree fromallsentimentsofjoyorsorrow.Iwillremaincontentedunderallconditions.ButIamgrieved tonotethatevenofficialsofyourpositioncannotdaretospeakthetruth.Youknowverywellwhy Ihavebeenbroughthere,yetyouareattributingdifferentreasonstoit.Isitnotadeliberate attempttodistortthetruth?Youaretryingtoconcealtherealfactsandmakeafoolofme.Don't youthinkthatIamquiteawareofthefollyoftheprisonauthorities,andonthebasisoftheirevil suggestion,youhavesenttheirfalsereporttotheGovernment.Iknoweverythingandyetyouare tryingtomakeafoolofmebyconcealingfactsfromme.Youbettergiveuppursuingorcovering upthisfollyandgoaheadwithyourbusiness.Whywastemytime.Soonthebubbleoffalsehood willburstandthetruthwillberevealed. InspectorGeneral:No,no,SardarSahib.Someonehasunnecessarilycreatedawrongimpression inyourmindandyouseemtobesorelygrieved. I:TheKhalsaiseverfreefromgrieforpain.Thosewhoindulgeinfalsehoodwillfallintotheirown trapandbevictimsofgrief.Hewhocausesinjurytotheinnocentpeoplewillreapthethornsofhis evilsdeeds.Hewillhavetobearthesufferingofhissins. OnhearingthesesternanswerstotheirquibblesthenewInspectorGeneralwentawayandIwas lefttoenjoymyspiritualsolitudeandmeditations.Ipassedmydaysinpeace,spiritualjoyand contentment."StrangeareThywaysOLord,Thouhasmadetheprisoncellameditationcave.By theblessingofThygraceandName,eventhelonelyprisoncellhasbecomeaheavenlyabode". TheinnerilluminationnowrevealedallsurroundingsbathedinLightandbloomingwithfragrance offreshflowers.TherewasdivinelightallroundandtherewasdivineLightblazinginthenaval lotusofmybodyliketheshiningwatersofasea. SadhuRadhaSinghpersuadedtheChiefHeadWardertoputhimondutyinthisarea.Thus wheneverhewasondutyhewaspostedinthisblock;Ienjoyedhiscompanyverymuch.Atnight thefragrantwindcamefromtheyonderhillstomycell,inspiringlove,contemplation,and spiritualexaltation.Mymindremainedpoisedinthepeaceofinnerenlightenment.RadhaSingh wouldpreparegarlandsofmanycolouredflowersandplacethemashomagetotheholyWordon GurbaniPothi(SelectionfromScriptures).Thesweetscentedflowersmadethewholeatmosphere fragrantwithjoy.DayandnightpassedinsweetabsorptionandintoxicationofthedivineWord, nowburstingintoasongandthendivingdeepintomysticsilence.Thedeepshadowsofthe mangoandNeemtrees,thefragranceoftheflowers,thefluffycarpetlikegrass,madethewhole atmosphereenchantingforprayerandmeditation,andforhourstogetherIwouldsittherewrapt incontemplation.Manyamealswereunconsciouslymissed,andthenIwouldusealltherations toprepareagrandmealtoservethepoorlabourersworkingintheprisonandenjoyservingthem withmyownhands.Manykindsoffoodwerepreparedforthem.Tomatoes,greenpease,green beans,potatoesandallthevegetablesavailablewerepreparedanddistributedtothehungryand halfstarvedlabourers. Itookverylittlefood.Thespiritualfoodwasmymajorsustenance.Thejailauthoritieshadgiven mesolitaryconfinementasapunishment,butbythegraceofGodtherewasanatmosphereof eternalspringinthatsolitarycorneroftheprison.Theprisonauthoritieswereinafix.The

investigationintotheprisonbarsanddoorsbecameaverycomplicatedmatter.Manyprison doorsweredemolishedandrebuilt.Evensomeprisoncellswerethoroughlyrepaired. SomeseniorCivilEngineerswhocametocheckupalltheprisonbarscametomyprisoncorner also,whichRadhaSinghhadnamedPanchbati.Theycheckeduptheprisonbarsofmycellalso.I askedthemwhyweretheydoingso.Theyansweredthattherewassuspicionthattheyhavebeen loosenedfrombothendsbytheprisonersandtheyweremakingahalfheartedroutinechecking. Theywereaskedtocheckupalltheprisonbarsandreportonthecausesofthedamagedandunfit prisonbars.Itoldthemthattheprisonwasaveryoldone.Itwasbuiltmanydecadesagoandit appearedthatmanybarshadbecomeloosenedfromends.Iftheycheckedthebarsoftheold barracksoftheprisontheymightfindthebarsloosefrombothends.TheEngineertookthe suggestionseriously,andwhenhecheckedupthebarsoftheoldbarrackshefoundthatthey wereloosefrombothends.Whenheliftedthemupthebarscameoutofthelowerclampleaving nineinchesofescapeholebelowit.Whenhepulleditasideitcameoutofthemiddleclamp.The EngineershowedthemtotheJailerandtheSuperintendent.NoPunjabiprisonerhadeverbeen senttothosebarracks.Theyhadneverevenbeenallowedtogonearthosebarracks.Sonoone couldnowblametheprisonersfordamagingtheprisonbars. TheEngineerinvestigatingthematterfearlesslywrotealongreportstatingthattheseprisoncells beingveryold,theirdoorsandbarshadbecomeutterlyuseless.Thusalldoorsofprisoncellswere defective.ThereportopenedtheeyesoftheauthoritiesandtheJailerandSuperintendentbegan torepentovertheirmischiefoflayingtheblameonPunjabiprisoners. TheSuperintendent,theJailer,andtheInspectorGeneralrepentedovertheirsuspiciousattitude andthewrongtheyhaddonetous.TheSuperintendentcametomeandtoldmethathehad reallybeenveryunjusttowardsme.HeexpressedhisregretoveritandassuredmethatIwould besentamongmycompanions.Itoldhimthatitwasbettertoleavemealoneinthatcorner.Ifhe sentmeagaintomycompanionsImightagainbemadevictimofsomedangeroussuspicionwhich mightleadtotrouble.Itwasbettertostayinisolationthantobemaltreated,everytimeIwas withmycompanions.Buthepersuadedmetogotomycompanions. Tomakeamendsforhispasttreatmentheevenallowedvisitorstomeetme.Henowsomehow wantedtocoveruphismisdeeds.SofortwodaysheallowedmetomeetmywifeSmt.KartarKaur whohadcomeallthewayfromPunjabwithBhaiSurjanSingh.Iwasallowedtomeetherfor aboutfourhoursdaily.ThiswasthefirsttimeinmyprisonlifewhenIwasallowedtomeetfreely withanyone.ForthefirsttimeIreceivedthenewsaboutthehappeningsinPunjab. BhaiSurjanSinghtoldmeaboutNankanaSahibtragedyandotherPanthicmovementsinPunjab. TheJailerandhiswifegenerallysatnearusatthetimeofinterviewbuttheydidnotunderstand Punjabi.TheonlythingtheywereparticularaboutwasthatImightneitherreceiveanythingfrom outsidenorgivethemanything.BhaiSohanSinghandBhaiHiraSinghofHazaribaghlookedafter mywifeatHazaribaghwithgreatdevotionandspiritofservice.TheywereresidentsofHazaribagh foralongtimeandtheyhadsomeMotorpartsbusiness. Theprisonwasfarawayfromthecity.EverydaytheywouldbringmywifeandBhaiSurjanSinghin acarforinterviewandprovidedthemwitheverythingtheyrequired.Icanneverforgetthisnoble actofkindnessshownbythesegentlemen.Thismeetingoncemoreawakenedthesuppressed longingtobebackhomeinPunjab.SofarIfeltthatIwascompletelycutofffrommyfamily,my home,andmypeople.Mywife,KartarKaur,cameandrenewedmybrokentieswiththeworld

andhome.Mymindhadbecomecompletelydetachedfromtheworldandhadgivenupallhopes ofevermeetinganyone.CompletedespairprevailedandIhadthefeelingthatnoonewasmine andmyexistencewasnothingtoanyone.Ihadbeencompletelyexiledoutofmyhomeland, Punjab,andIhadgivenupallthoughtorhopeofeverdesiringtobebackthere.Theworldlife,asI knewitbefore,didnotexistformeanylonger.Itsmemoryhadbeencompletelywipedoutofmy mind.Butafterthismeetingwithmywife,Ioncemorefelttheseparationfrommykithandkin andfrommypeopleinPunjab.WhenIfeltthisseparationacutelyandbroodedinthewellof loneliness,Iwastakenbytheauthoritiestotheblockwheremycompanionswerelocked.We wereallowedtomeetfreelyandIoncemoreenjoyedtheircompany.Buttroublewasstillchasing us. OpiumCausesTrouble ThereweremanyBengaliprisonersintheHazaribaghJail,whowerenowreleased.Manyofmy companionsweretakenfromtimetotimetoBengalicells.ManyBengaliprisonerswereaddicted toopium.Theyprocuredquitealotofopiumfromoutsidesomehow,andhiditnearthelower endoftheprisonbars.Whentheywerereleased,theyforgottotakeitalongwiththem.It remainedstickingtothelowerendsofthebars.Whensomeofourcompanionswerelodgedthere foradayortwotheybroughtitwiththemtoourblock.NoneoftheSikhprisonerswasaddicted toopium.Itisquitepossiblethatsomeofthemdidnothaveanyinhibitionagainstit. Oneofourcompanions,BalwantSinghkeptitinhiscell.Heneitheruseditnordidhegiveitto anyone.SomeonesecretlyinformedtheauthoritiesandBalwantSinghwassearchedandthe opiumfoundinhiscell.Someonealsoreportedthatpeoplewhocametomeetmefromthe Punjabgavememoneyanditiswiththatmoneytheopiumwasprocured.Withoutmakingany investigationbothBalwantSinghandIweresenttosolitaryconfinementinsecludedcells. ThenextdaywhentheSuperintendentwentonaround,BhaiKartarSinghtookthe Superintendenttotask.Hegavesufficientevidencetoprovethattheopiumwasleftbythe Bengalis.ManyofourcompanionsgaveevidenceandsomeopiumwasstillfoundinBengalicells. BhaiLaiSinghtooktheSuperintendenttotheBengalicellsandshowedsignsofopiumstillsticking tothelowerendofthebars.Theprisonauthoritiesfeltashamedoftheirhastyactionandwewere againbroughttothespecialcells. AftersomedaysaWarderwhowasanEnglishmanquarrelledwithsomeofourcompanionsandI hadtosufferforthattoo.Iwasagaintakentomysolitarycell.Someofmycompanionsmanaged tosendthisnewstoourfriendsoutsidefromwhereitreachedPunjab.BhaiSurjanSinghagain cametoHazaribagh.Ourcompanionsalsohadbecomedesperateandwereabouttogoonhunger strike,whentheSuperintendentagainrealizedhismistakeandbeggedusnottotakeanysuch action.Hebroughtustothespecialblock. IwasthistimekeptclosetoBhaiJinderSinghwhoforreasonsofhealthlivedonlyonmilk.Fora fewdaysBhaiSajjanSinghwasalsowithus.HismindwassteepedinVairagyai,thepoignant longingfortheBeloved)andaftercleaningtheutensilsherecitedGurbaniforalongtime. Itwastherainyseason.Onedaythedarkcloudswerethunderingintheskyandithadjustbegun todrizzle.Iwassittingunderatreeinthecourtyardoftheprison,whenawaveofdivine inspirationwelledinmysoulandIburstintoasong:mohanpranmanrangila,inthemusical mode,RagaMalar.ItwastheRagaoftherainyseasonandthesongwasmostsuitableforthe timeandoccasion.Myvoicesoaredtothehighestpitchanditsmusicthrilledthewholemyinner consciousness:

Friend,contemplatetheLorddayandnight, Wastenotasinglemoment; ServetheSaint(theGuru)withdevotion, Renounceallprideandegoism, MyenchantingandcheerfulBelovedistheprideofmylife Heeverabidesinmyheart. IambewitchedbyHisplayfulwonders; ContemplatingHim,blissisattained, Therustofthemindisremoved. IneffableistheexperienceofmeetingHim, Itisbeyondexpression,sayethNanak. GuruArjan:Gujri:p.498 Thewholeoftheprisonwasvibratedwiththemelodyofthesong.Thelabourerslefttheirwork andcamerunningtotheplace.Allthepassagesleadingtotheplaceandthecourtyardwerenow crowdedwithpeople.Eventhosewhowereguardingtheprisongatescamerunningtotheplace. ThemelodyofthesongreachedeventhebungalowsoftheOfficersoutsidetheprison.'TheJailer wasseriouslyupset.Heranbreathlesslytotheprisontoseewhatwasthecauseofsuchloud plaintiveoutburst,butbythetimehereachedtheplacethesonghadended.Idonotremember whattheJailersaidtomeatthattimebutinthediscussionthatensued,hismainobjectionwas, thatitdisturbedwork.Heaskedmenevertosingasongduringworkinghoursbecausethe prisonersandlabourersstoppedworkandthewholeadministrationsuffered.Theworkofthe prisonalsosuffered.AccordingtotherulesofprisonManualsingingwasprohibited.ItoldhimI couldnothelpitatcertainmomentsofinspiration.Itwasbettertokeepmeinthesolitarycell whichwasinasecludedcorneroftheprison.Buteventsweretakingadifferentturn. TorenewalltheprisonbarstheBiharGovernmentpreparedabudgetoftwoandhalflakhsand askedthePunjabGovernmenttopayitforlodgingthePunjabiprisoners.ThePunjabGovernment refused.SotheBiharandOrissaGovernmentaskedthePunjabGovernmenttotakeawaythe Punjabiprisonersasearlyaspossible.ThePunjabGovernmentwasabletopersuadetheMadras GovernmenttodetainthePunjabiprisonersandpreparationswereafoottosendusthere.Itwas alsodecidedtobringtheprisonersoftheLahoreConspiracyCasefromAndamanIslandtoMadras. MajorCook,anEnglishman,wasthenewSuperintendentpostedinourprison.Hewasanoble, puremindedperson,buthewastoomuchofasimpleton.Hedidnotwishtoharmanyone,but Mr.Meakwascleverenoughtomisleadhimandmakehimdosomeunpleasantthings.Oncemore theprisonershadtogoonhungerstrikeforanumberofreasons.IwillrelateafewincidentsthatI remember. FoodandSikhSymbols WeweregivengooddietandrationsforwhichtheGovernmenthadsanctionedsufficientmoney. TheBiharandOrissaGovernmentsentalargebillforextraexpenditureincurredfortreatingthe prisonerssufferingfromepidemiccausedbyfever(influenza).ThePunjabGovernmentfoundit difficulttopay.ThePunjabGovernmentalsogotsecretreportsthattheBiharandOrissa GovernmentwasnotusingthesumsentfortheSikhprisonersproperly.Alargeamountwas misappropriated. ThePunjabGovernmentinstructedtheBiharGovernmenttospendaslittleonthefoodofthe prisonersandgivethemtherationsanctionedforordinaryprisoners.SotheBiharGovernment

advisedJailauthoritiestogiveusfoodsanctionedinthePunjabJailManual.Sowegotverypoor dietandthedaysofgettingsubstantialrationswereover. TheBiharprisonauthoritiescametoknowfromthePunjabJailManualthatPunjabiprisoners weregivenabout116grams(2chataks)ofgramseveryday.InPunjabtheprisonersweregiven roastedgramsbuttheBiharisdidnotknowhowtoroastthem,sotheygaveusdryunroasted grams.OurEnglishknowingcompanionsdecidedtolodgeastrongprotest.Whenthe Superintendentcame,heaskeduswhetherwegotourshareofgram.Wewerecleaningwheat grainsandpickingstonesoutofthem.TheMedicalOfficerwaswiththeSuperintendent.We pointedouttotheMedicalOfficerthathehadorderedthatprisonerssufferingfromdysentery shouldnotevenbegivenwheatbread.Theyweretobegivenextremelylightdiet,likesagoor curd.Weasked,"Isthereanypossibilityoftheirsurvivingiftheyarecompelledtoeatroastedor unroastedgrams?"IfthePunjabiprisonerscouldbecuredofdysenterybyadietofgramsitwas betternottoleavethispreciousfoodgrainwithBihariswhomightstealitanduseitforcuring dysentery."Wehavealotofwheatgrain"wesaid"wecouldaswelleatwheatgrainandsurvive." Thentheykeptthegraminwaterforthenightandgaveittouswithsomesalt.Whentheycame toknowthatinPunjabtheprisonersweregivenroastedgram,theytriedtoroasttheminordinary ironvesselswithoutusinganysand.Theresultwasthatthegramcouldnotbeproperlyroasted. Theprisonersaskedtheprisonauthoritiestotakesomeofthebadlyroastedgramfortheirownfill andgivetheresttotheirdomesticatedanimals.Iftheanimalsdidnotgroanfromstomachtrouble thenwecouldtakethem.Weexplainedtothemthattheydidnotknowhowtoroastthegram. TheJailauthoritiesalsorealizedthatthisfoodwasharmfulformostoftheprisonerswhowere sufferingfromdysenteryandotherstomachtroubles.Wealsorealizedthatwewouldnotget betterfoodwithoutfightingforit.Itwasimpossibleforustosurviveonsuchcoarsefoodasgram andbarleyandmaizebreadsanctionedbythePunjabJailManual.ManyBihariprisonersdied becauseofthisfoodgiventothemwhiletheyweresufferingfromdysentery.Thedoctorsdidnot haveanygoodallopathicmedicinefortreatingacutecasesofdysentery.BhaiHiraSinghinsisted thatweshouldbeallowedtotakesomeIndianmedicines.BhaiHiraSinghknewaformulaof Indianherbsoutofwhichtheyprocuredonlychebulicmyrobalan(harad).Eventhiswasquite helpfulintreatingmanyprisoners.Thedoctor,insteadofprovidingchebulicmyrobalanregularly, broughtquitealargequantitynowandthen.BhaiSajjanSinghgroundallthesurpluschebulic myrobalanintopowderandmadeaballofthesamepowderbyaddingsomewatertoit. OnedaytheWarder,anEnglishman,sawthisstrangeballinBhaiSajjanSingh'scellandmistookit forabomb.Hewouldnotcomenearit.HeaskedSajjanSinghwhatitwas.SajjanSinghcarrieditin hisplatetotheofficeinfrontofallofficersandexplainedtothemthatitwasIndianmedicine whichhadbeenprovidedtothem.Theystillbelievedthatitwasabomb.WhenSajjanSinghtried tobreakittopiecestheyallranawayfromtherefearingthatthebombexplosionmightkillthem. Whennothinghappenedtherewasabiglaughter.ItwasfoundthatitwasnothingbuttheIndian medicine.TheJailauthoritiesstoppedprovidingittotheprisoners. Manyprisonerswhosufferedfromdysenteryhadbecomeveryweak.Theywereprovidedwith milkandotherthingsforimprovingtheirhealth.BhaiHariSinghhadbeenailingforlongandnow askedformanythingstoeat.SomeonecreatedasuspicioninthemindoftheJailerthathewas tryingtoplananescapealongwithmanyotherprisoners.TheJailerquarrelledwithhimanumber oftimes.Onedaywithoutanyreportofthedoctor,hewastakentothehospitalonastretcher althoughhewasstrongenoughtowalk.Atnighthewasgivenadozeofmedicineanditwasthe

dutyofthemanonguardtomakehimdrinkit.TheguardondutyinformedHariSingh,that whoeverwasgiventhedozeofmedicineatnightwasfounddeadinthemorning.Hewassecretly advisednottodrinkit. HariSinghtookthefirstdozeafterwhichhefeltsleepy.Hevomiteditoutandthensatinatubof watersothathemightnotfallasleep.HedidnottaketheseconddozeasorderedbytheJailer.At nighttheBritishWarderrepeatedlyasked"HowisthePunjabiprisoner?HariSinghsentareply "Donotworry;thePunjabiprisonerwillnotdienow."Whenthedoctorcameinthemorninghe inquiredfromHariSinghhowdidhefeel.HariSinghsaidhewasquitefit.Heaskedforacupof tea;HariSinghusedtogettearegularly.Thedoctorsaidthathecouldnotbegiventea.Hewould begiventeathenextday. HariSinghsaid:"AlthoughIwasnotunwellIwasbroughttothehospitalonastretcher.Atnight yougavemeamedicinetotorturemetodeath.Nowyoudonotevengivemeacupoftea.This meansthatyouarebentuponkillingme."Enragedbeyondcontrolhepickedupanearthenflask fullofwaterandhitthedoctoronthehead.Therewasconsternationandthealarmwassounded. Findingthathewouldsoonbecaughtandbeatentodeathhetookshelterinaprisoncell,boltedit frominsideandsatwiththeurinepotinhishand,threateningthatwhoeverwentnearhimwould firstbehitwiththeurinepotandthengivenagoodthrashing.Nooneshouldtouchthedoorofhis celltilltheSuperintendentcame.HewouldsurrenderassoonastheSuperintendentcame. WhentheSuperintendentcamehetoldhimthewholestory.TheSuperintendentaskedhimto apologizetothedoctor,butherefusedtodoso.HariSinghwastakenfromthehospitaltothe prisoncellandthenextdayhewaswhipped.TheSuperintendentsaidthathehadorderedthirty lashesbutbecausehehadtoldthetruthhewasgivenfifteenlashes.IaskedtheSuperintendent, howcouldheorderfloggingtoaprisonerwhowascarriedonastretchertothehospital?When wequestionedhimstronglyheadmittedthatMr.Meakhadcompelledhimtoorderflogging althoughnormallyamanwhowassoweakandillcouldnotbegivensuchseverepunishment accordingtoJailManual. Thesecondcausewasthefightfortherighttowearreligioussymbols.Becauseofourstruggleand fightinthePunjabJailswewereallowedtowearturban,trouser(Kach),bangle(Kada),andother things.ItwasincludedasstandingorderinthePunjabJailManual.Theprisonauthoritiesadmitted thattheseorderswerepassedafterwefoughtfortheserightsinPunjabJails. Butevenafterthisorderwaspassedtheprisonauthoritiesgaveusonlyonekach(Sikhshorts).We objectedtoitandaskedfortwo.TheypointedoutthattheJailManualhadmentionedonlyone kach.Weagainsaidthattherewassomemistakeinrecordingthefactasitshouldbeandthe mattershouldbereferredtotheSikhmembersofthePunjabGovernment.Theyagreedtoit.The outcomeofthisinquirywasgood.Wewereallowedtwokachas(Sikhshorts).Necessarychanges weremadeintheJailManual.Wewerealsogivenatowel.Wethenaskedforfiveyardlong turbansmadeoffinerclothandnotofthecoarseclothmadeinjail.Theyagreedtothisdemand alsoandgaveussixyardlongturbans.Theseturbansweresanctionedmuchearlier,buttheywere notgiventotheprisoners.Wecametoknowfromasecretsourcethattheyalreadyhadthetype ofturbanswerequiredandalthoughtheywerenotissuedtous,theypreparedfictitiousbillsto showthatwehadbeenprovidedthoseturbansandswindledallthemoney.WhenIcametoknow aboutitItookthemtotask.Togetridofmetheygavesixyardlongturbantomeandmy companionBhaiJinderSingh.Bothofuswerekeptapartfromothercomrades.Wedidnotknow

howourcompanionsweretreated.Weweregettingtheoldquotaofrationswhichwasquite adequate.Wewerekeptapartsothatothersmightnotcometoknowaboutit. Asourcompanionsweregivenreducedrations,theywentonhungerstrike.MajorCookwasa verytenderheartedperson.Hecouldnotbeartoseepeopleonhungerstrike.BhaiMaharajSingh evenrefusedtotakewaterduringhungerstrike.AfterfourorfivedaysMajorCookbecame nervousbecausetheconditionofMaharajSinghbecameveryserious.Hecametomeandsought myhelptoendthehungerstrike.Sofar,wedidnotknowanythingaboutthisclashofthe prisonerswiththeauthorities.Theprisonerswerelodgedinthreeorfourdifferentblocks.About fourorfiveprisonersfromoneblockhadnotgoneonhungerstrike.Theywereyetmakingup theirmindandwereabouttogoonhungerstrikewhenMajorCookcametomeandaskedmeto pacifythem.Iundertooktodosoontheconditionthatalltheirlegitimatedemandswouldbeac cepted.MajorCookatonceagreedtothisconditionandsentaBritishwardertothesewards.I wenttothefirstthreewardsanddidnotgotothefourthwardastheBritishwarder accompanyingmethoughtthattheprisonersofthatwardhadnotgoneonhungerstrike.After discussingallmatterswiththeprisonersofthesethreeblocksIcameback.Theprisonersagreed togiveuphungerstrikeonthefollowingconditions:(1)Theprisonersshouldbegiventheturbans sanctionedforthem;(2)allprisonersshouldbegivenrationsaccordingtotheoldquotasystem andourcomplaintsaboutfoodshouldbesenttothePunjabGovernment;(3)theprisonersshould begivenpermissiontopreparetea. Mr.Meakthoughtthathisprestigewaslowered.MajorCookacceptedthesedemandswithout consultinghim.GandaSinghNihanghadtakenMr.Meaktotaskanumberoftimesandhadeven censuredhisconductinthepresenceoftheDeputyCommissioner.SoMr.Meakwasunhappy aboutthepeacefulendoftheagitationforbetterfood.HewentandtoldMajorCook,"Insteadof pacifyingtheprisonersandurgingthemtogiveupthefast,RandhirSinghhasincitedtheprisoners ofBlock4andtheyhavealsogoneonhungerstrike."TheprisonersofBlock4hadactuallygone onhungerstrike,butMajorCookdidnotknowthattheseprisonerswereonhungerstrikeeven beforeIwenttotheprisonersforsettlementoftheissue.Anyway,Mr.Meaksucceededinhis mischievousgame.Inflamedwithuncontrollableanger,MajorCookcametomeboilingwithrage andorderedthatIshouldbekeptincompleteisolationandIshouldbedeprivedoftherightto cookmyownfood.IaskedhimtocooldownandtellmewhywasItobetreatedinthatway. Whatwasthecauseofthisunexpectedpunishment?Iexpectedjusticefromhimandiftherewas somefreshreportagainstme,hemustinvestigateproperlyandifIcouldbeaccusedofanything harmful,hecouldgivewhateverpunishmentheliked.Buthemusttellmewhatthematterwas andhemustinvestigate. MajorCook:Whatdoyouexpectmetotellyou?DidIsendyoutotheotherblockstocalmdown theprisonerswhowereonhungerstrikeortopouroilonfireandspreadtheagitation? I:Howcanyouaccusemeofpouringoilonfire?Ididnothingofthekind. MajorCook:Didyougotheretoendtheagitationinthethreeblocksortostartiteveninthe fourthblock? I:Ididnotgotothefourthblockatall.TheBritishwarderwhoaccompaniedmedidnottakeme tothefourthward.Callhimandaskhim.Howcanyoublamemeforincitingtheprisonersofthe fourthblockwhenIdidnotgothereatall?

MajorCooksentasepoytobringtheBritishwarderforonthespotinvestigation.ButtheIndian ChiefHeadWarder,whowasalsowithusatthattimesaid:"Sir,BhaiRandhirSinghwassentwith theBritishWardertothefirstthreeblocksatnoonbuttheprisonersofthefourthwentonhunger strikedaybeforeyesterday.Iwasondutyatthattime.TheBritishWarderdidnottakeBhai RandhirSinghtothefourthblock.TheChiefHeadWarderhadjustreportedthiswhentheBritish Warderarrived.ThefirstquestiontheSuperintendentaskedhimwas:"DidyoutakeRandhirSingh tothefourthblock? BritishWarder:Certainlynot? Superintendent:Andwhynot? BritishWarder:Because,asfarasIknew,theprisonersofthatawardhadnotgoneonhunger strike.SotherewasnopointintakingRandhirSinghthere,butIcametoknowlateronthatthey wereonhungerstrikesincedaybeforeyesterdayevening. MajorCookcooleddownatonce.HelookedangrilyatMr.Meakandevenmadethreatening gesturesathim.Addressingmehesaid:"AllrightRandhirSingh,comealongwithmetothefourth blockandaskthemtoendtheagitation.TheconditionofMaharajSinghisveryserious.Firstletus gotohim.Heisdeterminedtosacrificehislife."IaccompaniedMajorCooktoallthehunger strikers. AssoonasIwentthereBhaiMaharajSinghagreedtobreakhisfast.MajorCooksentforsome milkandsugarcakeandwhenIgavesomemilktoMaharajSinghheopenedhiseyes.MajorCook washappyandfeltrelieved.Thusallprisonersgaveuphungerstrikeatmyrequest.Allthe prisonersweregivenamplerations.Theycouldcooktheirownmeals.TheSuperintendentsenta strongrecommendationformorerationsandbetterfoodtothePunjabGovernment,butbefore thisletterreachedthePunjabGovernmentanorderforourtransfertoMadrasjailshadbeen dispatchedbythem.Wecametoknowaboutitonlywhenweweresuddenlyaskedtopackup.

CHAPTER18DEATHOFKEHARSINGHANDDEPARTUREFORMADRAS OUTOFALLTHEincidentsthattookplaceatHazaribaghprison,themosthorrifyingbutwith significantmoralforallevildoersisthedeathofKeharSinghofSahnewal(inLudhianadistrict).I forgottowriteitintheearlierchapters;soIwillrelateithere. BhaiKeharSinghwasarrestedinthesecondsupplementaryLahoreConspiracyCaseinJanuary 1917andsenttoLahoreCentralJail.Hewassufferingfromtuberculosisofcervicalglandsandin thisconditionofseriouslybadhealthhewassenttoHazaribaghprison.Hewasphysicallyunfitto undertakesuchalongjourney,yethewascompelledtotraveltothisdistantplace.Duringthe trainjourneythesoresofT.B.glandsonhisneckwerebandagedeverydaybyamanwho accompaniedhim.IntheHazaribaghprisonhewaskeptlockedupinacell.Hewasgivensome medicinewhichdidnothaveanyeffectonhim. Amonthaftertherunawayprisonerswerearrested,theconditionofKeharSinghbecame precarious.OnedayKeharSinghgotupfromhisbedandwhiletryingtopickupsomethingfrom thefloorhefelldownandbecameunconscious.Thesentryatoncereportedthematterand soundedthealarmfearingthattheprisonerwasdead.WhenalltheofficersarrivedKeharSingh wastakentothehospitalwherehisconditiontookaturnfortheworst.Anotherfourorfive monthspassedinthisprecariouscondition.Hepassedhisdaysinterribleagony.Hewelcomed deathbutdeathwouldnotcome.Heappealedtotheprisonofficialsthathebeallowedtomeet fiveSikhs.TwoSikhs,BhaiHariSinghChotian,andBhaiHarnamSinghRasulpurwerealreadyinthe hospitalwithhim.HeexpressedhisdesiretomeetBhaiKartarSingh,BhaiMunshaSinghDukhi andme.Onbeingsentforbytheprisonofficialswethreewenttothehospital.Whenwewentto thehospitalandmetKeharSinghhetoldusthathewasresponsibleforSahnewaldacoityand murder,inwhichsomeprominentpersonsoftheLahoreConspiracyCasewereinvolved.Hehad mercilesslymurderedarichtrader(Banya)ofthevillagewhorefusedtodivulgewherehismoney waslying(UnheedfulofthepitiablecriesoftheBanya,KeharSinghhadslowlyandmercilesslycut thethroatoftheBanyaandtorturedhimtodeath.BhaiSahibRandhirSinghtoldthetranslator thattheghostoftheBanyastartedhauntinghim,whilethesoresofT.B.glandscausedunbearable pain.Theghostwouldcometotheroomofthecell,makeaterriblenoiseofshakingthewooden planksneartheroof,whichcouldbeheardbyeveryoneelse.WheneverKeharSinghclosedhis eyesorwenttosleeptheghostwouldcomeandstartmakingthenoiseandthreatenedhimwith direhorrors.Hewelcomeddeathbutdeathwaskeptatadistancebytheunbearablehorrorsof theghostandthephysicalpainofT.B.soresintheneck.ItisonlywhenBhaiSahibandhis companionsprayedforhim,thattheghoststoppedhauntinghimandhediedinpeace.Themoral oftheincidentisthatacrimeisnotforgivenbyGodevenifitisdoneundertheguiseofpolitical revolutionTranslator). Hetoldusthathekilledthemanbystabbinghimintheneckanditisinhisneckhedeveloped incurableT.B.soresandhadsufferedterriblepain."Iampassingthroughunbearableagonyand pain,"saidKeharSingh.Hisconditionwasextremelypitiableandgrievouslydistressing.Iappealed toallmybrotherdisciplestorecitetheSukhmaniforhim.Eachofthefivebrotherdisciplesshould recitetheSukhmaniatleastonceforhimandthenprayforthepeaceofhissoul.Thenextday everyonerecitedtheSukhmaniandprayedforthepeaceofhissoul.Allthebrotherdiscipleswere allowedtomeetBhaiKeharSinghforashortwhile.Thenextdayhepassedawayinpeace.The ghostdidnothaunthimaftertheprayersweresaid.

Theprisonofficialsthrewhisbodyintotheforest.Whenwecametoknowaboutit,wemade enquiryfromthesuperintendent.Weaskedhim,whywasnotKeharSinghproperlycremated?He sidetrackedtheissue.Insteadofansweringourquestionshestartedinvestigatingastohowwe cametoknowaboutit.WeevenreportedthemattertotheInspectorGeneralofprisons.Healso startedworryingandinquiringastohowtheprisonerscametoknowaboutit. DepartureforMadrasPresidency MajorCookgladlywroteonmyhistoryticketthatIhadbeengivenspecialconcessiontocookmy ownfood.HealsowrotethatIshouldbetreatedasaSikhsaintHeevenpermittedmetoprepare amilkpreparationforthelongrailwayjourneytoMadras.Ipreparedwhatwecallkhoya. Suddenly,wewereaskedtoleaveforMadrasPresidency,Idonotremembertheexactdatebutit wassometimeinOctober1921. GroupsoffourorfiveprisonersweretransferredtodifferentprisonsinMadrasbutfrom Hazaribaghwelefttogether.Althoughtheprisonauthoritiesdidnottelluswhereeachofuswas togo,wesomehowcametoknowaboutit.Weweresenttothefollowingprisons: RajahmundaryJail:BhaiKartarSingh;BhaiGandaSingh,ChhotaNihangBhaiHarnamSinghofKala Sangha;BhaiArjanSinghofJagroanandI. MadrasJail:BhaiKaramSinghofAjner;BhaiBhagelSinghandBhaiNathaSingh. BulariJail:BhaiJinderSingh;BhaiPakharSingh;BhaiLaiSingh;BhaiKesarSinghandBhaiKirpa Singh. TiruchirappalliJail;BhaiGujjarSingh;BhaiSajjanSingh;BhaiSunderSingh;BhaiInderSingh. VelloreJail:BhaiHiraSingh;BhaiHarnamSinghofKamaGataMaru;BhaiMaharajSingh. CoimbatoreJail:BhaiDalSingh;BhaiHariSingh;BhaiBalwantSingh. Thustwentythreeofusweredividedintosixgroups.UptoMadrasPresidencyweweretotravel together.Assoonasweenteredthestateweweretogototheprisonsmentionedabove.Seven buseswereacquiredtotakeusforHazaribaghRoadrailwaystation,adistanceoffortymiles.Mr. MeakdeliberatelyacquiredthesebusesfromaBengaliBusCompanyinsteadofgettingthemfrom aSikhBusCompany,theproprietorsofwhichknewuspersonally.HedidnotwishtheSikhsof Hazaribaghtoknowaboutourdeparture. BhaiSohanSingh,theproprietoroftheSikhTransportCompany,wasanxiousthattheprisoners shouldbetakentotherailwaystationinhisbuses.WhenhecametoknowthatallthePunjabi prisonersweretobetakenbysomeotherTransportCompany,hefeltverysadbutitsohappened thathiswisheswerefulfilled.TheBengaliTransportCompanycouldnotprovideanybusonthat particularday.TheprisonauthoritieshadtoacquirebusesfromBhaiSohanSingh,whofeltvery happyattheturnoftheevents.Wewerefetteredhandandfoot,butthesuperintendent,Major Cook,immediatelyorderedthatweshouldbeunchained,astherewasnoorderfromhigher authoritiestotreatuslikethat.Withordinaryhandcuffsweweretakentothebuses.

Whenwecameoutoftheprisontoboardthebusesthewholeprisonstaffcametoseeusoff. Theirwivesandchildrenwerealsothere.Hundredsofsepoysstoodguard.Ourfriendand sympathizer,SadhuRadhaSinghweptlikeachild.Everyonewasdeeplymovedbythesorrowhe feltatbeingseparatedfromus.Justbeforeboardingthebuses,congregationalprayerwas performedbyme.Aftertheprayertherewasastrangeandtouchingatmosphere.Everyonestood therewithhiseyeswetwithtears.Therewasdumbsilenceallround.FivevictorycriesofSatSri Akalwereutteredloudly.ThenasweboardedthebuseswestartedsingingtheShabads.Allthe spectatorsweredeeplymoved.Gorkhaarmedsoldiersstoodguard.Theygaveusasalutewith theirguns.TherewereasmanyGorkhasoldiersastheprisoners.AEuropeanChristianmissionary, whowasverytenderhearted,wasappointedoverallinchargeoftheprisoners.Heassuredusthat hewouldgiveusthebesttreatmentpossible.Thefirstproofofhisgenerositywhichhegaveus wasthathereturnedourprayerbooksandaskedustocarrythemwithus. OnthatverydayShrimatiSarlaDevihadcometherefromPunjabonalecturetour.Thecitizens fixedthelectureintheopenneartheroadleadingtoHazaribaghRoadrailwaystation.Thepeople wantedtoseeusandgiveusovationonourwaytotherailwaystation,buttheC.I.D.informedthe authoritiesabouttheirintentions,asaresultofwhichourbusesweretakenbyadifferentroute. Allthepatriotswereverydisappointed.Thepublichaddecidedtostopourbuses,ifwehadgone bythatroute. YoungBihariboyslikeLuknaranafterthebuses,andthencouldbeseendisappearingoutofsight, asthebusesspeededaway.IsatinthebusinwhichBhaiSohanSinghwassitting,besidethe driver.Weembracedeachotherandfeltsohappythatourjoycouldbeseenfromourbeaming faces.Itappearedasifamarriagepartywasmovingon.Peoplewonderedwhywewerenot worriedaboutgoingtoplacessofarofffromourhomesinPunjab.Everyonethoughtthatwewere goingtoPunjabfromwherewewouldbereleased.Aftertwelveyearsofterriblelifeinprison dungeons,wenowenjoyedfreshopenairforthefirsttime.Wefeltweweremovinginaheavenly region. AroundustheevergreenforestsofHazaribaghpresentedawonderfulsight.Attimes,aswe movedinthebuses,wecouldseearangeofhillscoveredbygreentrees,andthickforestsasfaras theeyecouldsee.Hugetreeswithgreenbranchesradiatedjoyousfreshness.Thecoolrefreshing breezegaveusathrillingsensation.Thevastbluesky,bentoverthemountainslookedglorious andwonderful.Thisexcitingvistaofnatureinspireduswithexaltedthoughtsofthecreationand theCreator.BhaiSohanSinghtalkedwithsuchdeepaffectionandspiritualintimacythathis conversationaddedjoytotheblissfuleffectsofnature.Heofferedussecretlysuchhelpwhichwe willneverforgettoourdyingday.Wecanneverrepaythegoodwillandgenerositywhichhe showedus. Whenwehadgonehalfway,thatisabouttwentymiles,ourbuseswerestoppedforrest.There wasasmallvillageandafewshopsontheroadside.Thevillagersgatheredtogetherinlarge groups.Theyhadsomehowcometoknowthatthebusescarriedfreedomfightersfromthe Punjab.Theyoffereduspursesfullofmoneyandshowedgreatrespectandadmiration.Every childseemedtobeinspiredwithpatrioticfervour.Allthisdelightedus.AHindupatriotcompelled ustoacceptatleasthundredrupees.BhaiSohanSinghtriedtoreturnhundredrupeesfromhis ownpocket,thoughhepermittedustoaccepthismoney,butthispatriotwouldnotacceptit.He wouldnottakehismoneybackbutultimatelywehadtotakerupeesfiftyfromBhaiSohanSingh andrupeesfiftyfromthisBihariHindupatriot.Nowwewereneartherailwaystation.

Ontheway,BhaiSohanSinghshowedusthehillwellknownasParasNathMountain,whichwas indeedveryattractive.Healsoexplaineditsbriefhistory.BhaiSohanSinghthenexpressedhis desirethatassoonaswesecuredrelease,weshouldcomeonamissionarytourinthoseareas,as thepeoplewereeagertoknowandacceptSikhism.TheParasNathMountainwasinhabitedby suchpeople,whowouldeasilyacceptthemoralandspiritualinfluenceofSikhism.Theresidentsof thatareaweremostlyJains.TheyhadgreatfaithinGuruNanak.Wewereyetdiscussingthese matterswhenourbusesreachedtherailwaystation.Thebuseswereimmediatelysurroundedby armedmilitarymen.WhenthePoliceSuperintendentcamenearourbusesBhaiJinderSingh loudlysaid:"Takesalute."TheSuperintendentdidnotunderstandanything.Heaskedustofollow himandheconductedusoverthecrossingandorderedustomarchintwos.Butweweresinging theSabadsanddidnotworryabouttheformation.Everyonewassodeeplyabsorbedinthe singingofthehymnsthatthePoliceSuperintendent'srepeatedordertomarchinformationwas unconsciouslyignored.Heconsidereditaninsult.Hestoppedshortandholdingthoseimmediately behindhimbytheirshouldersforcedthemtofileupintwos.Thefreedomfightersshoutedathim andaskedhimnottotouchortocompelthemtodoanything.BhaiKartarSinghthenexplainedto him,inaveryfirmtone,thatheshouldnotimposeunpleasantorders.Whenhefoundthatthings weregettingoutofcontrol,heaskedmetocalmthemdown.Itoldhimthathecouldusehis tonguetogiveanyordersbutheshouldnotusehishandsoranyviolencetoimposehisorders.I toldhimthatBritishersclaimedtobeverycivilizedandcultured,buthehadmadeaverypoor showofBritishmannersandbehaviour.Anywayaftersayingthesethingstohim,Icalmeddown myfellowpatriots.Hethankedmeforsettlingthematterbutanotherseriousthingcroppedup. Therailwaycarriagereservedforuswasfixedupwithironbarsinthewindowsbuthadno lavatory.Werefusedtoboardthetrainuntilweweregivenacarriageinwhichtherewasa lavatory.Wefirmlytoldtheauthoritiesthatwewouldnotmoveaninchtilladequatearrangement wasmade,nomatterhowhardtheycompelledustodoso.Theywereawestrucktoseeusso enraged.TheSuperintendentwasterriblyashamedoftheuglysituationthathadbeenthus createdforwhichheblamedtheprisonauthorities.WeaskedthepoliceSuperintendenttotake usbacktotheprisonwhereweshouldsettlethematterwiththeauthorities. Superintendent:Ihavenoorderstotakeyouback.IhaveorderstosendyoutoMadrasbythis train. We:Howcanwegetintothiscarriagewhichiswithoutalavatory?Youbetterseatusinsome othercarriage. Superintendent:HowcanIseatyouinanyothercarriage?Therearenobarstothewindows; moreoverthisparticularcarriageisreservedforyou.Itisalsodifficulttoaskthepassengersto vacateanycarriage. We:Thenmakearrangementforalavatoryinthiscarriage. Superintendent:Thisisalsodifficultatthismoment We:ItwaseasyforyoutobecomepoliceSuperintendent,butitisdifficultforyoutoshoulderany responsibility.Youshouldseriouslythinkaboutourdifficulty.Thetrainjourneywilltakemany days.Howcanwetravelinitwithoutanylavatoryorfacilitiestoeasenature?

