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DJA080740

SJ**690 (04.00)

Warranties and Liabilities


All warranties given by Intergraph Corporation about equipment or software are set forth in your purchase contract, and nothing stated in or implied by this document or its contents shall be considered or deemed a modification or amendment of such warranties. The information and the software discussed in this document are subject to change without notice and should not be considered commitments by Intergraph Corporation. Intergraph Corporation assumes no responsibility for any error that may appear in this document. The software discussed in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of this license. No responsibility is assumed by Intergraph for the use or reliability of software on equipment that is not supplied by Intergraph or its affiliated companies.

Trademarks
Intergraph, GeoMedia, and, RIS are registered trademarks of Intergraph Corporation. SmartSketch is a trademark of Intergraph Corporation. Windows and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. NT is a registered trademark of Northern Telecom Limited. MapInfo is a registered trademark of MapInfo Corporation. All other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright
2000 Intergraph Corporation All Rights Reserved Including software, file formats, and audiovisual displays, may be used pursuant to applicable software license agreement. Contains confidential and proprietary information of Intergraph and/or third parties, which is protected by copyright and trade secret law and may not be provided or otherwise made available without proper authorization.

Restricted Rights Legend


Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of The Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of Commercial Computer SoftwareRestricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19, as applicable. Unpublished rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States. Intergraph Corporation Huntsville, Alabama 35894-0001

Copyright for the Canadian National Transformation Software: Produced under license from Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Natural Resources. Software based on the National Transformation Version 2 developed by Geodetic Survey Division, Geomatics Canada. 1995. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Natural Resources.

What do you think about Working with GeoMedia Professional? DJA080740


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Table of Contents
Start Here ................................................................................................................................... 1-1 Looking at GeoMedia Professional: An Overview ............................................................... 1-2 What You Need to Know to Work ......................................................................................... 1-3 Documents Shipped................................................................................................................ 1-3 Getting Started........................................................................................................................ 1-7 Getting Around in the Software ............................................................................................. 1-8 The Product Workflows ....................................................................................................... 1-10 Working with GeoWorkspaces ................................................................................................. 2-1 Creating a GeoWorkspace...................................................................................................... 2-2 Opening a GeoWorkspace...................................................................................................... 2-2 Delaying Data Loading........................................................................................................... 2-3 Saving, Closing, and Copying a GeoWorkspace.................................................................... 2-5 E-Mailing a GeoWorkspace ................................................................................................... 2-6 Creating a GeoWorkspace Template...................................................................................... 2-7 Working with Coordinate Systems........................................................................................... 3-1 Defining a Coordinate System for a GeoWorkspace.............................................................. 3-4 Defining a Coordinate System for an Access Warehouse...................................................... 3-6 Matching GeoWorkspace and Warehouse Coordinate Systems ............................................ 3-8 Getting Coordinate Readouts ............................................................................................... 3-10 Setting Units and Formats .................................................................................................... 3-11 Configuring for Datum Transformations.............................................................................. 3-13 Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified ............................................... 3-14 Creating Coordinate-System Files from Design Files.......................................................... 3-18 Working with Warehouses........................................................................................................ 4-1 Creating a Read/Write Access Warehouse............................................................................. 4-2 Defining a Coordinate System for a Warehouse .................................................................... 4-3 Preparing to Connect .............................................................................................................. 4-4 Working with Connections................................................................................................... 4-45 Working with Spatial Filters ................................................................................................ 4-51 Working with Vicinity Connections..................................................................................... 4-59 Importing Data into a Read/Write Warehouse ..................................................................... 4-60 Inserting Images into Warehouses........................................................................................ 4-66 Managing Warehouse Images .............................................................................................. 4-69 Viewing Changes in a Multi-User Environment .................................................................. 4-70 Creating an Access Warehouse Template ............................................................................ 4-70 Changing the Coordinate System of a New Access Warehouse Template .......................... 4-71

