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Epilog

At the beginning of this manual we considered the geological implications of electrical


properties of rocks measured by logging tools for decades. These truly electric logs
are a step removed from the experience of outcrop. However, for most of the manual
we have been concerned with the measurements of nuclear tools which are tied more
directly to rock composition and geochemistry. The shift in laboratory procedures from
wet chemical analyses to nuclear analytical methods has also made the transition
easier between logs and conventional geological methods. However, it must be
remembered that the nuclear logs record stochastic processes of nuclear interaction and
decay. The log signal is supplemented by a small component of random noise that
should be accommodated in any systematic interpretation.
It is also important to bear in mind that the geological meaning of many of these
measurements is currently a matter of current research and debate. The remarks of
Serra and others (1980) concerning spectral gamma ray data are still true and worth
quoting: It must be noted here that much controversy exists as to the relationskups
between Th, U, and K, their geological occurrences, and factors affecting their
relationship to rock types, and environments of deposition, diagenesis, and
metamorphism. In other words, the petrophysical model relating Th, U, and K
occurrence to reality is less than perfect. The proposition of some type of relationship is
necessary, but may give rise to erroneous interpretations unless viewed with proper
care.
Similar remarks could be made about the latest generation of geochemical tools and
those under development. However, when sufficient checks, safeguards, corrections,
calibrations, and validations have been made to ensure that the signal recorded is a
reasonable representation of the rock property, then we are presented with
extraordinary records of rock successions. The challenge is then placed squarely on us
to understand their meaning. New classifications, new models, new interpretation
techniques must be devised to allow these logs to give us fresh insights into geology.
141
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147
APPENDICES
149
INDEX OF MANUAL EXAMPLE WELLS
Listed below are the identification numbers for the wells used in this manual. together
with the page numbers of the log illustrations . The well locations are marked on the
map overleaf (page 152 . ) and the stratigraphic intervals of the logged sequences are
shown on page 153 .
1 . Mack Colt Haynes #X-37 SE-NE-SE 10-24s-21E Allen Co .................................. 11
2 . USGS-KGS Geis #1 SW 32-13s-2W Saline Co .................................................... 13
3 . C.R.A., Inc . Woodward #4 12-25s-21E Bourbon Co ............................................. 21
4 . Arc0 Seibert #2 SW-NW 30-29s-38W Grant Co ....................................................... 23
5 . Oxy USA Longwood #A-1 NW-NE-SE 3-29s-33W Haskell Co ............................ 25
6 . Toto Gas Burk #1 C-SW-SE 27-12s-41W Wallace Co .......................................... 27
7 . Cities Service Montgomery #2 C-NE-NW 7-8s-23W Graham Co ....................... 29
8 . Skelly Bartosovsky #1 SE-SW-SW 9-1s-34W Rawlins Co ..................................... 31
9 . Houston Tom Payne #1 SE-SW-SE 18-18s-23E Miami Co ............................... 35, 79
10 . KGS Braun #1 NE-NE-NE 30-12s-18W Ellis Co ........................................... 39, 117
11 . KGS Gray Co . Feedyard #1 SE-NE 26-27s-28W Gray Co ..................................... 47
12 . Conoco Harrison #1 C-SW-NW 33-11s-10E Wabaunsee Co ....................... 49, 93
13 . Mobil Brown #1-2 C-NW ll-35S-37W Stevens Co .................................. Cover, 51
14 . Gulf Berg #I-20 NW-NW 20-22s-34W Finney Co ................................................. 55
15 . BHP Silkman #5-9 SW-SW-NW 9-15s-40W Wallace Co ..................................... 57
16 . U.S.A.E.C. #2 C-N/2-N/2 35-19s-8W Rice Co ........................................................ 60
17 . Cities Service Beck #1 SW-SE-SE 14-5s-12E Nemaha Co .................................. 68-69
18 . Mobil Ratcliffe #1 N2-N2-SW 10-35s-37W Stevens Co ........................................... 83
19 . First Energy Linin #21-23 C-NE-NW 23-4s-38W Cheyenne Co ......................... 85
20.Terra Resources Wangerin #1 C-NE-NE 20-2s-15W Smith Co ............................ 87
21 . Texaco Poersch #1 SW-SW 31-5s-5E Washington Co .......................................... 89
22 . Mesa Moore #4-20 NE-NW-SW 20-31s-21W Clark Co ........................................ 95
23 . Lear Petroleum Pike #1-14 C-NE-NW 14-6s-19E Atchison Co ............................. 97
24 . Gulf Sitz B #9-35 SW-SE-SW 35-12s-16W Ellis Co ............................................... 99
25 . Plains Webster #A-21 NW-SE-SW 31-24s-31W Finney Co ................................ 101
26 . Jay Boy H&H Farms F#l SE-SW-NE 28-8s-33W Thomas Co ................................ 103
27 . Quinoco Zu-Swdsl C-N/2-SW 12-24s-11W Stafford Co ................................... 107
28 . PetroLewis Richards Fund #1-7 C-NW-SE 7-4s-14E Nemaha Co ................. 109, 114
151
QI
0 miles 100
m 0 km 160
/
OKLAHOMA
\
Location of manual example wells.
152
Example
intervals
Devonian
Silurian
Age Lithology Selected Units
- --- -
f f f f
/ / /
Ogallala
Q
Pierre Shale
I
I
Niobrara Chalk
Cretaceous
Greenhorn Ls
Dakota Formation
Morrison
Blaine Formation
Cedar Hills Ss
Stone Corral
Permian
Hutchinson Salt
Chase Group
Virgilian
I . . . . I
- -
I
Lansing &
Kansas City
Groups
Missourian
Cherokee Group
Desmoinesian
............... -
......
A A A A A
Morrow
Miss is s i p p i "Chat"
li3zzZa
Mississippian
-I
---
Chattanooga Sh
"Hunton Group"
Maquoketa Sh
Viola Ls
Simpson Group
----
I l l 1
Ordovician ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arbuckle Group
Precambrian
..- . -
JHD. 1994
..*
r Ab;..,:/A I
Stratigraphy of Example Wells
153
BIBLIOGRAPHY
In this bibliographic review, I will discuss material whose major emphasis is on the
interpretation of geology from wireline logs. Of course, all logs have geological
implications, but the older literature has tended to concentrate on the reservoir
engineering aspects of log analysis.
many years. Pirson was a petroleum engineering professor, but the diversity of his
interests is reflected in the variety of topics in this book. There are sections on the use of
the SP log as a redox potential indicator, the sedimentology of log curve shapes, the
structural and sedimentological interpretation of dipmeter logs, paleofacies
identification and mapping, and several chapters on hydrodynamics.