AnIndianInspectorofpolicesuggestedthatweshouldurinateoutofthewindow.Weloudly protestedagainstthisfoolishsuggestion,saying,"Doyouthinkweareanimalsorutterly shamelesscreatureswhocanbeexpectedtourinateoutofthewindows?Evenifthisispossible, howcanweeasenatureoutofthewindows?"WereprimandedtheIndianInspectorofpolice sayingthatwewerediscussingthematterwiththeSuperintendentwhorealizedourdifficultyand itwasnoneofhisbusinesstointerferebygivingsuchfoolishsuggestions.Iftherewasawayout hecouldgivesomeacceptablesuggestiontotheSuperintendent,butitwasnousetalking nonsense. ThematterwasabouttotakeanuglyturnwhentheEuropeanmissionarywhoaccompaniedus intervened.Inaverygentleandmildtonehesaid:"ThedemandoftheSikhbrothersfromPunjab isreasonableandlegitimate.Weoughttobeblamedforit.Wemayblametherailwaypeopleor theprisonauthorities,butwecannotimmediatelymakeamendsforthismistake.Onmyown responsibility,IampreparedtotakeyouallinthisverycarriageandIwillseethatyouhaveno difficultyinurinatingoreasingnaturethroughoutthetrainjourney.InthenameofGodIappealto youtogetintothecarriage.Iwillalsotravelinit.Igiveyoumywordofhonourthatwheneverthe trainstopsyouwillbeallowedtogotoanothercarriagefortheuseoflavatory.Youwillhave absolutelynodifficultyinthismatter.Iknowyouallareveryresponsible,faithfulandtruthloving SikhsofthegreatGurusandyouwillnotletmedownifIgiveyouthefreedomtogotoanyother carriageorontheplatform.WhenItreatyouwellandhumanely,youwillalso,Ihope,bevery consideratetome." WeweredeeplyimpressedbythesincereandhumaneofferofthisBritishmissionary.Wefelt confidentthathewouldhonourallhisassurances,becausehehadalreadyprovedhimselftobe verygenerousandkindbyreturningtheprayerbooks.Hisfacereflectedhisnoblenature.The policeSuperintendentwasalsohappythatawayoutofthedifficultsituationhadbeenfoundout. Hesaid:"Itisallverywellnow;getintothecarriage;Iamsorrytherailwayauthoritiesdidnotlook intothematter.IamsurethePadriSahibwilltreatyouwellduringthejourney." Wewereallveryhappyaboutthesolutionoftheproblem,andtakingthemissionaryInspectorby hiswordweboardedthetrain.Thetrainsteamedoff,andassoonasitstoppedatthenext station,theMissionaryInspectoropenedthedoorsofthecarriageandallowedustogotoanother carriagefortheuseoflavatory.Asnoonefeltthenecessityfordoingso,noonemovedoutofthe carriage.Oneverystationpeoplegroupedaroundourcarriagetoseethefreedomfightersfrom thePunjab.Manypeoplecameinsideourcarriageandtalkedtous.TheMissionaryInspectordid notraiseanyobjection.Peopleofferedusfruit,moneywhichwehesitatedtoacceptbutwe thankedandblessedthemall.Fromthesevisitorswereceivedagoodmanynewsaboutwhatwas happeninginthecountry.Forthefirsttimewegotanopportunitytoreadnewspapers.Thegenial MissionaryInspectordidnotpreventpeoplegivingusanything. Weweresurprisedtofindagreatchangethathadtakenplaceinthecountry.In1917,whenwe weremovingfromMultantoHazaribagh,noonedaredtocomenearus.Theverysightof freedomfightersfrightenedpeople,butnowin1921everychildwasinspiredandwasbrimming withpatrioticfervour.Allthecowardiceandtimiditywasgone.Youngpatriotscongratulatedus forourcourageinfreedomstruggleandtoldusthatthesacrificesofthefreedomfightersof1914 15movementhadawakenedthewholecountryandeveryonewasfreelyandopenlyexpressing hisfeelingsforpoliticalfreedominveryhighspirit.Oneverystationwefoundrenewedand greaterdeterminationforthecountry'sfreedomandopensympathyforthefreedomfighterswho werestillsufferinggreathardshipsinprisons.

WeweredeeplyimpressedbytheliberalmindandgentletreatmentoftheMissionaryInspector. Whenthetrainstoppedonarailwayjunctionforalongtime,hepermittedustocampintheopen andprepareourfood.Accompaniedbytwosepoys,threeofourcompanionswenttothebazarfor buyingrations.Bythetimetheycamebackfirewaslightedandcookinghadbegun.Somebrought water,othersbroughtfuelandinaveryshorttimefoodwascooked. AtthismomentanoldSikhgentleman,whowasarailwaycontractor,camenearusandgreeted us.Heofferedhisservicesforanyhelphecouldpossiblyrender.Wethankedhimforhissympa thy;butheimmediatelybroughtsomeutensilsandrationsforpreparingkadahprasad.Itis unfortunatethatwehaveforgottenhisnameandaddress.Aftertakingourfoodtoourfillwe boardedthetrainagaintocontinueourjourney.ThisSikhcontractorsenttelegramstoother railwaystations,whereourtrainwastostop.SooneverystationwewerereceivedbyafewSikhs andquiteanumberofprovincialpoliticalleadersandpatriots.SomeSikhstravelledwithusfrom onestationtothenextstoppage.Everywherewefoundthatthepeoplewereawakeandfullof zealforfreedomandliberationofthecountry. OurtrainthenreachedKharagpurstation.HereSikhscameinlargenumbertomeetus.Thereisa bigrailwayworkshopatKharagpurinwhichoverfivetosixthousandSikhworkmenwere employed.Allofthemcamewiththeirfamiliestoseeus.Incidentallytherewasapoliticalmeeting alsoatKharagpur.TheSikhswhohadreceivedadvanceinformationaboutourtrainjourney throughKharagpurinformedthepublicinthepoliticalgatheringaboutit.Thusacrowdoffifteen totwentythousandHindusandMuslimsalsocametomeetus.Therewaswonderfulunityamong allcommunitiesatthattime.Theorganizersofthepoliticalgatheringendedtheirmeetingsoonto enablethepublictoreachtherailwaystationbeforeourtrainarrived.Therewassuchalarge crowdthatnotaninchofspacewasleftontheplatform.TheSikhpeoplewerealmostintears withjoytoseetheirbrotherswhohadsufferedsomuch.Wegotdownfromthetrainandfreely mixedwiththepeopleinthecrowd. TheMissionaryInspectorcametomeandsaid:"Icannotrecognisealltheprisoners.Igiveyoufull freedomtomeetyouradmirers,butpleaseseethatIamnotputintoanawkwardsituation.My honourisinyourhandsnow.TrustingyouandtrustingGod,Iamallowingeveryonetogoand meetpeoplefreely.IftheyrunawayandescapeIwillbeingreattrouble".Iassuredhimthathis kindnessandgenerositywouldberepaidbyasimilarsenseoftrustandconfidenceinus.Ifhe trustedthem,theywouldallprovethattheywereworthofsuchatrust.Heshouldnotworryin theleast.Noonewouldbetrayhistrust. InamatterofminutestheSangatofKharagpurbroughtofferingsofdeliciousfoodandfruit.All theprisonerssatinalineandatetotheirfill.TheMissionaryInspectorandallthepoliceguards werealsogivenfoodandfruitwhoateitlustily.Fortunatelythiswasthefirsttimethepolice guardsandtheofficersgotanopportunitytoeatsomething.Sweetmeat,bread,milk,fruitand vegetableswerefreelyofferedtousonotherrailwaystationsbutnevertothepoliceofficersand theirmenaccompanyingus.Forfearofleavingusunguardedthepolicemennevergotdownfrom thetrainandthustheydidnottakeamorseloffood.Theyweredesperatelyhungry.Theycould notleaveusalonetogettheirfoodfromtherefreshmentrooms.Thepoliticalzealofeventhe vendorsontheplatformpreventedthemfromsellinganythingtothepolicemenguardingus.On theKharagpurstationwhenfoodwasfreelydistributedtous,theEuropeanInspectorcamenear meandtoldmethesadplightofthepoliceguard.Theywereunabletogetanyfoodandwere desperatelyhungry.Atmyrequesttheyweregivenallthefoodtheywanted.Theythankedusand blessedusforthiskindlyact.Thetrainstoppedformanyhoursonthestationandwehad

opportunitytomeetpeoplefreely.Congressleadersharanguedlonglecturesontheplatformto thepeoplepresentthere.Therewereanumberofprominentpeopleamongthem.Therailway stationwassurroundedbythousandsofpeopleandweweremovingfreelyamongthem.Itwas timenowforeveningprayersandeventhecivilauthoritieswereupset.Anenginewas immediatelyattachedtoourtrainanditmovedon.EveryoneshoutedthevictorycriesofSatSri Akal. Whenallthetwentythreeprisonerswerebackinthecarriage,IaskedtheMissionaryInspectorto countthemandmakesurethateveryonewaspresentthere.Hewassoexcitedthatonthefirst counthefoundtwentytwoandonthesecondcounthefoundtwentyfourprisoners.Thenhe burstintolaughterandsaid:"TheKhalsacannotbecounted,"towhichIreplied,TheKhalsais beyondnumbering."Iaskedhimtocalloutthenamesofalltheprisonersatthenextstationand askthemtogetintothecarriagebyturn.Hewouldthusbeabletocheckthenamesandnumber, accordingtohislist.Theeveningprayer(Rehras)wasrecitedandafterthebedtimeprayerof KirtanSohila,wewenttosleep.DuringthenightwemovedoutofBengalandenteredMadras earlynextmorning,wherethetrainstoppedatValtairestation. SatyagrahatRajahmundarystation TheMadraspolicewaitedforusattheValtairestation.TheywereheadedbyaBritishpolice officerwhowassohaughtyandarrogantthathestartedshowinghisarroganceassoonashetook chargeoftheprisonersfromtheMissionaryInspector.Earliertherewasaminorclashwiththe MissionaryInspectoralso.WhenaKhadicladCongressleaderbroughtsomefruitforus,he pushedhimawayrudely.Wewereseriouslyupsetandwhenwestronglyprotestedagainsthis openinsulttoourpoliticalleaderhewasunnerved.FortunatelyforhimMr.T.Prakasham,Editor ofthe"Swarajya",anEnglishWeekly,intervenedandsettledthematter.Thepoliticalleaderwas allowedtopresentfruittous,whenMr.T.Prakashampointedoutandexplainedtohimwhothe politicalleaderwas,thepoliceofficerwasunnervedandfeltgreatlyashamedofhisattitude. NowwewerehandedovertothearrogantBritishpoliceInspectoroftheMadraspolice.Helocked usfromoutsideanddidnotallowanyonetogetdownevenforurinatingoreasingnature.Hegot downateverystationbutkeptuslockedin.Wewereingreatdifficulty.Forfearofbeingmolested byushestartedtravellingbytheadjoiningcarriageandevenwherethetrainstoppedhekeptata safedistancefromus.Ourcomradeshadmadeuptheirmindtoforciblyseizethekeysofthe compartment,butfearhadalreadyovertakenhimforhismisdoingsandhekeptawayfromus. Frommorningtilllateeveningnoneofuswasallowedeithertourinateortoeasenature.Those whosufferedfromdysenterywereingreatdifficulty.Becauseofthisdifficultywedidnoteator drinkanything.Aftereveningprayerswemadeupourmindtosomehowpunishthisrascal,sothat hemightnevertreatpoliticalprisonersinthismannerinfuture.Igavethemaplantowhich everyoneagreed. Nowthatweweretobedetrainedondifferentstations,weplannedneithertorevealouridentity nortogetdown.Whenhecalledoutthenamesoftheprisonerswhoweretogetdown,noone shouldanswer.Hedidnotknowanyoneofusbyname,norcouldtheMadraspolicemenidentify us.EventhetwopolicemenwhohadaccompaniedusfromHazaribaghwerenewanddidnot knowanyonebyname.Wealsoexchangedourprisonshirtscarryingournumber.Itwas9p.m. whenwereachedRajahmundaryrailwaystation.Fiveofusweretogetdownhere.Assoonasthe trainstoppedtheBritishpoliceinspectorandtheRajahmundaryprisonauthoritiescamenearour carriage.Theyconsultedoneanotherandexaminedsomepapers.Thentheycalledoutournames andorderedthatthosewhosenameswerecalledshouldgetdownfromthetrain.

ThearrogantBritishofficercalledoutournamesatthetopofhisvoice,buttherewasnoanswer. RandhirSingh:Silence.KartarSingh:Silence.HarnamSingh:Silence.ArjanSingh:Silence.Everyone satsilentlylikeastatue.WhenthearrogantBritishofficerwastiredofcallingoutournames, pronouncingthemwithclearervoiceandemphasiseverytime,andfoundeveryonesitting unconcerned,aBritishofficialoftheRajahmundaryprisonwhoknewHindustaniquitewellcame forward,andstartedcallingthenames.Eventhepronunciationofnameswasnotcorrect.He sometimespronouncedmynamedasRandurSingh,andsometimesRaindirSingh.Everyone remainedsilenttillhewastiredofcallingoutnames.Whattosayofgettingdownfromthetrain werefusedtolistentothemortoobeythem.TheBritishOfficersthemaskedthesepoysincharge topointoutwhowaswho,andaskthosewhoweretogotoRajahmundarytogetdown.Butthey expressedtheirhelplessnesssayingthattheyknewnoone.Theyknewmebutdidnotknowmy name.Everyoneaddressedmeasthe"Saint".Beyondthattheydidnotknowanyone. BoththeBritishOfficersnowfoundthemselvesinanawkwardsituation.Theywereextremely puzzledandconfused.Theyexpressedtheirhelplessnessandbeggedthoseofuswhoweretogo toRajahmundarytocomedown.Thetensesituationthuscreatedattractedalargecrowd includingsomeprominentCongressites,whohadcometomeetus.Thenthroughthecarriage window,BhaiKartarSinghaddressedtheseleadersandthespectatorsinEnglishandtoldthem howcruellyandcallouslyhadthearrogantBritishofficertreatedusalltheday.Everyonestarted condemningtheBritishofficershouting"shame,shame"athim.Hehadtoundergosomuch humiliationthathebecamepaleandfeltterriblyashamedofwhathehaddone.Responsible officersofRajahmundaryatoncegotthedoorofthecarriageunlockedandallowedustogotothe latrinestoeasenature,ontheirownresponsibility. Manyhadnowgotstomachtroubleorheadache.Withinamatterofminuteswecamebacktoour carriage.TheBritishofficersoncemoretriedtosingleoutthefivewhoweretogetdownat Rajahmundary.Butweturnedadeafeartotheirentreaties.ResponsibleOfficersofthe Rajahmundaryprisongaveusstrongassurancesofgoodtreatmentinfuture,butwerefusedto trustthemandweredeterminedtoteachthemalesson.Everyoneadmonishedandcursedthe Britishofficerwhohadcausedallthistrouble.EventhearrogantBritishofficerbeggedustoget downbutweaskedhimtosticktohisordersandfranklytoldhimthatweweredeterminedtosee thathewasjustlypunishedforthetreatmentaccordedtous.Theywereextremelydisturbedto seeussoadamant.Thetrainhadtobedetainedforhalfanhourmorethanthenormalstoppage. Therailwayauthoritiesrefusedtostopthetrainanymoreandthetrainmovedon,amidcheers andvictorycriesfromus.AllthetwentythreeprisonershadtobetakentoMadras. Thenewsspreadlikewildfireandtelegramsweresenttotheauthoritiesaboutthesatyagrahof theSikhprisoners.ThenewspapersflashedthestoryofthenoncooperationoftheSikhprisoners fortheilltreatmentaccordedtothem,andthejustpunishmentgivenbytheseprisonersofthe LahoreConspiracyCase,totheconcernedofficersfortheircallousness.EvenonMadrasstationno onecouldcompelustogetdown.Ourcarriagewasdetachedfromthetrainandononeofthe platformsdariswerespreadouttogiveuscourteousreception.Allthiswasplannedbysomewise prisonofficialsofMadrasprison.WecameoutandsatonthedarisandtheMadrasprisonofficials personallyattendedtoourrequirements.Incidentallytherewasnopatriotnearby.Notasingle Congressitewastobeseen,probablybecausetheyhadnotreceivedtheinformation.Onthis stationonlyrichlycladladiesandgentlemenmovedaboutunconcernedaboutthefreedom fighters.ItappearedthatthepatrioticfervourwasalmostabsentintheMadrascity.Theypacified usandthentookustoMadrasprison.

Intheprisonwewereaskedtocampinanopencourtyard.Weweregivenallfacilitiestotakeour bath,andweweregivenallwerequiredwiththeutmostcourtesy.TheBritishofficerinchargeof theMadrasprisontreatedusverygentlyandinaverycomplacentmanner.Heinformedusthat theBritishofficerwhohadilltreatedushadbeenjustlypunished.Hehadbeenimmediately downgradedandtheextraexpenditureincurredbythegovernmentintakingustoMadrasand backtoRajahmundaryhasbeenimposedonhimasafine.Henowbeggedusnottolinkhimup withthattroubleandaskedustohelphimoutbytellingournames,sothatwecouldbesentto theprisonsallottedtous.Wewantedtoprolongthiscasetillitcametothenoticeofthehigher authoritiessothatMr.Meak,whowasthemanreallyresponsibleforallourtroublescouldalsobe punishedbutthecivilizedandcourteoustreatmentaccordedtousbyMadrasprisonofficials pacifiedus,andcooledourtempers. Towinuscompletelybytheirgoodbehaviourtheypermittedourcomradeswhohadjustreturned fromAndamanIslandstomeetusfreely.Wemetandembracedeachotherafteryearsof separationandthentherewasagrandfeastforwhichallfacilitiesweregiventousbytheprison authorities.ItwasallthewillofGodthatthesatyagrahbroughtustoMadrasandgaveusan opportunitytomeetourbrotherfreedomfightersoftheLahoreConspiracyCaseaftersomany years.AdreamvisionwhichIsawsomeyearsearlieralsocametrue.Intheyear1920,at HazaribaghIhadreportedtomyfriendsBhaiKartarSinghandBhaiAttarSinghadreamvision accordingtowhichBhaiAttarSinghwastogethisreleaseandIwastogotoRasKumari(Madras). Afewmonthsafterthis,BhaiAttarSinghwasreleasedunderageneralclemencyorder.Andbya strangeaccidentIcametoRasKumari(Madras).Ihadcompletelyforgottenaboutthedream vision.BhaiKartarSinghremindedmeaboutit.Hadtherebeennosatyagrah,theplanforwhich wasmadespontaneouslyafewhoursbeforewereachedRajahmundary,Imightnothaveseen Madras,norcouldIhavemetmyoldcomrades,aboutwhosewhereaboutsweknewnothing.So everythinghappenedaccordingtothewillofGod. Itwasnotatallpreplanned.Nordidwehaveanyfeelingofrevengeagainstanyone.Ifwewished totakerevenge,wegaveupagoldenopportunity.Onenightduringthetrainjourney,allthe policeguardsandofficialsweresofastasleepthatBhaiGujjarSingh,whomweaddressedas Shrimanji,andBhaiGandaSinghNihangquietlycollectedallthegunsbelongingtothesepoysand thesergeants.Theybroughtallthesegunstomeandsuggestedthatweshouldmakegoodour escape.Itoldthemthatweshoulddonothinginthespiritofpersonalrevenge.Peoplewerenow courtingarrestsandgoingtojailsalloverthecountryanditwouldbeamatterofshameifwe triedtoescape.ItwasagainstthespiritoftheKhalsa.Itwouldbesufficienthumiliationforthem thatwewakethemupandreturnedthemtheirguns. Thisisexactlywhatmycomradesdid.Allthepoliceguardsandsergeantswerestunnedwhenthey sawtheirgunsmissingandwerewonderstrucktoseeourmoralcouragewhenwereturnedthe guns.Thusinsteadoftakinganyrevengefortheilltreatment,theSikhprisonersgaveafine exampleofthecourageoustoleranceandheroicspiritofendurance.Soweneverdidanythingin thespiritofrevenge.WethereforeagreednowtotellournamestotheMadrasprisonofficials. TheOfficersalsocompletelyleftthesolutionoftheproblemtous. WefirstrevealedthenamesofthethreecomradeswhoweretobelodgedinMadrasJail.We wantedtoseehowtheyweretreated.Wesawthattheytreatedthemwiththeutmostcourtesy andgavethemalltherightsapoliticalprisonerdeserved.Theyweregivenexcellentfoodandall theclothestheyrequired.Thispacifieduscompletely.Wethenrevealedallthenamesandwe weresenttodifferentprisonsinsmallgroups.

CHAPTER19RAJAHMUNDARYPRISON FIVEOFUSweretakentotheMadrasseasidetowatchthetide,andthenwewerebroughtback toRajahmundary.TheEnglishmaninchargeoftheprisonerswasverykindandhelpful.Onevery stoppageheaskeduswhetherwerequiredanything.WhenwereachedtheRajahmundarystation weweretakentotheGodawariRiverwherewetookourbath.Itwasearlymorningnow.Afterthe bathweweretakentothepoliceDakBungalowwherewesaidourmorningprayers.Afterprayers weweregivenpermissiontoprepareourfoodforwhichwewereliberallygivenrations.Allthe thingsthatwerenecessaryweregiveninexcess.Heprovidedfruits,sugar,milk,vegetablesand evenice.Wecouldprepareanything,andweweremadetofeelathome.Wewerecompletely satisfiedandweweregiventhenecessaryrestalso.ThenweweretakentotheRajahmundary prisononabullockcart.ThePoliceofficerwalkedonfoot.WhenthepatriotsofRajahmundary cametoknowaboutourarrivaltheyrushedtomeetus.TheBritishofficerpermittedeachoneof themtomeetandtalktousaswemovedon.Itwasdifficulttokeepthemaway.They accompaniedusuptotheprisongatefromwheretheyturnedbackwhenwerequestedthem. Astrangeincidenttookplaceonourwaytotheprison.Asourbullockcartpassedthrougha gardenfullofdensetreesafieryyoungMadrasiwasseencomingtowardsus.Whenwelooked backwesawthathehadadaggerinhishandandhewascomingatfullspeedtostrikesomeone. ThenhewassuddenlyseenraisinghisshiningdaggerreadytopounceontheEnglishmanandstab himneartheneck.ItappearedthatinanotherminutehewouldkillthepoorEnglishmanwhodid notknowevenabouttheassailant'spresencejustbehindhim.Hewaswalkingbehindourbullock cartwithoutknowingthatdeathwashoveringoverhishead.JustasIsawtheyoungmanaboutto strikeafatalblow,IthoughtofdoingsomethingtosaveinnocentEnglishman.AsIwaslooking intentlyattheyoungassailanthiseyescaughtmine.Ifoldedmyhandsandsilentlybeggedhimnot tokill,signifyingmyappealbyshakingmyhead. Iaskedmycompanionsalsotobeghimnottocommitthecrimebyfoldingtheirhandsandto appealtohimnottodosuchathing.Theyoungmanwasinfluencedbyoursilentappeal.Whenhe wasabouttostriketheblow,heloweredhisdagger,hiditunderhisarmpitanddisappearedinthe denseforest.Ashewentawayhegreetedusallwithasmile.TheEnglishofficerdidnotknowthat henarrowlyescapeddeath.Nordidthepolicemenaccompanyinghimknowanythingaboutit. WethankedGodforHismercyandforsavinganinnocentmanfrombeingmurdered.Soonwe reachedtheprisongate. Whenwereachedprisonwesawahumiliatingsight.Anumberofprisonerswhoweretobetaken outforworkwerestrippednakedandstoodtherewiththeirundressedblackbodiesinamost humiliatingcondition.Theydidnotevenhavealangoti(clothtocovertheirgenitals).The policemenweresearchingtheminaveryshamefulmanner.Ihadseenthissightinavisionabout eightyearsearlier.TodayIsawitintherealworldandIalsonowrealizedthatthevisionwhichI saweightyearsearlierwasactuallyavisionofthefuturehappeningwhichIactuallysawnow. Generallythenewprisonerswerealsosearchedinthesamemanner.Wefearlesslyenteredthe prison.Nooneevendaredtolookstraightintooureyes.Thepolicemenaccompanyinguswere carryingourbeddingsandbundlesofbooksaswewalkedinourKhalsadress,theprisonofficials lookedatuswithaweandsuspense. InthecentreofthejailwastheJailer'sofficeandintheupperstorywastheofficeofthe Superintendent.Wewereaskedtowaitinthecorridor.Wesatonthebencheslyingthere.The

HeadWarderlookedatuswithgreatsuspicionbutdidnotdaretosayaword.Eachofuswas givenadress,utensilsandbeddingsthesightofwhichshockedus.Weatoncejudgedthatwewill havetofightforourrightsherealso.ItisnecessarytotellherethataccordingtoMadrasprison lawswewereentitledtothefollowingthings:knicker,ashirt,cap,ahandkerchief,twoearthen utensils,onesmallearthenjug,onemetalcup,abeddingandtwoblankets.Allthesethingswere againsttherequirementofPunjabisandSikhsinparticular.Wefirstpickeduptheearthenvessels andbreakingthembystrikingthemagainstpuccafloor,loudlyshoutedSatSriAkal.Thuswebroke allearthenpotsandthenutteredvictorycryofSatSriAkal. TheHeadWarderwasstunnedbutdidnotutteraword.Thesoundofourbreakingoftheutensils drewtheattentionoftheJailerwhowasreadingourhistorytickets.Whenhecamethere,we askedtheheadWardertogiveusamatchstickwithwhichwewantedtoburntherotten beddings.TheJailerspokesomethingtotheHeadWarderinTamil.TheHeadWarderthensaidto usthattheJailerwasveryangry.OneofuswhoknewEnglishwasaskedtocomeoutandtalkto him,becausetheJailerdidnotknowHindustani.SoBhaiKartarSinghwenttohisoffice. FirstofalltheJailerraisedthequestionofbreakingtheearthenutensils.Hewastoldthatweused anearthenvesselforeatingpurposeonlyonceandthenwebrokeit.Wewerepreparedtoaccept theearthenvesselsifafterusingthemwecouldbreakthemeverydayandgetnewonesforour nextmeal.Wecouldnotusesuchutensilsforalltimesandallpurposes.Asfortheclotheswetold himthatwecouldusetheshirtsandtheknickerbutwealsorequiredturbanandunderwear whichthePunjabgovernmenthadsanctionedforus.WeexpectedthattheBiharandOrissaprison officershadinformedthemaboutit.Weshowedacopyoftheordersanctioningthesethings.A copyoftheorderhadbeensenttohimtobeattachedtotheMadrasprisonmanual,butthepoor JailerdidnotknowwhattheSikhsymbolslikeKach,Kadah,andKirpanwere.BhaiKartarSingh showedthemtohimandexplainedthattheyweretheSikhsymbols. Theprisonofficersgenerallymaintainedathreateningattitudetowardsaprisonerandtriedto frightenthemintosubmission,butnoneofuswasafraid.TheJailerpermittedustokeepour dress,utensilsandbooksbuthelockedusinseparateprisoncellsandkeptaguardsothatwe couldnottalktoeachother.Hedidnotknowthatwewereveryhighlyqualifiedjailbirds.Inthe prisonuniversitywehadacquiredsotospeakevenaPh.D.degree.Ourhistoryticketsshowed thatwehadenduredallpossiblepunishments,andwehadmasteredallthetactics.Whenwe reachedtheprisoncellwesawastrangesight.Everyprisonerhadtocarryhisownurinepotwhich weresmallearthenvessels.Withuncleanhandstheprisonertookoutwaterfromalargepitcher. Thentheycametoanopenplace,onesideofwhichwasusedaslavatory.Firstofallwerefusedto carryoururinepots.Thenwecarriedwaterinanothervessel.Theprisonerswereexpectedto standinalineandeasenatureintheopen.Werefusedtodoso.Whenthepoliceguardreported themattertothejailer,heorderedthatwecoulduseanycorneraslatrine.Thesweeperwould thencleanit. OnthefirstdayweweregiventhefoodwhichwasgenerallygiventoMadrasiprisoners.They placeditbeforeourcellsinearthenvesselsbutwerefusedtotakeit.Afterthreehoursthey carrieditawayanditwasreportedtotheofficerthatthePunjabiprisonershadrefusedtotake thefood.ThenextdaytheybroughtsomechapatiesclumsilypreparedbytheMadrasisbutwedid nottouchthem;sotheycarriedthemaway.

Onthethirddaywewerebroughtoutformedicalexamination.Afterweighingusthedoctor wroteonourhistorysheetthatweshouldprepareropesfromjute.OnlyBhaiKartarSinghandI knewEnglish.WhenBhaiKartarSingh'sturncamehesaidtotheMedicalOfficer:"Itisbetterif yougiveusonematchstickalsosothatwemayburnallthejuteandgobacktoourcells.For threedayswehavenottakenanyfood.Howisitthatnoonehasbroughtthisreporttoyoubut yourememberputtingustohardlabour? OnthefourthdayIwascalledtotheofficewheremyhistorysheetwasbeingexamined.Theynow foundoutthatIpreparedmyownfood.SoIwasgivennecessaryrations.Itoldtheofficerthatmy companionswerealsohungry;somearrangementshouldfirstbemadeforthem;Icouldtakemy rationlateron.Theofficersuggestedthatoneofthemcouldcomeandtaketherationsforthem. TheJailerwantedBhaiGandaSinghofKhaparKheritocooktheirfoodbuthedidnotknow English,soIsuggestedBhaiKartarSingh'sname.BhaiKartarSinghwasbroughttotheofficebuthe said,"FirstandforemostoursaintlycompanionBhaiRandhirSinghshouldbebroughtoutand arrangementmadeforhisfood."TheJailerinformedhimthatIhadsuggestedhisnameandto convincehimthatIhadmadethesuggestionhebroughthimtome.SoBhaiKartarSinghprepared somesimplefoodforfourofourcompanionsbutIwentwithoutfood.Onthesixthdaythe InspectorGeneralprisonsentspecialordersthatIshouldbegivenpermissiontocookmyown food.ThenonlyIstartedgettingrations. ThreeBritishOfficersofthisprisonwereverygentleandkindtome.TheJailer,the SuperintendentandtheMedicalOfficerwereallEnglishmen,andImustadmitthattheywere perfectgentlemen.Theirbehaviourwithusafterthisdaywasverygenerous.Theyknewwhathad happenedonthewaytoMadras.TherewasaBritishmissionaryinspectorwhowasparticularly verykindandgenerous.Wereciprocatedhisgentletreatment.Theseofficershadcometoknow howwehadbeenmaltreatedinthejourneytoMadrasbyanotherhaughtyBritishInspectorand howafterenduringhisilltreatmentwehadtaughthimalesson.Theyhadcometoknowaboutall thesethings.Whentheyexaminedourhistorysheettheyfoundthateachofushadbeengiven morethanahundredseverepunishments.Theyalsonotedthatitwastheprisonofficerswho alwaysstartedthetroubletowhichwereactedverystrongly,andthatweneverinitiatedany trouble.Butwhenanyoneannoyeduswereactedverystrongly. Allthethreeprisonofficersdiscussedthesemattersbetweenthemselvesandsentforus.They toldusinveryplainwordsthattheprisonofficialswouldtreattheminaveryjustandhumane mannerandtheyaskeduswhetherwealsowillbehavewell.Theyfranklygavetheirimpression thatwehadbeenmaltreatedbyotherprisonofficerswithoutanygrounds.Theyassuredusthat wewouldhavenotroubleinRajahmundaryprisonandtheyexpressedthehopethatwewillalso notgivethemanytrouble.Wetoldthemthatifweweretreatedwellandgivennotroublethere werenoreasonswhyweshouldbehaveinanyimpropermanner,orcausetothemanytrouble. Theycouldputthematterontrial. Thentheyaskedusaboutourdailyrequirements.Wetoldthemthatwewouldcookourown food,aproposalwhichwasgladlyaccepted.Thismadethingseasierforthemalsoasinthatprison Punjabifoodhadneverbeencooked.OnlyriceandsomeMadrasifoodwascooked.TheMadrasi prisonersdidnotevenknowhowtokneadtheflourandpreparechapati.Soitbecamedifficultfor themtogetPunjabifoodcookedbytheirownarrangement.WerefusedtoeatthepoorMadrasi dietwhichwasofferedtous.Soitwasconvenientfortheprisonofficialstoallowustocookour ownfood.Therewasacompleteagreementonthisissue.

SecondlywerefusedtowearturbanspreparedfromaroughlinedclothpreparedintheJail.Those gentleofficersacceptedeventhisproposal.Thirdlywetoldthemthatwewillnotdoanywork; rather,wewillnotdoanyforcedlabour.Ofourownsweetwillandwithperfectunderstanding withtheofficials,wemightdosomework.Theyfeltalittleupsetwhenweputforwardthis conditionbuttheysaidthatifwedonotdoanyworkweshallhavetoremaininourcells.Wetold themthatwealreadyknewthatatthesuggestionofthePunjabgovernmenttheyhadmadeup theirmindtokeepuswithinourcells.Thiswasthereasonwhywerefusedtodoanywork.We acceptedthisproposalofbeingkeptintheprisoncell.Itgaveusagoodopportunityfor meditation.Whentheseconditionsweresettledwewereputintoprisoncellsalongsideone another. Theyconstructedaseparatekitchenandfireplaceforus.Theyalsoprocuredalltheutensilsthat werenecessary.AccordingtotherecommendationsofMajorCookrecordedonmyhistorysheetI wasallowedtopreparemyfoodinironutensils.Theyprocuredformeallthenecessaryiron utensilslikeaplateandafryingpan.BothBhaiGandaSinghandIstartedworkinginthekitchen.I usedtopreparethedalandvegetablesforallthefiveprisonersinmyutensils.Thechapatiesfor otherprisonerswerepreparedbyBhaiGandaSigh.Ipreparedmyown.Theironplateinwhichthe flourwaskneadedwassmall.Thewaterwasbroughtbyme.ThefirewaslightedbyBhaiGanda Singh.Aftersometimeweusedtogetgoodfuelwhichhadbeenalreadychoppedup. WealsohadtoincludethreemorePunjabiprisonerswhowerefedupofeatingMadrasidiet. Whenwecametoknowaboutthemwerequestedtheofficerstosendthemtoourblockto enablethemtojoinourkitchen.TwooftheseprisonerswereBhaiKhushalSinghofPadhriand BhaiKeharSinghofChotian.ThethirdprisonerwasPrithiSinghaRajputwhowaslockedupinthe darkcellwhereonlythosesentencedtodeathwerelodged,becausehehadtriedtoescape.We triedtogethiminourblockbutdidnotsucceed.AfterafewdaysPt.JagatRamwastransferred fromMadrasjailandbroughttoourprison.ThushealsojoinedourPunjabimess.Eachprisoner usedtogettwelveChataksoffineflourandagooddealoffreshvegetables.Wealsogotwashed pulsesofmungandmash. Byandbywegoteverythingweaskedfor.Eachprisonerwasgiventwoouncesofgheewhichwas morethansufficient.Thosewhowantedtotaketeagothalfaseeroftinnedmilk.Iusedtoget freshmilk.Eachprisonergotaboutachatakofsugar.Wegotsufficientspiceswhichincluded cinnamon,peppersetc.ThuswewereabletoenjoygoodPunjabifood.Weusedtocooksomuch foodthatweevengavealittletothepoorpolicemenonduty.Theprisonofficerswerevery pleased.Onceortwicewecouldevenpreparesweetpuddingkadahprasadanddistributeditto everyprisoner.EventheJailer,theDeputyJailerandtheSuperintendentandMedicalOfficer enjoyedourkadahprasad,teaandfood.Thuswebegantofeelquitefreeathome.OnGurpurb daysweweregivenspecialrationstoprepareKadahprasad. SoontheprisonwasfilledbyprisonersofCongressNonCooperationmovement.Abouttwoor threehundredCongressprisonersfromvariousdistrictsofAndhracamethereamongstwhom weremanyprominentleaders.Theytriedtheirbesttogetbetterfoodandbettertreatmentbut theJailofficialsdidnotcareabouttheircomplaints.Theymadepatheticappealstotheprison authoritiesbutthemoretheybeggedforspecialarrangementsthestifferbecametheattitudeof theofficials.AthometheyenjoyedrichdietbecausesomeofthemwereBarristersandmembers ofLegislativeCouncilsbutnowtheygotaverypoordiet,consistingofriceandragi.Wespareda littlefoodforthem.Whenevertheyrequiredsomesugarorpickletheysentamessagethrougha sympatheticMedicalofficernamedDr.Venkataramanandwesentthesethingsthroughhim.He

toldtheCongressleadersthathewaspreparedtohelpthemasbestashecouldbuttheir behaviourwasnotgood.HetoldthemthatfiveSikhswereabletogeteverythingsanctionedfor themselves.ItwasamatterofgreatshamethatfivetosixhundrededucatedCongressitescould notgettheirrights.Theywerebegginginapitiablemannerforpettythings.Iftheycouldunite andfightfortheirrightstheycouldgetanything. TwoMuslimprisonersoftheNonCooperationmovementwentonfastandwithinthreedaysthey wereabletogetwhateverwasgiventoPunjabiprisoners.Sohesuggestedthattheyshouldgather courageandfightfortheirrights.TheleadersoftheCongressprisonerssaid"Whatarewetodo? Thereareafewyoungmenwhocannotgowithoutfoodevenforfourhours.Whenthe SuperintendentslappedamannamedMurtiweallwentonhungerstrike.Werefusedtoeatfood, butafterafewhoursnearlyhalfoftheCongressitessecretlyacquiredfoodfromthePunjabisand someofthemwerecaughteatingredhanded.TheJailerputallCongressleaderstoshameforthis shamefulweakness. ThroughPt.JagatRamweevenaskedtheSikhprisonerstojoinourhungerstrike,buttheyasked ustoremainonhungerstrikeforatleastfiveorsixdaysbeforetheycouldjoin.TheSikhprisoners alsoaskedhowmanyofuscouldgoonhungerstrikeforfourweeksandhowmanyformorethan amonth.Whenweinvestigatedandaskedourcoprisonersveryfewwerewillingtogoonhunger strike,butfromthehistorysheetoftheSikhprisonersitappearsthattheyfoughtthroughhunger strikeslastingoveramonthinvariousjailsandgaveuphungerstrikeonlywhentheirdemands wereaccepted.ItisgoodthingthatwedidnotaskthePunjabiprisonerstojoinusinourhunger strike;otherwiseweCongressleaderscouldnothaveshownourfacestothem.The SuperintendentoftheprisonwasagenerousMissionaryandaveryreligiousman.ThePunjabis wenttohimandtoldhimthatheshouldnothaveslappedtheboyMurti.Iftheboyhadhithim backitcouldhaveledtohisseriousinsultinthepresenceofalltheprisoners.TheSuperintendent admittedhismistakeandevenextendedhisapologytoMurtiinthepresenceoftwoSikh prisoners." Thematterendedthere.Thusmanywonderfulthingshappenedthere.Todescribethemallmay takethousandsofpages;Iamonlydescribingafewincidentswhichareveryimportant.There weremanyimportantleadersfromMadrasandAndhra.AmongstthemwasSambhaMurti,Sita RamShastri,DoctorSubramaniam,VenkatapayaKundu,RamaRao,etc.Theyweresurprisedand stunnedtoreadourhistorysheets.Manyyounggraduatescopieddownmyhistorysheetwordfor wordandtookthecopieswiththem.IknewthenamesofsomeofthembutIhaveforgottennow. Thiswasintheyear1922.DuringthosedaysweusedtogetagoodmanynewsabouttheSikh Panthalso. AMeeting TheS.G.P.C.senttwoyoungmenJathedarTejaSinghofChurkanaandBhaiAmarSinghayoung graduate.Theprisonofficerbroughtthemstraightintotheprison.Weembracedthemandthen talkedtothemfreelyformanyhours.TheOfficersgaveuspermissiontotalkfreely.Theyeven tooksomeofthedeliciousfoodwhichwehadprepared.Thuswewereabletoentertainthe guestswell.FromthemwecametoknowsomehappynewsabouttheSikhPanthanditsheroic achievementswhichgaveusgreatjoy.JathedarTejaSinghwassooverwhelmedbytheheroic storyofSikhfreedomfightersthatitbecamedifficultforhimtotelleverything.Wheneverweput himsomequestionheonlysaidthatitwasdifficulttotelleverything.Wecouldcomeoutandsee thingsforourselvesbecauseourreleasewasexpectedsoon.Withconsiderabledifficultywewere abletogetsomeimportantnewsfromhim.IknewthatIwouldnotbereleasedsoon.Neitherwas

anybodytryingtogettherelease.Thesefriendsleftsomereligiousbookswithus.Theyofferedus somemoneybutwedidnotrequireanythingastheprisonauthoritiesprovideduseverything.We evenhadourKirpanswithus.Thuswehadagoodfreemeetingwiththem.Astheywereaboutto leave,IrequestedthemtoappealtothePrisonOfficertogivepermissiontoComradeRajputPrithi Singhtostayinourblock.Hewasisolatedinacell. RightatthatmomentthethreePrisonofficerswerestandingnearby.Whenarequestwasmade theyatoncegavepermissionforbringingthisRajputbrothertostayinourblock.Theseofficers, however,askedthevisitorstosuggesttousthatweshoulddosomelightworkwhichwelinkedto do,sothat,theymightgiveuspermissiontomovefreelyalltheday,otherwisetheyhadtokeep usinthecell.Theywantedthislightworktobedoneonlyasapretexttogiveusmorefreedomof movement,withintheprison.Actuallytheypromisednottogiveusanyhardwork.Tokeepus lockedinthecellappearedtobebarbaric.WhentheJathedarsuggestedthistouswereadily agreed.Weweretakenouttoaworkshopandgivenlightwork,indifferentplaces.Twoofuswere alreadyworkinginthekitchen.Twoofthemstartedlearningtailoring.Twoofthemweresentto thehospitaltonursethesick.SehajBhai(BrotherArjanSingh)wasaskedtoteachHindito somebody.BrotherKartarSinghtookupbookbinding.Thusdayspassedinpeace.Awaterpump wasfixedupforourbath.Wecouldtakebathandwashourclothesandthenlockupthepumpso thatothercriminalprisonerswithdirtyhabitscouldnotuseit.Thelatrinearrangementwasvery bad.Peoplehadtositintheopeninashamefulmanner.Nowregularscreenedlavatorieswere constructed.Thisarrangementwasthenextendedtothewholeprison.WhentheInspector Generalprisonscame,Pt.JagatRamandotherfriendsstronglyappealedtohimthatthereshould beuniformfacilitiesthroughoutthejail. IntheMadrasprisontheyusedtomixupdalandvegetableandpreparedacrudemixtureofthe two.Theycouldnotcookdalandvegetableseparately,aswedid.Theyalsousedalotofimli (tamerind)andgavesomeofittous.Butwedidnotacceptit.Initsplacetheprisonofficers procuredlemonpickleforusfromoutside.WhenthemangoseasoncametheSuperintendent generallygavetheprisonersadalinwhichmangoeswereboiled.Werefusedtoacceptthis.Thrice aweekweweregivenspecialmangoesofBombay,oneeach.Eachmangoweighedaboutaseer. Theywereverysweetanddeliciousmangoes.Wesowedtheseedsofthesemangoesinfrontof ourcellsandwateredthemregularly.Theseseedsgrewintotreeandthesetreescanstillbefound there.Theybeargoodfruit.Wealsousedtogetalotofpapayas.ThusintheRajahmundaryprison weledaprincelylife.Theprisonofficerswereveryhappyandpleasedwithourbehaviour.They neverirritatedus;sotherewasnoreasonforustocausetrouble.Theirtreatmentwasonthe wholeverygood.Therewasonlyonedifficulty.Itwasveryhotthere.Tosleepinthecellinthehot seasonwasaverydifficultthing.InthecoldestmonthslikeDecemberandJanuarywehardly requiredablanketbuttheclimateonthewhole,andthewaterwasgoodforourhealth.My weightincreasedfrom120to160lbsandIbecameveryhealthyandstout Cookingfoodgavemeagooddealofexercise.Ihadtobringwaterfromsomedistanceinabucket tothekitchen.AftertwelveO'clockIwasbusyinthekitchen.Someotherfriendsforciblytookthe serviceofcleaningtheutensils.TheheavyutensilswerecleanedbyNihangGandaSinghandhe cleanedthemsowellthattheutensilswereshininglikesilver.Otherutensilswerecleanedjointly byall.Itisonlyby2O'clockthatwewerequitefreefromallthekitchenwork.Wecookedmeal onlyonceadayandwetookapartofthesameintheevening.IntheKhalsaterminology,stale breadiscalledsweetbread.Thusweenjoyedthefoodpreparedatnoonassweetbreadatsupper time.DuringsparetimeIwrotebooksonvarioustheologicalsubjects.ItisfromherethatIwrote myearlylifeintheformofletterstoGianiNaharSingh.