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Working with Map Windows..................................................................................................... 5-1 Understanding the Legend...................................................................................................... 5-2 Displaying or Hiding the Legend ........................................................................................... 5-4 Adding Entries to the Legend................................................................................................. 5-4 Controlling the Map Window................................................................................................. 5-8 Customizing the Legend....................................................................................................... 5-29 Customizing the Legend Toolbar ......................................................................................... 5-33 Using the Legend Pop-up Menu........................................................................................... 5-34 Creating Additional Map Windows...................................................................................... 5-35 Displaying Design Files ....................................................................................................... 5-36 Working with Data Windows.................................................................................................... 6-1 Opening a Data Window ........................................................................................................ 6-1 Controlling the Data Window ................................................................................................ 6-2 Editing Cells in the Data Window.......................................................................................... 6-7 Taking a Snapshot of the Data Window................................................................................. 6-8 Working with Features.............................................................................................................. 7-1 Understanding Geometry Types............................................................................................. 7-2 Working with Feature Classes................................................................................................ 7-3 Selecting Features in the Map Window.................................................................................. 7-8 Collecting Data..................................................................................................................... 7-13 Inserting Features ................................................................................................................. 7-29 Digitizing Discontiguous Features and Features with Holes................................................ 7-43 Tools for Collection of Attribute Information...................................................................... 7-48 Inserting Area Features Automatically................................................................................. 7-50 Inserting Text Features into a Feature Class ........................................................................ 7-53 Adding Hypertext to a Feature Class.................................................................................... 7-55 Placing Buffer Zones Around Features ................................................................................ 7-58 Editing Features and Geometries ............................................................................................. 8-1 Changing Feature Attributes................................................................................................... 8-1 Updating Feature Attributes ................................................................................................... 8-3 Updating Feature Attributes Using Text ................................................................................ 8-8 Manipulating Features .......................................................................................................... 8-10 Manipulating Geometry........................................................................................................ 8-20 Continuing Geometry ........................................................................................................... 8-27 Changing Feature Class........................................................................................................ 8-33

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Registering Data.......................................................................................................................... 9-1 Performing Digitizer Setup..................................................................................................... 9-1 Setting Digitizer Mode ......................................................................................................... 9-10 Registering Images ............................................................................................................... 9-12 Outputting to GeoTIFF......................................................................................................... 9-16 Registering Vector Data ....................................................................................................... 9-17 Inserting Traverses .................................................................................................................. 10-1 Defining a Traverse .............................................................................................................. 10-2 Additional Command Features............................................................................................. 10-6 Insert Traverse Workflows ................................................................................................... 10-8 Validating and Fixing Data ..................................................................................................... 11-1 Displaying Geometry Information ....................................................................................... 11-2 Validating Geometry ............................................................................................................ 11-5 Fixing Geometry................................................................................................................... 11-9 Validating Connectivity...................................................................................................... 11-11 Fixing Connectivity............................................................................................................ 11-20 Analyzing Geometry .......................................................................................................... 11-24 Extending Geometry to Intersections ................................................................................. 11-29 Trimming Geometry to Intersections ................................................................................. 11-31 Inserting Intersections ........................................................................................................ 11-33 Working with Queries ............................................................................................................. 12-1 Working with Filter Queries................................................................................................. 12-1 Working with Native Queries............................................................................................. 12-14 Working with Joins............................................................................................................. 12-21 Working with Labels .......................................................................................................... 12-24 Working with Spatial Analysis Queries ............................................................................. 12-30 Geocoding Coordinates ...................................................................................................... 12-36 Manipulating Queries ......................................................................................................... 12-38 Querying Graphics-Only Features in MGE and MGSM.................................................... 12-42 Working With Addresses ........................................................................................................ 13-1 Finding Addresses ................................................................................................................ 13-3 Geocoding Addresses ........................................................................................................... 13-5 Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional................................................................... 14-1 Linking and Embedding a GeoWorkspace........................................................................... 14-1 Printing Map, Data, and Layout Windows ........................................................................... 14-2 Designing Map Layouts and Printing Maps......................................................................... 14-8