George Asquith has been a prolific author of papers and books that have explained
traditional log analysis techniques from a geological viewpoint. The emphasis
throughout has been on practical methods that can be used in the search for oil and gas
using real examples and a no-nonsense commentary. The book by Asquith and Gibson
(1982) was a huge publishing success and was a primer of log interpretation designed
specifically for a geological audience. In later volumes, Asquith expanded on the
techniques that were useful in the evaluation of carbonates (Asquith, 1985), and
summarized the complex log analysis methods used for shaly sandstones (Asquith,
1990).
tools, formation properties, and a wide variety of applications that included, but
reached beyond, the evaluation of oil and gas.
The prolific and creative work of Oberto Serra and his coworkers finally led to a
monumental two-volume treatise (Serra, 1984,1986). Serra made extensive use of
dipmeter analyses, closely integrated with other logs and profiles of bedding and
textural properties. Collectively, these provide a valuable atlas in the interpretation of
sedimentary environments from logs (Serra, 1985).
Rider (1986, revised 1991) published a readable and popular book on the geological
interpretation of logs, drawn partly from his work with Serra's group, although he
pointedly declined to write on dipmeter interpretation.
transformation of logs to profiles of lithology and mineralogy within individual wells
and as maps of variation across regional areas.
The classic book of "Geologic Well Log Analysis" by Pirson (1970 ) had no rival for
In their book, Hearst and Nelson (1985) described the physical principles of logging
In his book, Doveton (1986) emphasized the role of computer methods in the
155
The textbook by Ellis (1987) was inspired by his teaching experiences at Stanford. His
treatment is marked particularly by a readable and authoritative treatment of the
physics of the latest generation of tools and how they relate to rock properties.
Log Analyst" (Prensky, 1987), followed by annual updates, has provided a valuable
reference source for geological applications. The Bibliography is also available on
computer discs (Prensky, 1992). Even a cursory glance through these references shows
the wide dispersal of the literature sources and the currently limited penetration of
mainstream geological journals.
The conventions of the SPWLA (Society of Professional Well Log Analysts) and its
sister societies have always provided forums for geological studies drawn from logs.
However, in 1988, a two-day meeting of the Geological Society of London was
convened to hear papers specifically on the geological applications of wireline logs. In
the ensuing book, Hurst and others (1990) asserted boldly in the introduction that they
believed this meeting to be the first of its kind. Its success was shown by the
organization of a second meeting on this theme in 1991 (GAWL 11) which was published
by Hurst and others (1992).
Doveton and Prensky (1992) wrote a review paper that attempted to summarize all the
developments in geological applications of log analysis in "The Log Analyst", the
bimonthly journal of the SPWLA (Society of Professional Well Log Analysts). The
Society also publishes the transactions of its annual symposia that cover a wide variety
of topics concerning both logging tool developments and logging applications.
Although the membership of the SPWLA is widely perceived to be dominated by
engineers, there has been a systematic increase in the number of geologists over the
years. Geologists now constitute the membership majority, so that the publications of
the SPWLA can be expected to reflect this demographic shift.
Doveton (1994) published a book on computer applications of log analysis to geology
whch summarized many of the new ways that logs can be presented and analyzed,
once they have made the (sometimes painful) transition from analog hard-copy traces to
digital data. Examples of applications that are made possible by the computer include
the compositional analysis of complex lithofacies and the extraction of systematic cyclic
patterns that may reflect climatic or other mechanisms that have controlled ancient
environments of sedimentation.
The appearance of the monumental Bibliography of Well-Log Applications in "The
156
BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES
ASQUITH, G.B., 1985, Handbook of log evaluation techniques for carbonate reservoirs:
Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Methods in Exploration Series
No. 547 p.
ASQUITH, G.B., 1990, Log evaluation of shaly sandstones: Tulsa, American Association
of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series No. 31,59 p.
ASQUITH, G.B., AND GIBSON, C.R., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: Tulsa,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Methods in Exploration Series No. 3,
216 p.
methods: New York, John Wiley & Sons, 273 p.
Computer Applications in Geology, No. 2,167 p.
a synopsis of developments and trends: The Log Analyst, v. 33, p. 286-303.
DOVETON, J.H., 1986, Log analysis of subsurface geology--Concepts and computer
DOVETON, J.H., 1994, Geological log analysis using computer methods: Tulsa, AAPG
DOVETON, J.H., AND PRENSKY, S.E., 1992, Geological applications of wireline logs --
ELLIS, D.V., 1987, Well logging for Earth Scientists: New York, Elsevier, 532 pp.
HEARST, J.R., AND NELSON, P.H., 1985, Well logging for physical properties: New
HURST, A., LOVELL, M.A., AND MORTON, A.C., editors, 1990, Geological
York, McGraw-Hill, 569 p.
applications of wireline logs: London, The Geological Society Special Publication
No. 48,357 p.
applications of wireline logs 11: London, The Geological Society Special Publication
No. 65,406 p.
HURST, A., GRIFFITHS, C.M., AND WORTHINGTON, P.F., editors, 1992, Geological
PIRSON, S.J., 1970, Geologic well log analysis: Houston, Gulf Publishing, 370 p.
PRENSKY, S.E., 1987, Geological applications of well logs: A selected bibliography and
survey of the well logging literature, Parts A and B, The Log Analyst, vol. 28, p. 71-
107; Part C, vol. 28, p. 219- 248.
September 30,1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 92-0390A and B,
623 p. OF 92-0390A, Macintosh version consisting of 3 text files on three 3-1/2 inch,
1.44M-b disks. Formatted in Microsoft Word,version 5.0. OF 92-0390B. IBM-PC, or
compatible, version, consisting of 3 text files on, three 3-1/2 inch 1.44 Mb disks.
Formatted in Wordperfect, version, 5.1.
PRENSKY, S.E., 1992, Bibliography of Well-Log Applications, cumulative edition, to
157
RIDER, M.H., 1986, The geological interpretation of well logs: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 175 p. ; Revised edn., 1991: Caithness, Whittles Publishing, 175 p.
SERRA, O., 1984, Fundamentals of well-log interpretation volume 1--The acquisition of
data: New York, Elsevier, Developments in Petroleum Science No. 15A, 423 p.
SERRA, O., 1985, Sedimentary environments from wireline logs: Houston,
Schlumberger, 211 p.