ItwasherethatIwroteabookonGurmatBibek.Wewereabouttoprepareafaircopyofthe samewhenwewereaskedtogetreadyforatransfertoanotherprison.Afewdaysbeforeleaving thisprisonIsawavisionofmypastlifeinmySamadhi.ThenextdayInarratedthewholevisionto BhaiKartarSingh.Apartofthevisionwasaboutthefuturelifethatwaslikelytohappen.Bhai KartarSinghbelievedthevisionwastrueandtheincidentsrelatingtothefuturewereboundto happen.Thisvisionaboutthepastlifeisasfollows: VisionofthePastandFuture InmyvisionIsawthatIwasayoungprinceinsomehillstate.ItwasthetimeoftheHoliFestival andIcouldseebeautifulsceneryallaround.Inthedistanthillsthereweresomecavesinwhich thehermitsandyogisspenttheirtimeinmeditation.Iwasfondofgoingtothesecavesand servingmilkandfruittothehermitsandyogiswiththehelpofafewsepoysofmystate.I personallywenttoeachcaveandofferedfruitstothehermits.OnedaywhileIwasenjoyingthe HolifestivalalongwithmycompanionsIwenttothecaves.Icarriedwithmesomemilk,fruitsand othereatables. Onafaroffhill,Isawahermitwhosebodythroughlongpenancehadbecamealmostaskeleton. Hewassittinginmeditationwhilephysicallyhewasveryweek.Itappearedthathewashalfdead andtherewasverylittlebreathleftinhim.Iwasshockedandoverawedtoseehiscondition.Ifelt greatpityonhimandwasveryanxioustosavehislifesomehow.Ialsofeltthathehadstarved himselfbecausehedidnotgetanyfood.Thecavewassituatedinanoutofthewayplacewhere nobodyhappenedtoseehimandnoonecouldfeedhim.I,however,wasgladthatIhadbeen abletospothimoutandgotanopportunitytosavehislife.Therewassomelifeinhim.Therewas somehopethatifIcouldhelpsomemilktogointohisbodyhemightrecover. AssoonasthisideastruckmeIfilledmysyringewithmilkandpumpeditintohismouth.Buthis mouthwasshutsotightlythatmilkcouldnotbepumpedinthroughhismouth.Iaskedthesepoy accompanyingmetoopenhismonthbyforce.Thesepoytherebybroketwoofhisteethwitha stoneasitwasnotpossibletoopenhismouth.ThroughthosetwobrokenteethIpumpedthe milkintohisbody.Thebrokenteethandeventhemilkcausedsomepainwhichdisturbedthe concentrationofhismind.Assoonashecametohisconsciousnesshestartedcursingme.Hesaid "Iwasperformingthisgreatpenancetowinthekingdomofyourfather.Youhaveinterferedwith mypenance,andnowIwillnotbeabletogetthekingdomforwhichIwasperformingthe penance,asitisdifficulttorestorethebrokenconcentration.Ingreatangerhenotonlyuttered manycursesbutsuddenlypickedupatridentfromaplacenearbyandthrewitatme.SomehowI escaped,thoughIwasthetarget.Althoughthetridentdidnothitme,itstruckthelegofasepoy andcutitoffabovetheknee.Afterthisincidentthevisionsuddenlyended;itwasfollowedby anothervisionofthislife. Thesamehermitwhowasperformingpenanceinthelastvisionwasseeninahealthycondition butwithonelegcutoff.Hecametowardsmewithanumberofmenandstoodbeforeme.Isaid tohim,"Well,isthisallyouhavegotforyourpenance?Howdidyoulose,yourleg?Hesaid,The manwhoselegwascutoffbymytridentcausedmylegtobecutoff.ThedifferenceisthatIcutoff hislegwithatridentbuthehitmewithabulletinthewar,andthedoctorcutoffmyleg,because itcouldnotbecured.ThusIhavepaidforwhatIdidandnowyoumustgetreadyfortherevengeI musttakeforhurtingmeinmylastbirth."Ithensaidtohim,"Allrightyoucandowhateveryou like.Iampreparedtopaythedebt."Hethenhadmetiedhandandfootandforciblytriedtoopen mymouthandputsomeinstrumentsintomymouthwhichwentdownmythroat.SuddenlyI

camedowntomynormalconsciousness.WhenIwasinmynormalconsciousness,Iinstantlyfelt thatthisincidentwasboundtohappen. WhenIrelatedthisvisiontoBhaiKartarSingh,heatoncesaidthatImustbepreparedforsuchan eventualitywhichwasboundtooccur.IwaspreparedtoacceptthewillofGodandpraytothe Guruforgrace.BhaiKartarSinghhadintuitivelycometoknowthroughadreamtheexactdateof ourdeparturefromRajahmundaryprison.BhaiKartarSingh'ssoulwasaspureasacleanmirror andheforesawthatwewereleavingtheprisontogether. Theverynextdaywehadhardlypreparedourmealswhentheorderforourtransfercame,and wewereaskedtogetreadyatonce.FournameswasannouncedfortransferwhichincludedBhai KartarSingh,PrithiSingh,Pt.JagatRam,andI.Aftertakingourmealswewenttotheofficeofthe Superintendent.Wewereaskedtopackupourbeddingandbaggage.Threeofusweretogoto theNagpurjailandthefourthwastogotoJabalpurjail.ItwasthelastdayofNovemberinthe yearof1922.Idonotremembertheexactdate.Mr.Brown,theJailer,andMr.Devis,the Superintendent,badeusfarewellwithgreatreverenceandoutofrespectandaffectiongaveme yellowturbanandnewwhitedressesforall.Mr.Devis,theSuperintendent,wrotesomeexcellent recommendationsandremarksonmyhistorysheetespeciallymentioning"hebeingaSikhSaint shouldbegivenspecialpermissiontopreparehisfoodafacilitywhichwasgiventohiminall previousprisons.Hehasbeenverygentleandnobleinbehaviorhere."

CHAPTER20ONTHEWAYTONAGPURPRISON TAKINGINTOconsiderationthelongjourneyIhadtoundertake,theSuperintendentsanctioned somesugar,fineflourandotherfoodstufftoenablemetopreparesomedryfood(Panjiri)forthe journeyperiod,whichIpackedupinmyironutensilsandkeptitwrappedintheprayercarpet. Thosewhowereabouttodepartwereready.Aswemetthoseleftbehind,forthelasttime, embracingeachoneofthem,someofthemburstintotears.Thepainfulsceneofseparationfrom friendswholovedussomuch,surprisedtheCongressiteprisonersofMadras.Theywere wonderstruckbythegenuineanddeeplove,whichtooktheformoftearfulseparation. Theprisonofficerswerenotanxioustosendusoff.Mr.Davisstoodbeforeusandaddressedus forthelasttimethus:"Wehavebeenextremelyfriendlyandhumaneinourtreatmentofall politicalprisoners.Ashumanbeingsitwasourdutytodoso.Yourattitudetowardsthestaffwas verygentle,polite,anddutiful.Aslongasyouwerehereinthisprison,Ineverconsideredyouor treatedyouasprisoners.SotodayIdonotwantyoutoleavethisplaceasprisoners.Neitheristhe dressgiventoyouforthejourneythatofprisoners,norwillanyoneofyoubehandcuffedlike prisoners.Iamconfidentandearnestlyhopethatyouwillhonourthetrustwehaveinyou."Then Mr.Davisturnedtowardsmesaid:"IfyoutakeresponsibilityforthisRajputPrithiSingh,hewill alsogowithoutbeinghandcuffed?"Mr.DavisconsideredPrithiSinghahabitualabsconder,sohe fearedthathemightputhimintotrouble,ifhewasallowedtogowithouthandcuffs.Irefusedto takeanyresponsibilityforhimandaskedMr.Davisandhiscolleaguestohandlethematterinthe waytheythoughtbest. Thosegoodpeople,particularlythegentleSuperintendenttookawordofhonourfromPrithi Singhthathewouldnotbetraytheauthorities.Hewasfranklytoldthathewouldbegiventhe samefacilitiesandfreedomtotravelwithouthandcuffsasweregiventoPunjabiprisonersifhe gaveassuranceonoath,thathewouldnottrytoescapeorabuseanyfacilityandfreedomgivento himduringthejourney.Unhesitatingly,PrithiSinghpromisedonoath,inourpresence,thathe wouldnottrytoescape,orabuseanyfreedomgiventohim.Impressedbyhissolemnpromise,the Challanpoliceofficersdidnothandcuffhim.AsamatteroffactMr.Davisandhispolicepartydid notcarryanyhandcuffsorchainswiththem.Theyjustaccompaniedusasourbodyguards.There weretwopoliceInspectors,oneEnglishmanandtheotherIndian,alongwithfivepolicemenwho carriedourluggage.Allourluggagewascarriedbythepolicemen,whilewewalkedalongwith themquitepretentiously.Thebrotherpatriotscametothegatetowishusgoodbye.Itwasthe endofNovemberwhenweleftforNagpur. Fromtheprisonweweretakentotherailwaystationonabullockcart.Agroupofpatriotswere waitingforusnearthewaitingroom,whereweweretowaitforthetrain.Thesepatriots(Desh Bhagats)ofRajahmundaryhadbroughtforusfreshfruitandsomedryfruitandsweets.They offeredthesethingstousinsuchabundancethatwehadtocarrythem,withus.Suchwastheir selflessdevotionthatwecouldnotrefusetheirofferingsoflove.Thetablesinthewaitingroom wereloadedwithfruitandsweets,whicheveryoneatetohisfill.Ialsotooksomefreshanddry fruits. TherewasanoldSouthIndianpatrioticmother,whosesonDr.Subramanyamwasstillinprisonfor thecauseoffreedom.Sheofferedmanythingsandservedtheprisonerswithgreatdevotionand motherlyaffection.ThepoliceOfficerswatchedinrespectfulsilence.Thentherewassome conversationbetweenthepoliticalworkersandleaders.SomeleadersofAndhraPradeshalso

camethereamongstwhomwastheeminentleaderMr.Sambamurti.Theystarteddelivering lecturestothecrowdthathadgatheredthereandmynamewasparticularlymentioned.Prithi SinghandPanditJagatRamalsospoke.Atlastthetrainwasabouttoarriveandwemade preparationstoboardthetrain.Anumberofpatriotsaccompaniedusforalongdistanceinthe train.TherewasalongstoppageatSecunderabadstationwherewetookourbath.Aswesatin contemplationofHisNameandthemorningprayer,thetraincoveredalongdistance.Ontheway IwrotethefollowinglettertoGyaniNaharSingh:"WearenowonourwaytoNagpurwhichisin C.P.(presentM.P.)WearecomingnearerandnearerPunjab.BythegraceoftheGuru,whenIam transferredtoPunjab,itwillIhopebeforreleaseandthatiswhatyouwish.Wearefourpolitical prisoners,whoarenowbeingtakenwithouthandcuffsorchains.Theyhavealsogivenusgood clothes.InahurryIcannotwritemorenow.Iwillwriteonreachingmydestination.Greetingsto allfriends."(LetterNo.11,writtenon27thNovember,1922) HazurSahib:Nander ThetrainreachedNanderstation.Iheardaportercrying:AnyonegettingdownhereatNander. WhenIcameoutofthemeditativemood,thetrainwasnotmovingandoncemoreIheardthe porter'scry:"AnyonegettingdownhereatNander?"TheverymomentthenameoftheHoly place(whereGuruGobindSinghspenthislastdays)enteredmyears,Ialmostlostmybodycon sciousness.Myastralbodyplungedoutandlayprostrateinsalutationtotheholycity,whilemy physicalbodywaslyinglistlessinthetrain.InaspiritualvisionIsawtheradiantfaceofthe BelovedGuruGobindSingh.Withinamoment,myinnereyeshadaglimpseofsplendoroussights. Thewholeatmospherewasfilledwithlightandwavesofambrosialjoywhichthrilledmywhole being.WithinthisdawnlitatmosphereIcouldseeinavisiontheeternalpersonalityofGuru GobindSinghinfullradiance,sheddinglightallaround.Iwantedtocircumambulatearounditin humblehomageandreverence,butIcouldnot.Someonelovinglyutteredthesewordsinmyears: "Riseandregainnormalconsciousness,thetimehasnotcome;youwillbythewillofGodgetan opportunitytocomeasapilgrimagain.AbidebyHissweetwill."WhenIregainedconsciousness, thetrainwasonthemove.(BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwenttoNander(HazurSahib)afterhis releasefromtheprisonwithanumberofhisfriendsandadmirers.) WhentheBritishpoliceInspectorinquiredandwastoldaboutthecauseofimpatientandtearful condition,hewasdeeplymoved.HesaidthatifhehadbeentoldearlieratSikandrabad,hecould byhisownauthoritybreakjourneyatNanderfortenhoursandgiveusanopportunitytopay homagetotheholyplace.Nowhedidnotknowhowhecouldbeofanyhelp.Ithankedhimforhis genuineandprofoundsympathy.Asthetrainmovedon,myheartstillyearnedforthepilgrimage andeverybreaththatcameoutwasapassionateyearningforoneglimpseofthesacredplace. Inthiscondition,IwrotethefollowinglettertoGyaniNaharSingh:"WehavejustpassedHazur Sahib(Nander).OurtrainreachedNanderat9p.m.Icouldnotcontrolmytears.ThethoughtthatI waspassingthroughthesacredplace,withoutpayinghomagetoit,waspainfullyunbearable.Ah! SuchwasthesweetwilloftheLord!Mypilgrimagetothesacredplacewillnowbeatsomelater date.Thesanctityandthespiritualatmosphereoftheplacehaditsambrosialeffectonmeevenas wepassedthroughitinutterdarkness.Ijustcouldnotcontrolmytears.Iwasoverwhelmedwith thefeelingofforcedseparationfromtheholyplacethroughwhichIpassed.Nowwewillpass throughManmadonourwaytoNagpur."(LetterNo.12,writtenon29thNovember,1922.Bhai SahibvisitedHazurSahib13yearsafterthisdate.)

PrithiSinghEscapes MeanderingthroughplaceswenowenteredCentralProvince.ThetrainhadnotreachedNagpur whenPrithiSinghjumpedoutoftherunningtrainandmadegoodhisescape.Itwaslateinthe night,whenthepolicemenhavingfullconfidenceineveryoneofus,weresleepingheedlessly. Therewerefourpolicemenatthefourdoors,buteventheywerenotintheleastsuspiciousthat anyoneofuswouldrunaway.Soeventheywerecarelessandnegligentintheirwatch.The incidenttookplacewhentheIndianpoliceInspectorwasonduty.Hewasalsosleeping.TheBritish policeInspectorhadsomesuspicionaboutPrithiSingh.HesuddenlywokeupandfoundPrithi Singhmissing.Hewasseriouslyupset.Hewokeupeveryone.BrotherKartarSinghwokemeup andtoldmethatPrithiSinghhadescaped.Myfirstreactionwasthathehadcommitteda thoroughlywickeddeed.Aftergivinghiswordofhonourandpromisingonoathheshouldnot havedonesuchathing.BhaiKartarSinghalsocondemnedit.Thepolicemanondutywas questioned.Heinformedusthathehadgonetothelavatoryandhadnotcomeback.Whenthe lavatorywasexamined,itswindowpanewasbroken.Whenthetrainhadjuststartedfrom Wardhastationandwasmovingslowly,hebrokethewindowpaneandmadegoodhisescape. (PrithiSinghcomesfromavillageLalrunearKalka.Hewasfirstarrestedin1914.Atthetimeof arresthefoughtwiththepolicemanandinthestrugglebothfainted.Hewassentencedtodeath intheLahoreConspiracycase,butthesentencewascommutedtolifesentence.Heescapedfrom MadrasJail.Afterthisescapeheremainedunderground,tillalongwithM.Gandhihecourted arrest.AttherequestofM.Gandhihewassoonreleased.) Thepolicemenfeltdupedandconfused.ThepooroldBritishInspectorofpolicebegantosob helplessly.Wehadassuredhimthatonhisreturnhewouldbepromotedforhisexcellentservices butnowhefearedthathemightevenlosehisjob.Herememberedhiswifeandchildrenandwept fearingthatthewholefamilymighthavetosuffer.Weweredeeplymovedbyhispitiable conditionandweconsoledhimassuringhimofallourmoralsupport.Whathefearedwasthat everyIndianwouldgiveevidenceinfavouroftheIndianInspectorandputthewholeblameon himbecausehewasaWhiteman.BhaiKartarSinghandIassuredhimthatwewouldstandfor truthandjusticeandwewouldfranklyreportthatPrithiSinghescapedwhentheIndianInspector wasondutyandnotwhentheEnglishmanwasonduty.Whyshouldwestainoursoulbytellinga lie?TosupportanIndianInspectorfornegligenceofdutyandtoputaWhitemanintotroublewas notpatriotism.Ourassuranceforallmoralsupportbroughtsomesolacetohistroubledmindand hestoppedweeping.Wekeptourpromisetohim. WhenonourarrivalatNagpur,anInquiryofficercameandquestionedus,duringthecourseof investigation,wepointedlysaidthattheEnglishmanwasnottobeblamed,astheincidentdidnot takeplacewhenhewasonduty.TheInquiryofficerwasimpressedbythetruthofourstatement andheadmittedthatSikhswerefreefromcolourprejudice.Hethankedusforsavingthecareerof theoldBritishInspector,whoalongwithhisfamilymighthavefacedterribledisaster,ifwehad nottoldthetruth.AllIndianpolicemenhadgivenfalseevidenceagainsthimandfavouredthe IndianInspectorofpolice.WedonotknowwhatwastheevidencegivenbyPanditJagatRam,who wastakentoJubbalpurprison.OnlytwoofuswerebroughtbytheWhiteInspectortoNagpur prison;allotherprisonersandpolicemenwenttoJabalpur.Onlyonepolicemanwassentbackto reporttheescapeofoneprisoneratRajahmundary. IntheNagpurPrison BothofusweretakeninatongatoNagpurprisonbytheWhiteofficer.Whenwereachedthe prisongate,theBritishJailerhadjustcomeoutofhisresidenceandmetusatthegate.Wewere thereearlyinthemorning.Thefirstquestionheaskedwas:"Whereisthethirdman?"Ina

frightenedvoicetheInspectorsaid:"Heranaway."TheJailerangrilysaid,"Damnfool!Youare donefor;youmaynotonlybedismissedbutmayevenhavetogotoprison."Thepoormanbegan totremblepitiably.Hewasalreadyverydepressed.IthenwhisperedintotheearsoftheJailer: "Pleasedonotfrightenhimsomuch.Heisalreadyfeelingverymiserableandterriblyshakenand withalittlemoreshockhisheartmayfail.Actuallyheisnottobeblamed,"TheJailerwasalittle impressed,soheconsoledhim.Thisencouragedhimalittleotherwisehemighthavecollapsed thereandthen.TheJailertookusintotheprison.TheInspectorfollowedus,carryingourluggage. TheJailertookustohisofficeandtheInspectoralsofollowedus.Ourdressimpressedeveryone somuchthatnoonedaredtosearchus.Noonetreatedusasprisoners.Afterenteringtheoffice, theJailergaveareceiptofourtakeovertotheInspectorwhohadbroughtusandaskedhimtogo fromwherehehadcome. Iwasdeeplymovedbythepoorman'scondition,soIrequestedtheJailertoofferhimsometea andbreakfast,ashewassodepressedthathehadnottakenanythingsofar.TheJailersenta prisonertohishouseandprocuredsometeaandbiscuitsforhimaftertakingwhichhegavea saluteandwentawayleavingusbehindintheroom. TroubleBeginsinNagpurPrison AfterexaminingourChallanpapersofRajahmundaryprisonandaftersomeconversationwith BrotherKartarSinghinEnglishtheJaileratoncegaveordersthatweshouldbetakentothecivil wards.HeaskedaJailWardertocarryourluggageandthenaccompaniedustothecivilwardand showedusthekitchen.Therewerenineseatsinthisprisonbarrack,andinthissmallbarrackhe placedtwocanechairsandtablesforustodoourwork.Wewerehappythatweweregivena quietcornerandwedidnothavetofightforanyofourrights.Weweretobekeptapartfrom otherprisoners.AftertakingpermissionfromthetemporarilypostedSuperintendent,an Englishman,theJailerallowedustocookourownfood.Weweregiventhesamerationswhichwe gotinRajahmudaryprison.ThisSuperintendentwaspostedthereonlyforamonthorso.Thereal Superintendentwasonleave.BoththeJailerandtheofficiatingSuperintendentgaveusallthe rightsandfacilitiesthatwegotinotherprisons.Wewereallowedtoretainourbooksandsome newutensilswerealsoprocuredforus.Ourrationswerefixed.Weweregivenallthethingswe requiredandwehappilycookedourfood.Therewasnotmuchworktobedone.Icookedthe meal,whileBhaiKartarSinghdidsomebindingworkforabouttwohoursandthenwewerefree. Therewasalargecourtyard,withahandpumpandawellinit.Wewerepermittedtodosome gardeninginthecornerofthecourtyard.Someseedswereprocured.Itwasanidealplacefor solitudeandprayer.BhaiKartarSinghwasveryhappyaboutit.ButIwarnedhimthatthese unusualconditionsmaynotlastlong.Itmaybethattheirpolicymightsuddenlychange.TheJailer visitedusanumberoftimesdailyandtalkedtousinaverypleasantmanner.Iwasgiven permissiontowritereligiousbooks,butthesejoyousdaysdidnotlastlong.Assoonasthe officiatingBritishSuperintendentwentaway,ourhappydayscametoanend. ThreeLetters (ThesethreeletterswerewrittentofriendsdescribingtheconditionsatNagpurprisonbetween 6thDecemberand26thDecember,1922.Thisisthefirstletter.ItisaddressedtoBhaiGanda Singh,BhaiArjanSinghJagraon,BhaiKhushalSingh,BhaiKeharSinghAmritsar.LetterNo.13 dated6thDecember1922.) Bothofus,afterbeingseparatedfromfriendsarenowlodgedinNagpurJail.PrithiSinghescaped whilewewereonthewaytothisplace.Wearedailywaitingforyouherebuttheymayorthey

maynotbringyouhere.Bothofushavebeengivenasmallairyandsecludedbarrackwhichhas ninerooms.Wehaveoccupiedtwoandtheothersevenarewaitingforyou.Soiffiveofyoucome herealongwithtwomorefriends,theroomswillbefull.Wehavebeenseparatedfromallother prisoners.Nooneisallowedtocomenearus,butwithinourareawecanfreelymoveabout.We donothaveanywork.Wecookourownfoodboththetimes.Wegetabouttwochatakgheefor cookingfood.BhaiKartarSinghgetsfreshmilkandteaalso.Thereisabigdairyfarmwithinthe prison.Iamnotallowedtomilkacowformyselfasyet.Theyareafraidtotakemetothedairy farm,whilethecowcannotbebroughttoourcourtyard.Anywaybeitso.IfIsucceedingetting milksomuchthebetter,otherwiseitisallthesame. ThenewlyappointedSuperintendent,here,isanotoriousIndianwhodresseslikeAngloIndians whiletheJailerisaWhiteman.TheJailerappearstobeagoodman.Wehavenotbeengivennew dresses.WearestillwearingandkeepingwithustheuniformsofRajahmundaryprison.Wewant exactlythesametypeofdresswhichweweregiveninRajahmundaryprison,butthesepeople hesitatetodoso.Letusseehowthingstakeshape.Wehavefourblanketseach.Itisverycold here,thoughnotsocoldasitwasatHazariBagh.WhenweleftRajahmundaryBrotherSehajwas ill.Pleasewritetomeabouthiscondition.Conveymyhumblegreetingstohim.Hashememorized AsadiVarornot?IlearnthatShiromaniGurdwaraParbandhakCommitteeisnowpreparedto reachanagreementwiththeGovernmentandtheGovernmenthasalsostoppedirritatingthe Sikhs.TheKhalsaistakingoverthecontroloftheGurdwarasoneafteranother,andisnowinvery highspirits (Thesecondandthirdletters(No.14and15)followingitwerewrittentoGyaniNaharSinghon 16thand21stDecember.ThefourthletterwasofafewlinesreportingthattheInspectorGeneral Prisonswasexpectedonthe27thDecemberandafterthateventsmaytakeadefiniteturn.No onewasallowedtomeetBhaiSahibRandhirSingh.) Ireachedthisplace(Nagpur)on1stDecember.AccordingtothewillofGodall,ourfriendshave beensenttodifferentprisons.OnlyBhaiKartarSinghCanadianiswithme.Idonotknowwhere othershavebeensent.Wehavebeengivenasmallprisonbarrackinwhichtherearenineseats, butnoonebesidesthetwoofushasbeenlodgedinit.Itisacalmandquietplacegoodforsolitary meditation.Wehaveourownkitchenattachedtoit.BythewillofGodthearrangementforthe preparationofmyfoodisgood.Noonehascausedanytrouble.Wedonothaveanygood arrangementsforgettingdal(pulses)andvegetables.Wearejustsilent.Sometimeswegetcarrot andwecookit,otherwisewetakeChapatieswithsalt.Wedonotgetgoodsalt.Theatta(flour) whichwegetisnotgood.Itismixedupwithmaizeflourwhichmayspoilourhealth.Iamnow havingsomepilestroublealso.Ifthedietcontinuestobeasbadasitis,itmayincrease.Weare quietandsubmissivesofar,butiftheofficersdonotmendtheirwaysImayhavetoundertakea fast. ThenewSuperintendentisalameandnotoriouslycorruptHinduBrahmin,whoseconductappears tobewicked,unprincipledanddepraved.TheJailerisaWhitemanbutaverywellbehavedperson whoappearstobequitenoble.Hedoesnotwishtocausetroubletoanyprisoner.Letusseewhat happens.Nooneisallowedtocomenearus.Wearealsonotgivenanywork.Theonlyworkwe haveistocookourmeals.Wegetanopportunitytotakeourbathearlyinthemorning.Thereis handpumpinourcourtyardandhalfofawellalsoopensintoourcourtyard.Weareallowedto writeonlyoneletteramonthandtohaveonemeetingamonthwiththerelatives.TheJailerhad agreedtoprovideusadailynewspaperalso,asisgiventothepoliticalprisoners,butthe Superintendenthasnotagreed.Hehasallowedaperiodical(weeklyormonthly)whichweshould

getatourownexpense.Itoldhimthatthegovernmenthasconfiscatedmypropertyalso;howisit possibletogetanewspaperatmyownexpense.ThereisalreadyagreatburdenontheSikh PanthicOrganisations.Wepleadedthatwhenotherpoliticalprisonersweregettingwhyshould wenotgetthenewspapers.Tothishisansweristhattheruleshavenowbeenchanged.Heisjust tryingtoignoreourdemand.Wearetoldthatifsomepressureisputfromoutside,thentheywill change.Theyhavetheimpressionthatnooneispreparedtofightforusfromoutside,becausewe arefromanotherprovince.Hadwebeenprisonersofthisprovince,everythingwouldhavebeen accepted.IftheSikhReview,orsomeothermonthlymagazineisbeingpublished,pleasegetit issuedtous(SikhReviewwastheneditedbySardarSardulSinghCaveesher.Itisnoway connectedwiththeSikhReviewpresentlypublishedfromCalcutta).Officiallywewillgetthe lettersalsoquickly,becausetherearemanySikhsintheprovincialservicehere.Theywillgetthese lettersreadbythemandpassthemtous.ThereisoneSikhExecutiveEngineeralsohere.Theycan getthelettersreadbyhim.HeisalsoafriendoftheJailer.HeaskedthesameSikhaboutthe conditionsIlaydownaboutpreparingmyfoodmyself.HetoldhimthattherearesomeViveki Sikhs,(thosewhotakefoodpreparedbyanAmritdhariSikhalone)intheSikhpanthwhoobserve theserules.IdonotknowthenameofthisSikh,butfromtheSuperintendent,IlearnitisSant Singh.ThereareinnumerableSikhshereandthereisawholelocalityofSikhs.Therearealsoone ortwoSikhtemples. (Thethirdletter21stDecember1922) UptothisdayIcookmyownfood.Thelameofficerisnotwelldisposedtowardsus.Heisupto somemischief.ThislameBrahminhasbeenappointedastheJailSuperintendent.HeisalsoI.M.S. medicalofficer.Hewasformallyanarmydoctor.Helostoneleginthewar.Peoplecallhim CaptainJattar.HewearsaEuropeanhat.AlthoughhecallshimselfaHindu,heappearstobe withoutanyfaithorcreed.Whenwearrivedatthisplacehewasonleave.Duringhisabsencethe gentleEnglishmanwhowasofficiatinghere,onhisownresponsibilitystartedtreatingusinavery humaneway.Afterexaminingmyhistoryticketheimmediatelyremovedallhindrancesand permittedmetopreparemyownfood.ButthedaythisSuperintendentarrived,hestopped providingmedalandvegetables.Ididnotmind.Iwascontenttotakemychapatieswithsalt.Now hehasaskedtheInspectorGeneralPrisonsinwriting,astowhyhadIbeengivenpermissionto preparemyownfood?Hehasaskedfortherevisionofthisorder.Idonotknowwhatistheexact replyhehasreceivedfromtheInspectorGeneral,Prisons.Buthisintentionsaremischievousand wedonotknowwhatotherharmfulremarkshehaspassedinhisappealtotheI.G.Prisons.Most oftheI.G.PrisonsfollowwhattheSuperintendentprisonssuggesttothem. Itnowappearsfromhisvexatiouswaysandmethodsthatheisthinkingofsubjectingmetosome severephysicaltortures.Iamfullypreparedfortheworst.Hehasalreadystartedthreateningme withforcefeeding.Heisbentuponinsultingmyfaithandforcingmetoabjuremyreligious principles.Tome,myreligiousprinciplesaredearerthanlife.Butthismandoesnotcarefor religiousprinciplesandsentimentsofanyone.MaytheGuruhelpmetoupholdallthesacred principleswhichIhavemaintainedforthelastsevenyearsofimprisonment. Butthisoneleggedtyrantisbentuponusingforcetoattainhismalevolentend.Thereareonly twoofus.Hadtherebeenmore,thevoiceofprotestcouldcarrysomeweight.Findingthatweare onlytwoinnumberheisdeterminedtouseviolence.IfhestoopstoviolenceGodaloneknows whatmayhappen.Hewilltryhisbesttopreventthenewsaboutoursufferingfromleakingout. Wehavebeencompletelycutofffromotherprisonersandnotasoulknowsaboutourexistence here.SoIamgivingyouthisinformationinadvance.Whenwearefightinghistyrannythisman willtakestrictmeasurestopreventthenewsleakingout.AtRajahmundarythenewsleakedout

immediatelybecausethereweremanypatriotsintheprison.Thenewsgenerallywenttothe newspapers.Herewedonotknowwhetherthereareanypatriotsintheprisonandthepatriots donotknowthatwearehere.Ifyoudonotreceiveanynewswithinaweekthenyoumaysafely concludethatIhavestartedthefast. WehearthattherearemanySikhsintheRailwayWorkshop,butwehavenotbeenabletosend anynewstothemsofar.IlearnthateventheCitySuperintendentofpoliceisaSikh.Anywaywe havenootherwaybuttoabidebythewillofGodandthesufferingthatisordainedwillhavetobe faced.Whyshouldweseekmerehumanhelp? Ofcoursethenewswillupsetyou.Ididnotwishtosendthisunhappynewstoyou,butBrother KartarSinghhascompelledmetowriteaboutittoyouandinformeveryonethroughyou.If possibleyoucannowsendinformation,throughaprivatelettereventotheI.G.prisonsand Superintendentprisonandtellthemthattheyarehonourboundtotreatusashumanelyaswe weretreatedrecently.OtherwiseweshouldbesenttoourState.Youmayaskthem,whetherwe weresenttoCentralProvince(nowMadhyaPradesh)onlytobetorturedandputontherack.We arekeptinsolitaryconfinementandnefariousplansarebeingmadetocauseinjurytoour religiousprinciples.Iftheydonottakereasonablestepstopreventit,thenyoucanreportthe mattertothenewspapersandbringittothenoticeofthepublic.TheSuperintendentsaidtoday, thathedoesnotknowanythingaboutourpublicimportance.Ordinarypeoplecannotbegiven anyspecialtreatment.Itoldhimthatthereisnoquestionofimportanceinpublic."TheSikhPanth knowsaboutourpositionintheSikhcommunity.Wearefightingforourreligiousrightswhichwe havebeengettingsofarintheprisons.Ifyoudonotleaveusinpeaceweshallhavetofightfor eventhoserightswhichshouldbegiventopoliticalprisoners." Thisiswhatishappeninghere.TheLord'swillshallprevail.Conveymyrequesttoallthefriends anddevoteesofthePanthtoprayforme,sothatImaystandfirmlybymyfaithandideals.Iflife andbodyendsinthisstruggleIdonotmind,butImayneverbeshakeninthenobleprinciplesof myfaith. SarkarSalam (Thefourthletter(No.16)writtenon26thDecember1922reportsthatuptothisdateeverything wasalright.TheI.G.Prisonswasexpectedthenextday.) AssoonasthislameSuperintendent,Dr.Jattartookcharge,hewentonaroundandfirstcameto ourbarrack.AHeadWarderwhoaccompaniedhimshouted:"SarkarSalam"(Ihumblysalutethee, myruler).IsawanIndianofficerwearingaEuropeanhatcomingtowardsusalongwithhisstaff. Hewaslimpingonhiswaytowardsus.Whenhecamenearus,Ismiled.BhaiKartarSinghguessing themeaningofmysmilewhisperedintomyears:"Ishenotthesamehermit,withthetrident whichyousawinyourvisionjustamonthbeforeleavingtheRajahmundaryprison"."Yes,heisthe sameman,"saidI,"hehasnowcometowreakvengeanceuponme."Whateverisordainedbythe sweetwillofGodwillhappen.Ihadjustfinishedkneadingflourinthekitchen.BhaiKartarSingh wassittinginthechairanddoinghiswork.ThenewSuperintendentshoutedatBhaiKartarSingh andsaidinEnglish:"Whydidyounotstandup?" BhaiKartarSingh:Inthelastprisonwehadordersnottostandupwhilewewereworking,when theSuperintendentcameonaround.Asamatteroffactwewerenotexpectedtostandupeven whentheI.G.prisonscame.Wewereexpectedtobebusywithourwork.Thinkingthatthiswas thepracticehereIcontinuedmywork.

Superintendent:No,thisisnotthepractiseinthisjail.Theorderhereisthatwheneverthe Superintendentcomesonaround,allprisonersmuststandup. BhaiKartarSingh:Allright,infutureitwillbeso.Wewillgiveupworkandstand. Superintendent:(InEnglish)Youwillhavetoobeyalltherulesofthisprison. BhaiKartarSingh:Wewillobeyonlythelegitimaterules. OnthatdaytheSuperintendentwentawayaftertalkingtousinthishaughtymanner.Inthe eveningtheJailercametousonhisbikeinapuzzledstateofmindandtoldusthathehadbrought aspecialorderfromtheSuperintendentCapt:NilkanthSuryaJattar.Theorderwasthatwhenever hecameonaroundwemustallstandupwithourhandsspreadoutlikebeggars.Heshowedus howitwastobedone.WetoldtheJailertogoandinformtheSuperintendentthatwewillnever standwithourhandsspreadoutlikethatbeforeanyhumanbeing.Wewillneverandneverstand inthatposition.TheJailerwhiskedawayassoonasheheardourrefusaltoobeysuchhumiliating order.EarlynextmorningtheSuperintendentcamewithallhisstaff,burningwithrageandas soonashecamehestartedspittingfire:"Lookhere,"hesaid,"Youwillhavetoobeyallmyorders inthisprison.WhydidyounotsaySahibSalam'andwhydidyounotstandupwithyourhands spreadoutthewaytheJailerexplainedtoyouyesterday." I:Wewillobeyonlylegitimateorders.Wewillnotobeyillegitimateorders.Tostandwithour handsspreadoutlikebeggarsbeforesuchapettycreaturelikeyouismosthumiliatingforaSikh anditisthegreatestinsulttoSikhprideandselfrespect.NoselfrespectingSikhispreparedto standlikethatbeforeanyoneexcepthisGuruandGod.Sodonoteveninadreamexpectusto standbeforeyouwithourhandsspreadout.Isitnotsufficientthatwehaveagreedtostandup whenyoucamehere?AndmayImakeitclearthateventhiswillbedoneonlysolongasyou behavelikeadecentofficerandtreatuswithrespect.Ifyourtreatmentisbadandifyoucarryout anyofyourillegalthreats,wewillnotevenstandupwhenyoucome. Superintendent:What,willyounotobeyJailorders? BhaiKartarSingh:Wewillneverobeyanyillegalandhumiliatingorder. Superintendent:"Isitanillegalorder?" BhaiKartarSingh:Ifitislegalthenshowusinwhichprisonmanualisitwrittenthatpolitical prisonersshouldbemadetostandinsuchahumiliatingposition.Wehavebeenlodgedinthe prisonsofmanystates,nooneaskedustostandlikethat.Itisalsonotgiveninanyprisonmanual thattheSuperintendentisauthorizedtotreattheprisonersinthemanneryouaretreatingus. Superintendent:Lookhere,eveneminentdisciplesofMahatmaGandhilikeLallaJamnaDasand MahatmaBhagwanDinandmanyotherprominentCongressiteshavestoodbeforemelikethat, withtheirhandsspreadout,aslongastheywereinmyprison. We:ItisnotnecessaryforustodowhatthedisciplesofMahatmahavebeendoing.Wearenot thedisciplesofMahatmaGandhi,norwouldweliketobeone.WearethedisciplesofGuru GobindSinghandsowewillremain.Wewillnottolerateanyinjurytoourprideandselfrespect astheSinghs(Lions)ofGuruGobindSingh.

Superintendent:Rememberthatbothofyouwillhavetosufferfordisobeyingthisorder. Aftergivingouthisthreat,theoneleggedfellowwentaway.ThenextdaytheSuperintendent showedustypedcopyofanorderwhichhesaidwassentbytheI.G.prisons.Butitwasnotsigned bytheI.G.prisons.OnlyaHeadClerkhadsignedit.Weweretakentotheofficeandthisorderwas readouttouswhichstatedthatweweredeprivedofalltheprivilegesgiventothepolitical prisoners.Weshallinfuturebegivenordinaryfoodwhichwasservedtoalltheprisoners.Wewill gettheclotheswhichweregiventoordinaryprisonersandweshallhavetoobeyalltheordersof prisonofficers.Afterreadingoutthisforgedorder,heaskeduswhetherwehadtosayanything aboutit.Hefurtheraskedustosignandgivewrittenconsentofobedienceoftheorder. Withonevoicewebothreplied:wewillneverobeysuchforgedorders.Neverandnever. Superintendent:Howdoyousaythatthisisaforgedorder? We:Thefirstthingisthattheorderhasnotbeensenttousanditwasnotopenedinourpresence. IfitreallyweretheordersoftheI.G.prisons,whereisthenecessityofgettingoursignature?The orderhasbeenaddressedtotheSuperintendentandhehastocarryouttheorderonhisown responsibility,ifitisatrueorder.Wewillprotestagainstthisorder.Howcanwegiveinwriting thatwewillgladlyobeythisorder,whenwearenotgoingtoobey?Ifitisnotaforgedorder, pleaseshowustheenvelop,sothatwemayexaminethestampsonit. Onhearingthis,bothofthembecameenragedandintheheatoftheirangertheywroteonour historytickets:"Theirclothesshouldbetakenawaybyforceandtheyshouldbegivenfoodfrom ordinarykitchenandbecompelledtoeatit.Theyshouldbedeprivedofallprivilegesgivento politicalprisoners."Afterwritingtheseorderswewereaskedtogobacktoourprisoncells.Bhai KartarSinghaskedtheSuperintendenttoreconsiderthisorderandavoidtroubletousandto themselves. Superintendent:Trouble?Whocanputustotrouble? I:Yourownevildeeds. Superintendent:Myorderstands.Idonotwanttohearanyotherthing. Weurgedhimtowaittillwehadconsultedthehigherauthorities,particularlythePunjab Governmentaboutit.Tillthenhecouldkeephisordersreserved.Afterreceivingtheopinionof thehigherauthorities,hecoulddowhateverheliked.Weaskedforsometime.Wedidnot,till then,askforanyspecialprivilegesgiventopoliticalprisoners.Allweaskedwassomeatta(flour) toprepareourchapatties,whichwecouldtakewithsalt,onceintwentyfourhours.Shortlywe wouldreceiveadefinitereplyfromthehigherauthoritiesandthePunjabGovernment.Butthe Superintendentdidnotlistentoanyreasonablesuggestion.Hewasdeterminedtocarryouthis threat.Thentheonlywayleftwastogoonfastandresisttyranny.ThereisaPersiansayingwe: "Whentyrannybefallsadervesh,hemustbepreparedtofaceitwithhislife".ThusIwas compelledtoundertakefast.

