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*Contact: Dr. Sam Ye (ye@crd.ge.com)


Reliable, Low Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect
Team*: GE Research, GE PSEC, GE Multilin, GE Zenith Controls, Puget Sound Energy
Subcontract Manager: Ben Kroposki, NREL
Program Objectives: Explore technical issues associated with interconnecting Distributed Generation (DG) with Electric Power Systems.
Develop a Universal Interconnect (UI) system to bridge the technical barriers and facilitate the interconnection of DG.
UI Study and Design UI Prototyping and Testing DG Penetration Study
UI Conceptual Design Non-Detection Zone (NDZ) Study Testing Diagram Objectives
GRID
∆P, ∆Q P, Q ¾ AI Performance Index: Objectives: ¾ Provide quantitative insight into the critical issues
I2 I1 V, f Non-Detection Zone ¾ Validate NDZ
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF DG-Grid INTERCONNECT
¾ Results are useful to the industry in defining interconnection
IED PCD
Comm
S1 S2 (NDZ), defined as the ¾ Optimize AI Settings standards
Lockable
manual P + ∆P, Q + ∆Q region (in ∆P, ∆Q space), ¾ Explore Practical Issues
Display Panel I3
disconnect ¾ Focus on both near term reality and longer term high penetration
Voltage Current Energy
ADC
within which the DG or ¾ Proof-Of-Concept for New
R L C

CT LOADS ARE
PT interconnection devices Product Introduction LOCATED

A Bulk Power System (WECC)


IN HIGHBAY
R L C DG cannot detect an island.
Measure
DSP/uP unit Grid
Keypad Frequency
measure
Flags / Alarms CB
Grid
¾ Better understanding of DG
S IMULATOR
Power Main Program To loads
dominant factors that MAIN POWER 60 AMP 60 AMP 60 AMP
Load
CB

DIS CONN DIS CONN DIS CONN DIS CONN


measure
Voltage Power Energy CB
influence anti-islanding 480VAC
200AMP
IN EP105 LAB
measure Quality Management DG

Current
protection. SOURCE
#1
Relaying Control Inverte r
measure
Phase Anti- I4 PT
measure Sychonization RMS Voltage
isIanding CT LOAD CONNECTION
0.54

∆ P , ∆Q P, Q
0.53

Comm
Power supply Analog I/O Digital I/O V', f'
0.52

0.51 V' CONTROL 3 PHAS E


27 KVA
Trans fo rme r
GRID

GRID CONNECTION
POWER

DG CONNECTION
0.5
RMS Voltage POWER
I2 I1 SOURCE LINE 3 PHAS E NREL UI DIS CONN
Western Energy
0.49 DIS CONN #2 480VAC
FILTER 480Vac to
S1 S2 0.48 480VAC Inverte r
480Vac
BOX 100AMP GRID
0.47 30 AMP
IN EP105

DG
P, Q 0.46

0.45
IN EP105 LAB
LAB
Coordinate Council
(WECC)
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Malin
Key Features: Frequency Response after islanding Station

¾ Modularity:
60.1

DG 60.05
60
Grid R + ∆R L + ∆L C + ∆C

Frequency (Hz)
59.95

IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) , PCD (Power Carrying Device) Testing Facility UI Panel
59.9
59.85 Frequency Path 15
59.8
59.75

¾ Standardized Interfaces: Power(I1), Communication(I2), Sensor(I3), 59.7


59.65 f' Palo Verde
59.6

Control(I4) 1.4 1.6


Time (sec)
1.8 2 NPS

¾ Technology neutral, suitable for Fuel Cell, Microturbine, Genset, etc.