SERRA, O., 1986, Fundamentals of well-log interpretation volume 2--The interpretation
of logging data: Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, Developments in
Petroleum Science No. 15B, 684 p.
158
USER'S GUIDE
AND
LISTING
KIWI is a program written to compute the proportions of n components based on
responses for (n-1) logs. This version of KIWI is a BASIC adaptation of the FORTRAN
version listed in Doveton (1986). Although written for an IBM PC or compatible, it will
also run on a Macintosh. First users of the program are urged to enter the data of the
example run on page 130. If their output matches the manual example output, this
verifies that their version is working correctly.
The user should define a stratigraphic interval for analysis, identify the major
compositional components, and select the appropriate number of logs (number of
components minus one). The program is limited to a maximum of six components. The
log values of the components should be tabulated, ready for entry into the program.
Some log response properties for common minerals are listed in this appendix ; a wider
selection is available in logging service company manuals and some log analysis texts.
Note that some of the responses are somewhat idealized (particularly in the case of clay
minerals) and subject to revision.
Remember to include water as a component if the interval contains porous lithologies.
If "shale" is a component, then its logging properties must be drawn from the section
itself. This is done by identifying shale intervals (generally by using the gamma-ray
log) and then deducing log responses that typify full-blooded shales.
The next step is to prepare a data file that consists of a listing of the input log data for
the section. Readings should be taken on "peak", "trough", or "shoulder" features that
are observed on the composite log traces. Each set of readings constitutes a "zone". A
zone is entered as a line of the input file and takes the form of an integer value for depth
(in feet, meters or any other units) followed by the log readings of the zone, separated
by spaces. When the input file is complete, a final line with the number of "-1" should
be added to signal the program that it has reached the end of the file. The input file can
be prepared on a standard word-processing program, but must be saved as a "text-only
file with line breaks".
information requested. A sequence of questions asks the name of the well, the name of
the section, and the number of logs. The program then asks the names of the logs and
The user should then activate the KIWI program and supply the necessary
159
the names of the components. The logs must be entered in the same order as they are
written for each zone in the data file. In all of these questions, the names are informal
and are simply used as text in dialog and for output.
component. The most important rule to remember here is CONSISTENCY. If, for
example, the neutron porosity has been entered as fractional units in the data file, then
fractional units should be given. If the data file entries are fractional and the user enters
percent, then the program will not fail, but its results will be nonsense. By the same
token density log values should either adopt bulk density or equivalent density porosity
values throughout.
Once the responses have been entered, the program asks for the name of the data file
that contains the zone listing of log responses. If the run is successful, the user will be
asked if the graphic log is to be scaled for a printer than can accommodate a line with
133 characters. If the answer is no, then the program will scale the output for 80
columns. The results of the run are stored as a temporary text file as
KrWIWORK.TMP. (The file should be resaved under another name, if the user does
not want it to be overwritten by successive KIM71runs.)
information supplied of names and log responses during the interactive dialog. The
second part lists the input section log data to the left, and the proportional solutions of
the components to the right. These proportions should be examined carefully for signs
of trouble. Ideally, all proportions should be positive, which signifies that the zone
responses are located within the composition space. In practice, small negative values
will commonly occur and are caused by minor tool error, non-linearities of tool
response, or the influence of other components not accounted for in the run. These
issues are discussed at length on pages 129-133.
Large negative values of proportions are diagnostic of problems that range from the
sublime to the ridiculous. Sublime problems are caused when the components tend to
be colinear with respect to the logs used. If plotted in log space, the system would show
a highly obtuse triangle in two-log space or a flattened tetrahedron in three-log space.
Relatively small displacements in log responses can then translate into large negative
values of proportions, if the zone is located below the base of the shortened axis. If
the system is perfectly colinear, then there is no unique solution and the program
signals its displeasure by blowing up, usually with a cascade of exponential
overflow error messages.
KIWI then engages in a dialog in which it asks for the log response of each
The output consists of three parts. The first part repeats back to the user the
160
Ridiculous negative proportions are caused typically by typographic errors, poor
choices of components or component log responses, refusal by the user to apply
consistent units for log responses throughout, different ordering of logs in the data file
than was entered in the dialog, bad logs, etc. Once the more blatant error possibilities
have been eliminated, crossplots can be extremely helpful to diagnose the source of the
problem. This is because the crossplots are geometrical "snapshots" of the composition
space solved by the matrix algebra of the computer program.
Prior to plotting the solution as a lineprinter graphic log, KIWI converts all negative
proportions to zero and retotals the component proportions to unit sum. The
geometrical implication of this is a movement of the zone from its position outside the
composition space to the nearest face. For small negative proportions, the changes are
minor, but the adjustments will cause small differences if comparisons are made
between the numerical solutions and the components apparent proportion on the
graphic log.
of depth. The letter symbols for the components are spaced out according to their
relative proportions. A continuous compositional log can be drawn by joining
matching letters (see page 131). In some zones, some of the symbols will appear to
"disappear". This occurs when negative components have been assigned zero value.
Any confusion is easily resolved by inspecting the numerical proportions calculated for
the zone.
Finally, the graphic output is designed to be printed in a fixed-width font, as is the
norm on standard computer lineprinters. The most common example of a fixed-width
font is "Courier". If, the output file is in a variable-width font such as Helvetica, then
the symbol plot will show obvious distortion and the file font should be converted to
Courier.
The graphic log is the third and final part of the output. Each line represents one unit
161
llOREM K I WI :