CHAPTER21FASTSANDTORTURES THEFASTBEGAN.Thenforsometimetheyfeltalittledisturbedandcameeverynowandthen withproposalsandthreats.Theybroughtsometypedcopiesofapplicationswrittenonourbehalf tothePunjabGovernmentandaskedustosignthem.Thustheytriedtogiveusthefalse assurancethatsomethingwasbeingdoneforus.Butwewerenotsosoftandignorantastobe easilyfooledbytheirhypocriticalassurances.Butitisquitepossiblethattheyforgedour signaturesandsentthoseapplicationstothehigherauthorities. Myfastbegan.Wewereimmediatelyseparatedfromeachother.Whathappenedtohimafter this,Idonotknow.TheI.G.prisonscame.Likeonewhoisbewildered,hedidnotlistentoanything Ihadtosay,butkeptonharpingthatthepoliticalprivilegeshavebeeneliminatedandnowthere wereonlytwoclasses:specialandordinary.IfIwantedspecialclass,Ishouldputupanapplication otherwiseIwouldbetreatedasanordinaryprisoner.ItoldhimthatIwasnotpreparedtoputup thetypeofapplicationhewanted,nordidIaskforanyspecialclass.All1askedforwasthatI shouldbegiventhefacilitiesandtreatmentwhichmyhistoryticketshowedwasgiveninthelast prison.Thetermsrecordedonmyhistorytickethadbecometherulesforus.Hethenwentaway. HecameagainwhentheSuperintendentwastreatinguswithsavagebrutalitybyusingforce,for allhismalignantends.SowhenhecamenearmeItoldhimsternly:ThisSuperintendentofyours hasnowstoopedtothemosttyrannousmethodsofusingforceandinsultingandhumiliatingme.I consideritmydutytotellyoufranklyandfirmlythatIamadiscipleofGuruGobindSinghandnot ofMahatmaGandhi,whowouldsticktononviolenceevenunderextremehumiliation.Wehave beentaughtbytheGurutogiveupnonviolencewhenaperson'sfaithandreligiousidealsare subjectedtoinsultandhumiliationthroughforceandviolence.Fortheprotectionofthesacred principlesofourfaith,whennonviolencefails,wewouldnotdielikecowards.Itisnotviolenceto prevent,withallthepoweratyourdisposal,thetyrantsfromcarryingouttheirevildesignsorto preventthegodlessandbrutalpeoplefromcausinginjurytothefaithandfreedomofman.Soif anyWhitemanorIndianofyourdepartmentusesforceagainstmetoinsultandcauseinjurytomy religioussentimentsandprinciples,Iwillfightback.DonotthinkthatIwillnotbeabletodefend myself,becauseIhavebeenfastingsincemanydays.Ahungrylionbecomesverydesperate,when someoneannoysit,evenifthelionisinacage." Onhearingthis,theI.G.prisongavemeassurancethatnoforcewouldbeusedagainstme.Butthe prisonofficialswerebentupondoingtheworst.Whocouldpreventthem?Afteradayortwothey startedthemischief. ForceFeedingofBeefSoup Afterthismanyterriblethingshappened.Inmanywaystheycameagainandagaintouseforce, andcausealltypesofphysicalinjury.ManytimestheJailauthoritiescamewithanumberoftheir wardersandservants,butassoonastheytriedtoholdmebyforceIpushedthemback.Noone daredtocomecloseortograpplewithmealone.TheheroicfireoftheKhalsa,eventhough starving,createdaterrorinthemindsofall.OnedaytheJailerMr.Whig(anEnglishman)came withallhisstaffandstartedshoutingatmeandthreatenedtogiveenemabyforce.Itoldhimhe hadnorighttodosuchathingandIwouldnotlethimdosuchathing.Ihadnottakenanything formanyweeksandhadnoconstipation;wherewasthenecessityformetohaveenema?Ihad noteventakenadropofwaterformanydays.Whatwasthepurposeofgivingmeenema?IfI sufferedfromconstipationIcouldaccepttheadviceofadoctor.Enemaisgivenwhenthe

medicineofdoctorfailstowork."Whyareyouforciblygivingmeenema?Youarenotaphysician," Isaid. Jailer(Whiteman):WehavebeenorderedbytheSuperintendenttogiveyouenemabyforce. I:Trythentouseforce.IampreparedtofightbackandIwillnotsubmitlikeacoward. Jailer:Ihavesomanymenwhileyouareallalone;whatcanyoudo? I:JusttrytouseforceandseewhatIdo.Youwillhaveatasteofitinaminute. Onhearingthischallengefromme,theyallmovedforwardtooverpowerme.Whenfiveorsix mentriedtopounceonme,Ithrewthemback.Frightenedandyetforcedtobeatmedownthey cameforwardagain.AllaloneIhitthemrightandleft.Inthisstrugglesomegotablowonthe jaws.Somewerehitonthechestorstomach.Somehadabruisedshoulder.Theircapsandhats rolledontheground.Somewerethrownagainstthewalloronthepuccafloor.Theysoonlost theirbreathandattemptedagainandagaintopounceonme.TheHindubabushadtokeepa handonthedhotis,whichwereloosenedineverystruggle.TheEnglishmenwouldbegintodust theirpantseverytimetheyfellbackonthefloor.TheJailer'sfacewasredwithrageandhewas tremblingwithfearandfury.Everyonewasexhaustedandhitbadly.Aftertheyfoundthatthey couldneveroverpowerme,theywentaway.I,theoneandloneKhalsa,inspiredbyGuruGobind Singh,tofaceevenalakhofopponentsstoodthereunharmed. ThentheybroughtalltheJailwardersandallthecriminalprisoners.NoBabuorofficerjoinedthe gangthatwassenttooverpowerme.Theprisonerswereforcedtojumponmeandoverpower me."Whydoyousendthesepoorpeopletofightme?"Isaid,"Whydon'tyoucomeforward?You firstgotyourstaffbadlybeatenandhit,andnowyouwantthesepoorpeopletofaceme."Allthe prisoners,theprisonlambardarsloweredtheirheadswithshameandfear.Somefoldedtheir handsfromadistance,beggingforgivenessforbeingforcedtoattackme.TheJailerorderedthem tocatchholdofmeandforcemetoliedownflatonthefloor.Buteveryonestoodsilentlywithout moving.Theyneitherspokenorobeyedtheorders.Whenhescoldedthemandorderedthemto moveforwardaRajputwardersaid:"Sir,heisonlyasaintlypatriot.Heishereintheprisonforthe freedomofourcountry.Hehasdoneyounoharm.Whatoffencehashecommittedforwhichhe isunnecessarilytortured.Doyounotknowthatthecourseofharmingsuchamanmaybringruin onyouall.Noneofusdaretoraiseourfingeragainsthim." Jailer(roaringwithrage):What,willyoudisobeymyorders?Youwillbedeprivedofyouruniform andbeseverlypunished.Youwillbelockedupinadarkcell. RajputWarder(takingoffhisuniformandthrowingitnearthefeetoftheJailer):Here,takeyour uniformandgivemewhateverpunishmentyoulike.Youcanevenlockmeupinadungeon.Iam notafraidofanything.Tomepunishmentwillnotbegreaterandmorepainfulthanthecurseof thissaint.Icannottoleratethissaintpatriotbeinginsultedandattackedinthismanner.Noother warderwillhelpyouinthismatter.Wearekeptherefortheprotectionoftheprisonersandnotto treattheminsuchabrutalmanner. TheJailerorderedthatthisman(whosenamewasDugarSingh)shouldbeimmediatelydeprived ofhisuniformandpositionasthewarder.Hedidsotofrightenotherwardersandcoercethemto

useforceagainstme.Butnotasinglemanwaspreparedtoobeyhisorder.Hethenturnedhis rageandthreatsagainsttheprisonwardersandimmediatelytookstepstopunishsomeofthem. Atlast,feelinghimselfhelplessinthatstrangesituation,hewentaway. ForthethirdtimetheJailercamewithadoctor,whowasorderedbytheSuperintendenttogive enema.ThedoctormovedafewstepstowardsmebutwhenIsharplyaskedhimtokeepaway fromme;hesteppedbackandstoodatadistance.Hedidnotwishtocomeintogripswithme. TheJailerorderedhimangrilytogoahead. Doctor:Youhavenotbeenabletoholdhimforaminutewiththehelpofthewholeofyourstaff andwarders,howdoyouexpectmetohandlehimanddoitallalone?Itismydutytogivehim enemabutonlywithhisconsentandnotagainsthiswishes,byforce.Myprofessiondoesnot permitmetodosuchathingbyforce. Jailer:Thenyoushouldexplaintohimthataccordingtotherequirementofhishealth,you,asa doctoradvisehimtotakeenema. Doctor(addressingme):SardarSahib,whatistheharmintakingenema? I:Idonothaveanyconstipation.Ihavenottakenanythingforweeks.WhyshouldItakeenema? Doctor:OurSuperintendent,whoisalsotheChiefMedicalOfficer,thinksthattomaintainyour healthitisessentialforyoutotakeenema. I:Whatisitthatiscompellingthemtohaveitdonenowandnowonly? Doctor:Thefactisthattheyhaveorderedforcefeedinganditisnecessarytogiveenema,before tryingforcefeeding. I:Canyousayonoaththatgivingenemaisabsolutelyessentialbeforeresortingtoforcefeeding? Dothemedicalrulessayso? Doctor(whisperinginmyears):Actuallytheywanttoinsultyouandhumiliateyouinthisway. (TheJailerwasstandingatsomedistance).Whydon'tyoutakeenemawithyourownhands?Iwill explaintoyouhowitisdone(whisperingandtouchingmyfeethumbly)ForGod'ssake,saveme fromthistrouble.Pleaseacceptmyrequest,(loudly)Youwillbenefitimmenselyaftertaking enema.Allthedisorderscausedbyconstipationwilldisappear.Itwillevenhelpyouinyourfast. I:YouhavemadetherequestinsuchawaythatIcannotrefuseit.Nowpleaseexplaintomehow itisdone. Doctor(afterexplaining):Nowweleaveyoualone.Doanythingyoulike.TheSuperintendent shouldgettheimpressionthatyouhavetakenenema. WithinfifteenminutesIgotridofeverything.Whathappenedafterthathasalreadybeen describedinletterswrittenearlier.Iquotethelettershere:

Letter:January1923(LetterNo.17) Onarrivalhereourhistoryticketswereexaminedandweweregivenallfacilitiesaboutdressand foodwhichhadbeensanctionedinthepreviousJail.BhaiKartarSinghandIarestayinginthe samebarrack.Thedaywearrived,thesuperintendentwasnothere.Hewasonleave.Hecame afterfiveorsixdays.Assoonasheresumeddutyhestartedtakingextremestepstoannoyus.The firstorderhesenttotheprisonerswasthatallshouldstandupwhenhecametotheprison barracksandkeepstandingwithourhandsspreadoutlikebeggars.Wewerealsoorderedtokeep ourfacesraisedupwhilesalutinghim.Hethreatenedtogiveusseverepunishmentifwedidnot obeythisorder. WetoldhimthatwewouldneverspreadoutourhandslikebeggarsbeforeanyoneexceptGodno matterwhatpunishmentheorderedfordisobeyingsuchhumiliatingorders.Weaskedhimto showustheprisonrulesandlawswhichauthorisedhimtogivesuchorders.Whenhewas exasperatedbyhisfutileattemptstocowusdown,hestartedwritingagainstustothehigher authorities:OnDecember30th1922,hecalledmeinhisofficeandissuedordersthatallfacilities giventometopreparemyownfoodhadbeenwithdrawn,andIwouldbegiventhesamebarley breadpreparedinthecommonkitchenwhichwasgiventotheordinaryprisoners.Irequestedhim toholdonhisordersforafewdaysandpermitmetowritetothehigherauthorities.Aspolitical prisoners,wewereentitledtoallsuchfacilitiesandrightswhichweregiventomeonreligious grounds.ItoldhimthatIhadbeengettingthesefacilitiesalltheseyearsandtherewasnoreason whytheyshouldbewithdrawnwithoutanyrhymeorreason.Irequestedhimtopermitusto appealtothehigherauthorities,andtillthereplytoourappealwasreceivedweshouldbe contentedwithsimplefoodcookedbyourownhands.Butherefusedtolistentoanythingand immediatelyissuedsternorders.Allourprayerbooks,clothesincludingturbanswereforcibly takenawayfromus. Heeventookawayourshoes.Onlyunderwears(kach)wasallthatwehadonourbodies.The secondunderwearwasalsotakenawayfromus.Sothefastbegan.ForabouttendaysIwas allowedtoliveundisturbedinmycell.ThenanEnglishmannamedBiggwasespeciallypostedto harassandtortureme.Hewasgivenfullpowerstodowhateverheliked.Itisdifficulttorelateall thecruelwaysheadoptedtotortureme.IenduredeverythingsilentlywithmymindfixedonGod. Henowstartedannoyingandtormentingmeeverymomentandthreatenedtoinflictgruesome affliction. Iremainedsilent.Ineverspoketohimnoransweredanyofhisthreats.Hetriedtoforcebread intomymouth,butIpushedhimawayanddidnotallowhimtocomenearme.Heabusedand cursedmeinthefilthiestlanguagepossible.Onedayhecamenearmeandtriedtoholdmebymy hairbutIsteppedbackandthoughheusedviolenceIdidnotallowhimtotouchmyhair.He wantedtobeatme,andalthoughIwasweak,Ididnotallowhimtocomenearme.Hepushedme againstthewallandstartedkickingme.Ishoutedtothesepoystandingnearhim,thattheyshould bearwitnesstothefactthathewastryingtokillme.CalltheSuperintendentimmediately.WhenI shoutedthesewords,heshrankfromgoingtothebrutalextremeatthatmoment. WhentheSuperintendentcameIreportedthemattertohim,buthedidnotlistentomeandside trackedtheissue.Mr.Biggbecameallthemoreferociouslybrutal.ThesameeveningMr.Bigg,and hisassistant,whowasalsoanEnglishmancamewithanumberofmentoforciblygivemeenema.

ItoldthemthatIhadnottakeneitheramorseloffoodnordrunkanywaterformanydays.Iwas nothavinganyconstipationoranyothertrouble.Whyweretheyforciblygivingmeenema?They actuallywantedtoinsultandhumiliateme.Fiveorsixofthemtriedtooverpowermeandforce metoliedown,buttheycouldnotcontrolme.TheBritishJailerthensentfiveorsixmorewarder sepoys.Allofthemcaughtholdofmeandknockedmedown.Iwasalreadyexhaustedafter fightingsomanypeoplesolongandnowassoonasmybareheadstruckagainstthefloor,I fainted.Iwasstrippednakedandgivenenema.EvenasIwasbeingstrippednakedIregaineda littleconsciousnessandwasabouttospeakbuttheyknockedmedownagain.Theyonlywanted tomortifyandhumiliateme.Whentheywentawaytheythreatenedtoinsultandinflict outrageousindignitiesonmethenextdayunderthepretextofforcefeedingthrougharubber tube. Ispentthewholenightingreatmentalagony.Thenextdaytheyagainstartedusingforcetoknock medown.EventheJailSuperintendentwastherewiththewholeofhisstaff.Iaskedhimwhywas hestoopingtosuchcruelty.TheSuperintendent,aHindu,threatenedtoinflictsuchindignitiesas mayleadtotheforcedbreakingofmyreligiousvows.IaskedhimtofearGod.TheSuperintendent saidthattheBritishgovernmentwashisGod.Iagainsaid:"HastheBritishgovernmentallowed youtoforcemantoabandonhisreligiousprinciples?Isitnotatyrannyworstthanthatof Aurangzeb:"TheSuperintendentreplied,"Iscommittingsuicideapartofreligion?"Isaid,"Ihave nevercontemplatedsuicide.Committingsuicideisthegreatestsinaccordingtomyreligion.Iwent onfastonlytomaintainmyreligiousvows.Iampreparedtotakemilk,fruitoranysimplefoodlike roastedgrams.InotherJailsmyreligiousprincipleswererespectedbytheprisonauthorities.You alsomustlistentome;Iampreparedtotakethesimplestfoodwithinthelimitsofmyreligious vows.Butyouarebentuponcommittingoutrageousactstorevileanddesecratemyreligious principles,butletmetellyouthatnoonecancompelmetobreakmyreligiousvows.Iwill sacrificemylifeforit.IwillsurviveonthesustenanceofHisdivineName.Iwillnotdie.Donot torturemeunnecessarilyanddonotcauseanyindignitytoanyofmyreligiousprinciples." Allmyprotestsfellondeafears.Theymanacledmyhandsandplacingastickinmymouthpushed alongrubbertubedownmythroatintothestomach.Theystartedforcefeedingmewithsome milk.Icontrolledmypsychicbreath(pranashakti)andfirstsuppresseditinthenavalandthenlet itascendittothetenthseatofconsciousness,theturiyastate,thehigheststate.ButIhadbecome veryweekandcouldnottakepsychicbreathtothehighestconsciousnessunderthosetortuous circumstances.Butasthepranashaktihadgonehigherthanthenavalandmybreathinghad stopped,theycouldnotpumpanymilkinside.Withoutthebreathgoinginandcomingout,nota dropofwatercanbeforcedinsidethestomach.Whatevermilkwaspushedincameout immediately.Whentheyweretiredofdoingthiswithoutanysuccesstheyknockedmyhead againstthefloor,evenbeforetakingouttherubber.Ibecameunconsciousandmymouthwas closedinatightgrip.Therubberbrokeintotwo.Thebottleofmilkalsobrokeinthisscuffle.Some moremilkwasbrought.Anirontubewasalsoprocured.AsIwasunconsciousthesuperintendent orderedthatrayteethshouldbebrokenandtheirontubeforcedintomymouth.Myteethwere broken,myjawsweretornopen.Twoofmyteethfromthesidewereforciblybroken.Allthese tortureswereinflictedbyMr.Biggwhosatonmychestanddidalltheseinhumandeedswithhis ownhands.Byforcingtheirontubedownmythroattheysucceededinsendingsomemilkintomy stomach.Ittookthemmorethananhourandhalftodoso.Assoonastheywereabouttoleave mealone,themilkwasvomitedout.Mystarvingstomachfounditdifficulttoretainit.Iwasthen draggedbymybeardandhairandkickedwithshoesandgivenheavyfistedblows.WhenIwas almosthalfdeadtheyleftmethereinthatmiserablecondition.

Thenextdaytheyagainforcedsomedalsoupdownmythroat.Thethirddaytheybroughtsoupof koshermeatandbeef,andalsosometobaccotocausethemaximuminjurytomyreligioussenti ments.TheytoldmethatIshouldstarteatingfoodtheyordered,otherwiseallthosethingswould beforceddownmythroat.TheyeventhreatenedtoshaveoffmyhairandbeardandthenIwould besenttoalunaticasylum.Ihavealreadywritteninotherlettersallthatfollowed. AmemberofthePrisonSupervisionCommitteecametomeandaskedmeallthathadhappened.I toldhimaboutthethreatofgivingmesoupofkoshermeatandbeefandforcingtobaccodown mythroat.Ididnotgivehimallthedetailsofthetortures.TheSuperintendentimmediately deniedthechargeandthenwhentheInquiryofficerwentaway,hebeggedmetosavehim.The Jaileralsofellatmyfeetandbeggednottoimplicatehimbecausehedideverythingontheorders oftheSuperintendent(thisletterwaswrittenbyBhaiSahibRandhirSinghtoBhaiSurjanSingh whowentallthewaytoNagpur.WiththehelpofCongressleadersofNagpurhewasabletorouse publicopinionagainsttheprisonauthoritiesasaresultofwhichaninquirywasheld). TheSwordthatAppearedandDisappeared Itwouldnotbeoutofplacetomentionaninterestingincidenthere.WhenIwasconvincedthat thiswickedanddepravedman,Dr.Jattar,wouldnothesitatedoingthemostheinousdeedand whentheeffortsofmyfriendslikeBhaiManshaSinghandBhaiSantaSinghofNagpurfailedto changethemindofthiscruelman,mymindwascloudedwithdarkdespair.BhaiManshaSingh evenofferedfivehundredrupeestoeverypersonwhocouldhelpmetogetoutoftheprison unscathed.Butallhiseffortsfailed.ThewholeofNagpurwasseethingwithdiscontentofthreats ofagitation.TheeminentpatriotMr.Abhayankerdidhisutmosttohelpme.Ihaveneverseen suchabraveandfearlessfreedomfighterasthelovablesoulAbhayanker.Patriotslikehimare indeedveryrare.AllmylifeIwouldremaingreatlyindebtedtoBhaiManshaSinghandthebrave Mr.Abhayanker.Myblessingswilleverbewiththem.Itnowbecameabsolutelyimpossibletoget anyaideitherfromoutsideorfromwithinthefourwallsoftheprison. ThenextdayIwastosufferintolerableindignitiesandIhadtodosomethingtofaceitduringthe night.IntheeveningIprayedtotheallknowingSatguruaftermyeveningprayersRehrastomake availabletomeaswordtodefendmyself.Iwaspreparedtofightuntodeathformyfaithandwas determinednottoletmyreligiousprinciplessufferblasphemousinsults.Withtheswordinmy handsIwouldnotallowanyonetocomenearmeandiftheyattackedmewithweapons,Iwas determinedtouseswordinselfdefenceandfightuntodeath.Iwasalsolostinthisprayerand whenitwasoverIsatdownbroodingoverthethingstocome.Suddenlyanunknownmancame stealthilyandstoodclosetotheprisonbars.Ihadneverseenhimbefore.Withprofound sympathyhesaidinawhisper:"Askforanythinganditshallbeprovided."Iwasatoncetempted toaskforthesword.IfeltthattheGuruhadansweredmyprayer.Unhesitatinglyhewentback andcamebackinamatterofminuteswithasword.Theswordwasshiningbrilliantlyinthe moonlight.Ifeltoverjoyedandinspiredbythedeterminationtodieformyfaith.Themanputit backintothesheathandburieditinthemudfloorjustoutsidemycell,fromwhereitcouldbe takenouteasily.Heaskedmetotakeitoutaftertheroutinesearchingofmycellwasover.With myworriesover,Iwenttosleep.Somesubtlepridehadalsoovertakenme,asIfeltthatmyprayer wasatonceanswered.InsteadofspendingthenightinthanksgivingandprayerIsleptpeacefully andwokeuponlyinthemorning. Insteadofsittinginmeditationandprayerandsettingmymindintruespiritualcourage,asareal andperfectSikhshouldalwaysdo,Istartedpreparingforthebattleagainstthetyrants,andmy mindwascompletelydivertedtowardsthedifficultsituationahead.Imadeupmymindtodefend

myfaithwiththeswordandfighttheoppressorsassoonastheymadeanyoutrageousattackon theprinciplesofmyfaith. Whenallothermeanshavefailed, Itislawfultoresorttothesword. GuruGobindSingh's"LettertoAurangzeb". Mymindwasnowinveryhighspirit.AllthedepressingconditionsthroughwhichIhadpassed disappeared.Itwasdaybreaknow.Mycellwasunlockedandsearchedsuperficially.Theyfound nothinginmymattressandbedwhichtheysearched.AssoonastheyhadgoneImadeupmy mindtotaketheswordoutoftheplace,whereitwashidden.Buttheswordwasnottobefound there.Iwonderedwhohadtakenawaythesword.Icoveredtheplacewiththeearth.Iwas stunnedandterriblyshakenbythisunexpectedhappening.Icoveredthewholehollowedplace withearthandmadeitappearasthenormalground.Whatwasordainedhadhappenedandit wasnousebroodingoverit.Inamatterofminutestheprisonauthoritiescameandstartedforce feedingdescribedintheletterabove.TwoofmyteethwerebrokenandIwastorturedand submittedtoexcruciatingagonyandinsult. Atnightwhenallwassilentandcoldthesameunknownmancametomeandsaid:"Whenyou wereasleepItookawaythesword.Thismusthavegivenyouashockingsurprise." I:Afterdoingsuchanobleactashelpingtogetmethesword,whydidyoubehavelikeacoward? Whydidyoushowsuchtimidity? UnknownMan:Youmaycursemeorevenkillme,buttheinevitablehastakenplace.Goodorbad ithashappenednowanditismywifewhopersuadedmetodoit. I:Ignorantman,isitwisetoconfidesuchsecretstowomen? UnknownMan:Itriedmybestbutcouldnothelptellinghereverything.Hereisthewholestory. SomeunknownPowercompelledmetocometoyouraid,andIwasproudofrenderingthehelp youaskedfor,andfeltveryhappyaboutit.WhenIreachedhomemywifehadcometoknowthat youwereinserioustrouble.Shewasverymuchupsetandsoterrifiedthatshedidnotsleepat night.ShewasawakeevenonthenightwhenIlefttheswordwithyou.Outsidetheprisonevery man,womanandchildwastalkingaboutthecrueltyandtorturestowhichyouweresubmitted. EveryonewascursingandcondemningtheJailauthorities.Everyonewassheddingtearsin helplesssympathy.Mywifewasalsoseriouslyupseteversinceyouwereintrouble.WhenI reachedhomethatnightsheaskedme:"Hasanyonedoneanythingtohelpthatgreatpatriotfrom distantland?Hasanyoneexpressedconcernforhim?WhenIthinkofthetorturesheisbeing madetoundergoandunjusttreatmenthehasyettoundergoIcannotsleep.Godaloneknows howhewillfacetheterribleordealtomorrow? UnknownMan:"Whatelsewillhappen?Theywillforciblycauseinjurytohisreligioussentiments andhewilldieforhisfaith. UnknownMan'sWife:Alas,alas,willtheyreallyforcehimtotakebeefsoup? UnknownMan:Somethingelsewillhappenbeforetheyeverattempttodosuchathing.

UnknownMan'sWife:Canyounotdosomethingtosavehimfromtheterribleordealhemight havetoface?Opleasedosomethingforhimevenatthecostofyourlife. UnknownMan:Evenyouhavetriedyourbest.Haveyoubeenabletodoanythingtosavehim? UnknownMan'sWife:IhavedonemyutmostindeedandnowIdonotknowwhattodo.Iwentto theBritishJailer'swifeandofferedherallmyornamentsifshecouldhelpthissaintlypatriotfrom thePunjab.Butshesaidashewasapoliticalprisoner,thematterwasinthehandsofhigher officials.Herhusbandisafraidofhissuperiorofficers.Themattercouldnotbehushedup.Many peoplehadofferedlargeamountsofmoneyandpreciousthingsbuttheJailerwashelpless.The Superintendentisadamant.Herefusestolistentoanyone. UnknownMan:Excellent,soyouhavedonemuch.Thisshouldbethespirit. UnknownMan'sWife:Youalsoshoulddosomething.Inwhateverwayitishumanlypossibleyou mustsavethisgreatandnoblepatriotfromthecalamity.Forthefreedomofourcountryhehas enduredandsufferedsomuch.Leavinghiswifeandchildrenfaraway,heisnowundergoing terriblesufferingintheprisonfarawayfromhispeople.Evenintheprisonheisfightinglikeahero andhasstakedhisverylifeforthesakeofhisfaith.Youmusthelphim.Dohelphimatallcost. Whateverispossiblemustbedone. UnknownMan(addressingme):Whenmywifetalkedinsuchabravetoneanddeepsympathyfor you,IunconsciouslyblurtedoutwhatIhaddone.ItoldherwhatIhaddone.Whatelsewas possibleunderthosedifficultcircumstances?Whenmywifecametoknowabouttheswordwhich Ihadleftwithyou,shefainted.Ipouredsomewaterintohermouthandsheregainedsome consciousnessandsaidinaverysadvoice:"Youhavecommittedagreatblunder!Thatbrave brotherpatriotwillkilleveryoneandasareactionnotonlywillhebeshotdeadbutevenweall whosympathisewithhimandhavehelpedhimwillbedonetodeath.Therewillbeabloodbath andultimatelyhealsowillberuthlesslykilled.Hemaybeimmediatelyhangedorshotdead.Had helivedhemighthaveservedhumanityinmanyways.WhenIsaidthatyoumusthelp,Imeant thatyoumustdoyourbesttohelphimtoescape.Bothhislifeandfaithcouldbeprotectedthat way.Ifhelivedhecouldservethecountryinmanyways.Youhavedoneahorriblething.Iamin greatagonyandtheverythoughtthattherewillbesomuchbloodshedhasgivenmean unbearableshock.Theverythoughtofthetragicspectacleiskilling.Pleasegothereandgetthe swordbeforeitistoolate,otherwiseIwillkillmyself."Thesewordsofmywifehadastunning effectonme.Iquietlycametothisplaceandtookawaytheswordwhenyouwereasleep.Thank GodIdidso.Ithasallbeenforgood.Bynowtheremighthavebeenterriblebloodshedhereand Godaloneknowswhatmighthavebeentheconsequences. Sothismatterendedhere.Iwillclosethisstoryoftortureandtyrannyhere,andwillnowrelate someothereventsofNagpurprison.Afteralltheoutrageousandhumiliatingactsofforcefeeding, theprisonauthoritiesnowstartedcompellingustowearprisonuniformsmeantforcriminals.The Jailerwasalreadymadlyabusingtheuseofhisauthorityandnowhehadanewcausetoannoyus andputusintotrouble.Hewasdeterminedtomisusehispowerstotortureusonthisissue.He incitedtheAssistantJailer(aBritishOfficer)andorderedhimtoforciblyundressmeandtakeaway myclothes.IwarnedtheJailerthatifMr.Biggsattackedmeagainandtriedtouseforce,Iwould teachhimalesson.IaskedtheJailerrepeatedlytostopMr.Biggsfromusingforce,theresultsof whichwouldbeserious.Iwasdeterminedtofighthimback.Iknewthattherewasnotthe slightestsenseofjusticeleftinBritishadministrationoftheJails,andtherewasnoalternativeleft

forusexcepttofightforcewithforceandpreventcrueltyandhumiliation.Soobstinatewasthis manthatherefusedtochangehisevilintentions,tillthefuryofChandi(agoodbeating)didnot bringhimtohissenses. AssistantJailerFined ThenextdaytheAssistantJailercameandthefirstthinghedidwastogiveakicktomyearthen pitcher.Ipickedupthepitcherandthrewitathim.Withabangitfellnearhisfeetandhisclothes becamewetwiththewaterthatsplashedoutofthebrokenpitcher.Afewbrokenpiecesofthe pitcheralsoflewoutandstruckagainsthisface.Buthewasnothurtandhedidnotreceiveany injury.TheofficeoftheSuperintendentwascloseby.Dragginghislameleghehurriedlycameto thespotandaskedwhatwastheexplosionabout."HaveyouthrownsomebombRandhirSingh?" I:Thereitis.Thebombhasblownupintosmallpieces.Pickthemupandinstituteanothercase againstmeforthrowingthebomb. Superintendent(afterseeingthebrokenpitcher):Howisthatyourpitcherisbrokenandwhohas brokenit? I:AskyourGora(White)Assistant.Thereheisstandinglikeajackalwetwiththewaterofthe pitcher. Superintendent(addressingtheAssistantJailer):Well,whathappened? AssistantJailer:Youcanseeforyourself.Hethrewtheearthenpitcherfullofwateratmychest, butIranawayandnarrowlyescaped. Superintendent:Howdidyourpantgetwet? AssistantJailer:Hethrewthepitcherfullofwaternearmyfeet.Thewatermademypantwetand thepiecesofbrokenpitcherstruckme. Superintendent:Ontheonehandyousaythatheaimedthewaterpitcheratyourchest,onthe otherhandyousaythathethrewitnearyourfeet(addressingme)WellRandhirSingh,didyou throwthewaterpitcherathim?Didhesayanythingannoyingtoyou? I:Askhimwhathedid.Hewilltellyou. Superintendent(addressingtheAssistantJailer):Didyouspeaktohimroughly? AssistantJailer:Notatall.Ididnotsayanything. Superintendent:Youmusthavedonesomethingtoannoyhim.Doyouthinkheismadandhe threwthepitcherofwateratyouwithoutanyrhymeorreason? AssistantJailer:Ididnothingtoannoyhim.Myfootunconsciouslytouchedthewaterpitcher.He pickeditupandthrewitatme.

TheSuperintendentstaredatme,signifyingbyhislooksthathedemandedanexplanationfrom me.Irequestedhimtoaskthesentryonduty.Hethenstaredatthesentrydemandinghisversion oftheincident. I(addressingthesentry):OnoathoftheDeityyouworship,telltheSuperintendentthetruthand nothingbutthetruth. Sentry:Sir,thetruthisthattheJailerSahibcamestraighttothisplaceandknowinglykickedthe waterpitcher.RandhirSinghthrewthewaterpitcherathimsaying,thatitwasofnouseforhim. Heconsidereditagreatinsultthatheshouldtouchhisdrinkingwaterwithhisshoes.Soheangrily threwthewaterpitcherathim. Superintendent(angrilyaddressingtheAssistantJailer):Thatiswhatyoudeserved.ThankGodhe didnotthrowthewaterpitcheronyourhead.Youknowinglydidthismischief.Iaskedyounotto causeanynewtrouble,yetyouhavedisobeyedme. TheSuperintendentimmediatelyfinedhimrupeesfivebutdidnotsayanythingtome.Thiswas thefirstinstancethatsomethingwasdoneinthespiritofjustice.TheSuperintendenthadone significantquality,thatis,hekepthissubordinatesfirmlyunderhiscontrol.TheJailer,whohad beendowngradedfromthepostofSuperintendent,fearedhimmuch.Thissenseofjusticecame tothemindofSuperintendentatsomeraremomentsbuttheJailersucceededinmisguidinghim. OnseeingtheAssistantJailerreprimandedandpunished,theJailerwasboilingwithrageandwas lookingforanopportunitytoavengeit.TheJailerhadgivenunduepowerstohisassistantwho treatedhissubordinatesshabbilyasaresultofwhichhewasdislikedbyall.Thesepoysandthe JemadarssympathizedwithmylotaftertheattemptofthisJailertogivemebeefsoupduring forcefeeding.Asentrywasalwayspostednearmycelltokeepawatchonme.Anewsentrywas postedeverythreehours,sometimeeverysixhours.Thustheyallknewmepersonally. FightwithAssistantJailer OnedayearlyinthemorningasentryinformedmethattheJailerhadorderedtheAssistantJailer tohumiliatemebyusingforceandviolenceunderthepretextoftakingawaytheclothesIwas wearingandreplacingthembythedressgiventoordinaryprisoners.HetoldmethattheAssistant Jailerwouldbecomingwhilehewasondutyandhewouldattackme.Thesentrysaid:"Wethe Indiansentriesareallfedupofthisman.Ifhecomesandattacks,youcangivehimagood thrashing.Wewillnottellanyone.""Youmaychangeanymomentandreportorgiveevidence againstme."repliedI."IswearbytheholyGangesthatIwillneverbetrayyou,butifpossiblewill helpyou,saidthesentry.AtthismomenttheJailercamethereandsaidinathreateningtonein English:"Wehavebeenverylenientwithyou.Takeoffyourclothes.Wehavebeenfartoogentle withyou,"heshouted. I:Sotodayyouhavecomewiththedeterminationtoshowyourgentlemanliness,haven'tyou? AssistantJailer:Doyoutakeoffyourclothesornot?Ordoyouwanttobeforciblystrippednaked andsufferhumiliation? I:Noonedarehumiliateorinsultmeaslongasthereislifeinmybody. AssistantJailer:Haveyounotsufferedhumiliationenough?

I:Itisthosewhotriedtoinsultmewhosufferedhumiliation.BoththeSuperintendentandthe Jailerwentdownontheirkneesandbeggedforgiveness.Theyhavesuffereddisgraceandnowitis yourturn. IwastalkingtotheAssistantJailerinEnglish.Headvancedtowardsmeandliftedhishandtohold mebythethroat. I(pushinghimaway):Behavelikeahumanbeingandlearnsomehumandecency. AssistantJailer:DoyouthinkthatIamabeast? I:Beastsaremuchbetterthanyou.Theyeatoilcakesandgrassandgivemilk. Onhearingthisheflaredupandtriedtoholdmebythebeard.Igavehimoneblowonhisjaws withmyrighthand,onthewristofwhichIwaswearingaheavyironbangle.Holdinghimbythe throatwiththelefthandIgavehimanothersevereblowandholdinghisrighthandwithmyown righthandtightenedmygriponhisthroat.Hiseyeswerestaringout,andthestrangleholdonhis throatmadehimgroanforbreath.Hegavemeakickbelowthebelly,whichIavoidedbystepping aside.Withonehandonthethroatandtheotherinbetweenhislegs,Iliftedhimupandthrew himflatonthefloor.SeatingmyselfonhimIgavehimblowsrightandleftwithmyfistsandknees. Helosthisnerveandwasbreathingwithdifficulty.Theninapitiabletonehecriedout:"Well SardarSahib,youalsobelongtoabravecommunityandIalsobelongtoabravenation.Letusbe friendsfromtoday.Leavemeandshakehandswithme."Heblurtedoutthesewordswhilehewas gettingsevereblowsfromme. I:Youareacoward.Suchadastardlycowardlikeyoucanneverclaimtobebrave.Evento attributetheword"brave"toapersonlikeyouistoinsulttheword.Iamnotpreparedtoshake handswithyouandIconsideritaninsultandbelowmydignitytobefriendyou. Hewasinthehabitofterrorisingtheprisonersandnowhewashelplesslycryingandcringinglike ajackal."Whatdoyousay,SardarSahib?Ihavenotunderstood,"hesaid,"WhatwillIgainifyou dounderstand?Ifyouhavenotunderstooditevennowyouarethegreatestfool,"Ireplied. HethenbeggedformercyinthenameofChristandGod.AssoonasIstartedbeatinghimthe sentrymovedawayintothecourtyard.Hedidsotoavoidbeinganeyewitness.Ifhewasatall calledasawitnesshewouldsimplysaythathewasoutsideinthecourtyard.Hedidnotknow anythingabouttherowandscufflethattookplaceinsidetheprison.TheWhitemanwasstilllying onthefloorundermytightgrip,whenhenervouslylookedaroundandaskedme,"SardarSahib, areyousurethatthesentrydidnotseeus?""Whatofitifhehasseenus?Hewillnotrobmeof anything?"Isaid.TheAssistantjailernervouslysaid,"Ohecanofcoursedonoharmtoyou,butI willberuined.Itisindeedagoodthingifhehasnotseenus.Itwouldmeanaterriblehumiliation forme.ForGod'ssakeleavemenowandpromisemethatyouwillnottellanyonethatyouhave trouncedandspankedmesoterribly.Iwillsuffergreathumiliationifyoudo.Pleasetakepityon meanddoatleastthismuchforme.Youarenotpreparedtoshakehandswithmeandyouwill notbefriendwithme.ForGod'ssakepitymylot.Youareareligiousmanandspendmostofyour timeinprayer.SoIappealtoyouinthenameofGodtosparemethehumiliationImayhaveto suffer."

OnseeinghimsofrustratedanddisconcertedIlethimgo.Hestoodupandhumblyfoldinghis handsheagainbeggedmetopromisethatIwouldnottellanyoneofwhathadhappened.After gettingagoodbeatinghewentaway.Thesentrycametherewhenhehadgone.Hewasvery happythattheWhitemanhadbeentaughtalesson.Iaskedthesentrywhywashesoafraidof him."WhetherIfearhimornot,"hesaid,"Iwillnevergiveevidenceinhisfavour,notevenifI havetolosemyjob."ItoldhimthattheAssistantJailerhimselffearedlestthematterisnotleaked out.HehadtakenapromisefrommethatIwouldnottellanyone.Heappealedtomeinthename ofGodtosparehimfurtherhumiliation,soIadvisedthesentrytokeephismouthshutandnottell anyone.Hewastheonlypersonwhoknewaboutitandhadseeneverything.Thesentrywas extremelyhappytoknowthisandhelaughedsoheartilyoverit,thathecouldnotcontrolhis laughterforalongtime. AssistantJailerResigns AftergettingtheterriblebeatingtheAssistantJailerwentstraighttotheSuperintendentand submittedhisresignation,saying:"Idonotwishtoworkhereanymore." Superintendent:Anyreasonforresigning? AssistantJailer:Whatotherreasoncantherebe?Iamnotpreparedtoserveonsuchatoughjob. Superintendent:Youbettertakeuponlyofficework.Whatistoughinit? AssistantJailer:YouareexcessivelycrueltotheSikhs.Yousitandcommandandhaveallcruelty perpetuatedthroughme.Alltheywantistheirlegitimaterights.InalltheJailstheyhavebeen treatedaspoliticalprisonersandnowinthisjailIhavebeenmadetheinstrumentofthe authoritiestotreattheminanexcessivelycruelmanner.Youdonotdoanythingbutyouorderme todoit.SoIamgoingtoresign.Iamneitherpreparedtohaveanyhandininhumantreatmentof theSikhprisonersnorcanItoleratetheverysightofitnow.Sopleaseacceptmyresignation.In myresignationIhavegivenfifteendays'noticeafterwhichIwillleavethejob,withoutinforming anyone.ButIamnotpreparedtoseetheprisonersundermetreatedsocruelly.Whydon'tyou permitthemtheclothes(turbanandkach)whichhavebeensanctionedbythePunjabgovernment bylawandtheirreligioussentimentsdemandit.Theywillnotwearthecheapunderwearsand coarseturbansspunandpreparedintheJail.AsprisonofficerinchargeoftheprisonersIstrongly recommendedthattheyshouldbegivenallfacilitiesallowedtopoliticalprisoners.Theyare ImperialprisonersbecausetheyhavewagedwaragainsttheKingEmperorundersection121. TheyshouldbetreatedexactlyaswehavebeentreatingGermanwarprisoners. ThustheAssistantJailerspokeverystronglyinfavourofbettertreatmentforus.AlthoughIdid notaccepthishandoffriendship,butbywordanddeedheprovedtobearealfriend,andwas truetohispromise.Althoughheextendedhishandoffriendshipunderduress,butheshowedit byhisdeedthathehadbecomeatruefriend. Afterthisweencounteredverylittletroubleaboutthepermissiontowearturbansandkach(Sikh shorts).Wewereallowedtocolourourturbansinnavybluecolour.Wealsogotthekachstitched aswelikedandneverusedthestripedclothmadeinprisonforitBhaiKartarSinghwasoncemore lodgednearme.HerecitedtheSukhmanifrommemoryandoncemoreIenjoyedtheheavenly spiritualflightsofmeditationandprayer.Ourfriendshipandspiritualrelationsdeepened.They wereindeedthegoldendaysofspiritualexaltation.AssoonasIremembertheblissandjoyof thosegoldendaysofspiritualenlightenment,Ifeelveryhappy.UnfortunatelyIdidnothaveany

notebooktokeeparecordofthewonderfuleventsofthisperiod.NordidIgetanyopportunityto writeanyletterfromtheJailabouttheeventsofthosedays.NowIrememberonlysomeevents. Thememoryofthosedayshasfadedagooddeal.NowIhavetoscrapeupmymemoryandwrite aboutafewimportantevents.Theprisonlettersdidnotcontainthewholestoryofourlifein prison.WhateverIremembernow,Iamrecordingforthebenefitoffriends.MyfriendBhaiKartar Singhremembersalot.Hismemoryisverysharp.Iamgivingyouthegistofimportantevents.As longasthiswickedSuperintendentwasthere,therewerealwayssomeprotestmorchas.Hedid notgiveusanybreathingtime.Hewasalwaysuptosomemischiefortheother. BooksSeized Thephysicaltorturessharpenedmymoralpowersandexaltedmespiritually.Eacharrowofagony deepenedmyfeelingsandhelpedmeinmyeffortstoachievethehighestspiritualrealisation.And onceIsatabsorbedinmysticmeditationnoonecoulddisturbme.EvenifIwasskinnedalivethe fearlessstateacquiredcouldnotbeshakenoutofthismentalandspiritualpoise.Thislame doctor,theSuperintendent,onlycompletedtherevengeofanoldscoreofhislastbirthaswas graciouslyrevealedtomeinmyvisionbytheLordinRajahmundaryprison(seechapter19). Whateverexcessivetorturesheinflictedwillfallonhisheadandheshallhavetosufferforthem formanybirths.Itwasinhisnaturetocontinuetothinkofsomenovelwaysofdoingmischiefand causinginjury.Whenallhisplansandevildesignsweredefeatedintheirpurpose,hetookaway ourbooks,andmanuscriptsofsomebooksIhadwritten.Welodgedmanyreportsagainstthisugly stephehadtakenbuthedidnotreturnourbooksandmanuscripts.Wheneveranonofficial visitorcametoseeus,hewouldagreetoreturnthebooks,butwouldnotdosowhentheywere gone.Sixyearspassedinthisway.UltimatelyBhaiKartarSinghthreatenedtotakedireaction whentheInspectorGeneralofPrisonscameonhisnextvisit.Buthestilldisregardedthethreat. Hethentoldusthathehadburntallthebooks.Wethentookhimtotaskandthreatenedtotake legalactionagainsthimforburningourprayerbooks.Hethentookoutallthebooksandshowed usthattheyweresafe.Hedidnotreturnthemtousbutorderedthattheyshouldbegiventous whenweareeitherreleasedortransferredtosomeotherprison.

CHAPTER22MORETROUBLESINNAGPURJAIL THEJAILERWASpromotedasSuperintendentandsenttosomeotherprison.Hewasreplacedbya JailerwhowasalsoanEnglishman.Thefirstthinghedidafterresumingdutywastocowusdown bymakingsusobeyhumiliatingorders.TheSuperintendentencouragedhimtobestrictwithus. Thefirstorderhegavewasthatwewouldbedeprivedofourrighttoweartheturbansandthe kach(Sikhshorts),andwewouldhavetoacceptapatka(smallpieceofclothtowraparoundour headbutinsufficienttoformaturban)andknicker(tightandclumsyunderwear)inplaceofthe kach,which,asaSikhsymbol,servesthesamepurposeaskhakhishortsserveinmilitaryuniform. Soknickersmadeofcoursejailclothandsmallpiecesofclothwereplacedbeforeusandwewere orderedtowearthem.Wethrewthemawaysayingthatitwasaninsulttoourreligious sentimentstocompelustowearthosethings. Jailer:Howisitaninsulttoyourreligioussentiments? I:Youaregivingusknickersinsteadofkach(specialshorts)ifthisisnotadeliberateinsulttoour religioussentiment,whatelseitis? Jailer:OneofmyassistantshascomefromthePunjab.Hesaysthatthesetypesofknickersare giveninPunjabJails. I:Thekachisspecialtypeofshortswhichisalsooneofthefivesymbols. (SoontherecamethePunjabiAssistantJailer,whothoughapparentlyaSikh,wasarenegadefrom Sikhism). AssistantJailer:OutsidetheprisonallSikhswearthistypeofknickersthesedays. KartarSingh:Sikhsmaybewearingknickersbuttheystilldonotcallaknickerakach.Itisalla concoctedstory.ASikhcannotwearaknickerinplaceofakach.Soldierssometimeswearofficial knickersoverthekach.Youmighthaveseenthemwearingknickersbutnotthekachwhichthey wearunderit.Wearenotpreparedtoreplaceourkach,wearewearing,withtheseclumsy knickerbockers. AssistantJailer:IhaveseenmanyAkaliswearingknickersduringtheAkalimovement.Ihaveseen thembathingwiththem. KartarSingh:Haveyouseeneveryonewearingknickersorkach. AssistantJailer:Someofthemwerewearingknickersandsomeotherswerewearingkachalso. Afteralltheyaremadeofcloth.Whynotcallthemknickers? I:Aknickerisaknickerandakachisakach. AssistantJailer:Whatisspecialaboutakach? I:Youhavetoadmitandfacethefactthataknickerisnotakachandaknickercannotbecalleda kach.