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Exporting Data to Other Systems........................................................................................... 15-1 Exporting to Shapefile.......................................................................................................... 15-1 Exporting to MapInfo Interchange Format........................................................................... 15-3 Exporting to Design File ...................................................................................................... 15-5 Exporting to Oracle Object Model ..................................................................................... 15-10 Exporting to MS SQL Server ............................................................................................. 15-13 How to Reach Intergraph......................................................................................................... A-1 Using the Oracle Relational Spatial Model............................................................................. B-1 GDOO Connections and Metadata........................................................................................ B-1 Importing Data into SC ......................................................................................................... B-4 Default Registry Values ........................................................................................................ B-5 Spatial Data Tables - Spatial Layers...................................................................................... B-7 Spatial Data Indexing .......................................................................................................... B-10 Using Views with GDOO.................................................................................................... B-11 Using Synonyms with GDOO ............................................................................................. B-12 Date and Time Data in GDOO ............................................................................................ B-13 Filtered Queries with SC ..................................................................................................... B-13 Spatial Queries with SC....................................................................................................... B-14 Using an Existing Oracle SC Database ............................................................................... B-14 GDOO Package ................................................................................................................... B-17 Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server .......................................................................... C-1 Delivery and Connection....................................................................................................... C-1 Native Data Model ................................................................................................................ C-4 GeoMedia Professional Metadata The Default GDOSYS Schema .................................. C-13 Using an Existing Oracle Spatial Object Schema ............................................................... C-19 Creating a New Oracle Spatial Object Database ................................................................. C-20 Database Utilities................................................................................................................. C-21 Coordinate System Information .............................................................................................. D-1 Projection Algorithms ........................................................................................................... D-1 Datum Transformation Models ............................................................................................. D-1 Geodetic Datums ................................................................................................................... D-5 Ellipsoids ............................................................................................................................... D-8 Units of Measure (UOM) .................................................................................................... D-10 State Plane Zone CodesNAD27 Datum........................................................................... D-12 State Plane Zone CodesNAD83 Datum........................................................................... D-14 UTM Zones ......................................................................................................................... D-16 GeoTIFF Capabilities .......................................................................................................... D-17

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Raster Information .................................................................................................................... E-1 Raster Formats Supported in GeoMedia Professional............................................................E-1 Compression Techniques........................................................................................................E-3 Tiling ......................................................................................................................................E-4 Data Types..............................................................................................................................E-4 Troubleshooting Connection Problems....................................................................................F-1 Troubleshooting MGE Connections.......................................................................................F-1 Troubleshooting MGSM Connections..................................................................................F-13 Troubleshooting Oracle Connections ...................................................................................F-14 Line Weight Conversions and Line Styles ..............................................................................G-1 Line Weight Conversions ...................................................................................................... G-1 Line Styles............................................................................................................................. G-3 Creating Data Server .INI Files ...............................................................................................H-1 The ARC/INFO Data Server .INI File................................................................................... H-2 The ArcView Data Server .INI File....................................................................................... H-3 The CAD Data Server .INI File............................................................................................. H-4 The FRAMME Data Server .INI File .................................................................................... H-8 The MapInfo Data Server .INI File ..................................................................................... H-14 The MGDM Data Server .INI File....................................................................................... H-18 The MGE Data Server .INI File .......................................................................................... H-27 The MGSM Data Server .INI Files...................................................................................... H-41 Layout Window Graphics Commands..................................................................................... I-1 Conversion Tables...................................................................................................................... J-1 International System of Units to United States Customary System ....................................... J-1 United States Customary System to International System of Units ....................................... J-2 Index..........................................................................................................................................IN-1

Working with GeoMedia Professional

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Start Here
Welcome to GeoMedia Professionalthe next generation in geographic-information systems (GIS). Based on Jupiter technology from Intergraph Corporation, this product is an enterprise GIS for the Windows 2000 and Windows NT operating systems. This product is the perfect tool for collecting GIS data, populating an enterprise database, and turning information into precise finished maps for distribution and presentation. As a viewing and analysis tool, this product allows you to combine geographic data from different sources, in different formats, and with different map projections, all into a single environment. Using this software, you can perform complex queries on spatial and attribute data from various sources, and produce numerous views of highly sophisticated maps in a single workspace. Furthermore, this product gives you the capability of printing those map views on a single sheet and adding borders, marginalia, and other finishing touches. As a data capture and maintenance tool, this product allows you to capture and to edit data more easily, faster, and with more intelligence than other products. Its integrated vector and raster snaps allow you to capture vector data from raster images, automatically identifying snap points to ensure accurate heads-up digitizing. The software also provides table-top digitizing and vector transformation for data requiring geometry transformation. Using the software, you can capture clean, accurate data the first time, thus minimizing editing. Automatic vector breaking and coincident geometry digitizing allow you to avoid traditional data-capture problems. However, you can locate data-capture problems with automatic error detection and then correct them with intelligent feature placement and editing tools. Furthermore, you can quickly annotate the data with powerful labeling and text-placement tools. This product is also a software-development environment, and you can customize it with standard Windows-development tools such as Microsoft Visual Basic and Visual C++.