120 REM COMPUTATION OF MINERAL AND FLUID COMPONENTS PROPORTIONS
121 REM BASED ON LOG RESPONSES.
122 REM
123 REM MICROSOFT BASIC; IBM IMPLEMENTATION (MACINTOSH COMPATIBLE)
124 REM
125 REM JOHN H. DOVETON; KANSAS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; 1981
126 REM (BASIC ADAPTATION: RICHARD BROWNRIGG; K.G.S.; 1985)
127 REM
130 OPTION BASE 1
140 DIM L$(5), C$(6)
150 DIM V(6,6), V2(6, 6)
151 LET MAX = 200
160 DIM D3(200), R1(6), R2(6), R4(200,6)
161 OPEN "O", #1, "KWIWORK.TMP"
170 PRINT "*** K I WI PROGRAM ***' I
180 PRINT "NAME OF WELL 'I;
190 LINE INPUT 'I? 'I; N$
200 PRINT "NAME OF SECTION ";
210 LINE INPUT 'I? 'I; S$
21 1 GOSUB 2000
220 PRINT
230 PRINT "NUMBER OF LOGS ";
240 INPUT N
250 IF N > 5 THEN PRINT "***NO MORE THAN 5 CAN BE ACCEPTED!": LET N = 5
260FORI =l TON
270 PRINT "NAME OF LOG 'I; I;
280 INPUTL$(I)
290 NEXT I
291 GOSUB 2080
3 0 0 LETM= N+ l
3 10 PRINT
320FORI =l TOM
330 PRINT "NAME OF COMPONENT "; I;
340 INPUT C$(I)
350 NEXT I
351 GOSUB 2190
360 PRINT
370 FOR I = 1 TO N
380 F ORJ = l TOM
390 PRINT I.$@); VALUE FOR 'I; C$(J);
400 INPUTVU, J)
410 NEXT J
420 PRINT
430 NEXT I
440 FOR J = 1 TO M
450 LET V(M, J) = 1
460 NEXT J
461 GOSUB 2280
490 REM INVERT MATRIX OF LOG COEFFICIENTS:
500 REM
510 REM D = DETERMINATE D2 = DIVISOR
520 REM R = RATIO
O OR EM******************************
540 FOR I = 1 TO M
550 LETV2(I,I)= 1
560 NEXT I
570 LET D = 1
580FORI =l TOM
590 LET D2 = V(I, I)
128 REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 8 0 R E M* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
V = MATRIX OF VALUES; V2 = INVERTED MATRIX
162
600 LETD=D*D2
610 FORJ =l TOM
620
630
640 NEXTJ
650 FORJ =l TOM
670 LET R = V(J, I)
680 FORK=l TOM
700
710 NEXTK
720 NEXTJ
730 NEXT I
7 4 0 ~ ~ ~ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
750 REM NOW READ AND PROCESS LOG RESPONSES:
780 REM D3(..) = DEPTHS Rl(..) = TMP.VR.,CALC. OF PROP.
790 REM R2(..) = INPUT LOG VALUES R3 = TMP.VR.
800 REM R4(..) = COMPONENTS PROPORTIONS, INDEXED BY DEPTH
830 LET Z = 0
840 LET R2(M) = 1
850 PRINT
851 PRINT "***ENTER FILENAME OF LOG-DATA***"
852 PRINT "IT'S FORMAT SHOULD BE: ";
860 REM****PRINT "ENTER LOG READINGS FOR EACH ZONE, AS:"
870 REM****PRINT
880 PRINT "DEPTH";
881 GOSUB 2470
890FORI =l TON
900 PRINT ","; L$(I);
910 NEXT I
920 PRINT
930 PRINT
941 LINE INPUT "Filename?"; F$
942 OPEN F$ FOR INPUT AS #2
943 LET L = 0
944 WHILE NOT EOF(2)
950 REM****FOR L = 1 TO 200
960 REM****LTNE INPUT 'I? 'I; A$
961 LINE INPUT #2, A$
962 L = L + 1
970 LET A = 0
980 GOSUB 1270
981 REM****IF X <= 0 GOTO 9000
990 LET D3(L) = X
lo00 FOR I = 1 TON
1010 GOSUB 1270
1020 LET R2(I) = X
1030 NEXT I
1070 LET2 = Z + 1
1080 FORI= 1 TOM
1090 LET Rl(I) = 0
1100 FORJ =l TOM
11 10
1120 NEXTJ
1130 NEXT1
1131 GOSUB 2610
1140 LETR3=O
1150 FORI =l TOM
1160
LET V(1, J) = V(1, J) / D2
LET V2(I, J) = V2(I, J) / D2
660 IF (I - J) = 0 THEN GOTO 720
690 LET V(J, K) = V(J, K) - R * V(I, K)
LET V2(J, K) = V2(J, K) - R * V2(I, K)
8 0 1 R E M * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
940 REM****PRINT "...ONE ZONE PER LINE. ENTER -1 FOR DEPTH TO QUIT."
963 IF L > MAX THEN GOTO 9000
LET Rl(I) = Rl(I) + V2(I, J) * R2(J)
IF Rl(1) < 0 THEN LET Rl(1) = 0
163
1170
1180 NEXTI
1190 FORI= 1 TOM
1200
1210
1220 NEXTI
1230 REM***NEXT L
1231 WEND
1232 GOTO 9000
LET R3 = R3 + Rl(1)
LET Rl(I) = 100 * Rl(1) / R3
LET R4(L, I) = Rl(1)
1270 REM S U B R 0 U T I N E: ISOLATES THE NEXT NUMERIC STRING I N A$
1280LETA=A+ 1
1300 LET X = ASC(MID$(A$, A, 1))
1290 IF A > LEN(A$) GOTO 1420
1310 IF X < 45 GOTO 1280
1320 IF X > 57 GOTO 1280
1330 LET B = A
1340LETA=A+ 1
1360 LET X = ASC(MID$(A$, A, 1))
1350 IF A > LEN(A$) GOTO 1400
1370 IF X < 45 GOTO 1400
1380 IF X > 57 GOTO 1400
1390 GOTO 1340
1410 RETURN
1420 LET X = 0
1430 RETURN
2000 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT HEADER, AND WELL NAME:
2001 PRINT #1,
2010PRINT#l, I' * * * KI WI PR OG R AM * * *It
2020 PRINT # 1,
2030 PRINT #1,
2040 PRINT # 1,
2050 PRINT #1, " WELL NAME: 'I; N$
2060 PRINT #1,
2070 RETURN
2080 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT LOG KEY ...
2090 PRINT #1,
2100 PRINT #1,
2110 PRINT#l,
2120 PRINT#l, " KEY TO LOGS:"
2140 FOR I = 1 TO N
2 170 NEXT I
2180 RETURN
2190 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT THE KEY TO THE COMPONENTS ...
2200 PRINT # 1,
2210 PRINT #1,
2220 PRINT #1, " KEY TO COMPONENTS:"
2230 FOR I = 1 TO M
2240 LET A$ = CHR$(64 + I)
2250 PRINT#l, " COMPONENT"; A$; "=";C$(I)
2260 NEXT I
2270 RETURN
2280 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT THE LOG COEFFICIENTS ...