AssistantJailer:Youngmenlikemecallaknickerakach.Whatdifferencedoesitmake?Itisonlya questionofchangingthename. I:Yourassertionisafalseconcoctionwhichwedonotaccept.Andyouaresimplyshowing obstinacyinyourassertion.Youarenotstatingfacts. AssistantJailer:Howisitanobstinateandfalseassertion? I:Youyourselfcallitaknicker.Youknowitthatitisknicker.Andyetyouwantustoassumethatit isakach.Ifthisisnotafalseobstinateassertion,whatelseitis?Ifyouhadalwaysconsideredita kachanddidnotthinkofitasanythingbutthekachthenitwasadifferentmatter.Butyounever reallyconsidereditakach.Youstillcallitaknicker.Butyouinsistthatweshouldassumeittobea kach.Ifthisisnotfalseandobstinateassertion,whatelseitis?Apersonlikeyoumayaswellcalla shirtbythenameofacoat,andassumeapyjamatobepant,andahattobeaturban.Merely makingfalseandaggressiveassertionswillnotturnashirtintoacoat,apyjamaintoapantand hatintoaturban. Jailer(addressinghisassistant):Heisquitecorrect.Iwouldcertainlynotcallahataturban,what tosayofcallingaturbanahat.Yourarguments,Babuji,haveprovedwronginthismatter. AssistantJailer(annoyed):ButSir,thereispracticallynodifferencebetweenaknickerandakach. I:Ifthereisnodifferencewhyaretheynameddifferentlyandwhyaretheyformeddifferently. Yourconscienceadmitsthedifference,butyouarenotpreparedtoabandonthefalseposition. AssistantJailer:IconsiderbothtobeoneandthesameandthatiswhyIdonodifferentiate betweenthem. I:Andyetinyourpreviousstatement'syouadmittedthatsomeSikhsworeknickersandothers kach.Youstillassumethemtobetwodifferentthingsbutinsistthatoneservesthepurposeofthe other.Althoughyouconsiderthemtobeoneandthesameandyetyoudeemthemtobetwo differenttypesofdresses. AssistantJailer(angrilyafterseeingtheJailersmiling):Imeanthereisnotmuchdifference betweenthetwo. I:PleasebringyoursocalledknickerandcompareitwithmykachwhichIusethesedays. Theybroughtwhattheycalledknickers.Actuallytheywerewhatwecalltambis(small underwears).Theyweremuchsmallerthanwhatweregenerallyknownasknickers.Europeans wearmuchlargerknickersthanthosetambis.Punjabiknickersareonlyfashionableimitationof thoseEuropeanknickers.Thehalfpantsaremuchbetterthanthosetambis,whichatleastcover yourbodyuptotheknee.Butthesetambiswerehardlyofnineincheslengthfromthewaist downwards.Whenplacedsidebysidewithourkachtheylookedveryclumsy.Ourkachonthe otherhand,hadafallfromthewaisttoabouttwoinchesabovetheknees.Itwasbaggyandmade outoftwoandhalfyardclothwithaclothstraptotieitatthewaist.Itsshapeandstylewasofthe standardizedkach.WhenaSikhwearsithelookssmartasasoldier.Thetambitheywereoffering didnotevencoverthelowerpartofthebody.Itwasaverytightunderwearwithoutanythingto tieitwithatthewaist.Withonlytambisasthedressforthelowerpartofthebodywewouldhave

appearedlikehalfnakedclowns.Assoonasamansatafterwearingit,heappearedshamelessly naked. AfterexplainingallthisIaskedthem:Wellnowtellmewhetherthisisatambiorakach?Arethey oneandthesamethingandwouldyoustilluseoneandthesamewordforit?TheAssistantJailer wasdumbandsilent,buttheJailerspoke. Jailer:ShallwegiveyouEuropeantypeofknickersinplaceofthesethings?Ihopeyouwouldhave noobjectiontothat? I:AEuropeanknickerwouldalsobeaknicker;itwillnotbeakach.Mr.Jailer,wehavenoquarrel withyou,norcanwecompelyoutodoanything.EuropeanknickerisaEuropeandressandgood foryoubutourdressisthekachandthatiswhatwewant.Ifyoudonotwishtogiveusthekach wecangetthemfromourhomesorfromtheShromaniGurdwaraParbandhakCommittee.Butwe willwearonlythekach.Wewillnotweareitherthehalfpantsorknickers,northesetambis.Ifyou donotgiveusthekachwewillcontinuetousetheoneswearewearingnowandwhentheyare wornoutandnotreplacedwewillgoonhungerstrike.Wedonotdomuchwork.Soifthereisa workstrikeyouwillnotworryaboutit.Inalltheprisonswehavebeengiventheproperkach. EveninthisJailaBritishOfficerhasbeengivingusthekachforthelastfiveyears.Nowtoannoyus andharassusyouarecausingthistrouble.Howcanthosetambisandknickerseverbeconsidered askachoftheSikhs?Theirsizeandstyleareasdifferentfromeachotherasthatofthepyjamaand thepant,orashirtandcoat.Onecannotservethepurposeoftheother.Wewillwearnothing otherthanthekachoftheSikhstyle.Thatistheonlyunderwearknownaskach.Thenthe AssistantJaileropenedhismouth. AssistantJailer:Supposingwegiveyouknickersoflargesizewhichyoutienotwiththebeltbut withastring.Thiswillserveyourpurpose. I:Thequestionhereisnotofservingthepurpose.Whatwewantisourkach.Whygiveusknickers ofgreaterlengthandwhynotstraightawaygiveuspyjamasorsalwars.Ifbymerelytyingastring aknickerbecomesakachwhynotgiveusghaghraswithstringstoservethepurposeofbelts?You areonlyextendinguglyargumentstocausetroubletous.Whatdoyougetoutofit? KartarSingh(addressingtheJailer):TheS.G.P.C.hasalreadysenttoyoupilesofkachasforus whichyouarekeepinglockedup.Bettergivethemtousandsaveunnecessaryexpenditureofthe governmenttopreparenewones. Jailer(angrily):WhotoldyouthattheS.G.P.C.hassentthekachasforyouandtheyarelyingwith us?Idonotknowifanykachhasbeenreceivedfromanywhere. KartarSingh:ThekachassentbySikhorganisationsarestilllyinginyouroffice.Notoneortwobut morethantwodozen.IfyouwanttoknowwheretheyareIcanaccompanyyouandpointoutthe cupboardinwhichtheyarelockedup. (TheJailerwasnonplussed.Forafewminuteshewasspeechless). Jailer(faltering):WellKartarSingh,doyouhaveanyspiritualpowerstoknowsuchthingsordo youhavesomeinformerintheofficewhopassesontoyouthesecretsofouroffice.

KartarSingh:Thequestionofhavinginformersoranyparticularoccultpowersdoesnotarise.The veryfactthatyouhavequestionedthesourceofmyinformationprovesthatyouhavethekachas intheoffice.Thereisnoshortageofthekachasandwecanusethemforyears.IfwhatIsayis wrongandifyouconsideritaninsulttohaveyourcupboardsearched,thenpermitustoinquire fromS.G.P.C.whethertheyhavesentanykachasforusornot.Iftheyhavesent,thenhowmany weresent?Wewillknowthetruth. Jailer:TheSuperintendenthasgivenstrictordersnottogiveyouanythingsentbyprivate organisations.Evenifwehavereceivedanykachas,wecannotissuethemtoyou.Youwillget thematthecostoftheGovernment. KartarSingh:Allright,then,giveusatthecostoftheGovernmentYoumust,however,returnthe kachaswhichS.G.P.C.hassenttoyou. Jailer:Wewillgiveyoustripedclothmadeinjailandyoucangetthemstitchedbytheprison tailor. I:Wehavenoobjectiontoclothmadeintheprisonbutitshouldnotbestriped.Itshouldbeplain clothofthetypeissuedtousbefore.Itshouldalsonotbeverycourse. Jailer:Ifyouobjecttothestripeswewillremovethemall. I:Howwillyoudothat? Jailer:Wewillcolourthemblack.Soyouwillgetplainclothwithoutstripes. I:Byplainwemeanthatitshouldnotbecoloured,norshoulditbestripedorchequered.When weobjecttostripesandcolourdesignsonthecloth,howcanweacceptcolouredclothforkach (Sikhsdowearcolouredturbans,blueandblackbeingfavouritecolours,theyhowever,objectto colouredKach(underwears)). AssistantJailer:AlltheAkaliswearblackkachas,nowadays. KartarSingh:Theywearblackturbansbuttheycertainlydonotwearblackkachas. AssistantJailer:Isawthemwearingblackkachasonlyaweekago. KartarSingh:Wedonotbelieveitnorisyourassertionworthbelieving. AssistantJailer:SupposingwesecurefromS.G.P.C.Amritsarpermissiontoallowyoutowearblack kachas,whatthen? I:IfbothAkalTakhatAmritsarandTakhatHazurSahibNanderissueorderstoustowearblack kachaswewillwearthematonce. KartarSingh(addressingme):BhaiSahib,doyouthinkAkalTakhatcaneverasktheSikhstowear blackkachas?Thesepeopleareconcoctingmisleadingstories.Howcanwetrustthesepeoplethat theywouldeverinquirefromtheAkalTakhat?TheymayevenforgeaHukamnama(edict)and showittous.

I(addressingKartarSingh):Itispossiblethattheycanconcoctanynumberofstories,butIdonot believetheywillbeabletoforgethesealandsignaturesoftheJathedarsoftheTakhats. KartarSingh:Thatisright,(addressingtheJailer)DoyouaccepttheproposalJailerSahib? Jailer:WeshallnotonlywritetothembutinquirefromtheJathedartelegraphicallyaboutthe matter. KartarSingh:ButyoumustmentionthenameofBhaiSahibRandhirSingh.Youmustmakeitclear thatBhaiSahibRandhirSinghandhiscompanionsobjecttowearingblackkachas. TheJaileracceptedtheproposalandwithinaweekwewereshownthenewordersstatingthatwe wouldbegiventhetypeofkachaswewant.Wehadcometoknowthatthedecisionwasinour favourbutwedidnotknowwhoconvincedthem.Victorywasoursinthisfightforourrightto wearoneoftheimportantSikhsymbols. MyChildrenMeetMefortheFirstTime WealwayshadtroublesomedisputeswiththeJailauthoritiesaboutlettersandinterviewswith visitors.Theywereneversincereortruetotheirpromisesandassurances.Theynevergaveusthe facilitiestowritetoourrelativestowhichallpoliticalprisonerswereentitled.Weweregiven letterswrittentousbyourrelativesaftercensuringthemandafterkeepingthemintheirofficefor threemonths,whattospeakofpermittingmeetingwiththemembersofourfamily. DuringsevenoreightyearsofimprisonmentinNagpurprison.Iwasallowedtomeetmywifeand childrenonlyonce.BhaiKartarSinghwasnotpermittedtomeethisrelativesevenonce.Iwasalso allowedtoseethemoncewitheverypossibleobstructionandannoyanceatthetimeofmeeting.I wasgivensolemnpromisesthatIwouldbegivensufficienttimetomeetmywifeandchildrenbut atthetimeofthemeetingthemischievousSuperintendentandtheJailersuddenlychangedtheir attitude.Mylittlechildren,whohadneverseenmeforyears,anddidnotrecognizemeasthey weretooyoungwhenIwasimprisoned,travelledhundredsofmileswiththeirsorrowfulmother, withthehopethattheywouldbeabletomeettheirdearfatherforafewhoursandfeelthe warmthofhisembraceandlove.Theyhadbeengivenassurancethattheywouldbegivenfree timetomeetandtalktome.Itwasasadthingthattheirdesiretomeetmefreelycouldnotbe fulfilled. TheSuperintendenthadassuredmealso,thatjustasIwasgivenaboutfourhourstomeetmy wifeintheHazaribaghprison,Iwouldbegivenampletimetotalktothem.Ihadmadeitveryclear tohimthatmywife'sapplicationtomeetmeshouldbeacceptedonlyifshewasgivenampletime totalktome,otherwiseitwasnotnecessary.Ihadnotmetmychildrenforsomanyyearsandthis beingthefirstmeeting,itwasessentialthatitshouldbepurposeful.TheSuperintendentgavehis wordofhonourthathewouldallowustomeetfreely.Buthewentbackonhiswordandbrokehis solemnpromise. AfterlongyearsofpainfulseparationcamethedaywhenIwastoseemylittleonesandmywife. BhaiSunderSingh(ofvillageGhuman,DistrictLudhiana)escortedmydearwifeandchildren, whomlongseparationhadmadeatragicpictureofsorrowandsuffering,extendingfromthe banksoftheSutlej(Ludhiana)toNagpurwhichformehadbeenthecityofNagas(snakes).Butas soonastheycametotheNagpurprison,theYamaoftheprison(theSuperintendent)stoodin theirwaylikeahoodedcobra.

InNagpurtherewasalocalityknownasPunjabiLines.Theresidentsofthislocalityweremostly Punjabis.TherewasaGurdwarainthePunjabilines.Touristsandtravellersgenerallystayedinthe PunjabiLines.ItwasinthePunjabiLinesthatmywifeandchildrenhadtostayafterreaching Nagpur.ButthemischievousSuperintendentspreadoutthornsontheirwayallaroundthecityto maketheirmovementdifficult.C.I.D.menandprisonsentrywerepostedallthewayfromPunjabi LinestotheNagpurJail.Therewerepolicepicketstowatchtheirmovementseverywhere.A specialpolicepicketwaspostednearthehouseofBhaiManshaSinghofPunjabiLines.Bhai ManshaSinghhelpedandlookedaftertheneedsofeveryvisitorfromPunjab.Heentertained mostoftheminhisownhousewithunusualzealandhospitality.Thewholefamilywasdisciplined inthenobleidealofselflessservice(nishkamseva).ThisGurmukh(divine)familywasoverjoyedto learnthatthewifeandchildrenofthepatriotwhohadsufferedsomuchfortwelvelongyearsin prisonhadcomefromfarofPunjab.Healreadyhadadeeploveforme.Evenbeforemyfamily reachedNagpur,hemadeuphismindtolodgemywifeandchildreninhisownhouse.Hedidnot careafigforpolicepickets.HedidnotfeartheJailauthorities.Determinedtorendertheutmost heldtotheinnocentandhelplessvisitorsfromthePunjab,hewenttoreceivethemonthestation. WhenmywifecametoknowthatapolicepickethadbeenpostedattheresidenceofBhai ManshaSingh,andtheauthoritieswerepreparedtoannoyandharasseveryonewhohelped them,theydecidedtostopinthehouseofayoungOverseerfromNarangwal,myhomevillage, namedSardarMohinderSingh.ThisOverseer,beingagovernmentservantwasnotatall suspected.Hereceivedmyfamilywithgreatjoyandhospitablewarmth.Knowingtheharassment causedtoBhaiManshaSinghforhelpingme,thebraveandheroicsoul,SardarMohinderSingh, tookallrisksandnotonlyentertainedthemwithgreatrespectanddevotionbuteventooktherisk ofaccompanyingthemtotheprisonforinterview.Duringthosedaysitwasanunusuallyheroicact foragovernmentservanttodaretomeetafreedomfighterlikemewhowaslistedasthemost dangerousrevolutionary,arrestedunderSection121.Whenheinterviewedwithme,twoPunjabi C.I.D.inspectors,oneHinduandtheotheraMuslim,satoppositehimflankingmeonbothsides. ImmediatelyafterthemeetingastrongpolicepicketwaspostedoutsideSardarMohinderSingh's house.Theyeventhreatenedtosearchhishouse.ButSardarMohinderSinghfearlesslylooked aftermywifeandchildren.Thepoliceharassedandannoyedthosewhohadcometomeetand eventhosewhoentertainedthem.Butnoonewasintheleastworriedaboutpolicethreats,and continuedtolookaftermywifeandchildrenwithunswervingdevotion. Thosewhosawthemeetingorganizedbetweenmeandmyfamilyweresorelygrievedand shocked.Whilemakingarrangementstheyappearedtogivegreatimportancetoit.Ahugetable wasplacedinthereceptionroomandchairsplacedonboththesides.TheJailersatattheheadof thetableinahugechair.Thosewhocametomeetwereseatedontherightside.Oppositethema chairwasplacedforme.AroundmesatC.I.D.officersandmembersoftheJailstaff.Atfirstmy wifeandchildrenwhowereaccompaniedbyBhaiSunderSinghandSardarMohinderSinghwere seatedonthetable.AssoonasIenteredtheroomtheC.I.D.officersoccupiedtheirchairs.Achair inbetweenthemwasreservedforme.AssoonasIenteredtheroomtheystoodup.Imovedupto embracemyson,BalbirSingh,whowasaboutfourteenyearsoldandmytenyearsolddaughter, DalerKaur(BalbirSinghwashardlyfourandDalerKauronlyoneyearoldwhenBhaiSahibRandhir Singhwasimprisoned.Theywereactuallyseeingtheirfatherforthefirsttimeinlife). ButthecruelJailerplacedhisarmsandlegsacrossthepassagethroughwhichIintendedtomove ontheothersideofthetabletoblessmydearones.Iwasshockedandasked:"Wouldyounot allowmeeventoembracemychildrenoreventoblessthem?Whatisthemeaningofallthis?I

haveseenthemafterelevenortwelveyears.TheywerelittlesucklingbabeswhenIwas imprisoned?HowisthatIcannotgivealittlelovetotheminthisfirstmeeting?" Jailer(sternly):Youcannotbestowanyloveonthem,norcanyouembracethem.Youcanonly seeandtouchthemfromadistance.Donotgonearthem. (Onseeingmyeyesflamingwithanger).Icannothelpit.Sucharetheorders.Donotbeangrywith me. I:Whoseordersarethese? Jailer:ThesearetheordersoftheSuperintendent.Gotohisroomandifyousecurehisorderto allowyoutomeetfreely,Iwillhavenoobjectionwhatsoever. IhurriedlywentstraighttotheSuperintendent.Twosepoysaccompaniedme.Withouteven knockingatthedoor,Iliftedthecurtainandhastilyenteredtheroomwheretheprisonyamawas sitting.Seeingmeenterhisroominhothastewithouthispermissionhisfacebecamepale."What doesallthismean?"Iasked."CanInotevenembracemylittleonesandsomuchaseventouch themoratleastblessthem?Isityouwhohaveissuedsuchaheartlessandcruelorder"Haveyou arrangedameetingordoyouwantthemattertotakeatragicturn?Iamnotpreparedtobe satisfiedwithsuchameetingwhichyouhavearranged.YoumustordertheJailertostopallthis." Superintendent:Ihavegivenhimallthenecessaryorders.Ihaveauthorizedhimtogivewhatever concessionshewantsonhisown.Iamnotpreparedtoissueneworderstohimnow. I:Thismeansthatyouareresponsibleforsuchcruelandcallousattitude.Itisyouwhohavegiven suchstrictorders. Superintendent:IhavealreadytoldyouthatIhavegivenhimfullpowerstoarrangeameeting betweenyouandyourkithandkin.Iamnotpreparedtointerfereinhisarrangement.Iamnot preparedtodiscussthematteranymore.Goandhaveyourmeetingwithyourpeopleanddonot wastetime. I(camebackandaddressedtheJailer):TheSuperintendenthasgivenyoufullpowersandhedoes notwishtointerfereinyourarrangement.Sonowtellmewillyouallowmetomeetmywifeand childrenasyoupromisedornot" Jailer(inanofficioustone):Allrightfirsttalktothemandthenyoucangiveyourlovetoyour children.Sitdownquietlyonthechairandtalktothem. C.I.D.Officers(bothofthemwithonevoice):SardarSahib,nowyoucansitdownandtalktoyour people.TheJailerhaspromisedyouandyoucannowgiveyourloveandblessingstoyourchildren lateron. I(addressingtheC.I.D.Inspectors):YoucannevertrusttheseJailauthorities.Theyhave dishonouredmanysuchpromises. Inspectors:Wewillnowsupportyou.Weareresponsibleforit.Youbettertalktoyourpeopleand donotwasteyourprecioustime.

AttherequestoftheC.I.D.InspectorsIsatdowntotalktomywifeandmyfriendswho accompaniedher.Theyalsosatdown.Sofartheyhadkeptstanding.Ihadhardlyinquiredabout theirwelfarewhenafteraboutfifteenminutes,theJailertookouthiswatchandsaidthathalfan hourwasover.Hehadincludedeventhefifteenminuteswastedinmyattempttoremindthemof theirsolemnpromises. I:Youhavegivenushardlyfifteenminutes.Youhaveincludedeventhefifteenminuteswastedin disputeoverthemannerinwhichthemeetingwasarranged. Jailer:Iamnottobeblamedforit.Youwastedthetime.Wehavebeensittinginthisroomforhalf anhour.Ordinaryprisonersaregivenonlyfiveminutes. I:YoupromisedthatyouwouldgivemeagooddealoftimejustasIwasgiveninHazaribagh prison. Jailer:AboutthepromiseasktheSuperintendent.Iwasorderedtogiveyouonlyhalfanhour. I:Youwerealsotherewhenyouassuredmethatfreetimewillbegiventomeetmypeople.Both ofyougaveasolemnpromiseandnowyouaregoingbackonit. Jailer:IamdutyboundtoobeytheSuperintendent.Ihavetoabidebyhisorders.Youcangoto himandaskformoretime. IagainwenttotheSuperintendent'sofficeandsternlysaidtohim:"Shameindeedonyourbroken promises.IfIknewit,Iwouldneverhaveaskedmypeopletocomefromsuchalongdistance.You urgedmetoinvitemywifeandchildrentomeetmeandassuredmethatIwouldbegivenample timetotalktothem.EncouragedbythisassuranceIsentatelegramtomywifethroughyou. UnfortunatelyneitherdoIhaveyourpromiseinwritingnoracopyofthetelegram,withwhichI couldputyoutoshame. Superintendent:Whatisthematternow?Whyareyousoangry? I:WhyshouldInotbewrathful?Itisyourheartlessandcruelattitudethathasinflamedme. Superintendent:Butwhatisthematter? I:Hehasgivenmeonlyfifteenminutes.TheJailersaysthatyouhaveorderedhimtoallowonly thismuchtime. Superintendent:WellRandhirSingh,Ihavegivenfullpowers.Ifhewantshecangiveyoumore time. I:Youpromisedtoarrangethismeetingandgiveampletimeforit. Superintendent:WellRandhirSingh,mypositionisveryawkward.IfsomethinghappensIwillbe finished.IamafterallanIndian;whatmattersifIampostedasSuperintendent.Surelyyoudonot wantmetolosemyjob.YouknowwhathappenedwhenMasterMotaSingh'srelativescameto meethim.Longarticleswerepublishedagainstus.Isavedmyskinwithgreatdifficulty.EvenGod

fearsyoupeople.GoandsettletheissuewiththeJailer.HeisanEnglishman.Hewillhandlethe matterashelikes.Ifhegivessomemoretime,takeitwithagentleapproach. I:Iamnotgoingtobeghimformoretime,noramIgoingtoappealtohimagain.Ihavetofight formyrights.Remember,youpeoplewillhavetosufferbitterlyforallthisinjustice,crueltyand callousness. SosayingIcameoutoftheroom.BythetimeIcamebacktheJailerhadsoftenedabit.Onthe recommendationoftheC.I.D.InspectorsIwasallowedtotalkforfifteenminutesmore.Butwhat couldItalkinsofewminutesandseconds?Howcouldaheartfilledwiththeyearsofseparation frommydearonesexpressitselfwithinfifteenminutes?Wewerenotallowedtodiscussnational mattersandPanthicproblems.Wecouldnoteventalkaboutimportantfamilymatters.Wewere frequentlycrossquestionedaboutthepeoplewetalkedaboutandthuswecouldnottalkfreely evenaboutourkithandkin.Assoonasfifteenminuteswereoverwewereaskedtopart immediately. Weweresooverwhelmedbythepangsofsuddenmeetingandcruelseparationagainthatwe evenforgottogreeteachother.Allthatwecoulddowastolookintoeachotherssorrowfuleyes withpoignantsorrowofthisshortmeetingcruellybrokenup.Iwasnotallowedtoembracemy sonanddaughter.AllIcoulddowastostretchmyhandacrossthetableandblessthem.Theone desireofmychildrentoembracetheirfatherremainedunfulfilled.Icouldnotshakehandswith myfriends,BhaiSunderSinghandSardarMohinderSingh.Controllingtheirgriefatthecruel separation,andsuppressingtheirsorrowfulemotionswithgreatdifficulty,allofthemmovedout ofthereceptionroom.Mysonanddaughterlookedbackatmewithsorrowfulinnocenteyetill theywereoutofsight. Overwhelmedwiththepatheticsituation,andwoundeddeeplybypoignantpainoftheshort meetings,Iwasbroughtbacktomydarkcell.Thisbairagyadeepenedmyconcentrationonthe divineName,andImeditatedonHispresencewithrenewedinspiration.Theintoxicatinglovethat hadbeenmademorepainfulbythepiercingwoundsofseparationofthedearonesintensifiedthe spiritualpracticeofHisdivinepresence.Waveafterwaveofdivineinspirationhelpedmymindto soarfarabovethemundaneworldintothehighersphereofcosmicconsciousness.Themindthat washankeringforloveandunionnowsoaredintotheblissofinfiniteloveinitssolitarysearchfor Hisennoblingpresence.Isatintheblissfulpoiseofthissahajyasamadhitillitwastimefor eveningprayers.IrecitedtheRehras(eveningprayer)whenIcamedowntonormalconsciousness, andthenperformedtheardasainalovelornjoywhichonerarelyenjoys. OncemoreIbegantothinkofmylittleones.Icouldseetheirinnocenteyespiercingdeepintomy soul.WithmyinnervisionofspiritualinsightIsawthemsadandbroodinggloomilyovertheir unfulfilleddesires.Theywerereflectingoverthementalagonyofthecruelseparation.Astheir spiritualinsightwasstillunawakened,theyfeltverysadandlonely.Iprocuredapenandpaper andstartedwritingalettertomywifeandchildren.InthatlovelornconditionIwrotemany pages,hardlyknowinghowitwouldbepossibletosendthelettertothem.Havingwrittenthe letterIwasreflectingastohowcouldtheletterbesenttothem,whensuddenlyGodhelpedme andsentanangelicpersontodothedifficulttaskinauniqueway. Thosewereverydifficulttimes.Greatprecautionsandstringentstepsweretakentocreate difficultiesandobstructionsforeveryonewhoeventhoughtofus.ItwasquitedarkwhenI suddenlysawamanstandingclosetothebarsofmycell.Hewaswearinggreycolouredclothesto

avoidbeingeasilyspottedoutIrecognizedhimtobeDr.MansukhourMedicalOfficer(Dr. Mansukh,themedicalofficeroftheprisonhailedfromAmritsar).Iwaswonderstrucktoseesuch aresponsibleofficercomingtomeatthistimeofthenightandtakingsuchseriousrisk.Icouldnot believethatthepurposeofhisvisitwasanythingotherthanexpressinghisdeepfeltsympathyfor me.Surprisedgreatly,Ispoketohim I:Whatbringsyouhere,mydearandnoblefriendandwellwisheratthistimeofthenight? Dr.Mansukh:Greatandgloriousindeedisyourbraveheartandpowersofendurance.Onlywith suchabigandcourageousheartandsoulyouhavefacedterribleordealsintheprisonforyour country,otherwisewhoelsecould?Yourmeetingwithyourwifeandchildrentodayhadapathetic effectonalleyewitnesses.ForhoursIcouldnotcontrolmytears.EvennowwhenIthinkofthat patheticmomentIcannotcontrolmytears.Iamalsoafather.Ihavelovelylittlechildrenwho cannotbearseparationfrommeevenforaday.WheneverIgohomeafterdoingmyofficeduties theyclingtomeanddonotleavemeaslongasIdonotgivethemmylove.Howbraveareyour littlechildrenwhohavenotseenyouormetyouforelevenlongyears,andnowwhentheyhadan opportunitytomeetyoutheycouldnotembraceyou,feelthewarmthofyourarmsandclingof theirfather'sbreast.Evenaftertwelveyearstheydidnothavethesatisfactionoftalkingtoyou, tellingyouoftheirplightintheirsweetinnocentlanguage,feelingthecoolingjoyoftheirfather's love.Greatindeedistheheartandsoulofthesechildren.Myheartbreaksandmysoulleapsout inagonyattheverythoughtoftheirsorrow.Ohbravepatriotandsaintsoldieroftheheroic community,believeme,thatthisSuperintendentandJailerarethemostinhumanbutchers,who takebrutaldelightintheslowtortureofhumanbeings.Beforetheykillanyonetheytakesadistic delightinseeinghimgroanundertorture.Theirconscienceisdead.Thereisnotatraceofpityor compassionforthesufferingofotherpeopleintheirhearts.Evennowmyheartisfullofsorrow.If youwishtoconveyanymessagetoyourpeopleletmeknow.Iwilltakeitpersonally. I:Iamextremelygratefultoyouforyoursympathy.Godhassentyouhereataveryopportune moment,butIhesitatetoputanoblesympathizerlikeyoutotrouble,ortakeanyriskformysake. DrMansukh:Justtellmewhatistobedone,andIwilldoitevenattheriskofmylife. I:Mynobleandcompassionatefriend,therearepolicepicketsallroundandeverycrossingonthe way.Howwillyoureachtheplacewithoutbeingquestionedorsearched? Dr.Mansukh:PleasetellmewhereIamtogo?Doyouwantmetogototheplacewheretheyare staying?Donotworryaboutme.WherevertheyareIwillgolikelightningandfindthemand conveyyourmessage.Iknowthattherearepolicepicketseverywhererightuptotheirhouse.But Iwilldisguisemyself;goonabicyclewhenitispitchdarkandpassthroughthepolicepicketslike lightning.IwillgoatallcostevenifIhavetogointhemiddleofthenight. Iwasdelightedtoseehiscourageandknowhisplane.IhandedovertohimtheletterwhichIhad written,whichhehidinhissecretpocket.Heheldmyhandwarmlyandthenplaceditonhishead intenderaffectionandsoughtmyblessingsandthenhequietlywentaway. TheletterswhichIsentoutthroughhimoreventhosesentlaterthroughtheauthoritieswouldbe ofgreatinterestforthedevoteesoftruth.Thecrueltyandthebrutalityoftheprisonauthoritiesis vividlypaintedinthem.Tosootheusdownabitandtocalmdownourwrathonnotallowingusto meetourrelatives,theprisonauthoritiessuddenlygaveuspermissiontowritelongletterstoour

homes.WecouldwriteeverythinginthoselettersprovidednothingwaswrittenagainsttheJail authorities.Wewerepermittedtowriteonlytwolettersinthreemonths.EvenifIwrotelettersof thirtypages,theJailerdidnotobject.Aftershowinginhumancrueltytheynowwantedtocreatea goodimpression.Buttheysenttheselonglettersaftergettingthemcensured.Thosewho censuredthelettersactuallycouldnotreadthem.Theywereexpectedtotranslatethewhole letterwordbyword,butitwasanimpossibletaskforthem.Onlyonewhowasexpertinreading andtranslatingPunjabilanguageinGurmukhiscriptcouldtranslatethem.Afterfindingthetask impossibletheysentbriefandsuperficialsummariesoftheletterstotheauthoritieswithout actuallyreadingthem.Theresultwasthatwewereabletowriteanythingwelikedevenagainst theprisonauthorities. Onedifficultywasthatthelettersweredetainedforalongtimebythecensuredepartment.Only whenwesentanumberofreminders,weretheysenttotheDeputyCommissionertobepostedto ourpeople.TheirreplieswerealsoreceivedthroughtheDeputyCommissionerafterbeing censured.Thusreplytoaletterwasreceivedafterthreemonths,anditisonlyafterthreemonths wewereallowedtowriteanothertwoletters.Weobjectedtotheselongdelaysandeven reportedthemattertoofficialandnonofficialvisitors.Wedemandedthatatleasttheletters writtentoourwivesshouldnotbecensured.Noonetookthematterseriously.Verbalandformal promisesweregivenbutnoonetookupthematter.Anyway,bythegraceoftheGurudays passedininwardpeaceandinhighspirits.Weneversubmittedtoanycoercionorthreat. BirthofanIllegalChildinthePrison Weoverlookedmanyatrocitiesperpetuatedbythejailauthorities.Butattimeswehadtotake sternactiontoexposetheirbrutalities.Awomanprisoner,undergoingimprisonmentforfour yearsgavebirthtoanillegalchild.Thefaceandeyesofthechildrevealedthatitwasoffspringofa Whiteman.TheIndianmembersoftheprisonstaffwereterriblyshocked,buttheywereafraidto bringthemattertothenoticeofthehigherauthorities.Theygrumbledandmoanedthetragic incidentbutdarenottellanyone.Atlasttheysoughtourhelpandtoldusthewholestory.On hearingaboutthisterribleaffairweweregreatlyshockedandstunned.Weweredeterminedto fightandexposethesepeople. DuringthesedaysMasterMotaSinghalsowasbroughttoourprison,foraboutayear.Healso enduredgreathardshipsbuthelivedintheprisonfearlesslyfightingagainstinjustice.Hewas shockedtohearthisstoryandwasrestless.Hewasabouttotakeaverystronglinebutwe requestedhimtoallowustoprobethematter.Withgreatdifficultyweconvincedhimthatwe shouldfirstbringthemattertothenoticeoftheSuperintendent.WhentheSuperintendentcame onaroundwewarnedhimthathorriblethingswerehappeninginhisjail.Wewouldnottolerate suchbestialcrueltyandilltreatmentofinnocentIndianfemaleprisoners.TheSuperintendent sidetrackedtheissuebysayingthatthewomanwassufferingfromabdominaltumour.Therewas nothingwrong. Butfalsehoodhasnofooting.Wemighthavebelievedittobeatumourcasebutonthethirdday suddenlywereceivedanothershockingnewsthattheillegalchildhadbeenmurderedatnightand earlynextmorninghewasburnttoashes.Wealsoheardtheweepingofthewomanfromthe Femalewardoftheprison.Nowwewereconvincedofwhathadactuallyhappened.Wewerenow waitingfortheprisonofficerstotakethemtotaskwhentheycameonaround.Wewereaflame withuncontrollableangeroversuchinhumancruelty.WesoonsawtheSuperintendentandhis staffcomingtowardsusanddiscussingsomematterbetweenthemselves.Weoverheardalittle

conversationbetweentheDeputySuperintendentandtheJailerabouttheincidentwhichwasas follows: DeputySuperintendent:Whenwewenttothefemalewardonaroundthechildwashaleand hearty.Howisthathediedsuddenlyatnight? Jailer:Thematronhasreportedthatthechildwassleepingwiththemotherandinhersleepthe mothercrushedthechildunderherbodywhiletakingaturnonthebed. DeputySuperintendent:Thisisunbelievable.Suchathingcanneverhappen. TheDeputySuperintendenthadjustutteredthesewordswhenhecameclosetous.Sowe decidedtotakehimtotask: I:Sothetumourcasereallyhappenedtobeanillegalchildandnowyoucruelpeoplehave murderedhimatnight.Aftercommittingonecrimeafteranother,younowwishtogetawayby sayingthatthemothercrushedthechildunderherbodyinsleepwhiletakingaturnonherbed. EvenanimalsdonotkilltheirlittleoneslikethatandyouwishustobelievethatanIndianmother didit.Haveyoueverheardthatevenacoworanyotheranimalcrushingheroffspringunderher body?Doyouthinkawomancanbesocarelessthatshecannottakecareofherchildlyingbyher side?Itisallaconcoctedstory.Howlongwillyouhideyoursinsandcrimes?Wearenowreceiving newsthattheSikhPanthistryingforourreleaseandwewillbereleasedsoonenough.Wewillnot letthisstorybehushedupandbecomestale.Wewillchargeyouallwiththemostgruesome murder.ThepunishmentyouareboundtoreceiveintheotherworldwheretheJusticeofGodwill certainlyfallonyourcrimes,isathingapart. Superintendent(interrupting):OnlyfoolsbelieveinthejusticeofGodandpunishmentintheother world.Youwillbeinourgripfortherestofyourlife.GiveupthevainhopethatyourPanthwill getyouyourrelease.TheBritishGovernmentisverypowerful.Itwillkeepyouinprisonforall yournaturallife(referringtome).Giveupallhopesofbeingreleased.Youarereceivingfalse reportsandhopesofyourearlyrelease.Ifyoubehaveproperlywithusyourlifeintheprisonwill beeasier,butifyouspoilyourrelationswithus,youwillfaceuntoldhardshipsandtroubles. MasterMotaSingh:Itiscriminalslikeyouwhowillsufferhumiliationandtheworstpunishment foryoursinsandcrimes.Wewillseethatyouarepunishedforyourcrimesinthisworldonly.If BhaiSahibRandhirSinghisimprisonedforlife,Iwillbereleasedsoonenough.Itisquitepossible thathemaybereleasedmuchearlierthanme.ButitisquitecertainthatIshallbereleasedsoon. Ifwearehelplessaboutthematterhereinprisonwewilltakeyoupeopletotaskassoonaswego outofthejail.Wewillchargeyouwithmurderinthecourt.Canyoueverescapethepunishment ofsuchagruesomemurder? OnhearingthethunderingthreatofMasterMotaSinghtheSuperintendentandJailerslinked away.Theydidnotstopforamoment.WhilegoingawaythelameSuperintendentsaid:"Mota Singh,Iwillseethatneitheryounoryourcompanionsarereleased."Dragginghislimpingleg,he wentawaywithhisstaff. AfterafewdaystheyinstitutedacaseagainstMasterMotaSinghforsecretlysending communicationsoutsideandhisimprisonmentwasincreasedbysixmonths.Butwhileappearing inthecourtforthatcaseheexposedthecrimeoftheprisonofficialsandputonrecordsofthe

courtthewholestoryofthebirthofanillegalchildandhismurdersoonafterthat.However,we learntlateronthatnoonetookanyseriousactionagainstthem.WelearntfromtheJailerthathe wasdowngradedforanotherthreeyearsinconnectionwiththiscase.MasterMotaSinghwas deportedtoBurma. AftersometimewhenDr.NilkanthaJatar,theSuperintendentwastransferredandinSeptember orOctober1928whenMr.H.L.KhanwasappointedtheSuperintendent,Iwasalsoaccusedof sendingalettertomyrelativesoutsideandmylifeimprisonmentwasincreasedbysixmonths.To uswhowereimprisonedforlifethisdidnotmeanormatteranything.Theevilmongersdidtheir worstandforu6itdidnotmakeanydifference.BythewillofGodmyreleasehadbeendelayed butthosewhotookindecentdelightincrimeandinhumantreatmentoftheprisoners,were boundtosuffertheworstpunishmentintheCourtoftheJustGod: Justiceismetedouttoeveryone, Sinnersaresingledoutforpunishment; Theyfindnoasylumorescape, Humiliated,theyarecastintohell. GuruNanak:AsadiVar InhumantreatmentofaChamar(Cobbler)prisoner (Chamars:TheOxforddictionaryrightlydescribetheChamarsasmembersoftheverylowcasteof Indialeatherworkers,tannersorshoemakers.Thechamarshoweverneverdotheworkof sweepers). ThehobblingSuperintendentDr.Jatarindeedcommittedsuchinhumancrimesthatsomeofthem aretooshockingtobedescribed.Hewillcertainlybepunished,andwithhisfaceblackenedhewill certainlybecastintohell.Iwillrelateonlyonemoreincident: ThereweresomeprisonersoflowcastetribesknownastheBhilsandGaund.Theyweremostly cobblersbuttodotheworkofsweepers,cleanersoflatrines,wasnottheirprofession.Theywere forcedtocarrybucketfulloffaecesandexcretion.Theyconsideredittheworsthumiliationtodo suchdirtywork.TheylodgedinnumerableprotestspointingoutthattheBhangisshouldbe employedforthispurposeandtheyshouldnotbeforcedtodosuchfilthywork,butallfellondeaf ears.OnedayBhaiKartarSinghandIwerelockedinabarrack,throughthelargewindowsof whichwecouldseetheprisonoffice.TheSuperintendentwasgoingonhisdailyroundandone RamjiDasaChamar(Cobbler)prisonerwaspresentedtotheSuperintendent.Hewasaccusedof refusingtodotheworkofBhangis.TheofficerwhowasreportingwasaShiaMuslim. Superintendent(addressingtheChamar):Well,whydoyourefusetodotheworkofaBhangi? I:Sir,itisnotmyprofessionthatiswhyIhaverefusedtodothiswork. Superintendent:Whoseworkisit? Chamarprisoner:Sir,itisthejoboftheBhangis. Superintendent:Whatdoyouthinkyouare?

Chamarprisoner:Sir,IamaChamar(cobbler).Youcanaskmetodoanyleatherwork.Iwillmake andmendshoes.Youcangetanyworkdonefrommeintheleatherfactory.Iwillnotdothework ofaBhangi. Superintendent:Willyounotobeymyorders? Chamarprisoner(humbly):Sir,Ifinditdifficulttoobeythisorder.Youcanmakemeobeyany otherorder. Superintendent:Iwillmakeyouobeythisveryorderandgetthisveryworkdone. Chamarprisoner:Sir,thiswillbeexcessivecrueltyonapoormanlikeme. Superintendent(addressingtheWarder):Nooneshouldlistentohisprotests.Useforcetomake himobeytheordersandcompelhimtodotheworkoftheBhangis. HewasfirstbeatenandthenfiveorsixBhangisthrewbucketsfulloffaecesandfilthonhisbody. Whenhestillrefusedtodothefilthyworkhewasorderedtobethrownintoadrumoffilthand faeces.Butthemenfailedtopushhimdownintothedrum.Heresisteditstoutlywithhislegs. Whenhewasoutofcontrolanumberofmenstretchedhimonthegroundsatonhisbodyand pouredthedrumfulloffaeces,urineandfilthonhisheadandevenattemptedtoputsomeofitin hismouth.Wecouldnotcontrolourselves.Wecameoutofourcellsandthreatenedtopunish them.WeshoutedatWarderManoharLallwhowascarryingoutthisfilthytoture."Youdirty devil",wesaid,"doyoudaretodoallthisinourpresence.Stopitatonceotherwiseitwillgohard withyou." OnhearingourthreateveryoneturnedpaleandslinkedawaytakingRamjiDaswiththem.The poorman'slifewassavedfromfurthertorture.Wehavenotbeenabletoforgetthishorriblesight untilnow.ManyBhilswerefloggedandforcedtodothisdirtywork.Therearesomanyawful storiesofthehellishtreatmentaccordedtohelplessprisonersthatitisdifficulttodescribethem all.TherewasamazabhiSikhnamedHardyalSinghwhowasalsoforcedtodothisdirtywork,but wesecuredhimtherighttowearSikhdress. LettersfromNagpur(MostoftheseletterswerewrittentoBhaiSurjanSingh.GyaniNaharSingh andotherfriends.Althoughtheauthorhasreferredtomanyincidentsinhisnarrative,written afterreleasefromprison,theselettershaveahistoricalvalueandallofthemarepreservedhere. TheSikhPanthonknowingthatBhaiSahibRandhirSinghandBabaKharakSinghwereundergoing untoldhardshipsfixedadayonwhichthewholeCommunity,theworldoverprayedforthetwo greatfreedomfighters.ThedayfixedbyS.G.P.C.wasFebruary1,1923.) FirstLetter Amilliongratefulthankstotheblessedorganisation,theShromaniGurdwaraParbandhak Committee,andtheSikhPanth,bywhoseinfinitekindness,Ihavebeengivenrenewedinspiration, Iamasacrificeuntothegreatday(February1,1923)whenthewholeSikhPanthprayedforme andthislittlecreature,frailinbodyandspirit,wasgivenboundlessspiritualinspirationand courage.IambeholdeneverymomentforthatsacredmomentwhennobleandenlightenedSikhs everywhereofferedaprayerwhichdestroyedallsufferingandhadsuchamagneticeffectonmy disillusionedmindthat,"thedeadmiraculouslycametolife."otherwisetheoilinthisfrailbody hadverynearlybeenexhaustedandtheflamewasflickeringandabouttobeblownout.