IED WECC System Information (Trip 3 Palo Verte generators)
¾ Event: Trip 3 Palo Verte
¾ Pre-testing and pre-certification for 1547 compliance Black:No DG; Red:Rot DG w/o Control;

Non Detection Zone Grid DG


Green:Rot DG w/ Exciter; Blue:Rot DG w/ Governor
Generators
¾ Universal platform with natural progression of functionality ¾ The combined anti- 60.1
PALOVRDE frequency, Hz 60.1
MALIN frequency, Hz

islanding schemes PCD


60.0 60.0
¾ Black: No DG
¾ Local Protection (P1547 functions): U/O V&F, Sync check, AI, etc. 59.9 59.9

lead to reduced NDZ HMI (CB, ¾ Red: DG w/o Control


¾ Local Control: V&F support, Power quality, etc.
59.8 59.8

¾ Green: Under/Over Sensors, 59.7 59.7

¾ Green: DG w/ Exciter
¾ Coordinated Protection/Control: Dispatch, EMS, etc. UI Panel PS, etc.)
59.6 59.6

Voltage/Frequency 1.10
MALIN voltage, pu 1.10
MIDWAY voltage, pu Control
¾ Blue: Rate Of Change 1.05 1.05
¾ Blue: DG w/ Governor
IEEE P1547 Compliance Matrix Of Frequency
Load (next room)
1.00 1.00
Control
4.1 General Requirements 4.2 Response to Area EPS
(ROCOF) 0.95 0.95

¾ One interesting result:


4.1.1 Voltage Regulation Available P1547 says that DG shall not actively regulate the Abnormal conditions

¾ Red: Combined controlling voltage, without


0.90 0.90
voltage at the PCC. UI should monitor the voltage 4.2.1 Area EPS Faults Available G60 has some elements for fault detection
to be within the range of ANSI C84.1, Range A. MALIN - ROUND MT #1 P, MW GATES - MIDWAY P, MW
G60 has voltage protection, monitoring, and data 4.2.2 Area EPS Reclosing Anti- reclosing time varies, e.g. reclosing due to 1800 1800

log Coordination Islanding lightning is normally fast (less than 0.5s), however,
protection reclosing due to tree fall is normally slow (up to Scheme with Reduced Grid Current Grid Voltage 1600
1600
controlling frequency can
4.1.2 Integration with Area EPS Available need to consider different Transformer 10s). Different utilities set the reclosing time 1400
Grounding connections, e.g. Wye/Wye, Delta/Wye, etc. will
require different protection elements. In some
cases, it may need to sense primary (substation)
differently, depending on their practical conditions.
Therefore, the timing of AI protection should be NDZ 1400 1200 adversely effect system
adjustable to coordinate with recloser settings. If
performance (for a capacity
1200 1000
voltage and require communications. G60 has
transfer trip (communication) is used, then it is not
elements for grounding protection 800
an issue. If not, then it is a challenging for anti- 1000

event)
4.1.3 Synchronization N/A within +/-5% prevailing voltage level, monitor islanding detection with fast reclosing. 600
flicker effect. Flicker monitoring is not the current
800 400
G60 function. G60 has sync check.
4.2.3 Voltage Available adjustable set points for DG > 30kW. Could be
4.1.4 Distributed Resources on
Distribution Secondary Grid
and Spot Networks
N/A Reverse power protection is needed to coordinate
with netowrk protectors. Unclear to exactly define
UI functions as the issue is not thoroughly
addressed in the current standard version.
4.2.4 Frequency Available
realized using FlexLogic
adjustable set points for DG > 30kW. Could be
realized using FlexLogic
AI Setting Study 0.0 2.5 5.0

Time (seconds)
7.5 10.0 0.0 2.5 5.0

Time (seconds)
7.5 10.0

4.1.5 Inadvertent Energization of Available dead circuit check 4.2.5 Loss of Synchronism Available sync check. Also need to monitor flicker. Leave it
DG zoom in
¾ A typical distribution system
09-DEC-2002 16:44:13 C:\WeiWork\projects\DG\NREL\P3sys\chan\nodg63.ch Page 1
the Area EPS as DG design issue.
4.1.6 Monitoring Provisions Available This function refers to remote monitoring by
utilities operators. Therefore, communication is
4.2.6 Reconnection to Area EPS Available The delay time should be user adjustable.
Current
needed. How to communicate, however, is
undertermined. P1547.3 will address 4.3.1
4.3 Power Quality
Limitation of DC injection N/A UI could monitor it, but too costly. Need LEM used to simulate islanding and
Microgrid Study
current sensors, not just CTs, if want to monitor it.
communication requirements. G60 has
communication capabilities. The requirement will Leave it as DG design requirement. disturbance cases DG
be determined by local power control operator. 4.3.2 Limitation of Flicker Induced N/A
by the DR
Monitoring flicker, SMARFI 90, 80, 70
Voltage
¾ Trip index is a function of AI
4.1.7 Isolation Device N/A External to UI Box. readily accessible, lockable,
visible-break isolation device. It may be desirable 4.3.3 Harmonics N/A UI could monitor it, but too costly. To monitor
for UI to monitor (but not control) the status of the harmonics (up to 40th harmonic), may need