2290 PRINT #1,
2300 PRINT #1,
2310 PRINT#l,
1400 LET X = VAL(MID$(A$, B, (A - B)))
1999REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION: 'I; S$
2079REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2150 PRINT #1, USING " LOG #=\ \'I; I; L$(I)
2189 REM ***************************************************************
2279 REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
2320 PRINT #1, " LOG COEFFICIENTS:"
2340 FOR I = 1 TO M
2350 LET A$ = CHR$(64 + I)
2360 PRINT#l, 'I "; A$;
2370 NEXT I
2380 PRINT #1,
2390 FOR I = 1 TO N
2400 PRINT #1, USING I' LOG # "; I;
2410 FOR J = 1 TOM
2420
2430 NEXTJ
2440 PRINT # 1,
2450 NEXT I
2460 RETURN
2470 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT HEADING FOR RESPONSES AND PROPORTIONS OUTPUT ...
2480 PRINT #1,
2490 PRINT # 1,
2500 PRINT # 1,
2510 PRINT #1, " LOG RESPONSES AND COMPONENT PROPORTIONS:"
2511 PRINT #1, I' DEPTH";
2520 FOR I = 1 TO N
2530 PRINT#l, USING " # 'I; I;
2540 NEXT I
2550 PRINT # 1, " ";
2560 FOR I = 1 TO M
2570 PRINT #I, " 'I; CHR$(64 + I); I' 'I;
2580 NEXT I
2590 PRINT # 1,
2600 RETURN
2610 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT USER'S LOG RESPONSES AND THEIR PROPORTIONS ...
2620 PRINT #1, USING "########"; D3(L);
2630 FOR A = 1 TO N
2640 PRINT #1, USING "####.##"; R2(A);
2650 NEXT A
2660 PRINT #1, I' ";
2670 FOR A = 1 TO M
2680 PRINT #1, USING "####.##'I; Rl(A);
2690 NEXT A
2700 PRINT #1,
27 10 RETURN
9010 REM FINALLY, GENERATE THE GRAPHIC ...
9020 REM
9030 PRINT
9040 PRINT " SCALE PLOT FOR 133 CHARACTERSLINE OUTPUT (Y/N)";
9050 INPUT Y$
9060 IF Y$ = "Y" GOTO 9 120
9070 PRINT " ... PLOT WILL BE SCALED FOR 80 COLUMN OUTPUT."
9080 W = 2
9091 LET P1$ = "* ... 10 ... 20 ... 30 ... 40 ... 50 ... 60 ... 70 ... 80...90..100* %"
9100 LET P2$ = "*" + STRING$(SO, " 'I) + "*"
9110 GOTO 9150
9120 W = 1
9140 LET P2$ = 'I*" + STRING$( 100, " ") + "*"
9150 PRINT #1,
9 160 PRINT #I,
9170 PRINT#l,
9 180 PRINT # 1, " GRAPHIC CQMPBNENT LOG:"
9190 PRINT#l,
2330 PRINT # 1, "
1' .
9
PRINT #1, USING "########.##"; V(1, J);
2469REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26OgREM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9000REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9131 LET P1$ = "* ....+... 10 ....-c.... 20 ....+... 30 ....+... 40 ....+... 50 ....+... 60 ....+... 70 ....+... 80 ....+... 90 ....+.. 100" %"
165
9200 PRINT #1, " DEPTH"; P1$
9210 LET D4 = D3(1)
9220 FOR L = 1 TO Z
9230 PRINT #1, USING 'I#####/#"; D4;
9240 IF D3(L) <= D4 GOTO 9280
9250 PRINT #1, P2$
9260 LET D4 = D4 + 1
9270 GOTO 9230
9280 LET P3$ = P2$
9300 LETK= 1
9310 FOR J = 1 TON
9330
9340
9350 LETK=I
9360 NEXTJ
9370 PRINT#l, P3$
9371 LET D4 = D4 + 1
9380 NEXT L
9390 PRINT #1, 'I DEPTH"; P1$
9400 PRINT #1, "
9401 PRINT#l,
9410 PRINT #1,
9420 CLOSE #1
9421 PRINT : PRINT " ROUTE OUTPUT TO PRINTER (YIN)";
9422 INPUT Y$
9423 IF Y$ <> "Y" THEN PRINT : PRINT " AT DOS-LEVEL, ENTER 'TYPE KIWIWORK.TMP' TO VIEW THE OUTPUT":
GOTO 9500
9430 OPEN "I", #1, "KIWIWORK.Th4P"
9440 IF EOF( 1) GOTO 9480
9450 LINE INPUT #1, A$
9460 LPRINT A$
9470 GOTO 9440
9480 CLOSE
9490 KILL "KIWZWORK.TMP"
9290 MID$(P3$, LEN(P3$) - 1, 1) = CHR$(64 + M)
9320 IF R4(L, J) < 0 GOTO 9360
LET I = K + (R4(L, J) \ W)
MID$(P3$, I, 1) = CHR$(64 + J)
SCALE = "; W; " UNITS/SPACE."
9500 END
166
LOGGING TOOL RESPONSES IN SEDIMENTARY MINERALS
The values listed overleaf are the bulk densities, sidewall neutron porosity (SNP),
compensated neutron porosity (CNL), acoustic transit time, and photoelectric factor
(Pe) properties of common sedimentary minerals reported in the Schlumberger Chart
Book of 1991. The neutron porosity units are referenced to an apparent limestone
matrix. Additional log properties are listed in Schlumberger and other service
companies chart books.
The values represent ideal minerals so that there is some variability of properties in
real minerals (especially in the case of clay minerals). Also, the numbers exhibit some
variation between the tabulations of different logging service companies and log
analysis textbooks, as well as changes between editions of the same manual. A simple
example in this manual listing (Schlumberger, 1991) is given by the log bulk density of
quartz, which is now cited as 2.64 gm/cc, after a long and distinguished career at 2.65
gm/cc. Further revisions can be anticipated in future editions.
167
LOGGING TOOL RESPONSE IN SEDIMENTARY MINERALS
from Schlumberger, 1991
piog @SNP $cm At Pe
gm/cc P-U p.u. ps/ ft barns / elect
SILICATES
Quartz
Opal (3.5% H20)
Garnet
Hornblende
Tour maline
Zircon
CARBONATES
Calcite
Dolomite
Ankerite
Siderite
OXIDATES
Hema ti te
Magnetite
Goethite
Limonite
Gibbsite
PHOSPHATES
Hydroxyapatite
Chlor apa ti te
Fluor apatite
Carbonapatite
FELDSPARS-
Orthoclase
Anor thoclase
Microcline
Albite
Anorthite
MICAS
Muscovite
Glauconite
Biotite
Phlogopite
2.64
2.13
4.31
3.20
3.02
4.50
2.71
2.85
2.86
3.89
-1.