IfeltthemiraculousinfluenceoftheprayeroftheSikhPanthintheprisonparticularlywhenIwas abouttosaymyeveningprayer,whensuddenlymywholeinnerbeingwasablazewithstrong spiritualwavesfromtheUnknown.LittledidIknowthateveryman,woman,andchildoftheSikh Panthwasconcentratingonaferventprayerformeandtheirspiritwasinwardlyinunisonwith mylonelysoul,andtheirheartwasbeatingforme.Likeanelectriccurrent,thisblessingfromthe Unknownstimulatedmysoul. WheneversuchthinghappensIgenerallynotethedayandtime.SoIparticularlynotedthe eveningofFebruary1st1923,whenitwastimetorecitetheRehras.ButIcametoknowofthe actualhappeningfromyouraffectionateletterandaposterthroughwhichthedaywas announced,sentalongwithyourletter.Iwaswonderstruckandfeltexaltedwhenthedateand timesentbyyoucoincidedexactlywiththatwhichwasnotedbyme.SoexaltedandilluminedI feltthatthesublimejoyisunforgettable.Ithasindeedbroughtthedeadtolife.Withthespiritual supportIhavereceivedthroughthisnationalprayer,notonlywillmysoulremainstrongbutthis bodywillalsosafelycompletethewheelofitsdestiny.Sonowallmyfriends,brotherseekersof truth,membersofmyfamilyandrelatives,theleadersandenlightenedseersoftheSikhPanth shouldcompletelyceasetoworryaboutme.BecauseoftheprayerofferedbytheSikhPanthfor menotahairofmybodywillsufferinjury. WhentheSikhPanthhastakenmeunderitsprotectivegracethroughthisprayerallmysorrow andsuffering,physicalandmental,havedeparted.I,ahumblecreature,reallydidnotdeservethe honourandaffectionbestowedonmebytheSikhPanth.ThiscompassionoftheSikhPanthand deepsympathyformegivesmeperpetualjoyadcourage.Iamconvincedthatbythegraceofthe GuruandtheSangat,allmysearchwillfindfulfilment.DearbrotherIagreewithyournoblewords writteninyourletterthatitisallthe"willofGod."OfthisIamquiteconvinced.Ihavebeen hearingthisvoice,withinmebutyourletterhasconfirmedthetruth.Whoarethesepeoplewho couldinflictsufferingontheirownandharmme?Ididnottakethisinnervoiceveryseriously before.NowIfeelitwithinmyheartandsoulandamconvincedofthetruth. "Cry,Lord,Lord;andremainnotunconsciousofHim."Thisisapreciousmessagetomeindeed, withwhichyouhaveblessedme.IcannotboastthatIcaneverachievethisstateofconcentration. ButbythegraceoftheGuruandtheSangatitisnotdifficulttoachieve."MaytheGurugiveevery poreofmybodyahundredtongues,andeachtonguerepeattheNameofGodamilliontimestillI amcompletelylostintheOneNameoftheLord.AndthusmyconcentrationonHispresencemay gofarbeyondnotbeingunconsciousofHim,butintounbrokenSamadhiofHisvision.Itisforthat supremestatethatIseekblessings.MayIgofarbeyondthestateofaChatrik'sthirstandcryfora dropofrainwater,tothesatiationintorrentsofrainofdivinegrace"(ChatrikalsoknowninIndian languagesasPapihaorBabihaisthecommonHawkCuckoo). "InscrutableandagonisingisthewillofGod:"WhoknowsHiswillindeed.ThoseonwhomHe showersHismercyareabletoabidebyHiswill.WhoknowswhatpleaseththeGod?WhatamI? Onlyaninsignificantcreature.TheGuruandSangatalonecansaveme.Itisthesavinggraceand affectionoftheGuru.WhatelsecouldimpeltheSangattoprayforme?ItisIwhohavebeen deprivedoftheSangat.IamthirstingforthepresenceoftheGurudeva:GuruGranthSahiblikea papiha. UndertheveilofHisinscrutableWill,menlikeBabaRamSingh(theNamdharileader)have disappearedforever,andnevercameback(BabaRamSinghwasthegreatNamdharileader,who diedinBritishprisoninBurmaunderverymysteriouscircumstances.Hisfollowers,inspiteofBaba

RamSingh'sstrongprotestsandinstructions,organisedthemselvesasingroupofSikhism, claimingRamSinghtobethetwelfthGuruinsuccessiontoGuruGobindSingh(TenthGuru).Never hashistorybeensoartlesslymanipulatedtoprovethisimpossiblefact,asdonebyhisfollowers afterhisdeath.TheSikhPanthresentedit.ButitisclearfromBabaRamSingh'sprisonLettersthat heneverposedordesiredtobecalledtheGuruleastofallthespiritualsuccessorofGuruGobind Singh'Translator). WhatamI,apoorcreature?BabaRamSinghwasunfortunatelydeprivedofthelovinggraceofthe SikhPanth.IammorefortunatethanhiminthisrespectthattheGuruPanthhasadeepconcern forme.WhenevertheGuruPanthneedsmeitwillacquiremyservices.Withthelovinggraceof theSikhPanthbestowedonme,Ideemmyselfmostfortunate.IfIstillthinkofmyselfasunlucky, itwouldbeveryungratefulofme.ButGodandHiscreatedSikhPantharecompassionateon ungratefulpersonsalso."TheMightyarmedinspiresmightyfaith."Ihavekeptwithmethecopyof theShabad,whichwasrecitedafterthePanthicprayerforme.Youhavebroughtsomanythings forme,butitispity,thatfatedoesnotallowmetousethem.Ifyouhadcomeandmetmeat RajahmundaryprisonIwouldhaveacquiredeverything.Youcouldhavemetmeasfreelyasyou metmeatHazaribagh.TheofficersofRajahmundaryprisonwerequitegenerous.Althoughthey wereEuropeans,theywereverynobleindeed.Theytreatedmewithgreatrespectandtreatedme asasaint.WhenIlefttheRajahmundaryprisontheygavemeyellowturban,whichIamnow wearing,asagift.TheoneyearwhichIspentatRajahmundaryprisonwasayearofgreatfreedom andjoy.RajahmundarywasindeedaRajmandir(templeoffreedom)forus.ButGodhadordained thetroublesandtorturesofthisjailalso.Sobeit."SorrowandjoyarebyThywillOLord";"IfThou givestjoyandhappiness,IwillthinkofThee;IfThougivestsorrowandsuffering,Iwillstillthinkof Thee."(LetterNo.18writtentoBhaiSurjanSingh). Letter2 IamconvincedthatthenewgentlemanwhohascomeisMasterMotaSingh.Hehasbeensent herefromLayllpurJail.TheJailauthoritieshavestartedtorturinghimalso.Justastheytriedto compelustostandupwithhandsstretchedoutandsay"SalamSahib,"likeslavesandbeggars,he isalsocompelledtodoso.Thisistheorderfromwhichtroublestartedwithus.ButMasterMota Singhisabraveandfearlesspatriot.Heisnotafraidoffacinganyphysicalsuffering.Histroubles willincrease.Godaloneknowswhatmayhappen.Heretheconditionsareworsethanwhatthey everwereinAurangzebsraj.Allthreeofusarekeptfarapart.Ifyouinformsomemembersofthe localcouncilabouttheinhumantreatmentaccordedtotheprisoners,thenitisquitepossiblethat MasterMotaSinghmaybesavedfromthecrueltywehadtoundergo,andnoinjurymaybe causedtohisfaith.(LetterNo.19). Letter3 Whatistheuseoftakinglegalactionagainstthesepeople?IleaveeverythingtotheCourtofGod. Heistheonewhowilljustifypunishthebadandrewardthegood.Whatistheuseoftaking revengethroughlawcourts?Ihadtotellyoueverything.ThemanuscriptofthebookwhichI wroteisinthepossessionoftheSuperintendent.Heassuredmethathewouldreturnitafter gettingread.Hehaspromisedtokeepitsafely.Hecannotconfiscateit.Whenhecalmsdownhe willreturnit. NagpurJailhasturnedouttobethedwellingofNagas(snakes).Althoughtheysucceededin breakingmyvowbyforce,buttheconcentrationandcontemplationofdivineNamehas deepened.Myspiritsoarshightothe'highestblissandaestheticjoy.Theinwardsorrowofbeing forcedtobreakmyvowhasindeedupsetme,andIamgrievedaboutit,buttheinnerillumination

andspiritualexaltationhashelpedmetoregainmypoise.SoonwhenIamcompletelyabsorbedin blissofspiritualjoy,tracesofthissorrowwilldisappear.Thatdaywillindeedbeablessedday.But itappearsonthatdayImayalsobetemptedtodiscardmybody,ifGoddoesnotwillitotherwise. MayGodbringthatdaycloserwhenmylightblendscompletelywithHisLight.Conveythis messagetoallmyfriends,dearbrother,that: Theyearsandthesacreddayfortheweddingisfixed Comrades,pouroilatthedoortowelcomethebride; Givemeyourblessings,Ofriends, IdepartformyunionwithGod. GuruNanak;Sohila ItiswithsuchblessingsofsaintlysoulsthatI,adwellerofthelowerworldsmaybeliberated.My strongrequestisthatnooneshouldcometomeetme.TheSangathasalreadytakenalotof troubleforme.AfriendnamedBhaiRaghbirSinghalsocametomeetmefromPunjabbutwasnot allowedtomeetme.PerhapsyouknowthatMasterMotaSinghisalsosubjectedtountold torturesbutheiskeptfarapart.EvenBhaiKartarSinghiskeptfarapart.Ihavewrittenandsentto youmylifestory,butyousaythatyouhavenotreceivedit.Thishassurprisedmegreatly.NowI endtheletterhere.(LetterNo.20). LetterNo.4 IhavebeendelightedtoknowthatthePanthhasundertakentocleanthepondoftheGolden Temple(ThecleaningofthepondofGoldenTemplecommencedonJune17,1923).Blessedare theSikhswhohaveanopportunitytoservethereinthatdivineservice(karseva).Blessedand fortunateareyouall;TheGurusaid:"Hewhohasservedtodigthepond,arebeyondpraisefor theirnobleservice."Weintheprisonherefeelourselvestobemostunfortunatefornotbeing abletoparticipateintheholytaskandforthefirsttimeinmylifeIfeeltheburdenofamisfortune whichhasdeprivedmeofthisservice.Someevillotofthepastkarmaappearstohavedeprived meofthissacredopportunitytoservetheGuru.OnegetstheopportunitytoservethePanthin manywaysbutthisopportunitycomesonceinmanyyears.Andwhentheopportunityhadnow comeaftermanyyearsIambroodinggloomilyovermymisfortuneinJail.WhileIcongratulatemy blessedbrotherswhohavegotanopportunitytoservetheGoldenTemple,Iamindeepagony overthethoughtthatIamunabletodotheslightestserviceinthisdivineservice.Reflectingon thewheelofmykarmaIfindsolaceonlyintheinnerpeaceofHiswill.EvenifIhadbeengivena littleopportunitytodothisservice,Imighthavespentmydaysinpeace.ButhereIamquite helpless. ItappearsthattheLordofmydestinyhaswilfullythrownmeintotheovenofsuffering.Untilnow evensorrowandsufferingweresweet,andIenduredalltheagonyofseparationwithout complaining,buttodayIfeelactuallythepangandtheconsequencesofthisseparation.Itis indeedamiserablelifeledintheburningovenofseparation. Blessedareyouall,andfortunatetoo.Taketheutmostbenefitofthisopportunity.Ah,whyshould Idisturbyourpeaceofmindwithmysorrowandagonyatthismoment?ButIcouldnothelp givingexpressiontoit.Mycongratulationstoyouallfortheopportunityyouhavegot.Iam extremelygladthatthegovernmenthashandedoverthekeysoftheGoldenTemple(Durbar Sahib)totheleadersoftheSikhPanth(LetterNo.21).

LetterNo.5 IhavejustheardunconfirmednewsthatinimitationofotherpatriotsmanySikhsalsoshout sloganslike:GandhikiJai,LajpatRaikiJai,etc.Ifthisiscorrect,thenitisaveryshamefulthingto doso.WeSikhsneverglorifyanyhumanbeingandweseekthesupportandinvokethehelpinall ourworkofGodonly.Ifweglorifymanandinvokehisstrengthwewillneversucceed.Godand Godalonecanhelpus.OurGurusplacedusundertheprotectivegraceGod,andleftittothe AlmightytomothertheKhalsa.WepraiseandrememberGodonlyandwearenotsupportedto glorifyanyman.OursloganisSatSriAkal,TrueandGloriousistheImmortalLord.Theperfectand allpowerfulSikhGurusneveraskedtheSikhstoglorifytheirname,orshoutslogansintheirname. TheynevernamedtheSikhPanthaftertheirname.TheycalleditthePanthoftheAlmighty.Ifthe disciplesofsuchaPanthwhosespiritualrootsareintheSupremeandImmortalBeing,stoopso lowastoglorifyordinaryhumanbeingsandshoutslogansinthenameofpettypoliticians,then theseSikhsarebringingdisgraceandbadnametothehighidealsofGuruGobindSingh.Itis againsttheteachingsoftheSaviourofthePanth. Leteveryonereflect:"DidGuruGobindSingheveraskhisdisciplestoshoutsuchslogans"Guru GobindSinghKiJai."ThroughoutSikhhistory,Sikharmies,Jathas,congregationsnevershouted suchslogansas"GuruGobindSinghKiJai".ThestrictcommandoftheGuruwastoglorifyonly God.Hetaughtagainandagain,clearlyandfirmlythatineveryworkwedo,andforseeking inspirationforeverycauseweshouldseekthesupportofGodalone,anditisthishighandnoble idealwhichmakesourfaithpureanduniqueandworthyofbeingcalled"Khalsa".GuruGobind Singhwasallpowerfulandperfectbeing,yetheneveraskedhisSikhstoglorifyhisname,and shoutslogansinhisname.HedidnotevennamethePanthafterhisownname.Hegaveusthe greeting:Vahegurujikakhalsa,andVahegurujikiFateh.TheKhalsaseekstheprotectionof AlmightyGod.VictoryuntotheAlmightyGod.Thiswasthelessonthathetaughtusthatwe belongtoGodandweshouldglorifyandshoutthevictoryofGodalone.Whateverisdonebyus shouldalwaysbedonebyseekingthegraceofGod.Wearenottofollowotherpeopleandglorify pettyhumanbeings. Wearetoparticipatewithothercommunitiesforthecommonfightforfreedomanddharmabut wehavetodoitonthemoralandhighspiritualidealsandprinciplessetdownforus.Inour historythegreatheroesoftheSikhPanthhavealreadysetmanynobleexamplesforusandwe havetoabidebythose.Ouraimisnottoseekpoliticalpowerbuteliminateslavery,and despotism.Swarajyaforusdoesnotmeancapturingpowerandenjoyingtheluxuryofhighliving, buttoestablishtheruleofdharma,righteousnessinallitsaspects,wemustremainfreefromthe lustforpower.ThisisthegreatlessonourSaviourGuruGobindSinghtaughtus. Evenifwehaveourownrule,wearenevergoingtosubmittotherulebasedoninjusticeand discrimination.AnyGovernment,nativeorforeign,whichtriestosuppressourlegitimate demands,andperpetratestyrannyandoppression,andcausesinjurytoourreligioussentiments, willhavetofaceouropposition,andbythehelpofGodwewilluprootit.Onseeinghumanity livinginpeaceandhappiness,theSikhshouldfeelhappy.Onseeinghumanityinsorrowand sufferingtheSikhshouldbegrieved.Butwhateverservicewedotohumanityorourcountry,it shouldbedoneundersublimeinspirationandnobleprinciplesofGurmat(SikhPhilosophy).The LightwereceivedfromourtruedevotiontoGodandtheGurushouldbetheguidingprincipleof ourfightforrighteousness.AserviceofhumanitydoneunderthissublimeinspirationoftheGuru wouldbethetrueserviceofhumanity.TheloveforGodcantherebybethesoleguidingmotive forserviceandloveforhumanity.RememberthegreatidealoftheGuru:

Iseeknotkingdom,Iseeknotsalvation, IseektheloveofHislotusfeet. (LetterNo.22) LetterNo.6 PhysicallyIambetterthanbefore.AttimesIsufferfrompilesbutitisautomaticallycured. Thereforeisnothingmuchtoworryabout.YouhavebeenkindenoughtoperformAkhandPath forme.Thishasgivenmegreatspiritualdelight.Themotivewithwhichitisbeingperformedis boundtobearfruit. YouhaveinformedmethatallmylandhasbeenconfiscatedbytheBritishGovernment.Itisno newsforme.Formeithasbeenconfiscatedsincealongtime.Ah,whatdoIcareforsuch confiscationofland?Whenthesefalserulerscarryoutthreatsandtakeprideinfalseconfiscation ofmyland,Icarenotafigforit.IthasnotworriedmeintheleastbutontheotherhandIfeel exaltedspirituallyforgladlysacrificingallforthesakeoffreedomandmycountry. (LetterNo.23) LetterNo.7 Allthreeofusarestavinginthesamebarrack.AccordingtothewillofGodourdaysarepassing well.StrangearethewaysofGod.EverydaywehearsomestrangenewsoftheordealstheSikh Panthisfacing.Thedaysofseparationfromthesangatarealsogettingprolonged.Ihavebeen deprivedofthegreatopportunitytodokarseva(divineservice)oftheholypondoftheGolden Temple.Nowthereisnospecialanxiety.SoifInowmeetyouallonceforawhile,thentheone longingthattroublesmemayberealized. (LetterNo.24)

CHAPTER23THESPIRITANDPERSONALITYOFTHESikhs WECAMETOknowthatthenextdayDrNilkanthaSuryanJatarwasgoingawayforgoodandthe InspectorGeneralofPrisonswascomingthere.Whenanofficercameonaroundwetoldhimthat SuperintendentN.S.Jatarmustseeusbeforeheleaves.Hecould,ifhewished,callusinhisoffice. WehadtosaysomethingtohimbeforewequestionedtheInspectorGeneralofPrisonsthenext day.Weweresoonaskedtomeethimintheoffice.Thevillainwassittingtherealongwiththe JailerandthenewSuperintendent,Mr.L.H.Khan. Mr.Jatar:Nowwhathaveyoutosay? I:WearegoingtoreporttotheInspectorGeneralPrisonsthatourbooksandmanuscriptshave notbeenreturned.Willyoupleasetelluswhereourbooksare?Ifyouhaveburntthem,youmust giveitinwriting.Secondly,youaregoingtoJubbalpurasSuperintendent;whynottakeuswith you? Mr.Jatar:Sofaryoualwayssaidthatyouwantedtogetridofme,nowyouaskmetotakeyou alongwithme.Whatisthemeaningofallthis? I:Wehavegotusedtoyou.Youhavedoneyourworstwithusandweknowhowtodealwithyou. YouwillnowgotoJabbalpurandunnecessarilyharassourcomradesBhaiNidhanSingh,Pundit JagatRamandBhaiSawanSingh.TheyareveryhappyunderMr.Rajras,theSuperintendentof Jabbalpurprison.Theyhaveagoodlibrary,atennisgroundforgamesandmanyotherfacilities. Thefirstthingyouaregoingtodotothemistolockthemupindarkcells.PunditJagatRamis writingsomebooksthereintheprison.Youaregoingtoburnallthosebooks.Youhaveburntall ourbooks.Youwillunnecessarilytorturethem.TheyhavelivedhappilyunderMr.L.H.Khan.Soif theyarebroughtheretheywilllivehappily. Mr.Jatar:WhynotmakePunditJagatRam,thepoliticalprisonertheSuperintendentoftheprison. I:Heisasintelligentasyouare.IfyoucanmakehimaSuperintendent,whynotdoso. Mr.Jatar(unnerved):Thebookshavebeenburnt.Ifyouwishtoinstituteacaseagainstmeyou candosowhenyouarereleased.Whathashappenedhasalreadyhappened.Itcannotbeundone, (tearsrolleddownhiseyesashesaidthesewordswhichhewipedwithhishandkerchief).Icannot takeyouwithme.TomorrowmorningyoucanlodgeanyreportagainstmetotheInspector General.IhaveinstructedMajorH.L.Khanhowyouaretobetreated. I:WhatotherinstructionscouldyouhavepossiblygiventoMajorH.L.Khanexcepttotortureusas youhavebeendoing?ButIdonotthinkhewouldbesofoolishastofollowyourinstructions.Can henotusehisbrain?(Aftersayingthiswecameback). ThenextdaytheInspectorGeneralcamethere.Heexaminedmyhistoryticketwhichwaswithme andaddressingtheSuperintendenthesaid: InspectorGeneral:Youcouldsettlethismatterofregisteredletteryourself.

Superintendent:Theenvelopewastornfromoneside.IdidnotknowGurmukhi,soifanythingout oftheregisteredletterhadbeenlostIcouldnottakeanyresponsibilityforthesame. InspectorGeneral:Youcouldopentheletterinhispresence. Superintendent:IfIhadopeneditinhispresencehewouldhavereaditatonce.SoIsentitbackto thepostoffice.Theyaskedustosendtheprisonertothepostofficebutweexpressedour inabilitytodoso.SoIwrotebacktothemthatthelettershouldbesentbacktotheplacefrom whereithadcome,anditshouldbesealedproperlythereandpostedagaintothisplace. (WethenbroughtthematterofourbookstothenoticeoftheInspectorGeneral). Superintendent:Ihaveburntthosebooksandnowtheymayorderandgetnewones.Yesterday theyweretryingtobefriendmeandevenaskedmetotakethemalongwithmetoJabbalpur. I(totheInspectorGeneral):Youarenowawitnessofthefactthathehasburntourreligious books.Hehasadmittedthisfactinyourpresence. InspectorGeneral:Whenyouarereleased,youcantakelegalactionagainsthim. IthentoldhimaboutmyironicallywordedtalkofbefriendingMr.Jatar. KartarSingh:Wedonotknowwhenwemaybereleased.Weshouldbepermittedtoinstitutea caseagainsthimfromtheprison. Alongwiththeprintedbooks,hehasdestroyedmanuscriptsandnotesforwritingnearlyfourteen books.Itispossiblethatwhenwearereleasedyoumaynotbehere,oroneofusmaynotbehere. ItisalsoquitepossiblethatthisSuperintendentmaybedeadbythattime.Sowewantthecase shouldbeinstitutedagainsthimnow.OrwemaybepermittedtoinformtheS.G.P.C.Theywilldo everythingforus. InspectorGeneral:IamnotpreparedtohearanythingagainstmySuperintendent. I:Thenwhydidyoucomehereassuringusthatyouwouldlistentoourcomplaints.Youneednot listentousnortotheSuperintendent.Wewilldealwithhimdirectlyinthebestwaypossible. Onhearingthis,theInspectorGeneralwentaway.ThenextdayDr.Jatardidnotcome.Hisbrother whowasaCommissionermetamotoraccident,andhisleghadtobeamputated.LikeDr.Jatarhe alsobecamelame.Dr.Jatarstayedforanothermonthtolookafterhisbrother.MajorL.H.Khan wassentbackforamonthtoJubbalpur.Hecamebackafteramonth. Duringhisstayofanothermonth,suddenlyonedayDr.Jatarfoundourbooksandmanuscripts lockedupinacupboard.OnoneofhisroundshesaidtotheJailer;"Afterallthebooksarefound." Wealsocametoknowaboutit.Onthedayhewastoleavehesaid:"WellRandhirSingh,checkup allyourbooks."ThenaddressingthenewSuperintendenthesaid."Thesebooksshouldbe returnedtothemeitherwhentheyaretransferredtoPunjabJailorwhentheyarereleased." Thus,afterthemostcruelandinhumantreatmentheaccordedtous,Dr.Jatarwastransferredto JubbalpurastheSuperintendentofthatJail.BeforehelefthemisguidedthenewSuperintendent andaskedhimtotreatusasharshlyaspossible.HehoweverleftstrictordersthatBhaiKartar

SinghandIshouldneverbeallowedtogettogether.Healsoleftwrittenordersthatthebooks shouldbegiventousonlywhenwewerereleased. Anywayhedidhisutmosttoharmusevenwhilegoing.HethenwenttoU.K.forashortwhileand becameaMajorbutwasagainsentasJailSuperintendenttoaplacewheremanyheftyPathans andhabitualoffenderswereimprisoned. APathantakesrevenge SomeofthesePathanprisonersunderDr.JatarhadearlierspentsomeyearsinNagpurJailwith us.Theywereeyewitnessestothetyrannyadtorturesthismaninflictedonus.Soassoonashe reachedJabalpurthePathansmadeuptheirmindtopunishhimforhismisdeeds.EveryPathan madeuphismindtoteachhimalessonwhichhewouldneverforget,andthusavengethecruelty heperpetratedinNagpurJail.WithinamonthofhisarrivalatJubbalpuraheftyPathanoneday caughtholdofhimandgavehimagoodbeatingwhenhecameonaroundalone.Hewasmadeto suffergreathumiliation.ThePathanwasfloggedforwhichhedidnotcare,butJatargotwhathe deserved.WhenduringaninquirythePathanwasaskedwhydidhebeatandinsultDrJatar,the Pathansaid:"ThiscruelmaninsultedandtorturedoneofourSikhbrothers,thewellknown patriotandfreedomfighterBhaiRandhirSingh.Ihaveavengedhiscrueltytothegreatpatriot.But IamnotsatisfiedwiththepunishmentIhavegivenhim.HedeservesmoreandifIgetan opportunityIwillbeatandinsulthimagain."ThisiswhatthefearlessPathansaidevenafterbeing severelyflogged.ThenextweekanotherPathancaughtholdofhimandgavehimagoodthrashing forflogginghisPathancomrade.Afterthisincidenthebecamelessarrogant,butnotless mischievous.WelearntallthisabouthimfromtheprisonerswhocamefromJubbalpurtoNagpur. AfterthiswedonotknowwhathappenedtohimandGodaloneknowswhatpunishmentawaits himforhismisdeedsafterdeath.EveninNagpurJailfiveorsixSikhprisonerswhohadbeen imprisonedforthefreedomtowearKirpan,wereanxioustobeathimbutIpreventedthemfrom doingso.OneSikhandPathanhowevermadegoodtheirescape.TheSikhwaslateronrearrested. IrememberonlytwonamesoutoftheseSikhs,BhaiInderSinghandBhaiPyaraSingh.Theseeds ofevilwhichhesowedwouldneverdryup.Illtreatmentcontinued.ThesecondSuperintendent wastransferredafterayear. ThencametoNagpuraSuperintendentnamedMr.Gupta(Idonotrememberhisfullname).He wasverygenerousandnoble.Whenhecame,BhaiKartarSinghandIwerekeptapart.Thenew Superintendenttreateduswellanddidnotgiveusanytrouble.Hecouldnotcanceltheharsh ordersalreadygivenbuthedidnotissueanyneworderwhichwasannoyingtous.Hewas preparedtoshowleniencyinmanymattersbuttheJailer,aWhiteman,wouldnotpermithimto doso.Wewereimpressedbyhisgenerosity.Helistenedtoourcomplaintswithacoolmind.He wasalsoverysympathetictowardsus.Iwouldliketomentiononeortwoincidentsofhis generosity. PersonalityandHairoftheSikhs OnedaytheJailerprocuredusaveryfoulsmellingoilforapplyingtoourhair.Hechargedfor superioroil.AftersmellingitIreturnedittotheJailersayingthatwewantbetteroil.Thatoilcould bereturned.Ihadwashedmyhairwithcountrysoap.Icouldnotcombmyhairwithoutapplying oil.AndIcouldnottakemyfoodtillIhadcombedmyhair.ImadeitquitecleartotheJailer. EveryoneknewaboutthisprincipleoftheSikhsexcepttheSuperintendent,Mr.Gupta.Iwashed myhairearlyinthemorningandthencamenoon,andthentheeveningbutnoonebroughtthe

oil.Theygavepromisesnowandthenbutnoonebroughtit.SoIdidnottakemymealsforthe wholeday.ThenextdaywasSundayandtheJailer,aWhitemandidnotcomeonaround.The SuperintendentgenerallydidnotcomeonSundays.OnthethirddaytheSuperintendentwasbusy inanotherOctagen,anddidnotcometoourblock.Noonethoughtofbringingoilforme.The Superintendentwascompletelyignorantaboutit.OnthefourthdaytheJailerreportedtothe SuperintendentthatIwasonhungerstrikeforfourdays.TheSuperintendentcametomewiththe wholestaff. Mr.Gupta:WellRandhirSingh,eversinceIhavecomehereasSuperintendent,thisisthefirsttime anyonehastriedtoannoymebyhungerstrike.Youhavenottakenmealsforfourdays.Willthat notfallascurseonme? I:WellSir,Ididnotgoonhungerstrikeconsciously,norareyoutobeblamedforanything.By chancethingstooksuchaturnthatIhadtogowithoutfood.Ihadwashedmyhairwithcountry soapbutIdidnotgetanyoil,withoutwhichtheycannotbecombed.IfIknewthatIwouldnotbe gettingoil,Iwouldnothavewashedmyhairwiththewashingsoap.Withthissoapthehair becomeverydryanditisnoteasytocombthemwithoutapplyingsomeoil.Theoilmakesthehair smoothandthenwhilecombingtheydonotbreakawayorbecomeentangledwithoneanother.A Sikhissupposedtocombhishairtwicedaily,andwithoutcleaninghairhecannottakehismeals. ThisisthestrictreligiousorderwhichIhadtoobey.AsIdidnotgettheoilpromisedtome,Idid nottakeanymeals.Ididnotgoonhungerstrikeasaprotest. Onhearingthis,theSuperintendentreprimandedthewholeofhisstaffandaskedthemwhydid theynotinformhimaboutthematter.Heimmediatelyorderedthatabottleofgoodoilbe brought.AfterhalfanhourtheSuperintendentpersonallybroughttheoil.Andthefollowing dialoguefollowed. MrGupta:Iamextremelysorrythatunnecessarytroublehasbeencausedtoyou.Allthis happenedinmyabsence.Ihavegreatrespectandfeelingforyourreligioussentiments,andwe shouldrespectyourreligioussentimentwithdueconsiderationbutIamsorrytherehasbeen inadvertentdisregardforthem.AslongasIamherethiswillnothappenagain. I:Iamextremelygratefultoyou.Thefactisthatintheprisonandoutsideinallgovernmentoffices honestyandsincerityhasdisappeared.Selfishnessandprofiteeringisthemainmotive.Thestore keepersoftheprisonprocurethecheapestthingsandchargethegovernmentthehighestprices. Noonecarestoinvestigatethecorruptionprevalentintheprisons.Poorprisonerswillnever complain,andiftheydo,noonelistenstoit.Wehavehadbitterexperiencesofsuchthings.They profiteereveninsmallthings.InthisprisontherearehardlyeightpoliticalSikhprisoners.Atthe mosttheyrequireonebottleofcoconutoilpermonth.Butthesepeoplewishtomakeprofiteven outofthis.Theybringtheworstoilandchargethegovernmentforthebest.Theyrobthe governmentandexploittheprisoners. Mr.GuptalistenedtoallIsaidandacceptedwhatIsaidaboutthecorruptpracticesoftheprison officials.He,however,assuredthathewouldnotletthesethingshappen.Whiletalkingtomehe atonceraisedaquestion:"Isitveryessentialtokeephaironthehead?" I:Isitveryessentialtokeepyourheadonyourshoulders? Mr.Gupta:Thebodycannotsurvivewithoutthehead.

I:Butsupposingthebodysurvivesaftertheheadiscutoff,wouldyoucutoffyourhead. Mr.Gupta:Theheadisapartofthebodyandaveryprominentpartofit.Itisonlytheheadthat completesthebody.Withouttheheadthebodycannotbewhatitis? I:Haveyoucreatedtheheadonthebody? MrGupta:No,Godhascreatedit,andplaceditonmyshoulders. I:BecauseGodhasgivenyouthishead;therefore,youfeelittobeanessentialpartofyourbody. Haditbeenmadebyyouandplacedonyourshoulders,youcouldconvenientlytakeitoff,when everyouwishedtodoso. MrGupta:Yes,ofcourse.ButwecannotremovewhathasbeengiventousbyGod. I:SupposingsomeonecutsoffyourGodgivenhead,whatwouldyoucallhim? MrGupta:Murderer,killer,andslayer. I:Ifsomeonequestionsyou,whyhaveyoukeptyourheadonyourshoulders,whatwouldyou say? MrGupta:Itwouldbeveryfoolishofthatpersontoputsuchaquestion. I:JustasGodhasgivenusthisheadandmadeitapartofourpersonality,soarehairgivenbyGod andmadepartofourpersonality.AsthehairisalsogivenbyGod,thequestionyouhaveposed, "whyisitessentialtokeepthem"isnottenable.Thequestionisoutofplace.Ihavenotcreated thishairmyself.GodgavethemtomeandIhavekeptthem.JustasGodhasgivenusthehead, andwekeepit,soalsothehairontheheadhasbeengiventousbyGodandwekeepit.Soitis thedutyofeverymanandwomantopreserveandmaintainthem.Youcallamanwhocutsoffa person'shead,amurderer,aslayer,akiller,wouldyounotconsideramanwhoremoveshishair equallycruel?IsnotonewhodestroysaGodgivengiftanimportantpartofourpersonality,a bloodthirstyoppressor?Ithinkheis. MrGupta:Youcannotcallhimamurderer;Youcancallhimbyanyothername. I:Whynotabloodthirstymurderer? MrGupta:Becausewhenyoucuthair,nobloodcomesout. I:Soyouthinkthatwhennobloodcomesout,andwhensomeonedestroysapartofourbody,it isnotcruelty,andleastofallmurder.Supposingsomeonestranglesaperson,wouldyounotcallit amurder?Nobloodcomesoutandthemaniskilled.Idonotwishtoprolonganydiscursive discussion,butyouwilladmitthatnowadayssomanymethodshavebeendevisedtokillmanthat notadropofhisbloodcomesout.Wouldyounotcallthesemurdererskillers,andbloodthirsty slayers?Whatelsewouldyoucallthem? MrGupta:ButSir,excuseme,ifIsay,thatwhenyoucutofftheheadofaperson,youcannot replaceit,butifyoucutoffthehairofapersontheygrowagain.Adeadmannevercomestolife,

butwhenwedestroylivinghair,newonesgrowinitsplace.Thereisagooddealofdifference betweencuttingone'sheadandcuttingone'shair.Evenifbotharecrimes,thereisvastdifference betweenthetwocrimes. I:Doyoubelieveinthetransmigrationtheory. MrGupta:Yes,Idobelieveintransmigrationtheory. I:Thenaccordingtothattheory,youdonotdieevenwhenyourheadiscutoff.Thesoul(Atman) isbornagain.Sothosewhomurder,killnothing.Thesouliseternal.Theyrelieveapersonofone birthinacycleofbirths.Bydoingsotheyindirectlydogood.Butthemandoesnotdieafterbeing killed.Hewillbebornagainandagain.Thisiswhatactuallyhappens.Yethewhokillscommitsa futileact,hedoesnotdogood.Sotheywhocuttheirhairagainandagaindonogood,noristhere anyvirtueinit.Thehairthatiscutagainandagainjustasamanwhoiskilled,isbornagainand again.Theonlydifferenceisthatthesoulmaybebornindifferentformsandmaybeevenbornas ananimalThehairoftheheadcontinuetogrowwhencut.Manfoolishlycutsthehairanditgrows again.Thatishownatureslapsthefoolwhogoesagainstitsrequirement.Thustheattemptofa mantodestroyhishaircompletelyisasfutileastokillamanoranimal. ThelifeandSpiritoftheAtmansurvivesaslongastheSpiritandvitalforceofGodispresentinit. Similarlythelivingessenceofthehairwillcontinuetobethereaslongasthebodyandhead survivewiththeSpiritofGod.ThehairofthebodyistobepreservedandkeptcleanjustasNature hascreatedthem.Thehairoftheheadgrowstoanaturallength.Beyondacertainlengththeydo notgrow. Thosewhoputonartificialhairtobringthemtoafashionablelengthgoagainstnatureanddoa foolishthing.Womendonotgrowanybeardontheirfaces.Ifanywomanwants,shecannot.Just asitisunnaturaltotrytodevelopbeardsonthefacesofwomen,itisunnaturalandwrongto destroythenaturalhairthatgrowsonmen'shead.Mennaturallygrowbeardsontheirfaces.But thefashionablepeopleshaveiteverymorning.Everymorningnatureslapsthemonthefaceby resistingtheirattempttoremovethebeard,buttheyareunconsciousofit.Theywanttomake theirfaceslookexactlylikethoseofwomen.Menhavegoneagainstnaturebyshavingtheirbeard andappearinglikewomenandgainednothing.Unfortunatelywomenhavestartedcuttingshort thehairoftheirheadlikemen,inordertolooklikemen.Theytoohavegainednothing.Ithinkitis uttershamelessnessformentotrytoimitatewomenandforwomentoimitatemen. Therealquestionshouldbe,"whyisthisGodgivengift,thenaturalhairandbeardremoved,"but thosewhodosoagainstthewishesofnaturestartquestioningtheotherwayround.The unfortunatethingisthatthemajorityofthepeopleareshavingthesedaysandthissheeplike imitationandfashiontoremovethehairandbeardisdeemedasthenaturallaw.Therearevery fewwhoobeytheessentiallawsofnatureinthisconnection.ApartfromtheSikhstherearevery fewwhokeephairandbeard.Thosewhospoiledtheirmanlyappearanceandpersonalitygivenby nature,areunconsciousoftheirownfollyindistortingtheirappearancebuttheyareshockedto seeamankeepinghairandbeard,anddonothesitatetoaskhim:"Isitessentialtokeephairand beard?"Theysuddenlybecomeunconsciousofthefactthathairisapartofthewholebodyand growsoneveryporeofthebody.Thosewhoarepureinbody,mindandsoul,andthosewho knowsomethingaboutsciencesknowthattoremovebodilyhairfromthewholeofourbodyis crimeagainsthealth.Youhavetakenupdiscussiononasubjectonwhichmanyarticlesandevena bookcanbewritten.NeitheryouhavetimetoenterintosuchalongdiscussionnoramIfreetodo

so.SuchdiscursivediscussionsandquestionsaregenerallyraisedbyAryaSamajists.Haveyouat anytimefallenundertheirevilinfluence? Mr.Gupta(laughing):IamnotthetypeofHindu,thestaunchAryaSamajistsare,nordoIbelieve inanydiscursivediscussion.IwasattractedabittowardsAryaSamaj.Iputthequestionoutof curiosityandnotwiththeintentionofdebatingaboutitinaninjuriousway.Ireallywantedto knowsomethingaboutit.Althoughyouhaveusedsomestrongwordsinyourdiscussion,yetyour argumentshaveimpressedme.Manyofmydoubtshavebeencleared.Ihopewhenyouare releasedyouwillwriteexcellentbookonthesubjectandgetittranslatedinotherlanguagesto explainittotheworldatlarge. Yourargumentoffashionableandsheeplikeimitationiscorrect.OurRishis,Munis,Avatarsand Prophetsusedtokeephairandbeard.WehaveclearcutevidenceuptoperiodofMahabharata. Brahamins,Kshatriyas,andPeshwasinourancienthistorykepthairandbeard.Godaloneknows whendidthecustomofshavingbegininIndia.FromtheMahabharataandotherIndianliterature oftheperiodwelearnthatremovalofthehairorbeardwasconsideredworstpunishmentthan death.WhenShriKrishnaontherecommendationofhisespouseRukmani,reducedthedeath sentenceofherbrotherRukmantothepunishmentofremovinghishairandbeard,Rukmanina pitiabletoneappealedtohissistersaying:"ORukmaniyouarenotmysister;youaremyenemy. Youhavegotmydeathsentencerepealedandgotformeagreaterpunishmentofremovingmy hairandbeard.Toremovemyhairandbeardwouldbefarmorepainfulandtortuousthankilling me."YourideasareindeedveryenlightenedandyouareindeedatrueSikhlivingaccordingtothe highestprinciplesofyourfaith.Noonehasevergivensoconvincingreplytomyquestion.Fora seekerevenonegoodargumentisenough.Nowagooddealoftimehaselapsed.Mynamasteto you.Wewillmeetagain. Igreetedhim."Again,wemaynevergetachancetodiscussanything"Isaid.Mr.Guptawas indeedaverynoblesoul.Wenevergotachancetoholddiscussionagain. AMosquitoNet OnedayIwasstandingselfabsorbedinmycellleaningagainsttheprisonbars.IncidentallyMr. Guptacametherewithhisstaffonaroundandstoodnearme.OnhearingsomenoiseIturnedto him.Helookedintomyeyesandasked:"Whyareyoureyesalittleswollenandred?Didyounot sleepatnight"? "Somuchthebetter",saidI."Thewholelifepassedinsleep.BythegraceoftheLordIwas deprivedofpalatialmansions,softcushionsandbedsandlockedupinthisNagpurJail,the veritableabodeofNagas(snakes),wherethemosquitoeskeepmeawakeinthesweet remembranceofGod.Butforthis,mymindmighthavebecomeidleanddozedawayinluxuryand forgottenGod." OnhearingthesewordsthetenderheartedSuperintendent,Mr.Gupta,quietlywentawayand afterwritingsomethingonmyhistoryticketcarrieditwithhim.ThenextdayIreceivedan excellentmosquitonet.TheHeadwarderwasorderedtohaveitfixedtomybedeverynight.Ifelt thatchangesweretakingplace,bythegraceoftheLord,forbetterdaysahead.Indeepgratitude ofmyGodandGuruIbegantopassmydaysinpeacefulmeditation.Thecomfortablereliefgiven fromthemosquitoesbythemosquitonetgavemeaddedopportunitytomeditatewithoutthe leastdisturbance.Themosquitoesnotonlykeptmeawakebutevendisturbedthedeep concentrationofmind.NowIcouldmeditateincomfortablepeace.Itwasmydutytousethese

restfulnightsforabetterpurpose.WhilemeditatinginmosquitonetIcouldseeeveryoneoutside butnoonecouldseeme.Sonowinthesecrecyofmyrestinthemosquitonet,Icouldmeditate withoutbeingwatched.Icouldreapthefruitofmeditationinfull.ThereisaPunjabisayingthat "Godhasgivenplentyofradishandalsoaknifetocutandeat." ThisisexactlyhowIfelt.Inthedaytimeamancameandtookoffthemosquitonet.The mosquitoesofNagpurareterrible.Butthismosquitonetremainedwithmetotheendofmystay atNagpur.Forsixorsevenyearswehadtoenduretheterriblebitingofthemosquitoestosuchan extentthatwehadalmostbecomemosquitoproof.Afterexperiencingandenduringthebitingof theNagpurmosquitoesIfeelthePunjabimosquitoesarecomparativelyquiteharmless.Thosefew dayspassedinpeace. AChristianMissionarymeetsme InowleaveasidethestoryofmylifeinNagpurJail.IfIrememberanyincidentlateron,itcanbe includedinthesecondedition.ButthereisoneincidentworthmentioningbeforeIclose. ItwasacompletelydarkcellinwhichIhadtospenddayandnightinajapajap(sempiternal contemplationofthedivineName),inthewonderfulcelestialmusicofwhichIremainedabsorbed mostofthetime.IcouldfeelandseewithmyinnereyestheclosepresenceofmyGuruandGod. TheeverrefreshingblissofHispresenceandrevelations,spreadfromthefragrantnavalseatof innerconsciousnesstothelotusoftheheartandhigherstilltothesuperconsciousstateswhere themusicofhisdivineNamebecamealightandvisionofaneternalsplendour.Thewholeofmy innerbeingwasablazewithHisLightandthatLightspreadandlightedthewholespaceofmy innerandouterbeing."Justastheraysofthesunpervadeall,sotheLightofGodcanbeseen blendedwitheverything."ThisishowIfeltandexperienced.TheLightofGodthatcanbevisibly seenisinessencereallyspreadlikethelightofthesun.Myinnervisionfeltblessedandexaltedby theblissofthevisioninwhichIsawtheBelovedsonearandinaformsoclear. OnedayIwasstandingclosetothebarsofmycell,whenmymindsoaredandfellintoastateof samadhiofablissfulstate.IdonotknowhowlongIstoodthere,butIkeptstandingevenwhen thehotsunblazedanditsburninglightfellonmybodyfromthecourtyard.EventhenIstood thereunconsciousoftheheat.Istoodinthisconditiontillsomeoneshookmebymyshoulderand myeyesthatwereclosedindeepconcentrationofnectarlavedvisionsuddenlyopened.Iopened myeyesandforamomentsawnothingaroundme.Istoodthereinatrancelookingfixedlyinto theunseen.ThenfromoutsidethebarsIheardavoicesaying:"Excuseme,Ihadtodisturbyou. Foroverfifteenminuteswehavebeenstandinghereinthecellyard.AChristianMissionarywho hasjustcomefromEnglandhasbeenwaitinghereforsometimealongwiththeprisonofficials. ThePadreSahibhasspeciallycometomeetyou." IsawtheChristianmissionarystandingintheoutercorridorundertheshadeofthewall,and addressinghimsaid"Pleasecomeinside,whydoyoukeepstandingatsuchadistance?""Areyou allright?"questionedtheChristianmissionary."WhynotcomecloserandaskmehowIam?Why keepstandingatsuchadistance?"saidI. Actuallytheinnercorridorwasblazingunderthehotsun,whilehewasstandingintheshadeof thewalls,intheoutercorridor.Hedidnotfindcouragetocomeandstandintheburningsun.The Superintendentrealizedhisdifficulty.Heopenedthelockofmycellandtookmeoutclosetohim intheshade.Ilaughedheartilyandsaidtothemissionary:"Howisthatyoucouldnotendurethe heatofthesunwhichwehavebeenenduringforsomanyyears?"Helookedatmyfaceandthen

addressingtheofficialsandothervisitorshesaid:"Hisfaceisradiantandresplendent.Ihaveseen innumerablepoliticalprisoners,buthisfaceisunique."Thenaddressingmeheasked."Areyou happy?Areyouwell?""TheLordisgracious,"Isaid.TheSuperintendenttoldhimthatI understoodEnglishquitewell,butIsaidIpreferredtospeakinmymothertongue,Punjabi.He sometimesspokeinEnglishandsometimesinHindustani,butIgaverepliesinPunjabi,whichhe understood. ChristianMissionary:Forhowlonghaveyoubeenkeptinthisdarkcell? I:EversinceIwasbroughttoNagpurJailIhavebeenkeptmostlyinthiscell.Imighthavespent aboutfiveorsixmonthsinsolitaryconfinementinothercells. ChristianMissionary:HowmanyyearsofimprisonmenthaveyouspentinthisJail? I:Myhistoryticketwilltellyouthat. ChristianMissionary(afterexaminingthehistoryticketwhichtheSuperintendentgavehim):So youcameheretowardstheendoftheyear1922.Youhavebeenkeptherefornearlyeightyears. Forhowmanyhoursinthedaytimeareyoukeptinthisdarkcell? I:Iammadetospendthewholedayandnightinthiscell. ChristianMissionary:Forhowmanyhoursareyoutakenforawalk?Forhowlongareyouallowed totakeexercise? I:Notevenforasinglehour!AllthatIcandoistocomeoutofthecelltothecourtyardattached toitwhereIcancookandeatmyfood,ortakebathoreasenature.ImmediatelyafterthatIam againlockedinthecell. ChristianMissionary(lookingangrilyattheprisonofficials):Whyishetreatedlikethat? Jailer:ThePunjabGovernmenthasgivenusstrictordersnottoallowhimtomeethiscomradesor anyotherprisoner.Wehaveorderstokeephimapartfromeveryone.Evenprisonofficialsdare notmeethimalone.Wehavenoobjectiontotakinghimoutside,butwehavestrictordersfrom abovenottodoso. ChristianMissionary(addressingme):Doyougetanynewspaperforreading? I:Never,althoughtheInspectorGeneralofprisonshaspermittedit. ChristianMissionary(addressingtheprisonofficials):WhentheInspectorGeneralhasgiven permissionwhydotheynotgivethenewspaper? Superintendent:Thereissomeconfidentialreasonforit. ChristianMissionary(addressingme):Dotheygiveyousomebookstoread? I:No,never;theyhaveevenconfiscatedourprayerbookswhichbelongedtous.Myhistoryticket willshowthat.

