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Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

- Math 4340-Lecture 10
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- HOMOCLINIC BIFURCATIONS
- solhwk6
- Math 4340-Lecture 17
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- Math 4340-Lecture 15
- Math 7370-Lecture 18
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- Math-6170-Lec-01
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n Proof. Let S be the set of subsets T of G of order pk . Then |S| = pk is not divisible by p. Let G operate on S by left multiplication. If GT is the stabilizer of T , then |GT | |T | = pk as |GT t| = |GT |. |OT | = |G/GT |, therefore |OT | is divisible by p if and only if |GT | < pk .

Finally, partition S into the union of sets of distinct orbits OTi . Then |S| = mi where mi is the size of the orbit OTi . If |GT | < pk for all T one gets p|m for all i, which implies p||S|, contradicting that |S| is not divisible by p. Hence |GT | = pk for some T . Then GT is the subgroup we want. (2) All Sylow p-subgroups of G are conjugates under conjugation by G (i.e., same orbit). Proof. Let S be the set of Sylow p-subgroups of G. Let G act on S by conjugation, i.e. x H = xHx1 . Suppose by contradiction that there are at least two distinct orbits. Choose H to be a Sylow p-subgroup from one orbit and K to be from the other. Let H act in OK by conjugation, then OK is closed under the action of H (since it is closed under the action of G. Break up OK into H orbits OK = Oi , and note that |Oi | divides |OK |, so it is a power of p and divisible by p unless it is 1. However, |Oi | cannot be 1. Suppose it were equal to 1, then there exists K OK such that H normalizes K . Then HK is also a p-subgroup of G. But we know K = H since H and K are in dierent G orbits, thus |HK | > H = pk , this contradicts that we have a Sylow p-subgroup as pk+1 |G|. Therefore there is only one G-orbit. (3) The number of Sylow p-subgroups of G is of the form ap + 1, i.e. 1 (mod p). Proof. This essentially follows from the proof for (2). Let H operate on S. Every H-orbit of size > 1 has order divisible by p. But H acts on itself giving an orbit of size 1, and from (2), this is the only orbit of size 1. Thus the number of them is ap + 1 for some a. (4) The number ap + 1 in (3) is a divisor of |G|. Proof. By (2), there exists only one orbit from G conjugation, and the number of elements in the orbit divides G.

Application. A group of order 12 has a proper nontrivial normal subgroup. The Sylow 3-subgroup. If not normal, there exist at least 4 of them by Sylow (3), implying there are at least 8 elements of order 3, which implies exactly one Sylow 2-subgroup be normal (of order 4). Facts (1) If H, K are any two subgroups of G and H normalizes K, then HK is a subgroup of G. (2) If H, K are p-groups then HK is also a p-group.

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