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Centre for Energy Studies

LIT. Delhi. New Delhi-110016, INDIA.

luwtract - In recent years, ANNs (Artificial power systems to seek NN solutions to some of

Neural Networks) have a#racted considerable their more complicated or unsolved problems.

attenton as candidates for computational system NN applications to power systems can be

due to the variety of advantages they offer over the categorised under three main areas: regression,

colIventional m - o n a l systems. Among classifhation and combinatorial ophmjzation.

these advantages, the ability to memorise, rapidity Applications involving regression include transient

and robustness are the most profound and stability analysis, load forecasting, s y n c h r o m

interesting pmpert~es which have attracted machine m o d e - contingency screening and

attention in many fields. The paper critically harmonic evaluation Applications involving

raiews the ANN related publications involving classifications include harmonic load

typical power system problems during last ckade. identification, stataic and dynarmc s b t y

A brief overview of the ANN theory, difiemt analysis. The area of combinational optmizition

models and their apphcations is given. includes unit commitment and capacitor control.

The paper describes a overview on ANNs NETWORKS:

in power systems. Artificial neural networks Artificial neural networki are made up of

(ANNs) are the distributed processing systems that simple highly inte~onnected processing units

have been inspired by the biological nerve system. called neurons each of which perform two

They consist of a p u p of units called "neurow" functions: aggregation of its inputs from other

that are analogous to nerve neurous. Each neuron n m n s or the external environment and

i s c o - t o each other with the weights. For generation of an output from the aggregated inputs.

example, the inductive learning process finds out A connection between a pair of neurons has an

the weights so that the relationship between input associated numerical strength called synaptic

and output variables is d e t e r m i d , The methds weight. The development of ANN involves two

throw up new possibilities of parallel or distributed phases: training or learning phase and testing

complting. phase. Training of ANN is done by presenting the

network with examples called trauzing patterns.

Recent years have witnessed a rapdly During training, the synaptic weights get m d f i e d

growing intemt in two important to model the given problem As soon as the

network has learnt the problem it may be tested

Artificial intelligence technologes viz., expert with new unknown patterns and its efliciency can

systems (ES) and ANNs. In recent be checked. (testing phase). Dependmg upon the

years, another term 'intelligent control' has come to training Imparted, ANN can be classified as

embrace diverse methodologies combining supeMsed ANN or unsupervised ANN.

conventional control and emergent techniques

based on physiological metaphors, such as ANNs, Supervised ANN

fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and a wide variety The supervised ANN requires the sets of

of search and oghrmzation techniques [20]. In th~~ inputs and the outputs for its training. During the

paper we will mainly concentrate on ANNs and training, the output from the ANN is compared

their application to power systems. with the desired output (target) and the difference

ANNs have been studied for many years (error) i s reduced b y employing some 1 -

with the hope of unkrstanding and achieving algorithm. This training is repeated till the actual

human-like computational performance. output acquires an acceptable level. Supervised

Appeahg benefits include massive parallelism, ANN may be a fd forward or nonrecurrent

architectural modularity, fast speed, high fault network such as Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP),

tolerance and adaptrve capability. These have Functional Link Net (FLN) and Radial Basis

lured researchers from controls, robotics and Function (RBS), or a feedback or recurrent ANN

621

such as Hopfield network, often used in power Unsupervised ANN

system applications. The artiticlal neural network which does

not require a supenisor or teacher for training is

Multi-layer Perceptron Model: known as unsupervised ANN. In competitive or

tt comprises an input layer, one or more unsupervised learning units of the outplt layer

hidden layers) and an output-layer. It is used compete for the chance to respond to a given input

practically in all power system applications and is pattem. Kohonen's Self-organizing Feature Map

trained by a back propagation (BP) algorithm [7]. (SOFM) and Adaphve Resonance Theory (ART)

HP is an iterative, gradient search, supervised are examples of unsupermed learning.

algorithm and consists of three phases: forward

execution, back propagation of the error and ANN APPLICATIONS TO POWER

weight update. It works well with a sigmoidal SYSTEMS

activation rule. Several key features that distinguish NNs

from other AI techniques are: learning by example

Fancttoaal l i n k Network: in real time, distributed memory and associated

The FLN [8] not only increases learning mall, fault tolerance and graceful degradation,

rate but simplifies the learning algorithm. The real time pattern recognition, intelligent aSSOciatiOn

inputs are expanded and are used for training with and synksls.