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Looking at GeoMedia Professional: An Overview


The first thing you do in GeoMedia Professional is create a GeoWorkspace or open an existing one. After you open a GeoWorkspace, you configure it to suit your needs. You can, for example, change the coordinate-system properties or insert a map or raster image to use as a backdrop for geographic data. Your configuration is saved when you save the GeoWorkspace and restored when you reopen it. The data you view is stored in warehouses, and you access data by creating connections from the GeoWorkspace to one or more warehouses. The Warehouse Connection Wizard presents a series of dialog boxes that prompt you for the information necessary to create the connection. Because data is not stored in the GeoWorkspace, all workflows require at least one warehouse connection. A warehouse stores both geometric (graphic) and attribute (nongraphic) information. For example, a parcel might be represented by an area geometry and defined by attribute information such as the owners name and the date it was purchased. Once you connect to at least one warehouse, you can display and analyze data from it. The software allows you to view multiple data sets from different warehouses in various formats in a single GeoWorkspace. This means you can perform spatial analyses on data from different sources in different formats using buffer zones, spatial queries, and thematic displays. In this product, features are contained in feature classes, and the word feature refers to each instance of a feature within a feature class. Feature classes, images, query results, and thematic displays in the map window are collectively referred to as either features or map objects. Features are represented in the map window by geometry and in the data window by attributes. You can display any number of map and data windows simultaneously or separately. They are linked so that changes made in one window are automatically reflected in the other. You display features in a map window by adding entries to the legend. The legend is the control center for the map window. Through the legend, you populate the contents of the map window and control the display characteristics of the features, including their style and display priority.

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You can also perform tasks, such as capturing new data, performing maintenance on existing data, and inserting images or buffer zones. Furthermore, you can view data written to a read/write warehouse along with other data sets in a single GeoWorkspace. Results of your analyses can be customized in the map window, printed, and saved for future use, all without altering the original data.

What You Need to Know to Work


The documentation and learning tools assume that you have the following: A basic understanding of your operating system. The ability to move around in the Windows environment. An understanding of the data you want to use.

Documents Shipped
The following documents are shipped with GeoMedia Professional. Document Installing GeoMedia Professional Number DJA0809 Description Instructions for installing the product. Available in paper as a jewel-case insert, and online in .pdf format through the PDF Viewer from the product CD \Geomedia Professional folder. Hands-on tutorial that guides you through the basics using an example workflow and real data. Runs through Web browser. Overview of and workflows for performing most software tasks. Available in paper, and online in .pdf format through the PDF Viewer from the product CD \Geomedia Professional folder. Step-by-step instructions for all tasks and information about tools and dialog boxes.

Learning GeoMedia Professional Working with GeoMedia Professional

Online only DJA0807

GeoMedia Professional Help Topics

Online only

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Document Building on the GeoMedia Professional Engine GeoMedia Professional Object Reference GeoMedia Professional Object Model Quick Reference

Number Online only

Description Information about customizing the software and building your own applications with the GeoMedia Professional engine. Access through Help > Programming Utilities. Programmer's guide to the objects, methods, and properties in the softwares automation layer. Access through Help > Programming Utilities. Quick reference to objects and a summary of each. Access from the product CD. You can view the document by double clicking on
<product folder>\Product\resdlls\009\GMP_AutoModel40.hlp

Online only Online only

See the "How to Reach Intergraph" appendix.

Note: Within the U.S., you can request copies of the paper documents from the Intergraph Customer Care Center. Outside the U.S., call your Intergraph representative.

Typeface Conventions Used in the Documents


ALL CAPS Keyboard keys. If keys are separated by a comma, press them in sequence. For example: ALT, F5. If they are joined by a plus sign, press them at the same time. For example: CTRL+z. An item in the graphical interface, such as the title of a dialog box or a tool. Paths through menus use right angle brackets between items you select. For example: Select File > Open to load a new file. Information you type. For example: Type original.dat to load the ASCII file. A document title, the first occurrence of a new or special term, folder and file names, or information about what the software is doing.

Bold unserifed type

Courier type

Italic type

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Interactive Documents
This product provides an interactive tutorial to help you learn how to perform the basic tasks. If you are new to the software, you should work through Learning GeoMedia Professional first. Help is available online if you need step-by-step instructions, and other documents are available for programmers who want to customize the software.

Learning GeoMedia Professional


Learning GeoMedia Professional steps you through an example workflow that uses real data and covers the basic tasks. You start this tutorial by selecting Help > Learning GeoMedia Professional from the GeoMedia Professional menu. This opens the tutorial in your default Web browser. This tutorial works best with Internet Explorer 5.0, but it will run on another browser. After you have worked through the tutorial, use Working with GeoMedia Professional to gain a broader understanding of what you can accomplish using this product.