ChristianMissionary:Doyousleepinthecorridororinthecellatnight? I(laughing):Pleaseaskthem. Superintendentandothers(withonevoice):Nopoliticalorotherprisonerisallowedtosleepin thecorridor. ChristianMissionary:Doyoustayaloneinthiscell? I:No,never.Iamneveraloneevenforasingleminute. SuperintendentandJailer(excited):Whathehasstatedisalie.Heisaloneinthecell.Thereisno oneelse. I:Bothofthemaretellingalie.Iamneveraloneinthecell,norhaveIeverbeenaloneinthecell forasingleday. ChristianMissionary(addressingthem):WellSirs,whatisthemeaningofthis.Whydoyouinsist onsayingthathestaysalonewhenhesaysheisneveralone. Superintendent:Sir,accordingtoprisonruleswecannotkeepmorethanoneprisonerinonecell. Wehavestrictordersnevertolodgetwoprisonersinonecell.WecanshowyoutheJail regulations.Wearetellingthetruthandheismakingafalsestatement. I(seriously):Iamtellingthetruth.Theyarewrong.We,SikhsoftheGuru,cannevertellalie. ChristianMissionary:Howcanthisenigmabesolved?Responsibleprisonofficersaremakinga statementwhichcannotbecalledfalse,butmyconsciencetellsmethatthisSikhisalsotellingthe truth.Aprisonerinhispositionwhoisnotgivenanybooks,norgivenanynewspapers,noris allowedtotalktoanyone,andislodgedinthisdarkcelldayandnight,cannotsurviveandlivewith suchabeamingfaceashis.Lookathisface.Howglowingandrefreshingitis.Thereisnotatrace ofgloomonhisface,butitisredwithglowingradiance.Afterbeinglockedupdayandnightforso manyyears,Icannotimaginesuchbeamingradianceandfragranceonanyhumanface.SoI cannotbelievethatheismakingafalsestatement.Afterallhowcanwesolvethisenigma?(After asilenceofafewminutes,addressingme)Icannotdubthestatementoftheresponsibleprison officialstobefalse.Ialsocannotbelievethatyouaremakingawrongstatement.Pleasesolvethis mystery.Ifyouarenotstayingalonethenwholiveswithyouallthetime? Onhearingthismymindsoaredhighandinavoicefilledwithdeepmysticfervour,andundera musicalinspirationsuddenlyleapingfromtheunknown,Isangthefollowingdivinesonginanswer tothequestion:TheGuruiswithmeeverandever;ContemplatingHimIliveinHispresence: Icontemplateever,theNameofGodwithinmyheart, Allcomradesandcompanionsaretherebysaved; TheLord(theGuru)iswithmeeverandever; ContemplatingHimIliveinHispresence,(refrain) ThyWilliseversweettome,Lord, NanakseeksonlytheWordofGod. GuruArjan:RagAsa.

Everyonewasthrilledbythedivinesong.Likestatuesallstoodmotionlessandfeltthemagnetic influenceofthedivinesong.Therefrainbecametheburdenofthesong.Formanyminutesthe wholeatmospherewaschargedwiththespiritualinfluenceofthesong.Everyonestoodsilently withfixedattention.Noonespoke,noonemoved.Everyonefelttheblissofthesong.The ChristianMissionarywhounderstoodeverywordofitwasthefirsttospeakandbreaksilence. ChristianMissionary:Themysteryhasbeenwellsolvedindeed.SoyourGuruiseverwithyou.So youwereindeedtellingthetruth,andinaway,theprisonofficialswerealsotellingthetruth.ButI wishtotestyourstatementalittlemore.(Addressingtheprisonofficials)Whostaysinthe adjoiningcells?Pleasecallthem. Jailer:WellSir,inthedaytimetheyremainempty.Atnightdifferentprisonersarelodgedinthese cells. ChristianMissionary:Whydoyoulockthemupatnight?Whoarelockeduphere?Somespecial prisonersunderordersofsolitaryconfinementoryoupickthematrandomandlockthemuphere. Jailer:NoSir,thoseprisonerswhohavebeenorderedbytheMagistratetobekeptinsolitary confinementalonearekeptlockedupdayandnightinthesecells. ChristianMissionary:Whatisthemaximumperiodforwhichaprisonercanbekeptinsolitary confinement?Couldyouquotetheregulationofpenalcode? Jailer:Foramonthatthemost. ChristianMissionary:Isthereanyprisonerwhoiskeptinthiscellonlyatnightbutisallowedto moveaboutoutsideinthedaytime? Jailer:Nothereisnosuchprisoner,Sir. ChristianMissionary:Butyousaytwoprisonersarealwayskeptlockedupatnightintheadjoining cells.Whyisthatpunishmentgiventothem? Jailer:WellSir,theyarenotkeptherebecausetheyarepunishedforsomethingbutaccordingto prisonruleswecannotkeepthesecellsvacant;soweaskotherprisonerstospendonenightin thembyturn.Sooneprisoneriskeptbyturnineachofthesetwocells. ChristianMissionary:Whydoyouchangetheprisonereverynight?Whycanyounotkeepthe sameprisonerforsomenightsinthecell? Jailer:Wecannotcompelanyprisonertobelockedupinthiscelleverynight.Foronenightorso theygladlyagreetobelockedupinthem. I:Nooneisgladlywillingtospendanightinthesedarkcells.Woulditnotbebettertoaskthose whohavealreadyspentanighthere,whethertheywouldbewillingtospendanightinthesecells again? TheChristianMissionarythenexaminedthelogbookandfoundthatnoprisonerhadstayedin thosecellsmorethanonenight.Hethenorderedfiveorsixofthoseprisonerstobebroughtwho

hadspentthenightinthecellsduringtheprecedingweek.Heaskedeveryoneofthoseprisoners howtheyfeltduringthenightinthatdarkcellandwhydotheynotvolunteertostayagainfor anothernightinit?Everyonewithonevoicesaid:"Sir,Godsaveusfromthisdungeon.Evento passonenighthasbeenagreattorture.Theterriblelonelinessandgloomisunbearable." Afterinquiringeverythingabouttheirexperienceinthosedarkcellsfromtheprisoners,the Christianmissionarymadeuphismindtospendonenightinoneofthosecellsasamatterof experiment.Soheexpressedhisstrongwishtospendonenightinthecell. Superintendentandothers:Sir,howcanwedothatwithouttheordersofthegovernment? ChristianMissionary:Iwouldbegettinglockedupinoneofthesecellsforanightvoluntarilyand gladlyforthesakeofexperiencinghowamanfeels. Whentheprisonofficialsfoundhimadamantinhisdeterminationtocarryouttheexperiment theyagreedtolockhimupinthedaytimebutnotinthenight,andeventhatforafewhoursonly. TheChristianmissionaryagreedtobelockedupforatleastthreehours.Theprisonofficialswere, however,seriouslyupset."Whydoyouworry?"Isaidtothem,"thePadreSahibwillnotbeableto stayinthecellformorethananhour.Lethimexperiment.Whatdoyoulosebyit?Youhaveto spendnomoneyonit.""Ofcourse,Ofcourse,"saidtheChristianMissionary,"Ijustwantto experienceitmyself,howonefeels." SotheChristianMissionarywasreadytobelockedinthedarkcell.Ihumorouslysaidtohim,"How fineitwouldhavebeenifyouputonthedressoftheprisonersandthengotintoit.Buttheprison officialswillnotpermityoutodoso."SoitwassoondecidedthatthePadreSahibwouldbelocked inthethirdcell,adjoiningmine,andhewouldbekeptinatleastforthreehours.Justashewas abouttoenterthecell,Iwhisperedintohisears:"WellSir,thereisachaindanglinginthecell.Itis connectedwithabelloutside.Ifyoufindanydifficultyinstayinglong,pleasepullthatchain.The WarderInchargewouldatonceopenthedoor."Hethankedmeforthisinformationandentered thecellwherehewaslockedup.Iwasalsolockedupinmycell.Alltheprisonofficials,the wardersandthesentriesgotawayandofficerswentandsatintheofficeoftheWarderIncharge oftheOctagon. WithinanhourthebellofPadreSahib'scellbegantoringasloudlyasafirealarm.TheOctagon Inchargewardercamerunning.TheChristianMissionarywasshoutingfrominside:"Openthe doorsquickly,takemeoutquickly,Iamdying."Thedoorwasopened.TheChristianMissionary cameoutandafterbreathingopenairforsometimehesaid:"TakethatSikhofGuruNanakoutof thecellandbringhimhere." IwastakenoutandbroughtbeforetheChristianMissionary,whoplacedhishandsonmy shouldersandsaidrepeatedly:"Well,nobleSikh,yourMaster,GuruNanakisindeedeverwith you,butmyMasterLordJesusdoesnotabidewithmeindarkdungeonasyourGuruNanakdoes.I amnowconvincedthatyourLord,GuruNanakmustbevisiblylivingwithyou.Pleaserepeatthat songyousang."Isangthatsongunderrenewedinspiration,andwhileIsangmyfaceflushedwith therapturousjoyofitsinnerexperience. AfterhearingittheChristianMissionarysaid:"Inowrealizethetruesignificanceofthewordsof thissong.ItisquitetruethatyourGururesidesinyourheartandsoul,nayinyourwholeinner

being,andyouneverfeellonely.Ihaveseenitfromexperiencethatapartfromotherdifficulties, thegloomytortureoflonelinessisthegreatestdifficultytobeencountered.Oppressingloneliness wastheonlydifficultyIencountered.EverymomentIfeltthedesolationanddrearinessgnawing atmyheart.BlessedartthouONobleSikhoftheGuru,whospentyearsinthisdungeonallalone. Nay,Imakeamistakeagain,notalonebutwiththeunusualspiritualpowersyouhaveacquired fromyourGuru,youappeartoseetheblazingLightoftheGurueverburninginyourheart.You mustbeinconstantcommunionwithyourgreatGuru,andyoumustbeexperiencingHisnearness anddiscoursingwithhimeverymoment.Thatiswhyyouneitherfeelloneliness,norareyouever upsetnoristhereanyevileffectonyourbody.Iwasalmostdyingfromdrearyanddarkloneliness. GreatandgloriousareyouOnobleSikhandgreatandgloriousisyourGuru."Aftersayingthishe wentawayalongwithhisparty. Whenhereachedtheprisongateheaskedfortheprisonlogbookandwrotethreepagesofhis impressionsoftheprison.Thesympatheticofficerswhoreaditreportedtomethathegaveavivid portrayalofwhatwashappeningintheprison.Heparticularlymentionedthatthecruelty perpetuatedandthetorturesinflictedonmewereunprecedented.Hewrotemanythingsinmy favour.Afewsympathizersevenpromisedtoprocureacopyofhisreport,buttheydidnotgetan opportunitytodoso. Afterrecordinghiscomplaintinthelogbook,hewentstraighttotheGovernorofCentralProvince andmethimaboutthismatter.IdonotknowwhathesaidtotheGovernorbutafterthreedaysI wassuddenlytakentoanopenbarrackwheretherewasahandpumpclosebyandalargeopen aircourtyard.Therewassufficientgroundtotakeawalkandmosquitonetwasalsogiventome. Thewholebarrackwasatmydisposal.IwasalsoinformedthatmyfriendBhaiKartarSinghwould beallowedtostaynearmesoonenough.ButevenbeforethishappenedthePunjabGovernment sentatelegramtosendmetoPunjabimmediately.AssoonasthetelegramreachedtheofficeI begantoreceivecongratulationsandthedateformydeparturewasfixed. TheSuperintendentandtheJailerinformedmethatitwasnotmeretransferorderbutastepto releasemesoon.IwasassuredthatIwouldbereleasedassoonasIreachedPunjab.Theyalso informedmethattheywouldbesendingoneortwosepoyswithmeandIwouldtravelwithout beinghandcuffed.IrequestedthemtosendBhaiKartarSinghtomesothatbeforeIleftwecould staytogether.TheSuperintendentpromisedbuttheJailerdidnotagree.Howeverhesaid,"Ifyou werenottoleavewewouldhavecertainlybroughtyoutogether".TheJailerfearedthatBhai KartarSinghmightinformmeofthetorturesinflictedonhimsecretly,andthemattermaygoout tothepublicwhenIwasreleased.ButtheSuperintendenttookcouragetopermitustobe togetheratleastforadayortwo.Sowewereallowedtomeetforaday.Livinginthesameprison wemetthereforthefirsttimeafterthreeyearsorso.Weembracedeachother,toldeachother whatwehadexperiencedandhowwehadsuffered.Manysecretfeelingsandthoughtswere exchanged.Aftermeetingforthewholedaywewereagainseparatedatnight. Allthebooksthatwereconfiscatedwerereturned.Allthethingsthatweretakenfrommy personalpossessiononthedayIwasarrestedwerereturned.Thesethingsincludedmyclothes,a rosary,akirpan,achakar(quoit),ironbangles.AverypreciousKirpanwhichIgenerallyworewith strapwasnotreturned.Godaloneknowswhereitwaslost.Theysearchedforitbutcouldnotget it.Theywerehoweverpreparedtopayforit,whentheylostallhopeoffindingit.Itoldthemthat theKirpanwas,priceless.Itwasnotpossibleforthemtopaytheprice.IfIhaddemandedany amounttheywouldhavepaidit,butIdidnotfeelliketakinganymoneyfortheKirpan,whichfor mewasareligioussymbol.WhatcouldIgetfromsomemoney?

CHAPTER24FROMNAGPURTOLAHORE WITHINAMATTERofminutes,wewerereadytoleaveforLahore.Wedidnotgettimeevento sendamessageaboutourdeparturetofriendsoutside.BhaiManshaSinghandotherfriendswere eagerlyexpectingourreleasefromNagpur.Theyhadevenmadeelaboratearrangementsfor specialrejoicingsandjubilationsbutunfortunatelytheycouldnotevengetthebareinformationof oursuddendeparture. Iwastakeninacartotherailwaystation.OnthewayIeagerlylookingforsomeonewhocould carryamessagetothePunjabiLinesbutIcouldnotseeasingleSikhontheroadwhocould possiblydoit.EvenifIcouldfindaCongressitefriendnearbyhewouldhaveatoncedeliveredthe message.ItwasperhapstheWillofGodthatIshouldleavetheplaceinuttersecrecy.People mighthavebeentemptedtofollowmeinaprocessionandmadesomeflatteringdemonstrations whichmighthavefiredmyvanity.Iwashoweveranxioustohaveaglimpseofthoseaffectionate soulswhohadbestowedsomuchloveonme.Ameetingwithanyoneofthefriendswouldhave givenmegreatconsolation. OnreachingtherailwaystationIwasgivenaberthinthethirdclasscompartmentbythepolice guardsaccompanyingme.Iwasstillanxiouslylookingoutforsomeonetocarrymyparting messagetofriendslivinginthePunjabiLines.IsawthreeSikhrailwaypolicemencomingtowards mycompartment.Theywereondutyandwalkedthiswayandthatwayontheplatformnot knowing,thatsomeonewaseagerlywaitingforthemtocomenearersothathemayunburdenhis overwhelmingfeelings.WhentheycamenearmycompartmentIgreetedthemwithfoldedhands saying;"VaheGurujikaKhalsa,VaheGurujikiFateh""OfGodistheKhalsa,Victoryuntothe Lord." Theyreturnedthegreetingsrespectfullyandwarmlygraspedmyhands,asiftheyknewmefroma longtime.Althoughtheirfaceswereunknown,thegoodwilltheirheartsradiated,createdan unusualintimacy.Seeingsomepolicemenwithme,theyguessedsomehow,thatIwasthe unfortunateprisonerwhosesufferingshadcausedasensationthroughoutthecountryandprayers hadbeenofferedeverywhere."Canwebeofanyservice,BhaiSahib?"theyasked.Irequested themtosomehowinformmyfriendsinthePunjabiLinesaboutmydeparture.Oneofthem immediatelyranofftothePunjabiLineswhiletheothertwostartedfetingmeasbesttheycould. Theybroughtice,fruitandothereatablesforwhichIthankedthemandacceptedwhatlittleI couldeat.Theyfeltextremelyhappyandwishedtheyhadknownaboutmyarrivalonthestation earlier.PunjabiLineswerefaroffwhenafterfifteenminutesthetrainenginegavethewhistle,no onehadarrived.EvenuptothelastmomentIwashopingthatsomeonemightcome.AtlastIleft themessagewiththeRailwayPolicemeninthewordsoftheTenthMaster,GuruGobindSingh: Gotell,theBelovedFriend, Theconditionofhisyearningdisciple; WithoutTheerichcoveringsareanendlessagony; Toliveinthecomfortsofourhouseholds Islikelivingwithsnakes;Ourpitchers Havebecomelikepikesonwhichmenareimpaled. Thecupwedrinkfromhasanedgelikeadagger; Beloved!Thyturningawayfromus Islikewhatabeastenduresfromtheslaughterer!

WiththeBeloved,amattressofstrawwouldpleaseus; WithoutHim,inrichhouses,weareburnedalive. GuruGobindSingh Likeastreamseparatedfromtheriver,Iwasmovingawayfromdevotedfriends,hopingthatby thegraceofGod,Iwouldmeetthemagaininspiritualcommunionatleast.Thetrainsteamedoff andthenextstoppagewasItarsistation. ChanceMeetingwithAkaliKaurSingh TherewasalongstoppageatItarsiJunction.Igotdownfrommycompartmentandwasstrolling ontheplatformwhenanunknownpersonofferedmealargewatermelon.Ihadnevertasted suchadeliciouswatermelonbefore.Thissweetofferingoflovewasmorethansufficientto appeasemyhunger. AllofasuddenIsawaveryhandsomedivinemanwithaglowingradiantface.Hehadlovelywhite beardandwasdressedlikemedievalAkaliSaints.Withoutrecognisingandwithoutformal greetingsweembracedeachother.Aswemetinthiswarmaffectionateembracewewerehappy beyondexpression.AsIlookedatthatgrandpersonality,tryingtorecognizehim,heaskedme: "HaveyounotrecognizedmeBhaiSahibji?""AreyounotAkaliKaurSingh?"Iasked.Wehadmet aftertwentyfiveyearsandhewasreallyhappyIrecognizedhim.Ihadmethiminhisearlyyouth, whenhewasjustgettingabeard.Hewasthenveryhandsomeandhadadeepspiritualglowofhis lovelornface.HehadthonjustbeenbaptisedintotheKhalsaHolyOrderandtheradianceofhis soulweddedtothehighestreligiousidealscouldbeseenfromhisinspiredyouthfulface.Hehad agedalittle;yetonhisglowingfaceandwhitebeardtherewasaradiancewhichishardto describe.NowaftersixteenyearsofimprisonmentIhadmetasaintlySikhfromthefreeworldfor thefirsttime. AkaliKaurSinghwastravellinginanInterclasscompartment.Hetookmeandmylittleluggageto hiscompartmentandgavemeacomfortableseatthere.Knowingmyabstemioushabitsof vivekaideal(discriminationinfood),helookedaftermycomfortsandrequirements.Hetookout someSalus(groundbarley)fromhisbagandmixedthemwithcoldwater.Thishumblefare removedallmyhungerandthirst.Thenwetalkedformanyhours.Hegavemethelatestnewsof theheroicfightoftheSikhsfortheirrights.Wediscussedinnumerablesubjects.AkaliKaurSingh travelledwithmeuptoDelhi.ThereweresomemoreSikhsinthecompartmentwhofulfilledan unaskeddesireofinformingmyfriendsandrelativesaboutmydeparturefromNagpurtoLahore. FromDelhiAkaliKaurSinghsentsomemoretelegramstomyfamily,GyaniNaharSinghandother friends.Icanneverforgetthisactofkindnessandloveofthegreatsoul. AtDelhiIpartedwithAkaliKaurSingh.DelhiremindedmeofthedaysofGurdwaramovements, whichstartedwiththeRakabganjepisode.Justthenanotherunfortunatethinghadhappenedat GurdwaraSisganjwhichpainedmeverymuch(TherewaspolicefiringatGurdwaraSisganjonMay 6.1930,A.D.).Thetelegramsgiventomyvillagehomedidnotreachmypeopleintime,butGyani NaharSinghreceivedtheinformationbeforemyarrival.Itwasgettingdarkwhenthetrain reachedAmritsar,andontheplatformstoodGyaniNaharSinghandGyaniHarbhajanSingh carryingflowersandfruits. Ihadbeenseparatedfromthemsincealongtime.Therewasaverylargecrowdofmanyunknown admirersandwellwishers.AssoonasIsteppedoutofthetrainpeoplerushedtowardsmewith overflowingloveandaffection.OneaftertheothertheycameforwardtogreetmeandI

embracedeachoneofthemwarmly.Astherewasverylittletimeatourdisposalsuchmeetings withindividualshadtobecutshort.GyaniNaharSinghthengaveabriefintroductionofallthe peoplewhowerepresent.Someimportantnewswerealsogiventome.Gyanijihadmuchtosay, soheaccompaniedmetoLahore.Duringanhour'sjourneytoLahore,wetalkedanddiscussed manythingsbutthehourpassedlikeaminuteandwereachedLahorestation.GyanijiwenttoS. B.MehtabSingh'sresidencewhileIwastakentomyusualabode,theprison. Iwasfirsttakentoapolicestationneartherailwaystation,buttheyrefusedtoacceptme.ThenI wastakentotheAnarkaliPoliceStation.Everyonewasasleep.Itwasalmostmidnight.Theofficer inchargeofthePolicelockupcameoutfeelingdisturbedandupsetandsaidtothepolicemen accompanyingme"WhycouldyounotfindaplaceforhiminthepolicelockupneartheRailway Station?"TheHavildarInchargeofmesaid,"Theyrefusedtoaccepthimortakeanyresponsibility forhimbecauseheisaBClassprisoner.Hecanbelodgedonlyinthisplace.Soyoubettergive himaplaceherewithoutanyfurtherquestion.Hemustbegivenrestforthenighthereandinthe morninghemustbetakentotheCentralJail."Theofficerinchargegotuphesitatinglyandopened aspecialroomforme.WhenIenteredtheroom,IsawanEnglishinterneelyingdeaddrunk.The roomwasstinkingwiththefoulsmellofwineandthewholeatmospherewasintolerable.Iflatly refusedtogetintotheroom."Iwillnotspendthenightinthisroom",Isaid,"evenifyougivemea rewardofhundredrupeestodoso".Thedozingofficertookuphisbunchofkeysandopened anotherroom.Itwasquitecoolandclean.Itwasthehotseasonandthetemperaturequitehigh. Theofficerswitchedontheelectriclampandtheelectricfan.Ispreadmybedonacot.Therewas awatertapnearbyandacommodeinthecorner.Iwasleftallalonetoenjoymyrestincalm solitude.ThiswasforthefirsttimethatIenjoyedanelectricfan.IthadnotbeeninventedbeforeI enteredtheprison.Ienjoyedarestfulsleep.ThenextmorningIwastakentoLahoreCentralJail. InsideCentralJailLahore Mr.ChoprawastheSuperintendentoftheCentralJailLahore.Iwastakenstraighttohisroom. Afterexaminingmychallan(Letterofadvice)andprisonhistorysheet,heaskedme"Wouldyou liketostayinBClassorwithyourcompanionsandfriendsinCClass?"TowhichIreplied"Iam notparticularabouttheBClass.TheyofferedthisclasstomeatNagpurbutIpreferredstaying withmyfriendsinCClass.TheonlypreferenceIdemandistherighttowearblueorblackouter turbanandyellowinnerturban,andtoweartheKhalsaSymbols,Kach,Karaetc.Iwouldlikeeither tocookmyfoodmyselforgetitcookedbymycompanions."Mr.Choprawasdeeplymovedbymy singularrequest.HeofferedmeaseatclosebyandsentforBhaiChuharSinghwhowas imprisonedalongwithus. Mr.ChoprafirsttalkedtoBhaiChuharSinghseparatelyandthenintroducedhimtome.Assoonas BhaiChuharSinghsawmeheembracedmeandforamomentwebothforgotthepresenceofthe JailSuperintendent.Wehadnevermetbefore,becausehewassentencedtolifeimprisonmentin theLahoreConspiracycaseandhadbeensenttoAndamanIsland.WetheprisonersoftheSupple mentaryLahoreconspiracycasehadbeensenttoHazaribagh.WhenwewereinMadras Presidencyprison,theprisonersfromAndamanIsland(includingBhaiChuharSingh)werealso broughtthere,butwewerealllodgedindifferentjails,sowewerenotabletomeeteachother there.IhadheardagoodmanystoriesoftheheroicdeedsofBhaiChuharSingh.Onesuchstory whichwasarecentoccurrencehadimpressedmedeeply.OneprisonerBhaiJawalaSinghwas orderedtobewhipped,andashewasveryweak,BhaiChuharSinghofferedtobewhippedinhis place.BhaiChuharSinghhadneverseenme,buthehadbecomeagreatdevotedadmirer.Ihad nevermetanyonewhowassoeagertomeetmeandbestowhisaffectionandlove.Soon

meetingmehisjoyknewnobound.Hesaid,"BlessedamI,blessedisthismomentofunexpected meetingwiththeheroandbelovedfriendwhomIhavebeenlongingtomeet." Outofallthepoliticalprisoners,theSuperintendentJailhadthegreatestfaithinBhaiChuhar Singh.AllthejuniorofficersinchargeofthePoliticalprisoners'blockrespectedhimandserved himastheywouldserveaMaster.Afterseeingusmeetinthiswarmandaffectionatemanner,the SuperintendentadvisedBhaiChuharSinghtotakemewithhimandlodgemeinhisblockinhis company.Arminarmheledmetohiscell.Asheledmehecontinuedhischarmingtalkaboutour past.AfterspendingnearlyfifteenandhalfyearsinvariousprisonsalloverIndia,wewerenow backinLahoreJailfromwhereourlifesentencebegan.AsImovedonaccompaniedbyBhai ChuharSingh,IcametothesameblockfromwhereweweretakentoaMultanJailinfetters. Theprisoncellsinthisblockwereclosetoeachother.Buttheprisonershadadifferentlook.Now alltheSikhprisonerswerewearingturbans.Whatacontrastitwastothatuglyspectacleof1915 16whentheSikhsweredeprivedofturbansassoonastheycametotheprison.Theyweregiven clownishcapsandwiththisridiculousheaddresstheirfaceslookedhorrible.Nowwiththeirlovely turbansandKach(trousers),theydidnotevenlooklikeprisoners.Formerlytheyseemtohavelost alltheirmanhoodandappearedtobesubhumancreaturesputinthecage.Nowwiththesymbols anduniformofGuruGobindSinghtheyappearedtobehandsomeandsaintlysouls. Withinamatterofminutesnewsspreadthroughouttheprisonthatthefirstprisonerofthe GurdwaraReformMovementwhohadundertakenafastforfortydays,andprocuredforalltypes ofSikhprisoners(politicalandothers)therighttowearturbansandSikhsymbols,wasnowin theirprison.Insmallgroupstheycametomeandexpressedunboundedgratitudeforprocuring themtheirreligiousrights.TheywarmlyappreciatedmydeterminedstruggletoleadaSikhlifein thefaceofsuchoppressionandfightingforrightoftheSikhprisonerstowearturbansandkeep thesymbols. Iwastakentoacellandseatedthere.Whensomeofmyoldcompanionscametoknowaboutmy arrivaltheyallcamerushingtomeetme.FromoneprisoncellcameBhaiPakharSinghofDhudike fromanotherappearedBhaiHarnamSinghofKalaSanghia.FromonecornercameBrotherKirpa Singh,allsmiles.Alloldfriendscametherefromonesideortheother.Everyonemetmewitha warmembrace.Injoyandexultationthelongseparatedfriendsmetmeandtalkedaboutthesaga ofseparationandsufferinginprisonsforthepastmanyyears.BrotherKirpaSinghandBrother PakharSinghundertookthedutyofpreparingmyfood,withgreateagernessanddevotion. Everyonewasnowgettingthedarkblueturbans.Thewholestaffandtheinterneesoftheprison weregreatlyimpressedbythecharacterandworkofmyoldcompanions.BhaiChuharSinghwas giventhedutyofdistributingmilktothesickandailingprisoners.Hewouldpersonallygotoevery prisonerandgivehimhisownmilk.Theprisonersderivedapeculiarsatisfactionintakingmilk fromhishands. BhaiVasawaSinghofGermanywasinchargeofthepoliticalprisoners'kitchen(langar).Bhai HarnamSingh,BhaiKirpaSinghusedtobringrationsandotherthingsfromthestore.Theprison officershadgreatconfidenceintheintegrityofthosemen.Eversincetheresponsibilityofthe prisonersfoodwasgiventothesepatriots,theprisonersenjoyedheavenlylifeinthosedaysof darknessanddelusion.Theywouldtaketheirfoodonlywheneveryonehadbeenservedtohis satisfaction.BhaiChuharSinghwasofsuchacontentednaturethathedistributedthewholeof themilktotheneedy.HeevendistributedhisownmilkspeciallyfixedbytheJailSuperintendent forhimtothesickandneedyanddidnotcareforhisownweakhealth.LikeidealandtrueSikhshe

practisedcharity,andleftbehindhimthesweetmemoriesofhisgreatvirtueswhichwouldever beblessedandrecordedinthePresenceofGod. AfteraboutamonthmybosomfriendBhaiKartarSingh(ofNawanChand)wastransferredto Lahoreprison.Wewereallveryhappy.TherecitationofGurbani,thesacredhymnsagainbecame adailyroutine.Accordingtomywisheshewasgivenaprisoncelljustoppositemine.Sukhmani andSukhmanaofGuruRamDaswererecitedbyturn,aftereveningprayers,soclearly,thatthe prisonersinthewholeblockcouldhearthem(twentyfourAshtapadisofGuruRamDaswhich formSukhmanaSahibare:Bilawal,NatNarayan,Kanara,Kalyan(SixAshtapadiaineachRaga)). Afterthecongregationalprayer(ardas),kirtanwasperformedeveryday.Thenewpolitical prisonersfromotherblockswouldcomeandjoinus.ImetDr.BasantSinghhereforthefirsttime. Theveryfirstmeetingdevelopedintoadeepfriendshipofspiritualunion.Itwasasifaloving friendofpastlifemetmeforthefirsttimeinthislifeafterlongseparation.Theredevelopeda greatloveandaffectionbetweenuswithinafewdaysandhesharedwithmethereligiousand spiritualidealsandpractices,andbecameacompaniononthespiritualpath.Hislifenowbecame apurelyreligiouslifeofaBhakta. Thepoliticalprisonersofthe1930civildisobediencemovementalsocametoourblockandthe gatheringsofsatsang(holycongregation)increased.Thedoorsremainedopenedthewholeday. Wewereatfirstgivenpermissiontoholdprayersandreligiousdiscussioninthedaytimeunder thetreesforabouttwohours.BhaiVirSingh'sfamousworksGuruNanakChamatkar(Reflective lifeofGuruNanak)andKalgidharChamatkar(ReflectivelifeofGuruGobindSingh)werereadfor aboutmonthstogether.Aftersometimewewerepermittedtoholdeventheeveningprayersand kirtanintheopen.Theseblissfulcongregationalmeetingcontinuedtillitwasquitedark.Ourblock wasgenerallythelasttobelocked.Attheendofthesecongregationalmeetingstherewereloud criesofSatSriAkalwhichwereheardthroughouttheprisonandfaraway. Youngmenwhohadbeenimprisonedrecentlyfeltstronglyinclinedtowardsreligiouslife.The patrioticfightersoffreedom(thedeshbhaktas),andallotherpoliticalprisonersdevelopeda religiousbentofmind.Theprisonofficerswerehappyandfeltrelievedonseeingthatthe disturbingandrowdyelementwasnowcalmed. TheDarogaoftheprisonKhanSahibMohdAkbar(VillageKiFimeKiKhai,DistrictFerozepur)was particularlyimpressed.Hedevelopedadeeprespectforme.Hislife,asaprisonofficialhad considerablyhardenedhimtowardstheprisoners;hisattitudetowardsmewasverygentlemanly. InhishearthehaddevelopedadeeprespectforthespirituallifeoftheSikhs.Hemetmevery oftenanddidwhateverIaskedhimtodo.Wheneverthepoliticalprisonerswantedhimtodo anythingtheygotitdonethroughme.Wheneverthepoliticalprisonersagitatedforanything,he wouldaskmetopacifythemandaskthemtodothingstactfullyandpeacefully.Thepolitical prisonersevenobeyedmyoldcompanions.Alltheprisonersandtheofficialsandclerksofthe prisonaddressedmeas"BabaJi"andtheyagreedtocomplyevenwithmywaywardsuggestions. TheDarogarespectedmeforthisreasonalso.Wheneveranyonecametomeetme,hearranged themeetingwithparticularinterest,generallyinhisownroom.WhenbrotherSajjanSinghcame toseemealongwithBhagatJaswantSingh,theDarogaarrangedthemeetinginhisownroom.He wasdeeplyinfluencedbyourconversation.

ReleasefromLahoreCentralJail BeforethismeetingBhaiSunderSinghGhuman,GyaniNaharSinghandotherrelativeshadalready metme.IhadalreadycometoknowthatIhadbeentransferredfromNagpurtoLahorein connectionwithmyearlyrelease.BhagatJaswantSinghhadalreadytoldmeinthepresenceofthe Darogathatpreparationswereunderwayandordersforearlyreleasewereexpectedsoon.After thevisitorshadleft,theDarogaalsotoldmethatsomecorrespondenceinconnectionwithmy releasewasalreadygoingonwiththehigherauthoritiesandmyunconditionalreleasewas expectedverysoon.Hehowever,askedmetokeepthisconfidential.BhagatJaswantSinghhad alsotoldmethatthereleasewouldbeunconditional.Afewdayslater,SardarBahadurSantSingh C.I.D.SuperintendentalsometmeintheJailSuperintendent'soffice.Frommytalkswithhimit wasclearthatthereleasewouldbeunconditional.MymeetingwithSardarSantSinghwasvery interestinganddelightful.Idonotrememberallthattranspiredbetweenus,nordoIremember thedetailsofourconversation.Itwouldbesufficienttosaythattherepliesgivenbymetohis questionsimpressedhimdeeplyandprofoundly.Healsodidnottalktomeinaroundaboutway likepoliceofficers,butputveryplainquestionsandtalkedveryfrankly.Myplainsanswers appearedtohavemovedhimdeeply. AfterthisdayboththeJailSuperintendentsandtheDarogastartedshowingevengreater reverence.TheDarogapaidfrequenthonorificvisitsandwheneverhecame,heofferedhis servicestoobligemeineveryway.IwouldgenerallysaythatwhenthetimecameIwouldaskhim todosomethingimportant.OnedayhepressedmetomakethisspecialrequestandIagreedto tellifhepromisedtodowhatIasked. Daroga:Iwilldoallthatispossibletofulfilyourwishes,withinthelimitsofmypowers. I:NowthatyouhavepromisedIwillmakearequest. Daroga:Pleasedotellme.WhateverispossibleIwillcertainlydo.MayInowknowhowcanIserve tofulfilyourwishes? I:Itissomethingwithinyourpowers.ThereisayoungmannamedBhagatSinghintheprison.He isveryanxioustomeetme.IwishtomeethimbeforeIamreleased:pleasearrangethemeeting. (IhadreceivedanumberofmessagesfromBhagatSinghthroughBhaiChuharSinghthathewas anxioustomeetme.Iinformedhiminreply,thatashewasarenegadefromSikhfaithIwouldnot liketoseehiminhiscleanshavenappearance,picturesofwhichIhadseen.Onhearingthishe repeatedtherequestwithtearsinhiseyesandaskedBhaiChuharSinghtopersuademetosee himatallcost.WhenBhaiChuharSinghtoldmethisImadeupmymindtoseehim). TheDarogasaidthatitwasquiteadifficultthingtodo,butsincehehadgiventhepromisehe assuredmethathewoulddefinitelyarrangethemeeting.Healsoassuredmethatthemeeting wouldtakeplacebeforeIwasreleasedandbeforeBhagatSinghmetdeathsentence.Theonly difficultywasthatitwasnoteasytopersuadetheSuperintendenttoarrangethemeeting. BecausethedayIhadarrivedinLahoreJail,BhagatSinghhadputupanapplicationseeking permissiontomeetmeandtheSuperintendenthadcategoricallyrefusedhimpermissionsaying thathecouldmeetanyprisonerexceptRandhirSingh. I:Soyouwillreallyhavetofaceconsiderabledifficulty. Daroga:Beitso,butIwilldowhatIhavepromisedyou.

I:Butpleasebeverycareful.Youshouldnotgetintotroubleforit.Idonotwantyoutodoany suchthingwhichmaycauseanyharmtoyourcareerorwhichmayresultinanyunpleasant outcometoyou. Daroga:Pleasedonotworry.Wecanhandlesuchmattersinmanyways.Iwillfindoutsomeways andmeanstofulfilthepromiseIhavegivenyou.Blessedindeedareyou,becauseyoushowsucha deepconcernevenforprisonofficialslikeme.Letushopeforthebest. AfterthisassurancehewentawaywhileIsentamessagetoBhagatSinghthesameday,thatwe wouldbemeetingpositivelyandbythegraceoftheGuruitmaybequitesoon."Restassuredand beprepared",Isaid.

CHAPTER25MEETINGWITHBHAGATSINGH,THEGREATPATRIOT ATLASTTHEdaycame.Itwas6P.M.on4thOctober,1930.Thenewsofmyreleasewasannounced andeveryonewasveryhappyaboutit.Iwassittinginablissfulsolitudewithinmycell.Allthe patriotsrushedtowardsmycelltobreakthenewstomeandcongratulateme.Thefirsttocome andcongratulatemewasBhaiGajjanSingh(Master).Inamatterofminutesotherpatriots gatheredaroundmeandreadjoyfullytheordersofrelease.Iwasoverwhelmednotsomuchby thejoyofreleaseasbytheseparationIwouldhavetobearfromdevotedfriendslikeBhaiKartar Singh(ofCanada).Iwasoverwhelmedbythesedualemotionsofjoyandsorrowwhenfriends cametobidgoodbyewithlovingembraces.Theprisonofficialsstoodtherereadytocarryoutthe orderofmyreleasebutmyfeetwerereluctanttomoveawayfromsuchdearcompanions.I embracedeveryoneofthemandafterafewaffectionatewordswitheachoneofthem,Ileftthem allwithtearsintheireyes.Thestreamseparatedfromtheriveratlast. WhenIwentoutoftheseprisonwardsImetMohammedAkbarnearthecentraldome.Hewas smilingandcomingtowardsme.Onseeingmehecongratulatedmeformyrelease.Inattentiveto hisfelicitations,Itoldhimthatitwastimethatheshouldfulfilhispromise.Heshouldnotmissthe chance.HesmiledandsaidthathehadalreadymadearrangementforthemeetingwithBhagat Singh.Youcouldnowmeethimforfulltwohours.Iaskedhimifhehadtakenpermissionfromthe Superintendent. Daroga:BeforeIfounditnecessarytoaskhim,theSuperintendentwasalreadyworriedand puzzledandwasseekingawayoutofadifficultsituation.Hisworryisthatyoushouldbequietly releasedwithoutgivinganychancetooutsiderstomakemuchnoiseaboutyourrelease.Heasked metofindawayoutofthisdifficulty.Hesaid,thereareregularpicketsofpeopleoutside,whoare waitingforthenewsofthereleaseofpoliticalprisoners.Assoonasapoliticalprisonerisreleased thenewsspreadslikefireandthereisagreatnoiseandhubbuboflongprocessions,whichare verydisturbingtotheGovernment.TheGovernmenthasissuedstrictinstructions,thattherelease shouldbesecretandquiet.Youseepeoplesittingneartheprisongatesinregularpicketstill sunset,soyoumustmakesomearrangementtosendRandhirSinghoutsecretlyandquietlyso thatwemaynotbeblamedforanythinglateron. AtthatverymomentIaskedtheSuperintendentnottoworry,andsuggestedtohimtheplan, saying,"Youremembersir,thedayRandhirSinghcametothisprison,BhagatSinghwhohasbeen sentencedtodeathsubmittedanapplicationforpermissiontomeethim,butyourejectedit.I believethatifwenowallowhimtomeetRandhirSingh,themeetingmaytakeabouttwohours.It willbequitedarkbythenandby8P.M.wewillsendRandhirSinghout.Thusstrictsecrecyabout thereleasewillbemaintained."TheSuperintendentwasimpressedbythissuggestionandgladly issuedorderstoallowthismeetingandyoucantalkfreelyaslongasyoulike.Iwillnowgiveyoua warder,whowillguideyoutoBhagatSingh. Sosaying,hesentaprisonwarderwithmeandorderedhimtopermitustohaveanunrestricted meeting.BhagatSinghwastakinghisdailystrollintheprisoncompound.Hehadbeentoldabout thepermissiongrantedforthismeeting.Onseeingmehecamerunningtowardsme.Iwas standingoutsidethefenceofthecourtyard.Hecameclosetothefenceandgreetedmewithgreat loveandaffection,bowinglowoutofreverence.Ialsofoldedmyhandsandgreetedhimwarmly. Thewardermovedawaywhenweweretogether.Eventhepolicemenondutyinthecompound keptawayfromus.Wewereallalonefacingeachother.