4.
3.
4.
16.
-1.
0
2.
0
5.
5.18 4.
5.08 3.
4.34 50+
3.59 50+
2.49 50+
3.17 5.
3.18 -1.
3.21 -1.
3.13 5.
2.52 -2.
2.59 -2.
2.53 -2.
2.59 -1.
2.74 -1.
2.82 12.
-2.54 -23.
-2.99 -11.
-2.
2.
7.
8.
22.
-3.
-0
1.
1.
12.
11.
9.
60+
60+
60+
8.
-1.
-2.
8.
-3.
-2.
-3.
-2.
-2.
20.
-38.
-21
56.0 1.81
58. 1.75
11.09
43.8 5.99
2.14
69.10
49.0 5.08
44.0 3.14
9.32
47. 14.69
42.9
73.
56.9
42.
42.
42.
69.
49.
45.
49
50.8
50.
21.48
22.24
19.02
13.00
1.10
5.81
6.06
5.82
5.58
2.86
2.86
2.86
1.68
3.13
2.40
6.37
6.27
168
piog $SNP @cm At Pe
g d c c P- U p.u. ps/ ft barns /elect
CLAYS
Kaolinite
Chlorite
Illi te
Montmorillonite
EVAPORITES
Halite
Anh y dr i te
Gypsum
Trona
Tach y dr i te
Sylvite
Carnalite
Langbenite
Pol yhalite
Kainite
Kieserite
E psomi t e
Bischofite
Barite
Celestite
SULFIDES
Pyrite
Marcasite
Pyrrhoti te
Sphaleri te
Chalop yrite
Galena
Sulfur
COALS
Anthracite
Bituminous
Lignite
2.41
2.76
2.52
2.12
2.04
2.98
2.35
2.08
1.66
1.86
1.57
2.82
2.79
2.12
2.59
1.71
1.54
4.09
3.79
34.
37.
20.
40.
-2.
-1.
50+
24.
50+
-2.
41.
-1.
14.
40.
38.
50+
50+
-1.
-1.
4.99 -2.
4.87 -2.
4.53 -2.
3.85 -3.
4.07 -2.
6.39 -3.
2.02 -2.
1.47 37.
1.24 50+
1.19 47.
37.
52.
30.
44.
-3.
-2.
60+
35.
60+
-3.
60+
-2.
25.
60+
43.
60+
60+
-2.
-1.
67.0
50.
52.
65.
92.
100.
1.83
6.30
3.45
2.04
4.65
5.05
3.99
0.71
3.84
8.51
4.09
3.56
4.32
3.50
1.83
1.15
2.59
266.82
55.19
-3. 39.2 16.97
-3. 16.97
-3. 20.55
-3. 35.93
-3. 26.72
-3. 1631.37
-3. 122. 5.43
38. 105.
60+ 120.
52. 160.
0.16
0.17
0.20
169




1
"DIGITAL GEOLOGICAL LOGS": A Supplement to SCN #29
John H. Doveton,
Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047
Table of Contents for reference
INTRODUCTION----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
THE LAS FILES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
LAS FILE CONTENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
THE EXCEL WORKBOOK: KIWI.XLS -------------------------------------------------------------6
RHOmaaUmaa Worksheet----------------------------------------------------------------------------6
COMP Worksheet -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
RUCOMP Worksheet ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
Other Sources of LAS Files------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE LEARNING------------------------------------------------------- 12
REFERENCES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 14
2
INTRODUCTION
Ten years have passed since the publication of "Geological Log Interpretation" as
Short Course Notes #29 (Doveton, 1994). The reissue of these notes as a pdf file on this
CD reflects widespread changes in the production of scientific text by technical societies
where a digital medium provides an alternative publication outlet that is both efficient
and economic. Readers can view the Short Course Notes on their computer monitor or
print a hard copy so as to read the text in the conventional manner.
However, the properties of the CD extend beyond storage and delivery of scanned
texts, so that digital files in a wide variety of formats can be included. In this reissue,
supplementary files have been added that are keyed to examples and methods
described in the original text. The first of these files is the text that you are reading,
which describes the content and application of these additional files. In the narrative of
this file, references to passages and figures in the Short Course Notes #29 will be
indicated by 'SCN29' and the page number of the relevant text. The other new files on
this CD are a set of digital log LAS files and an EXCEL workbook. The fourteen LAS
files are digital log records of examples used in SCN29, while the EXCEL spreadsheets
are software that demonstrate methods described in the Short Course Notes.
3
THE LAS FILES
Digital logs recorded during logging operations have been available for many years
but were encrypted in binary in specialized service company formats. The introduction
of the LAS (Log ASCII Standard) by the Canadian Well Logging Society (CWLS) has
revolutionized digital log storage because LAS files can be read immediately by any
word processor or spreadsheet program. Most digital logs are now in LAS format and
increasingly are being made available at web sites on the Internet. There are, in fact,
two modes of electronic storage for logs, either as raster files, which are simply scanned
images in bitmap format of the original log paper copy, or as vector files, which store the
digital data of log responses referenced to depth. This CD contains examples of both
types, with raster log images in the reprinted SCN29 and the set of LAS vector files.
The LAS files on this CD are listed below, where file names are linked with well
names and each indexed with the page(s) where the logs are illustrated and described in
Short Course Notes #29. The numbering system for the wells is the same as that used in
SCN29. The digital files form a subset of the complete set of well examples listed on
SCN29 p. 151.
well9.las Houston Tom Payne #1 p. 35, 79.
well10.las KGS Braun #1 p. 39,117.
well11.las KGS Gray Co. Feedyard #1. p. 47.
well12.las Conoco Harrison #1 p. 93.
well13.las Mobil Brown #1-2 p. 51
well18.las Mobil Ratcliffe #1 p. 83
well20.las Terra Resources Wangerin #1 p. 87
well21.las Texaco Poersch #1 p. 89
well22.las Mesa Moore #4-20 p. 95
well23.las Lear Petroleum Pike #1-14 p. 97
well24.las Gulf Sitz B #9-35 p. 99
well25.las Plains Webster #A-21 p. 101
well26.las Jay Boy H&H Farms F#1 p. 103
well28.las PetroLewis Richards Fund #1-7 p. 114
The ASCII format of the LAS file corresponds to the 'Text Only" text-save option of
any word-processing program. This equivalence means that anyone can also create or
modify an LAS file on their computer. Certification software can be downloaded from
4
the CWLS website ( www.cwls.org ) to verify conformity with the LAS standard, while
the website provides much additional information on this log format standard. The
main features are summarized below.