algorithm and system ¾ Event: a non-islanding grid


¾ Trip O/F after 1.5 sec ¾ No trip
isolation device. additional computation resources. Leave it as DG
4.1.8 Interconnect Integrity design issue. Micro Grid Study Case F1
4.4 Islanding
parameters disturbance Bolted 3ph Fault at 50% of PCC-HUB 115kV Line CKT1
¾ ∆P=0.5%, ∆Q=11% ¾ ∆P=0.0%, ∆Q=0.7%
4.1.8.1 Protection from Available UI IED device meets the requirement
Electromanetic Interference 4.4.1 Unintentional islanding Anti- detection within 2s. Clear Fault after 16 cycles by tripping PCC-HUB Line CKT1
(EMI)
4.1.8.2 Surge Withstand Available UI IED device meets the requirement
Islanding
protection ¾ Active control of DGs within a
Performance 4.4.2 Intentional islanding N/A no requirements given yet in the standard ¾ First trip index threshold (red 1.2
4.1.8.3 Paralleling Device N/A contact/CB ratings (220% of the rated voltage), not
microgrid can benefit both the
line): All disturbance cases are Test Site – A Biomass DG
part of IED
1
microgrid and the host grid.
¾ Anti-Islanding (AI) is the Key function for UI development bypassed, however, 3 actual
¾ No DG case fails - bad for 0.8

MOTLD3-m1 V pu
No DG
G60 FUNCTIONS
islanding cases are missed ¾ Evaluation with INV DG
DEVICE#
25
FUNCTION
SYNCHRONIZING CHECK DEVICE microgrid and host grid 0.6 ROT DG

¾ Lower trip index threshold Field Data 27 UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY INV DG Passive

Anti-Islanding (AI) Schemes ¾ Rotating DG tends to have


32 DIRECTIONAL POWER RELAY
50 INST. OVERCURRENT RELAY 0.4 ROT DG Passive
TORONTO 51 A-C TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY

(yellow line) can better capture 59


81
87
OVERVOLTAGE RELAY
FREQUENCY RELAY
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
some inherent benefits 0.2
* 25MVA (DAY) 6MVA (NIGHT)

¾ Local sensing (Relay Function) ¾ System coordinated control islanding, but also subject to Area EPS
* TT
¾ Inverter DG less inherent
LOAD 0

• U/O V&F • Transfer trip nuisance trip GEN.


30MVA response, but faster when 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ONTARIO Time (s)

• Vector Shift • Communications, … POWER


DISCONNECT
STEAM
controlled
Gas
Trip Trip
TRANSFER TRIP
• ROCOF, … ¾ Integrate with DG control (PHONE LINE)
44KV/13.8KV
Comp.

Index Index
¾ Perturbation
Future work
Area EPS
• SFS, SVS 44KV
REVENUE

LOAD
METERIN

LANDFILL
BIOMASS DG
G

• Impedance monitoring (ENS) • SMS (EPG : PRIVATE COMPANY)


(EASTERN POWER GENERATION)

• Impedance insertion, … • Asymmetrical Wave, … ¾ Continue combined passive anti-islanding study and testing
Disturbance Islanding
¾ Explore active anti-islanding implementation and testing issues
¾ No single optimal scheme in terms of cost, technology neutral, ¾ Study active anti-islanding for machine DG
effectiveness ¾ Explore interconnection issues for facility microgrid
¾ Support P1547.x standards development
¾ Local sensing is much better-off in terms of UI implementation
15 islanding cases 9 disturbance cases ¾ …