BhagatSinghwassooverwhelmedbythejoyofmeetingaftermonthsofanxiousmomentsthat tearsrolleddownhiseyes.Ihadhardlymetanyoneinlifewhohaddevelopedsodeepaffection andloveevenbeforecomingintocontactwithme.Itappearedwehadknowneachotherforlong time.Inarapturoustonehesaid,"OIcanhardlysayhowhappyIamtodayonhavingmetyouat last.DayandnightIwasrestlesslylongingforjustashortmeetingwithyou.Atlasttheblessed momenthascomeandmywisheshavebeenfulfilled.Afterknowingallyourgreatsacrificesand sufferinginprison,Ihadbecomeyourkeenadmirerandpassionatedevotee.Itwastheheroismof thegreatfreedomfightersof191415likeyou,whichinspiredinsignificantpatriotlikeme.Allour revolutionaryexploitsarenothingcomparedtotheastoundingheroicdeedsperformedbyyou andyourcompanions.Yourownlifeandstruggleforfreedomandrightsespeciallyimpressedme. MunshiMannaSinghperhapstoldyouwithwhatpassionatelongingIwasthirstingtomeetyou andtalktoyou.Ishouldsaythatmyinnerattachmentandadmirationforyoubroughtyoubackto Lahoreprisonaftersixteenyears.WhenIfirstsentamessagetoyouwithinthisprison,thatIwas anxioustomeetyouIreceivedyourdivinecommandtokeeptheSikhsymbols(beardandhair).I ampreparedtoabidebyyourwishes.Iamreallyashamedandampreparedtotellyoufrankly thatIremovedmyhairandbeardunderpressingcircumstances.Itwasfortheserviceofthe countrythatmycompanionscompelledmetogiveuptheSikhappearanceanddisguisemyselfas asannyasin.SoitisinassociationwiththeirreligiouspeoplethatIwascompelledtoshow disrespecttomyreligioussymbols,butnowIwillcertainlydowhateveryouwishmetodo. IwasgladtoseeBhagatSinghrepentantandhumbleinhispresentattitudetowardsreligious symbols.Iwasdeeplyimpressedbyhisfrankstatementoffacts,butIcouldnothesitatein expressingmyinnerfeelingsandIsaid: "BrotherBhagatSinghji,Iamdeeplytouchedbyyourloveforme.Iamalsoimpressedbyyour spiritofserviceandpatrioticzeal,butImusttellyoudearbrother,thatyourcompanionsdidnot giveyougoodadvice.Youseemtobeseekingsomethingverypettyandyoubecameapreytothe evilandmischievoussuggestionsofyourcompanions.Comparedtoourtimestheperiodinwhich youparticipatedinthefreedomstruggle,isaperiodofgreatawakening.Youcouldfearlesslytake partinthefreedomstruggleandserveyourcountryandhumanityasyouwished.Butyoumustbe knowingthatinourtimes(191415)fewandraresoulsfeltinspiredtodedicatetheirlivestothe causeoffreedom.InthePunjabonlyafewSikhswhocouldbecountedonfingertipswere politicallyawake,feltthepatrioticfervourtofightforfreedom.Therewasagreatfeelingand politicaloppositiontotheheroicGhadarLeadersandpatriotswhohadcomefromCanadaand America.EverychildinthePunjabwasopposedtothem.Iwillgiveyouonlyoneexampleofthe moralcourageofthegreatpatriotofthosedays.BhaiNidhanSinghofChuggavillagewasagreat patriotandfighterforfreedom,whoinspiredhundredsofIndianslivinginforeigncountriesto cometoIndiaanddedicatetheirlivestofreedomstruggle.Hespentthousandsofrupeesfromhis ownpocketforfreedomstruggle.Andyethedidnotdisguisehimself.Hecameopenlybyseabut theGovernmentatoncemadeelaboratearrangementstoarresthim. HereachedIndiaalongwithhiscompanionswithoutbeingdetected.Hecouldnotbearrested.He cametothePunjabandthrewhimselfheartandsoulinthefreedomstruggle.Hisheroicdeedsfor thecauseoffreedommustbeknowntoyou.Warrantsforhisarresthadbeenissued,his photographwaswidelypublicisedandapricewassetonhishead.Therewasanalloutattemptto arresthim.Hemovedswiftlyfromoneplacetoanotherorganizingthefreedomstruggle.There wasnosympathyandsupportforthesefreedomfightersinthepublic.Thepatriotsdepended mostlyonBhaiNidhanSinghfororganizationandinspiration.Ofcourseinfearlessnesstherewas

nonesodaringasKartarSinghSarabha.OnedayKartarSinghSarabhafearedthatBhaiNidhan Singhmaybearrested.Hewasthekeyfigureamongthefreedomfightersanditwasnecessary thatheshouldnotbearrestedsoon.Keepingonlythepoliticalinterestinviewhesuggestedto BhaiNidhanSinghthatheshoulddyehisbeardandthuschangehispublicisedappearanceto someextent.BhaiNidhanSinghboldlyansweredthathewouldneverdosuchathingandtarnish anddisgracehisheroisminthefreedomfight."Youcanusemeasbestasyoulikewiththis appearanceonlyanddonotmakeanysuggestionswhichwouldmakemeacoward"hesaid.His companionswantedhimtofallapreytotheirevilsuggestionsbuthisdeterminationremained unshaken.Fororganizingthefreedomstruggle,hetravelledtwentytothirtymilesadayand sometimesfearlesslypassedclosebypoliceposts.Heperformedsuchheroicdeedscomparedto whichyourplanswereinsignificant.Hedidnotevenagreetochangethecolourofhisbeard,while youwenttotheextentofremovingyourhairandbeard(BhaiNidhanSinghofvillageChugga, FerozepurdistrictwassentencedtodeathintheLahoreConspiracycaseon13thDec.1915,but thedeathsentencewaschangedtolifeimprisonment.Hewasreleasedanddiedon6thDecember 1936atMoga). BhagatSingh:Actually,IdidnotmurderSaunders.Iwasofcourseaccusedofhavingmurdered him.Iconsidereditagreatheroicdeedandsotookthecreditforit.IconfessedthatIkilled Saunders.Whethertherewasanybenefitinitornot,Ineverthelessgotthecreditforthewhole deed.Evenotherwisetherewasnoescapeforme. I:Theidealofatruepatriotisnevertoseeksuchpettyjoysofemptycredits.Forthejoyofgetting worldlypraiseyoudidnothesitatetofallfromahigherspiritualidealofbecominganapostate fromSikhism,nordidyoueverrepentoverthisfallfromamuchhigherideal.Allthatyouhave achievedbythiswrongstepissometrumpetingofyournameandheroismbysomepapers.You gaveuptheGuru'spersonalityforfalsegloryandemptyambition.Ifyoufeltthatyoumadea mistakeyoushouldhaverepentedandcomebacktotheKhalsaidealbymaintainingaSikhlike appearanceagain.Whydidyounotdoit? BhagatSingh:ImighthavekepttheSikhlikeappearanceagain,butthenIwouldhavelostthe friendshipandsympathyofmycomradeB.K.Dutt.Secondly;Iwouldnothavegotsomuch publicityasIamgettingnow.Itistruethatmysacrificesareinsignificantcomparedtothe sacrificesofthefreedomfightersof191415.Butaftersuchastoundingsacrificestheydidnotget anypublicityorpraiseinthepapers.TheSikhpapershadverylimitedcirculation.Eventheydid notrevealallfactsoftheheroicdeedsofpatriotslikeyou,becausetheirtimidpolicyprevented themfromwritinganythingfrankly.ItisthenonSikhpaperswhichpublicisedmynamewidelyand itisthroughthemIhaveacquiredallthegloryassociatedwithmyname.ItisafactthatifIhad maintainedtheSikhappearanceandifIhadprofessedmyselftobeanorthodoxSikhandkepthair andbeardthenonSikhpaperswouldnothavewrittenawordaboutme,justastheydidnotwrite awordaboutyouandyourcompanions.EvenoutofSikhpapers"TheKhalsaAkhbar",Lahore,an Urdupaper,daredtowritesomethingaboutyou.IknowitforcertainthatHindupapersare alwaysreluctanttowriteevenawordinpraiseofSikhpatriotsandfreedomfighters.Theydonot likeSikhsbeingpraisedforanything.IfIhadkepthairandbeardagainandbecomeaSikh,they wouldhavestartedbelittlingmeinsteadofpraisingme.SoIhesitatedtokeephairandbeard again. I:Onjudgingwhatyouhavesaid,mydearBhagatSingh,youridealofpatriotismisverylowand frippery.Tomakesuchashowofpatriotismandservicetothecountryforpersonalgloryischeap chauvinismandvainjingoism.Thepatriotsof191415movementsufferedandservedthecountry

keepingonlytheselflessserviceofthemotherlandinview.Theydidnothavetheslightestthought ofsuchcheappublicityandnevereveninadreamhadanyambitionofpersonalglory.Itisonlyin thecompanyofpettymindedandevilmotivatedpeoplethatyourmindwasmisledintosuchvain thoughtsofpersonalglory.Theseekingofeminencethroughnewspapers,andhonourandglory throughpropagandaareallsuperficialthingsaboutwhichitisrightlysaidintheGuruGranth Sahib: Madarethosewhotrumpetaman'sglory, Shamelessishe,whoacceptssuchfame, Heislikearatwhohastiedawinnowingbaskettohiswaist, Henowfindsitimpossibleeventogetintohishole: OnhearingthisBhagatSinghwasdeeplymovedandsaid"TheidealofSikhismisnodoubtvery high.Theworldingeneralhankersafteremptygloryonly.Ialsodriftedinthesamepassionfor personalglory.ButtodayIhaverealizedthatallthesethingsareidleexhibitionofvanity,conceit andselfglorification.IwouldhavebeenfortunateifIhadgottheopportunityoflivinginclose associationwithyouforatleastthreeorfourmonths.IfIhadgotthisopportunitytoliveinyour companyforthreeorfourmonths,Iwouldhavegainedmuchandallmyshortcomingswouldhave disappeared.NowIwilldowhateveryouaskmetodo.Younowwantmetobecomeakeshadhari Sikh.InowadmitthatImadeagreatmistake.Evencontrarytothishealthyfamilytradition,Iwent againsttheGuru'sinstructionsandshowedirreverencetotheSikhsymbols.Butthereisonemore fact,andIwouldbecommittingasinifIconcealitfromyou.Ikepthairandbeardmerelybecause therewasalongstandingtraditioninourfamilytodoso.IamveryproudtobecalledaSikh.But thehardfactisthatIwasneverreligiousatheart.YouwillexcusemeifItellyouinquiteplain termsthatatheartIamanatheist.IstilldonotbelieveinGod.Allmycompanionsknowit.With allthatIamwillingtodoanythingyouaskmetodo.Ifyoucommandme,Iwillkeephairand beard.Alas!IfonlyIhadgottheopportunitytostaynearyoualittlelonger,youcouldhave changedmyatheisticviews. I:Iamveryhappythatyouhaverevealedthetruthofyourinnerstateofmindandhavenot concealedwhatisreallyinyourheart.Itisabsolutelyuselesstokeepreligioussymbolslikehair andbeardwhileyouareanatheistatheart,norwouldIbeproudofmakingyoudosuchathing.I amnomoreanxiousaboutyourcomingbacktoSikhforms,noramIsorrythatyoudonothave hairandbeard.MyonlyanxietyandwishnowisthatyoushoulddiewithfaithinGod.Youwill definitelydieonthescaffold.Itwouldhavebeenbetterifyouratheismhaddisappearedbefore youfaceddeathsentence.Eventhoughyouareanatheistrememberonethingthatyouwillnot die,keepitengravedinyourheartthatyouwillnotdie.Youwillbebornagain.Yoursoulis immortalandagelessItwillneverbedestroyed.Itwillbebornagainandagain.Knowthisfor deadcertainthatyouwillnotdie.Youwilltakehumanbirthagain.Lookwithinandseewhatyou are?Areyouasoul,aspirit(Atma)orjustalumpoffleshandblood?Doyouthinkthatthisself withinyouwhichspeaks,understands,thinks,reflectsonservinghumanityandexpiresafterdoing greatdeeds,isnothingbeyondbones,bloodandfleshanddoyouthinkitwillendwiththeendof thebody?No,never.Yourrealselfwillnotbedestroyedandyouwillneverdie". Onhearingthesewordswhichwereutteredinaninspiredmood(bytheGraceofGod),Bhagat Singhstoodtheremuteandinwardlymoved.Foramomenthelosthisphysicalconsciousnessand hismindsoaredhigh.Speechless,hebowedlow,asifsomeunknownpowerhadtakenpossession ofhim.Forquitesometimeheremainedabsorbedindeepsilence.Ishookhimwithmyhandsand helpedhimtostand.Onhisfacetherewasastrangeglow.Hecamenearermeandstretchinghis

handsthroughthefencehetriedtotouchmyfeet.Iheldhishandsinmineandsaidthatonlythe Guru'sfeetareworthworshipandnothumanfeet. Ihelpedhimtostandupandwhenhehadregainedcontroloverhimselfhesaid"Yourwordshave piercedmyheartlikeanarrow,mydisbeliefandfaithlessnesshavebeenterriblyshaken,a magneticinfluencehaschangedmyinnerbeing.DeepdowninmyheartnowIbelievethatIwill notdieandthisbeliefwillremainunshakeninmymind,speechandactions.IamthatSpiritthat deathwillnotdestroy.Iwillnotdie.AfterIgiveupmybodyIwillbebornagain.Untilmynew birthmyAtmawillremainineverlastingglory.WhenIdieonthescaffoldIwilldiewithagreat spiritualjoy.IwasbravethroughsheerwillpowerandassertedthatIdidnotcarefordeath. Withinmyheartwasthedeephiddensorrowofcompleteextinctionafterdeath.Wheneverthis thoughtcametomindtherewasdarknessbeforemymind.Thethoughtofbeingreducedto nothingnessafterdeathcreatedapainfulvoidwithinmyheart.Yourwordshavebroughta miraculouschangeinme.Icannowseemyfutureclearlyinthelightofnewconsciousnessyou havegivenme.Thevoidcreatedbythethoughtsofextinctionhavedisappeared.Alldoubtsand delusionshavebeendispelled. "Ihavegainedmuchmorestrength.Iwillnowdiewithgreatmoralandspiritualcourage.Your exaltedlifehasimpartedtometheelixirofspiritualityandIfeelitsennoblinginfluence.Iknew onethingaboutyourlifethatyoualwayssaywhatyouhaveexperiencedandyourwordsand actionsarealwaysinunison.NotonlyamIconvincedthatIwillnotdie,andthatIamimmortal AtmabutIamconvincedthatthereisGodandyouhavehadaglimpseofHim.Sonowyouwillbe extremelypleasedtolearnthatyourdearBhagatSinghisabelieverinGodandhewilldiewith completespiritualfaithinSikhism,andaccordingtotheSikhterminology,Iwillfacenotdeathbut ascension.Thewordascensionisabeautifulwordandrevealsthatthesoulwillriseabovethe bodyandgobeyonddeath(AthisdeathSikhriteswereperformedbyaSikhpatriot.Hehadkept thepromiseofkeepinghairandbeard.Blitz,Bombaypublishedaphotographon26thMarch, 1949whichwastakenafewhoursbeforehisdeath).Afterleavingmybodymyspiritwillascend heavenwardsandwillneverdie.Itwillbebornagainandwillworkfortheidealserviceofthe Motherlandandthenation.Howfruitfulhasbeenthismeetingwithyou. Afterthissignificantendofourmeetingwegreetedeachotherandpartedinblissfulsilence.It wasquitedarknow.IwastakentotheofficefromwhereIwasgivenunconditionalreleaseand sentoutoftheprisonundercoverofdarkness.IboardedthetrainfromLahorerailwaystationand cametoAmritsar.FromAmritsarrailwaystationIwalkedtotheGoldenTemple.AGovernment servanthadbeengiventometohelpmeinmyjourney.Hecarriedmybagandbeddingand attendedtoallmyneeds.NeartheclocktowertheservantwaitedwithmyluggagewhileIwent insideandhadadipintheholytank.Itwas1A.M.ThereIsatinpeacefulsolitudemeditatingon HisName.Ienjoyedthissolitudeverymuch.Aftermeditation,Ihadamindtomeetsomefriends. ButonsecondthoughtIwantedtokeepthispilgrimagetotheGoldenTemple,asecret.Iknew thatifImetsomefriendstherewillbeunnecessarynoiseofjubilationaboutthereleaseanda gooddealoftrumpetingthroughprocessions.IwastemptedmanytimestogoandmeetGyani NaharSinghandGyaniHarbhajanSinghintheMalwaiBunga,butIovercamethetemptation. UntildaybreakIenjoyedthedivineKirtanoftheGoldenTemple.ThenquietlyIslippedoutof AmritsarandresumedmyjourneytoLudhiana. ReachingHome AtLudhianaItriedtoavoidbeingdetectedbyanyonebutsomefriendsrecognisedmeand broughtacartotakemetomyvillagehomeNarangwal.ThenewsspreadfasterthanIexpected.

AtthevillageDehlontherewerepeoplewaitingtowelcomeme.AtKilaRaipurtherewasalarge gathering.BhaiAsaSinghofmyvillagehadseenmeassoonasIgotintothecaratLudhianaand hewentonhisbicyclealittleaheadofthecarandspreadthenewsofmyreleaseinallthe villages.WhenhereachedNarangwalhesawagroupofpeoplesittingonaraisedplatforminthe villagegateway.MybrotherAtmaSinghwasamongstthem.Heaskedthemtogivealoudcheerof theKhalsagreeting,andthenhewouldgivethemhappynews.Everyonewantedhimtorelease thenewsfirstbutwhenBhaiAsaSinghinsistedonhavingloudvictorycryfirst,theygavealoud KhalsavictorycryandBhaiAsaSinghgavethenewsofmyarrival.Onhearingthishappynews, therewasawaveofjoythroughoutthevillage.Inthezealofgivingawelcome,peoplerantothe canalroadandotherswaitedonthemainhighwaytoGujjarwal.Somepeoplemadepreparations foranelaboratewelcomeathome.Everyonetriedtoexpresshisloveandaffectioninhisown way.BhaiAtmaSinghonhearingthenewsjumpedfromthetopoftheraisedplatformandran hometogivethenews.Thejoyofmyfamilyonhearingthenewsknewnobounds.Whenwe reachedKilaRaipur,therewasalargecrowdwaitingforusneartherailwaystationclosetoBhai NarainSingh'sshop.Thepeopleexpressedtheirloveandaffectioninsomanywaysthatitis difficulttonarratethem. FromherewewenttoNarangwal.Thecarmovedfastraisingdustallaround.Asthevillage neared,Ifeltquiteadifferentworldaroundme.Everythinginthesurroundingappearedtobe strange.Eventhespeechofthepeopleappearedtobestrange.Sixteenyearsisalongperiod.I couldnotevenrecognisethesurroundingsofmyownvillage.Manypeoplewerewaitingopposite villageMehmaSinghWala.AttheLohgarhwell,whenthecarturnedtowardsourvillage,Irealized thatNarangwalwascloseby.Thecarmovedonblowingitshorn.Icouldseethewallsofthe villagebuteverythingwaschanged.Manynewhouseshadbeenbuiltthissideofourhouse. WhenthecarreachedthevillagepondIcouldseethesangatcomingnearer.Soonmybrother AtmaSinghsteppedontheslowlymovingcarandheldmyarmsinwarmembrace.Infrontthe villagepeoplecamesingingthehymns.Igotdownfromthecarandwithfoldedhandsstoodface tofacewiththesangatandhumblygreetedthem.Ijoinedthesangatintheirdivinesongandwe movedontowardsourhouse.Allthepersonsaroundmewerenewfaces.Icouldrecogniseonly BhaiSurjanSinghDefedarwhowasanoldcompanionofourjatha.Wewereoverjoyedtoseeeach other.Slowlywemovedontowardsthehouseperformingthekirtan.Thewholevillagehad gatheredandallroundIcouldseemenandwomeneagerlycomingcloser.Tearsofjoyrolled downtheeyesofmanywhohadseenmeaftersuchalongseparation.Aunionafteralong separationbringsastrangeandtearfuljoysometimes.Itwasastrangeexperience.Onmeeting aftersuchalongtimepeoplecouldnotcontroltheirtears.Imyselfcouldnotcontrolmytears whichflowedincessantly. Atthethreewayopenspacethecongregationsatfordivinekirtan.Thoseplayingonthemusical instrumentswerenewfaces.Theysangthedivinesongs(shabads)withgreatenthusiasm.The roofsofthehouseswerecoveredwithpeopleasfarastheeyecouldsee.Duringtheshortjourney IwasnotfeelingwellandnowIwasfeelingalittlefeverish.Thekirtanendedandafterthe distributionofthesacrament(prasad)Iwastakenhomewhichwascloseby.Athomeagood manyladieshadgatheredtogether.Aladyremarked"Todayyourmothershouldhavebeenliving toseeyoubackhome.""Sheisherebymeside"Ireplied.Isawmymotherinherastralbody, blessingmeinloveandjoy.Itisdifficulttoexpressallthewonderfulthingsthathappenedthat day.

ThejoyofmywifeKartarKaurandtherestofthefamilyknewnobounds.Shehadseenthese happydaysafteryearsofterriblesufferingandsorrow.Forsixteenyearsshehadbeenpatiently waitingeverymomentformyreturn.Therewassomethinginherwhichwasconstantlytellingher thatwewouldmeetagain.Adaybeforemyarrivalshehadseenmebackhomeinadreamand sheknewthatthisdreamwouldcometrue.Shewastellingthisdreamtosomeonewhenmy brotherAtmaSinghranhomeandgavethenewsofmyarrival.Ifshehadnotseenmeinadream, shemightnothavebelievedthisnewsandmysuddenarrivalmighthavegivenheranastounding surprisewhichmighthavehadastrangeeffectonher. WellitwasthatIsawhiminadream Thedreamassuredmehewascoming. OtherwiseIwouldhavebecomemadwithjoy Onhearingthefelicitationsofhisarrival. Sonowshereceivedfelicitationsfromallsides.Therewasthesamehappyatmosphereofpeople gatheringandvisitorscoming,whichexistedsixteenyearsago.Nowtherewasgreaterjoyand rushthaneverbefore.Thereweretimeswhensheexperiencedsmitinglonelinessinthehouse. Nowthehouseandcourtyardweretentimesmoreblessedthaneverbefore.Hersufferingsof manyyearsnowended."Sorrowandsufferingaredispelled.Thereisjoyandhappinessathome byHisGrace".Thusendsthebrieflynarratedstoryofmysixteenyearsoflifeinprison. VaheGurujikaKhalsaVaheGurujikiFateh.

APPENDIXI SUPPLEMENTARYLETTERSOFBHAISAHIBRANDHIRSINGH Thefirsttwolettersgivenbelowgiveformalpermissionsoftheauthortopublishhisletterswhich coverthefirstfewchaptersofhislife.Thethirdletterwaswrittentohisdaughter,BibiDalerKaur, afterthedeathofhismother.Thefourthletterhasbeenrecentlyunearthed.Itwaswrittenfrom Multanprisontofriendswhowenttheretoinquireafterhishealth.PeoplefearedthateitherBhai Sahibwasdyinginprisonorwasdead.Theharrowingtortureshesufferedaredescribedin Chapter11.Theletterrevealsthemoralcourageandthespiritualexaltationofthewriterunder suchterribleconditions. 1 Theconditionswhichyouhavedescribedoutsideareexactlyasweanticipated.Idonotwantto discourageyoufromwritingsomethingaboutme,asthatwouldbreakyourheart,butwhenyou wrotetomethatyouarewritingmylifestory,Ifeltterriblyashamed.Idonotdeservetobethe subjectmatterofabiography.Youwritethebiography(jivancharitra)ofgreatmenonly.Iaman ordinaryandinsignificanthumanbeingandthereisnothinginmewhichdeservestobepreserved inabiography.Youcanwriteaboutafewincidentsofmylifebutdonotcallitanecdotesofmy life.IhesitatetocompelyoutodesistfromthisventureandIamgladthatyouaretryingtofulfila wishinthislifewhichhasbeensuchastrongimpulseinyou.Actuallyyoushouldwritethelifeof heroesandmartyrsonlywhohaveservedtheSikhPanthandmadehistory.Youcouldalsowrite thelifeofthosegreatsoulswhothroughtheirimmensespiritualpowerscontributedsomething solidtotheannalsofthenation. WhenIlookwithinmyselfIfindnoqualitywithinmebutonlyhumanweaknesses.Ihavenotdone anysignificantdeedwhichmaybecomparedevenwiththedoingsofdogsofdogsatHisDoor. EvenadoghassomequalitieswhichIdonothave.Youwereanxioustowriteaboutallthe enlightenedfriendsofoutmissionarygroup(jatha).Inthatyoucouldincludemealso.Iwouldnot haveobjectedtoit."WithThee,OLord,sayethNanak,IliketoremainasthedustofThyFeet." AnywayIdonotwanttobreakyourheart.Yourdeepaffectionformeissomethingthatcomes fromthepastlife.Anyway,asthingshappen,sobeit. InmyclairvoyantvisionIhaveseenyoudoingsomewritingwork,butIhavenotseenwritingyou mybiography.Whoknowshowlongthislifelasts.Ihavehadastrongwishtodieeithersinging hymnsandperformingkirtan,ortodiefightingforfreedomandfaithinthebattlefield.Butmy deathwillbeasHewillsit."AsHeWills,sowillitbe."Itisashothereasitisinthehottestmonth. Whatwillbetheclimaticconditioninthehottestmonths,Godaloneknows.Conveymyrespectful greetingstoallthebrothers:SatSriAkal. Rajahmundary:March19,1922 2 Ifinditdifficulttocomplytoyourrequestofwritingmywholelifestoryfromthebeginningtothis day.Idonotrememberallthethings.ItisquitepossiblethatImayremembersomethingafter searchingthememoriesofthepast,butIdofeelthatIshouldwriteaboutmyspiritualexperiences atAbbottabadonlytocloseandinitiatefriends,butIdonotlikethesethingstobepublishedin thepapers.Youcanpassonthemanuscriptcopytothosewhodeservetoknowit,andthosewho canbenefitfromit.TherearesomedeepermysticexperiencesoftheGuru'sWisdomwhichshould notberevealedtoeveryonebutshouldpassonfromhearttoheartthroughoraltradition.You

knoweverything.Inthecontextofthissuggestionyoucandowhatyouthinkbest.Toabideby yourrequestIhavefulfilledyourwishes.IhopeyouwillkeepinviewthesentimentsIhave expressedabove. CentralJailRajahmundary:March24,1922 3 Thesouloftheenlightenedwhenliberatedfromtheearthlybodybecomesclairvoyant.These eyesoftheastralbodycanseethroughmatterandspace.Bodilyeyeshavelimitedvision,butthe spiritualeyesoftheastralbodycanseethroughthousandsofmilesofspace.Theycanseeinside andoutsideeveryhumanbeing.Nothingremainsveiledfromthem.KnowitthatdearMotherhas notleftusandgoneafar.Sheiseversoclosetous.Shecanseeusandlistentous.Ourearthly eyescannotseeher,butshecanseeuseveninthedark.Thereisnosuchthingasdarknessfora liberatedsoul.Thereisdarknessonlyforpeopleabsorbedinmundanelife.Thisspiritualvisioncan beattainedbyenlightenedSikhsiftheyleadthelifeofcontemplationandmeditationofdivine Name,evenduringtheirearthlysojourn.Thesoulcanbecomeliberatedevenwhileitisinthe body.SuchenlightenedSikhscanevenseepartedsouls.Mychild,thesearethingsofdeeper mysticlife.Itisdifficultforyoutounderstandthemasyet.Whenyoumakeprogressinyour spiritualeffortsmychild,youwillautomaticallyunderstandallthesethings.Allthatyouhaveto bearinmindnowisthatjustastheGuruiseternallywithus,andevernearus,soalsoallthose divinesoulswhoattaintheGuru'srealmofeternalTruth,areevernearus.Theyarenotfaraway fromus,buttheyshowdeepconcernforus.SoisthesoulofourdearMother. NagpurCentralJail:June8,1927 4 IhavehandedoveronelettertoaHindugentlemanaddressedtoaspirituallyenlightenedfriend. Hewillprobablyhanditovertoyoutoday.Thisletterwillalsobesentthroughthesame gentleman.ThroughhimIsentamessagethatwewouldshortlybetransferredfromthis(Multan) Jail.Thegentlemanwilldefinitelymeetyou.Iamsendingyouoneletterbypostalso.Donotwait hereanylonger.Goandinformaboutustothoseanxiouslywaitingathome.Wewillcollectthe money.Donotworryaboutit.Keepyourselfbusywithnobledeedsofloveandservice.Wewill keepyouinformedaboutallthathappensasbestaswecan.Writetousassoonasyoureach home,howthingsarethere.Donotworryaboutus.Wecaneasilytalktoeachother.BhaiSanta Singhisinthecelloppositemineatnight.BhaiSaranSinghisinhighspirits.Heisquitecheerful. HeisgenerallybusyinrecitationofGurbaniormeditations.Allothersarewell. BythegraceoftheGuruouroldcompanionswhohadloveanddevotionfortheworkwe undertookarestillbusykeepingthelightburning.Keepthespiritofthededicatedgroup(Jatha) everresplendentsothatitmayattractevernewseekersoftruth.Godwillonedayordaina meetingbetweenus,butitisourdutytoabidebyHissweetWillandtoeverseekthepleasureof theGuru. TheeternalGuruwillhelpusinthisturmoiloflife.Byyourloveandprayerswealsowillbe liberated.Mybelovedfriends,mydevotedcompanionseverwillingtoburnintheflameoflifelike amoth,mayGodandtheGururewardallyourspiritualefforts.MayHesavethePanthfrom stormyweathers.Forus,theloveandgraceofGodiseverythingweneed.Donotthinkwearefar awayfromyou.Weareindeedeversoclosetoyou.Thereisonlyathinveilofillusionseparating us.Thisthinveilofillusionwillonedayfalllikeawallofsand.Conveymyrespectfulgreetingstoall brothers,sistersandfriends.Pleasegobacknow. Multanprison:1917

APPENDIXII INTRODUCTIONTOPUNJABIEDITION ByDr.BhaiVirSingh Thesamemanisbusyineducationalactivities.Hestudiesandteaches.Attimes,heisbusyinacts ofcharity,philanthropyandservicetohumanity.Atothertimes,heisbusyinfamilyaffairs,andat stillothertimes,heisbusyinpoliticalactivities.Sometimesheisbusyprocuringthingsforhis physicalexistence.Thesamepersonalityisbusyindiverseactivities,butbehindallhismultifarious deedsthereissomethingthatremainseverthesame.Nomatterinwhatconsciousformthisthing expressesitself,nomatterthroughwhatthoughtsanddeedsitismanifest,theimpellingpower behindallactivitiesisoneandthesame. Thisdynamicpowerrevealsitselftoothersthroughspeechandactions,buttoone'sownselfitis visiblymanifestwithinhisownmind.Thisdrivingforcewithinusiswhatisknownas'character1. Whetheramanworksinsocialsphereorinreligious,moraloranyotherfield,hischaracter revealsitselfineverysphereofhiswork.Itisthestrengthofhischaracterthatmakesuphis personality."Amanisknownbyhisdeedsandmoralefforts."Characteristhemostintimate friendofman.Itistherichestandgreatestsupportofinnerself.Itsoutwardexpressiongives immensebenefitthroughadynamicpersonalitytotheworld,andmakeslifeworthwhile. Thisbookwasgiventomebeforebeingpublished.Whenthenameofitsauthor,whose autobiographicallettersthebookcontains,wasmentionedtome,then,evenbeforeIthoughtof thereligious,social,educationalreformsofthisgreatman,hischaracterstoodvisiblypersonified beforeme.Itoccurredtome,evenbeforeexpressingmyopinionaboutthebook,afterreadingit, thatImustfirstattemptanexpositionofthemoralandspiritualinfluenceofthecharacterofthe writeroftheseepistles,whichmakesallthethingswritteninthisbookconvincing.Thereisone aspectofthewriter'slifewhichstandsoutprominently.Thatis,hisdescriptionofhowthedivine NamewasrevealedtohimafterhehadcompletelydedicatedhismindandsoultoGod.Whenhe wasbaptised,adisturbingintrusionbyanoutsiderhadcausedconfusioninhismind.Hehas vividlydescribedhisexperiencesthewayheattaineditafteranintensesearch. From1900A.D.hehasfiguredasawellknownpersonalityamongtheluminariesoftheSikh Panth,andeversincethen,thecentraltraitofhischaracterhasbeenuniformlythesame.Wecan sumuphischaracterinafewwords,asanembodimentofTruth.Whethersomepeopleare devotedtothepersonalityofSaintRandhirSingh,orholddifferentopinionsthanhim,everyone withoutexceptionbelievesthatheisapassionateloveroftruth.Thecharacterofamanoftruthis exaltedandnoble,andifhehassomehumanweaknessestheystartdisappearingassoonashe startsimbibingthehigheridealsofSikhism.Thatiswhy,theSaviour,ourLord,thetrueGuruhas statedthatTruthisthepanaceaofallills.Whateveramandisciplinedintruth,willsaywillbe worthyofbelieving.Whateverhewriteswouldbeconvincingandcommandingbelief.Whatever onhearingandreadingappearstobetrue,willgivepeaceandhappinesstotheworld. Thus,now,Ihavereadtheseautobiographicalepistlesofascholarwhoisnotonlyaloveroftruth, butwhosecharacterandpersonalityaretruthful.Thebookhas,firstly,ahistoricalinterest; secondly,itwouldhaveimmensereligiousimportancefortheSikhworld.Thebookisgoingto makethemostsignificantimpression,basedontheauthor'sexperienceandspiritualencounters, onthereader.Itwillgiveaconvincingtestimonyofthefactthatourfaithinthecontemplation andremembranceofthedivineName,whichthescripturespointouttobefactualtruth,hasnow

beentestedbyanexperimentinthecrucibleofhisownselfbyascholareducatedandtrainedin Westernlore.Henowbearswitnesstothefactthatwhatthescripturessayisnotmerereflective statementunrelatedtoexperience,norisitaflightofascholar'simagination.ItisaTruthwhich canbeexperiencedandlivedGuruArjancallsthedivineName,amrita,ambrosia.ItisTruth.Now ascholardisciplinedinWesterneducationhasrenouncedhisself,practisedincontemplative meditationthedivineName,andsaysthattheNameofGodistheamrita.WhattheGurussaidis thereforetrue.Asthecharacterofthemanwhohastestedthesedoctrinesthroughexperienceis wellknowntobeexaltedandofimpeccableintegrity,sohisstatementbasedonpersonal experiencearenodoubtconvincingandcommandbelief.Sothisbookisthebookofthetimesand beneficial. Atthistimewhenintellectualrevivalistsareturningthemindofthepeopletomaterialism,and thattooisinspiredwithantireligiouspurpose,SaintRandhirSingh'sexperiencesofthedivine Name,recordedinthisbookwillguideandilluminethemindsofmanyyoungseekersoftruthwho flounderontheborderofdoubtandfaith.Itwillshowthemhowafterastrenuousspiritualeffort andcompletededicationtotheGuru,hefoundtheWayandhowfromhisexperienceheconfirms andtestifiesthemysticexperiencesofthedivineName.Sincethenhehasdedicatedhislifeto spiritualquestandstruggleforliberty.Otherbooksandtheologicalexpositionofthewriterwill helpthenovicesandseekersoftruthstillfurther.Thisautobiographywillinspiretheisticfaithin God,andwillrevealhowthosewhoaresustainedbyTruthareblessedbydivinegraceintheir searchforHisilluminatingWord.Itisalsoatestimonyofthefact,thatwhatevertheGuruhas writtenisbasedonexperience. Thisautobiographywillbeabeaconlightconvincingtheseekersoftruththatifwediscard falsehood,enmity,evilandespousetheloveoftruthandlivealifeofcompletededicationtothe WillofGod,weshall,then,continuetoreceivethelightandguidancefromtheUnknown.We learnthatinEnglandthereisanOxfordmovementwhichhasmadetruth,nobilityofcharacter, loveandreverenceforGodthecardinalprinciplesoftheiraims.Undertheinfluenceofthis movementmanyatheistsandevilmindedpersonshaverealizedthatthosewhotreadthepathof truthcontinuetoreceivehelpandguidancefromtheUnknown.Byimbibingthecodeofconduct oftheOxfordmovementmanyevilmindedpeoplehavebeenreformedandatheistshavebecome believersinGod.TheexperiencesofSaintRandhirSingh,recordedintheseautobiographical epistles,tellushowbydedicatinghislifetoTruthandtheidealsoftheGuru,heattainedthe wisdomandlightofthedivineWord.Though,atthetimeofbaptism,anoutsider'sinterference hadcreateddoubtinhismind,buthisdeepandunshakablefaithintheGuruinspiredhimto knockthedooroftheEternalMaster.RealitywasunveiledandtheUnseenHandofGodguided HimfromtheUnknown. AlthoughthefirstpartofthebookdescribesmainlyhismysticexperiencesoftheDivineName,it iswellknownthathiswholelifehasbeenasagaofsufferinginwhichheneverforamomentleft hisdeepfaithanddevotiontoGodandHisWord.Thestoryofthisautobiographyleavesusin wonderment.GodHimselfissublimeandwonderful.BypraisingandglorifyingHimmanreaches thesublimestateofwonderment.Allthestrangeandennoblingexperiencesnarratedinthisbook arecandidandsincerestatementsofamanwhosesustenancewasTruth.Weshouldstudyitwith reverenceandlovefortruth. VirSingh Amritsar 29.5.36

FOREWORDTOTHEPUNJABIEDITION By SirJogindraSingh Healonecanknowaboutthehighermysticalstatesofreligiouslifewhohasenjoyedtheaesthetic joyofspiritualexperience.HealonecanunravelthedeepermeaningoftheWord(shabad),who hasimbibeditsspirit.Healoneknowstruespiritualbliss,whoafterattainingtheineffablestate hascompletelyextinguishedtheflamesofdesiresandinwhosehearteverreignstranquillityand peace.ThereligiousandmysticalexperiencesofBhaiSahibRandhirSinghareconcreteevidenceof thehighesthumanachievementinmystical,spiritualandaestheticlife. Onewhohaslivedsuchalife,andexperiencedthespiritualexaltationpennedinthisbook,alone, isentitledtowriteaboutitandcommentonit.Whatcanamanofthemundaneworldlikemesay aboutit?DevotionandfaithshouldbesuchaswefindinBhaiSahibRandhirSingh.Streamsoflove flowinsuchtorrentialtidesthattheysweepawayallsorrowandagonyofthemindasthesun dispelsalldarkness.Atma(theself)initsresplendentformisrealizedinthedivinestateof ExistenceConsciousnessBliss(satcitananda). FromthelittleinnerknowledgeIhaveaboutspirituallife,Icansaythatthelifeandexperiencesof BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwillcertainlyshowthewaytoallseekersofTruth.Gloriousisthegreat Guru.GloriousaretheGuru'sSikhs. JogindraSingh Simla 15.5.36

GYANINAHARSINGH'SPREFACETOTHEPUNJABIEDITION ItihasisaSanskritwordwhichmeans:'sobeit'.Inotherwordsitisthenamegiventothe collectionofeventsaboutthepastorthepresentofaperson,countryornation.Historytellsus aboutthenations;itservesasalighthousetothegenerationstocome.Itgivesatruepictureof therevolutionarychangesintheworld. ItisgenerallybelievedthatIndianshavenevercaredtorecordhistoricaleventsinchronological sequence.ItisalsofeltthatSikhsforvariousreasonshavenevercaredtorecordthe contemporaryeventsoftheGuruperiodandsubsequenttimes.Attemptsweremademuchlater, andthescarcityofmaterialcreatedmanydifficultiesforsubsequenthistorians. NowadaystheinterestoftheSikhsintheirhistoryisontheincrease,butstilltheSikh organizationsandinstitutionsdonotpaymuchattentiontothecollectionandpreservationof historicalrecords.ThisisthereasonwhyessentialhistoricalrecordofevenrecentAkalimovement towhichmostofuswereeyewitnessesisnotavailable. FrommyearlierdaysIwaskeenlyinterestedinhistoryandwasfondofreadingandlisteningto thelifestoriesofsaintsandsages.Inthesatsangmandate(congregationalgatherings)Ihavebeen witnesstothemysticexaltationofenlightenedsouls,whichapartfromtheirreligiousandspiritual significancehadhistoricalimportancealso.SowhenIcameoutoftheprisonImadeupmymind torecordthehistoricaleventsofthisperiodindicatedabove.InthiscollectionIgotpublisheda numberofarticlesinUrdupapers,KhalsaAkhbarandAkaliAkhbarintheyears191921.Inmost ofthesearticlesthelifestoriesofBhaiRandhirSinghwererecorded. FromthereIgotanideatogetmoreinformationfromBhaiSahibRandhirSinghabouthislife story,andmyfriendsalsourgedmetodoso.Intheyear1921,BhaiSahibwastransferredfrom HazaribaghtoRajahmundaryprison,wherehewasabletogetampletimetoreadandwrite.SoI wrotetohimalettermakingthisrequest.Foraboutfourorfivemonthshedidnotagreetothis proposal,ashewasextremelyreluctanttowriteabouthisownlife.Afterrepeatedrequestsand persuasion,hewroteinMarch1922anaccountofhisstayatAbbottabad(seechapter5).On furtherrequestsandpersuasionsbyfriendshewroteafewmoreautobiographicalletters,which weresocaptivatingandilluminatingthatonelikedtoreadthemagainandagain.Mostofthese letterswerereceivedduringtheyear192223whenIwasworkingasateacherinD.B.HighSchool, SamralainLudhianadistrict.Everafterthathewroteoffandon,whenrepeatedlypressedtowrite moreabouthislifestory. BhaiSahibRandhirSinghdidnotallowustopublishhisletters,norwasittheappropriatetimeto doso,duetowhichthelettershadtobepreservedforquitesometimeinmanuscriptform.But stillmanyofhisadmirersgotanopportunitytoreadthemanuscriptandIbelievethatabouta hundredpeoplereadandenjoyedtheseletters. InSeptemberOctober1934issueoftheParliamentGazette,areligiousmagazinerunbythe Bhasauriapeople,GyaniLaiSinghaftermisquotinganarticlefrom"AsliKaumiDard:BhaiRandhir SinghNumber*,erroneouslystatedthatBhaiSahibRandhirSinghinhisilluminationofthedivine Namewasenlightenedbythecorruptversionofgurumantram,whichtheyacceptedandwere tryingtopopularise.(GyaniLaiSinghhasrecantedfromhisstandsincethen).Commentingonthe misleadingarticleofGyaniLaiSingh,BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwroteanarticle,whichwas publishedintheWeeklyKhalsaSamachar(Vol.35,No.49,page6,columns2,3andpage7column

1)of25thOct,1934andsentmethefollowingpermissiontopublishtheseletters:"Iwroteto GyaniNaharSinghaboutsomeofmymostintimatespiritualexperiencesinresponsetoavery eagerandpersuasiverequestfromanumberofmyfriendssomeyearsago,desiringthatthey shouldbekeptsecretandshownonlytoinitiatedevoteesoftheGuru.Undertheimpulseof personalaffectionandlove,hehassoughtpermissiontopublishtheseletters,forwhichfurther responsibilityrestswithhim.NowtodispeltheerroneousimpressioncreatedbyGyaniLaiSingh, hehasmypermissiontopublishmyletterswithoutalteringorsuppressingasingleword." Sowhilethosewhohadreaditwereeagertopublishthem,Iwasabletosecurethepermissionof BhaiSahibRandhirSinghtopublishtheletters.FromthatverydayImadepreparationstoget thempublished.Afteryearsofwaitingcametheday,bythegraceofGod,whentheseletterswere printedandpublished.Therearemanyletters,butforthepresentonlyfiveorsixarebeing published.Astimeandopportunitypermits,therestwillbepublished.Allthosewhoreadthem havekeenlyadmiredthem,becausethereareanumberofspecialqualitiesinthem: 1.Itisthestoryofpersonalspiritualexperiencesofthehigherstateofdivineillumination,which inspiresfaith,devotioninSikhismandrevealsthegloryofdivineNameandgurbani. 2.ThereissuchwonderfulinterpretationofthemysticdepthsofSikhism,whichcouldbegiven expressiontobydeeplyabsorbingtheaestheticjoyofdivineNameandtheWordoftheGuru. 3.Fromthehistoricalpointofview,itisapreciousrecord.Thereishardlyanother autobiographicalaccountofthespiritualexperienceswritteninsuchscintillatingprose.Perhaps noSikhhaseverwrittensucharemarkablework. 4.Fromtheliterarypointofview,theworkishighclassPunjabiliterature.Thespecialfeatureofit isthatthewriterhasmainlyusedthelanguageoftheSikhscriptures,andhaswrittenitinvery lucid,originalandimpressiveinimitablestyle. Tosumup,thesubjectmatteroftheselettersispreciousfromliterary,religiousandhistorical pointofview.BhaiSahibpennedtheseinaveryinspiredmood.Thereaderwillsharethejoyand inspirationashereadsit.TheexperiencesofBhaiSahibatAbbottabadarerelatedinfourdifferent letters,thenarrativeforwhichisincontinuoussequence.ThefirstletterwaswrittenonMarch 24th1922,thesecondandthirdonMarch30th1922,butwerepostedinseparateenvelops.The fourthwaswrittenonApril4th1922.Allthefourweresentinseparatecovers. ItisexplainedintheselettershowafteracquiringthedivineName,theLightofGodisseen.Many otherdeeperexperiencesofSikhismareexplained.Tocompletethestory,intheseletteran interestingaccountofMaiGulabKaurisgivenfromletterNo.6.LetterNo.5describeshowafter receivingaletterfromhisfather,SardarNathaSingh,askinghimtoreadgurbani,hewasattracted towardsit,whilehewasastudentofMissionCollegeLahore.Hethentookreligiouslifeseriously forthewholeofhislife.Thebookhasbeencompiledfromtheletterswhicharepublishedinthe samesequenceinwhichtheyhavebeenreceived(inthepresenttranslation,thewholematerial hasbeenpublishedchronologically.ThehaphazardarrangementoftheoriginalPunjabieditionis veryconfusing). BhaiSahibRandhirSinghwasHeadClerkintheSubDivisionalOfficer'sofficeAbbottabadinthe year19045.HestudiedintheMissionCollegeLahoreintheyear18991900.Theseevents occurredwhenhewasquiteyoung(betweentheageof2225).BhaiSahibwasbornonAsad1935

B.S.i.e.July7th1878A.D(whilethisdateisgivenintheprefacebyGyaniNaharSingh,hegives quitedifferentdateonpage666ofthelatesteditionofthebook,whichisAsad25,1935B.S. correspondingtoJuly8,1878A.D.InhisarticlepublishedinPunjabiRatan14August1961,page 17hegivestheChristianeradateasJuly7th1878A.D.whichseemstobecorrect). Headingsandsubheadingshavebeengiveninthebookaccordingtorequirement.Gurbanihas beenprintedinseparatetype.Importantlinesareunderlined.Wherevernecessaryfootnoteshave beengiven.Importantdateshavebeengivenaftercheckingthemfromoldcalendars,andthe lettershavebeennumberedanddated.Thelettershavebeencompiledandpublishedinthe sequenceinwhichtheywerereceived. ThereisareferencetoMaiGulabKaurintheletters.ImadeinquiriesaboutherfromBhaktaDuna SingofAbbottabadwhoaskedBhaiNarainSinghbooksellerofAbbottabadtoacquirethedetails ofherlife.ItislearntthatMaiGulabKaurwasborninVillageBurhaninCampblpurdistrictinthe year1920.ShewasthedaughterofBhaiDarghaMai,asehajdhariSikhanddevoteeoftheGuru. ShewasmarriedattheageoffifteentooneBhaiDesRajofHaripurin1935.Thecouplestayedin SohewaleMohallainHaripur.Shehadonesonandtwodaughters.Tenyearsbeforeherdeath,her husbanddied;MaiGulabKaurdiedsometimeintheyear190910.Shespentthelasttenyearsof herlifeinastateofspiritualintoxication.BhaiSahibRandhirSinghsaysthatwhenhemether,she woreakach,andwrappedherbodyinablanket.Shewasamritdhari(baptised)andlivedstrictly accordingtotheKhalsacodeofconduct,butitisnotknownwhenandwhereshewasbaptised.At HaripurpeoplecalledherGulato,themadwoman.TheMuslimsreveredherasagreatsaint,and respectedhermorethantheHindusandSikhs. BhaiSahibcamebacktohisvillageNarangwalfromAbbottabadin1905A.D.Twentysevenyears afterthathewenttoPunjaSahibagain,wherehewasoneofthePanjPyaraswholaidthe foundationstoneofthenewbuilding.AdayafterthathewenttoAbbottabadontheinvitationof thesangatofthatplace.Theselettershavebeenpublishedbecausetheyarequiteimportantfrom thereligious,literaryandhistoricalpointofview.WewereeagertopublishthemwhileBhaiSahib wasliving,becausetherecanhardlybeanygroundfordoubtfulcriticismwhensuchathingis publishedduringthelifetimeoftheauthor.Itshistoricityisconfirmed.Whensuchathingis publishedafterthedeathofaperson,peopleattributevariousmotivestoitandconsideritonlya propaganda.IamgladtheselettershavebeenpublishedduringthelifetimeofBhaiSahibthese lettershavebeenpublishedduringthelifetimeofBhaiSahibRandhirSingh.MayGodgiveus opportunitytopublishtherestofthematerialsoon.Iamgratefultothosepeoplewhohave encouragedandhelpedinthepublicationoftheseletters(In1936onlythefirst80pagesofthis bookwerepublished.Thisisthepublishersnotetothisincompleteedition). NaharSinghGyani Vill:Gujjarwal Dist.Ludhiana EditorGursewak Amritsar, May13,1936.