LAS FILE CONTENT
The LAS file consists of two parts: Header information, followed by Log data.
The Header consists of records that give well and logging information. There are three
kinds of record:
(1) The first non-space symbol is a pound sign, #. These are comment records, which
are useful to the user, but can be ignored by LAS reading software.
(2) The first non-space symbol is a tilde, ~ . These records start a new section in the
header and the next letter signifies what the section is, so the section types are:
~V contains version and wrap mode information
VERS. There are now three versions: 1, 2, or 3, which are all in ASCII format
and so readable by word processing or spreadsheet software.
WRAP. YES means there are multiple lines per depth step;
NO means there is one line per depth step.
~W contains information about the well
~C contains information about the log curves that state the curve mnemonic, units
of measurement, and name.
~P contains information about the parameters from the well.
Other tilde records that may occur include
~D (downhole information, such as tops, drill-stem test data, core information etc.),
~O (other information),etc.
(3) The third kind of record is the information that is listed in the header sections. Each
of these records is generally divided into three parts, with a period (.) between the first
and second, and a colon (:) between the second and third.
5
The Log Data section contains the digital log values. The first record begins with ~A
and lists the mnemonics for the log curves in the order that they appear. The ~A record
is followed by the ASCII log data.
The tilde symbol markers and their associated letters are the keys for specialized
logging software to automatically extract data in the preparation of computational files
for log analysis. In reading LAS files with word processors or standard spreadsheet
software, the tilde and pound signs convey no special meaning. As an example, we can
read the contents of well28.las with a word processor and the initial page should
correspond to the text shown below.
~VERSION INFORMATION
VERS . 2.0 : CWLS log ASCII Standard -VERSION 2.0
WRAP. NO : One line per depth step
~WELL INFORMATION
#----------------------------------------------------------
# Well #28 Viola Limestone (Middle Ordovician) SEPM SC#29 p.114
#----------------------------------------------------------
STRT.F 3400.0000 :START DEPTH
STOP.F 3570.0000 :STOP DEPTH
STEP.F 0.5000 :STEP
NULL. -999.0000 :NULL VALUE
COMP. PETRO-LEWIS CORPORATION :COMPANY
WELL. RICHARDS FUND #1-7 :WELL
FLD . MCCLAIN :FIELD
LOC . C-NW-SE 7-4S-14E :LOCATION
COUN. NEMAHA :COUNTY
STAT. KANSAS :STATE
SRVC. SCHLUMBERGER :SERVICE COMPANY
DATE . 11-OCT-82 :LOG DATE
UWI . 15-131-20037 :UNIQUE WELL ID (API)
~CURVE INFORMATION
#MNEM.UNIT API CODES CURVE DESCRIPTION
#----------- --------- -------------------------
DEPT .F : DEPTH
CALI .IN : CALIPER
SGR .GAPI : TOTAL GAMMA-RAY
NPHI .V/V : NEUTRON POROSITY (LS EQUIV.)
DPHI .V/V : DENSITY POROSITY (LS EQUIV.)
PEF .B/E : PHOTO-ELECTRIC FACTOR
# CURVE DATA
~A DEPT CALI SGR NPHI DPHI PEF
3400.0000 9.8020 105.4134 0.1749 0.0600 2.5492
3400.5000 9.8020 113.0739 0.1801 0.0583 2.6841
3401.0000 9.8020 117.7847 0.1856 0.0568 2.7216
3401.5000 9.8020 121.7085 0.1888 0.0553 2.6386
3402.0000 9.8020 123.0724 0.1928 0.0536 2.5806
6
THE EXCEL WORKBOOK: KIWI.XLS
When an LAS file is read by a spreadsheet program such as EXCEL, the resulting file
can be used for the display of logs and crossplots, as well as the creation of log
transforms and analytical solutions using either formulae entered into cells or program
macros written in Visual Basic. Using spreadsheet graphic functions, log curves can be
plotted for any or all of the CD LAS files that emulate the logs illustrated in the Short
Course Notes #29. Reproduction will not be exact, because the LAS files are recorded at
half-foot increments, an industry standard for the depth frequency of the most
commonly used logs for many years. The frequency is fine enough to preserve features
of real variability commensurate with the vertical resolution of these tools. Crossplots
of logs or their transforms can also be made using standard spreadsheet graphing
options, so that for example, the spectral gamma-ray crossplots illustrated in SCN29 as
Fig. 20, p. 40 and Fig. 22, p. 43 can be recreated once the logging data of well10.las are
read into a spreadsheet file.
Clearly, the electronic spreadsheet is capable of much more than use as a storage
medium for logs and mechanism for their graphic display, singly or in combination.
The EXCEL workbook on this CD, kiwi.xls consists of worksheets that demonstrate
methods described in the Short Course Notes. The workbook is saved in EXCEL 5
format, which should be compatible with all subsequent versions of EXCEL.
RHOmaaUmaa Worksheet
The first worksheet, RHOmaaUmaa implements the equations described in pp. 110-111,
SCN29 to compute values of RHOmaa (apparent matrix density) and Umaa (apparent
volumetric matrix photoelectric absorption) from photoelectric index, neutron and
density porosity logs. A spreadsheet graphic implements the RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot
shown as Fig. 51, p.113, SCN29. The spreadsheet uses logs from well28.las to generate a
RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot of the Viola Limestone, equivalent to that shown in Fig. 53
and discussed in pp. 114-115, SCN29. The RHOmaa-Umaa spreadsheet can be used as a
template for RHOmaa-Umaa crossplots generated for other LAS files on this CD or LAS
files from other sources.
7
RHOmaaUmaa spreadsheet on kiwi.xls with demonstration example of the Viola
Limestone from Well #28 (SCN29, p. 114-115), using digital logs from well28.las.
8
COMP Worksheet
The second spreadsheet in kiwi.xls is labeled COMP and emulates the KIWI program
described in the Short Course Notes. The User's Guide and BASIC code for KIWI are
listed in SCN29 pp. 159-166. An example of input and output are shown in SCN29 pp.
130-131 for the Viola Limestone section in Well #28. Both the computations and graphic
output are set up easily within EXCEL, without having to resort to the use of macros.