die actual input data. Despite its nummus advantages,

distributed memory causes a major flaw in NNs,

RBF Network Model: because knowledge in a NN is stured as a ptttern

Radial basis function model [9] consists of weights and connections. Other stumbhg

of three layers: the input, hidden and output layers. blocks and how moE work is going on to tackle

The training of RBF network requires less them is discussed in the next section.

computation time since only the second layer This section &ids with typical ANN

weights have to be calculated using an error signal. aplication areas in power systems. The areas in

order of d e " g amount of work already

Parallel Setf-organizing Hierarchical Neural plMished are:

Networic Ihning Security assesrment, fault

Parallel, self-organizing, hierarchical detectioddiagonosis, control, analysis, protection

neural network (PSHNN) are multistage networks and design. Most popllar prohlems are: (i) load

[10], in which each stage neural network (SNN) is forecastin& (ii) security assessment and (iii) Edult

usually a 3-layered feed forward ANN having deteuioddiagonosis.

linear input and output units and nonlinear hidden

units. The revised back propagation algorithm is Load Forecasting:

used to train each SNN. The training of the Load forecasting is a suitable problem for

PSHNN is carried out for a number of sweeps till ANN apphcation due to the availability of

convergence is achieved. historical load data on the utility databases. ANN

schemes using peroepbon network and SoFM

aopwda Mode& have been successful in short-term [46,49] as well

Hopseld model [I11 is a recu~~ent neural as long-term load foI.ecasting with impressive

network (RNN) having feedback paths from their accuracy. A combined use of Unsupervised and

W p t s to their inplts and amsists of a single layex supervised learning was done for short-term load

of l x u m % actiog both as output and input using forecashng [12]. Dash et al. 1131 used " a n -

s d f a g a n b h g associatve memory. Neurons with filter based A" algorithm for faster convergence

gm&d response (or sigmoidal input-outpt and impcoved prediction acamcy. The RBF

dation) ~IE used in Hopfield Neural Network. neqwork was found superior to MLP or BP model

The outplt of each newon is linked with in terms of training time and itccuilcy.

the previous value of its om activation and ANN does not need additional memory

therefore individual neurons have time dependent for storing the history of load pa#ems. 1%

behaviour. It on recognize p;rtterns by matching improvement in accuracy of STLF can save upto

new uputs with ~ ~ y stored patterns. The Rs. 700 million for a typical power utdity.

Hopfield maid is particulsrly used for apphcation

to combinatorial optimization problems such as Security Assessment:

unit commitment. static and aynarmc security assessrment

often require on-line computation. In order to

622

evaluate solution efficiently, the nonlinear Liang and Hsu [19] pmp0sed NN bts.d

mapping of MLP is utilized to reduce approach for the schedulq of h y d m - g m d m .

computational burden and &al with the system hourly loads and the natural inflow of each

Charactensb*'cs of power systems. This allows us to mervoir were c o n s i w as inputs to the ANN.

cany out on-line monitoring/asse,ssment in

transient, mall signal stability, and voltage Power System Stabilizer Design:

instability. Power system stabilizer (PSS) has been

Though contmgency ranking and widely used in modern power systems to provide

sensitivity factor methods have reduced the datlllping for lower kquency oscillatm in the

number of critical contmgencies to be computed, powa system MLP based P.S.S. was praposed by

ANNs have played a challenging role in security several workers (211. In Ref. [22], a frray

area. kchniqw and " besed metlaod for Pss a " l

In ref. [14], a 4-layered feed forward by superconducting magnetic energy storage have

ANN trained with BP algorithm was discussed for been developed.

predicting bus voltages foB0wing an outage. The

Ps and Qls that af€ect bus voltages most were Load Flow:

selected as the inputs to ANN using an entropy LF is a must for s o w a large " b e r

function. Ghosh et al. [15] designed a feedback of power system problems. Kalra et al. [23]

ANN for line-now contingency " g . A New developed a East load flow method besed on MLP

type of performance index, the severity index was model with real and reactive load &mands at load

considered as output of the neural network buses as mpds. The autpd nodes pmvided

Jayasurya [16] proposed an ANN to | v I and 6 at all PQ buses. Ref. [24] presents

provide an energy measure which is an indication

of the power system's proximity to voltage an MLP based adaptive loss emhution a @ "

collapse. for p w e r transntss''on system.