The computational core of the procedure is the inversion of the coefficient matrix, which
is executed by the MINVERSE function of EXCEL. The spreadsheet implementation has
a number of advantages over the original KIWI program. The graphic output is clearly
an improvement over the old lineprinter output but, of more fundamental importance is
that the spreadsheet dynamically links the input logs, endmember coefficients, output
computations, and compositional graphic. Consequently, changes in input values of
logs and coefficients can be made interactively in the search for improved compositional
solutions that reconcile the model with the log data. The discussion of the methodology
(SCN29, pp. 123-133) applies equally to this spreadsheet implementation, particularly
with regard to the impact and significance of "negative components" which are shown
on the numerical output, but "buried" on the compositional profile graphic.
As with the RHOmaaUmaa spreadsheet, COMP can be used as a template in the
analysis of other sections, either directly, using the same compositional endmembers, or
by changing the endmembers, or by more structural modifications of the worksheet to
accommodate solutions for different numbers of endmembers.
9
COMP spreadsheet on kiwi.xls with demonstration example of the Viola Limestone
from Well #28 (cf SCN29, p. 130-131), using digital logs from well28.las.
10
RUCOMP Worksheet
The final worksheet in kiwi.xls is RUCOMP, which combines both RHOmaa-Umma
crossplot and compositional analysis functions. When three endmembers (typically
quartz, calcite, and dolomite) are located on a RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot, they define a
composition triangle and any RHOmaa, Umaa coordinates can be transformed into
compositions and displayed as a profile when referenced to depth. So, if logs from the
Viola Limestone section in Well #28 were used, then the RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot and
its associated compositional profile would show the same information from two
different perspectives: composition space and depth space. The difference with the
compositional solution of COMP is that the fluid component has been eliminated, due
to the porosity suppression implicit in the computations of RHOmaa and Umaa.
The example used in the RUCOMP spreadsheet follows from the discussion of
RHOmaa-Umaa crossplots in clastic successions, where the data clouds converge on a
quartz endmember in shale-free zones, while the shape and disposition of the rest of the
cloud are controlled by shale properties, particularly with respect to clay mineral
content. In the Dakota Formation section of Well #10, the RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot
(SCN29, Fig. 55, p.118) shows a distinctive triangular cloud focussed on the quartz point
and diverging downwards between two extreme shale types: a "Low-Z shale" and a
"high-Z shale". If RHOmaa and Umaa coordinates are chosen for these shales, then they
define two vertices of a composition triangle, with the third vertex located at the quartz
point. The RHOmaa and Umaa values constitute two log transforms from which
compositions of three endmembers can be computed from the matrix inversion
procedure used in COMP. The resulting composition profile is an interpretive solution
of quartz and two shale "electrofacies" recognized on the RHOmaa-Umaa crossplot. The
"low-Z shale" is probably more kaolinitic in aspect than the "high-Z shale" that is more
illitic. The composition profile is therefore a useful geological indicator of the depth
location of paleosols, floodplain deposits, and marine shales within the Dakota
Formation. More explicit links with clay mineralogy requires the calibration of logs
with clay mineral volumetric estimates from X-ray diffraction, as described by Doveton
(2000).
11
RUCOMP spreadsheet on kiwi.xls with demonstration example of the Dakota
Formation from Well #10 (cf SCN29, p.118), using digital logs from well10.las.
12
OTHER SOURCES OF LAS FILES
Most digital logs are now in LAS format and increasingly are being made available at
web sites on the Internet such as the Kansas Geological Survey (www.kgs.ku.edu ) and the
Ohio Geological Survey (www.ohiodnr.com/ geosurvey/ ), as well as commercial sites
for purchase. Other web sites that provide public domain digital logs include the
International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (www.gfz-potsdam.de) with logs
from boreholes such as the German KTB ultra-deep (9.1 km) hole, and the Ocean
Drilling Program (www.ldeo.columbia.edu/ BRG/ ODP/ ) with logs from a wide variety
of locations and geology from the seabed of the world. Among the many logs available
from the Ocean Drilling Program sites that are of particular geological interest are
geochemical logs (see SCN29 pp. 139-140) and FMI resistivity imaging logs.
WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE LEARNING
The ability to "read" geology from log overlays is one of the major goals of Short
Course Notes #29 and this skill can only be acquired through diligent practice with log
examples. However, an accelerated initial experience in basic pattern recognition can be
fostered through interaction with a web-based Java applet that forward-models
synthetic sedimentary successions to their equivalent log responses. The "Oz Machine"
was introduced for this purpose by Bohling and Doveton (2002) and is available as a
public domain utility on the Kansas Geological Survey website at
http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/PRS/ReadRocks/portal.html .
The "engine" of the Oz Machine is a Markov Chain transition probability matrix
designed to produce lithological sequences that have broad similarities with Paleozoic
successions in the U.S. Midcontinent. The transition probability matrix is subdivided
into three major regions: "Playaworld" for evaporite sequences, "Marineworld" for
marine carbonate-shale successions, and "Deltaworld" for clastic coal-bearing
successions. The triggering of the Oz Machine generates one of an infinite variety of
stratigraphic successions from the transition probability matrix. The model lithological
sequence is then transformed to gamma-ray, density, neutron, and photoelectric factor
13
logs through forward modeling of standard mineral and fluid log responses applied to
compositions generated by the model. The student is presented with the overlay of log
curves for a one-hundred foot section plotted in standard conventions. The lithology
palette to the right of the log display is used by the student to complete a strip log
within the depth track. The Oz Machine compares the student choices with the
simulated lithological sequence and flags errors with red markers. The Oz Machine is
by no means intended to substitute for real logs, but to provide a tutor for neophytes to
gain skills and confidence before taking on the vagaries of real successions.
Example of a synthetic log sequence generated by the Oz Machine where a student has
completed a lithology column in the depth track using choices from the lithology palette to the
right. Although the solution is almost entirely correct, the Oz Machine has flagged (red dots in
track 1) the errors in identifying the uppermost coal bed as gypsum and the top of a sandstone as
shale.
14
REFERENCES
BOHLING, G.C., and DOVETON, J.H., 2002, A Petrophysical Education: Learning Borehole
Geology in a university setting using web-based technology: (extended abs) AAPG p. 48, (pdf
file, 15p.)
DOVETON, J.H., 1994, Geologic Log Interpretation : SEPM Short Course Notes #29, 169 pp.
DOVETON, J.H., 2000, Spreadsheet log analysis of subsurface geology: The Compass, v. 75, no.
2 & 3, p. 57-67.