Fault &ection/diagnosis is one of In Ref [25], Kojima et al. pmposed an

challenging problems in power systems. MLP RNN based algorithm for learning the imcrse

identifies the type and location of facults with a dynamics and apphed the algorithm to VQ control

given set of power system conditions, call4 "neun, V Q r , It was found to be more

measurements, alanms, etc. KN (Kohonen net) is StaMe and accUme.

applied to handle the classification of fhlt

patterns. The dqposis of the power apgaratus is There are many other power system

done to judge what kinds of faults the apparatus problems for whicb ANN is increasingly being

suffered from. KN is inferior to MLP in tenns of used such as load modelling [42,50], HVDC

the solution accuacy due to umpewised learning. [36,48], power system rehabdity studies [MI,

RBF and BP models [171 were developed for Wt topology [39], nonconventional energy source

dugnosis problem. The BP network had given [35], load fiqwncy control [33], maintenance

superior performance while training of RBF schedtuiing [31], unit co"itmenl [30].

network was much faster as compared to BP

network STUMBLING BLOCKS

ANN faces several problems to be solved

inspite of attractive features discussed & e r . l l e

Economic Load Dispatch: main difticulities with ANN implementation are

Park et al. [18] presented a method to discussed below.

solve ELD problem with piecewise quadtatrc cost

function using Hopfield NN. The ANN based Optilmlal Structure of ANN

appIoach turned out to be much simpler and It is essential to &dout the network size

accurate. Ref. [29] deals with combined ED and (the number of input and outprt neurons in MLP,

emission Qspatch using impnrved BPNN. and the number of output neurons in KN). Further,

Adaptwe Hopfield NN is recently used for ELD pruning is necessary to obtain more msonable

[41,471 models.

623

o d i a e Efficient Learning Algoritbm: It is known that ES, FS (ibzzy system),

The BP algorithm requires many iteration genek algorithm (GA) and ANN have' strong

counts. It is not suitable for on-line learning c r d e n w s to deal with uncertain, lllample and

scheme. It is necessary to have a learning noise polluted data ANN is a good approximator

algorithm with better convergence. Efficient of non-linear M o n s and pexforming well for

global optmuahon technique is needed to non-linear regression. FS, GA, chaotic dynamics

evaluate the weights. are " l y used t o r e c b r c e the trainmg t i m e and

pruning of the ANN, Fine training or

Alleviation of "Curse of Dimensionality": defuzzi6cation can be done by ANN.

The direct application of ANN to large

scale real-size power system requires large-scale CONCLUSION

ANN. It is not easy to findout the optunal weights Neural networks are robust. Even if

in terms of accuacy and the computational effort. inputdata are not complete or bave some noise,

the ANN can still give good results. ANNs have

Consideration of Network Topdogies: adaptivity and can adJust t o the new e l l -

We have to cope with n m o r k topologies easily. Modern control techniques like adaptwe,

if the problem is related to transmisson lines. variable strucaue, H (infinite) a " l s can be

Actually, ANN applications to one or several learned by ANN from a series of training sets and

snapshot are not convincing. once the learning phase is over ANN can be used

as a robust controller. Special purpose hardware

Necessary Amount of Learning Data: designed to implement and evaluate ANN

The efficient g u t & h e for finding out the technologies and vanety of NNS (eg. recurrent) are

necessary amount of the learning data is not bemg seriously tried for solving PS problem.

avadable in constructing ANN. The inefficient An overview on ANNs in power system

data creates inappmpriate models while too much has been presented in this paper. This paper has

data needs excesive computation time. focussed on MLP, HN and KN as typical ANNs.

It is normal that in spite of good It may be seen that, MLP is the most poprlar

performance on training data, worse performance owmg to the surpeMsed learning that is superior

is obtained on test data. This may be due to the in terms of accuracy. As the apphcation areas,

fact that the training data is not utuformly load forecasting, security assessment and fault

distributed. The accuracy of ANN model depends detedion/dia~s were of main importance

on the number of t " g patterns in a gven range. though there exits a varie~ of application areas.

The present day p r i m a l Qfficulties and their

Other Factors: proposed solutions are reviewed Finally, the

In literature no systematic procsdure is integration of ANNs with other emerging

available on choice of initial weights assigned to technologies such as FS, GA etc. was chscussed as

the interconnections between two nodes in neural a future research direction.

network. Ref. [26] proposes use of some Wctions

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M3CYMalley,"Anpented HspseM

Network for Cm Gegeratw

626

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