Help Topics
You can find information for advanced topics and procedures from the online Help. Included with the Help topics is a dictionary. If Help was not installed on your hard drive during setup, you must have the GeoMedia Professional CD in your CD-ROM drive or be connected to the network node containing the Help files. To display Help when GeoMedia Professional is active, select Help > GeoMedia Professional Help Topics from the menu. To display Help when GeoMedia Professional is not active, select Programs >
GeoMedia Professional > GeoMedia Professional Help Topics

from the Start menu. Help is context sensitive, which means that you can press F1 to display Help for the active window or dialog box. You can also click the Help button or press SHIFT+F1. When the cursor changes to a question mark, select a menu item, toolbar, or area of a window or dialog box.

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Programming Guides
This product includes two online guides for developers who have experience with programming languages that use automated objects and who want to customize or build applications on this software. Building on the GeoMedia Professional Engine is an interactive users guide developed in HTML. GeoMedia Professional Object Reference covers the objects, methods, and properties available through automation.

You access both of these documents by selecting the appropriate document on the Programming Utilities interface. To access this interface, select Help > Programming Utilities from the GeoMedia Professional menu.

Delivered Utilities Documentation


This product also includes online documentation for the following delivered utilities: Building on the GeoMedia Professional Engine Database Utilities Define CAD Server Schema File Define Coordinate System File Define Symbol File Edit MGSM Server Parameter File Programming Utilities RIS Schema Locator Update CAD Server Schema File MBRs Selecting Start > GeoMedia Professional > <utility >. Selecting the utility document name in the main product Help Topics. Pressing F1 while the utility is active.

You can access this online documentation by:

Note: You can also access the Define CAD Server Schema File Help and the RIS Schema Locator Help from the respective utilitys Help menu, and the Programming Utilities Help from that utilitys Command Wizard Help button.

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Getting Started
To start this product, select Start > Programs > GeoMedia Professional > GeoMedia Professional. If it has not been turned off, the Welcome! dialog box appears.

Once you have run Learning GeoMedia Professional, you can either open an existing GeoWorkspace or create a new one. Clicking Close takes you directly into an empty window.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

If the Don't display this startup screen again option on the Welcome! dialog box has been turned on, you see the following dialog box instead:

This dialog box lists recently opened GeoWorkspaces. You can select one, and click OK. If the existing GeoWorkspace you want is not listed, select More Files, and click OK to find the GeoWorkspace yourself. Note: To exit the software at any time, select File > Exit from the GeoMedia Professional menu.

Getting Around in the Software


Familiarity with Microsoft Windows conventions and Microsoft-Office applications should make it easy for you to get around in this product. As in Windows, for example, you move a window by placing the cursor over the title bar and dragging the window to a new location. Buttons and menu items are dimmed when the tools they invoke are not available, and you can see what tool a button invokes by placing your cursor over the button.

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Common tools, such as File > Print, work essentially the same application as they do in any Windows application. Similarly, you can customize your software working environment to display the menu items and buttons you want and to accept the keyboard shortcuts you specify. Still, the GeoMedia Professional working environment does have some special characteristics: GeoMedia Professional offers several specialized toolbars that are available only under the appropriate circumstances. The Data toolbar, for example, is available only when the data window is active. Select View > Toolbars to specify which toolbars you want to display. Some pop-up menus are available in this product. You display popup menus by pressing the right mouse button. The tools on the menu vary with the location of your cursor. The products toolbars can be moved from their default locations and docked at other locations within the interface. Moving a toolbar over a map window converts the toolbar to a dockable control, and some tools provide a control rather than a dialog box interface. Further, clicking the right mouse button on the title bar of a control displays a menu that allows you to restore, move, minimize, maximize, or hide the control, while clicking the X icon dismisses the control. Clicking the right mouse button on a toolbar (or on the icons in a control) displays a menu that allows you to turn toolbars on and off, display the Status and Precision Coordinates toolbars, and customize toolbars. Within the software, you work in three types of windows, map windows, data windows, and the layout window. These windows are contained in a GeoWorkspace, which is roughly analogous to a workbook in Microsoft Excel. If you have a Microsoft IntelliMouse, you can use it to manipulate map, data, and layout windows faster and more efficiently.

See the "Working with Map Windows", "Working with Data Windows", and Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional chapters for information on the three types of windows

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The Product Workflows


These are simplified example workflows for the most common GeoMedia Professional tasks. Your workflow, of course, will vary with the needs of your project.

General Viewing and Analysis Workflow


1. Create a GeoWorkspace. See the "Working with GeoWorkspaces" chapter. 2. Define a coordinate system for the GeoWorkspace. See the "Working with Coordinate Systems" chapter. 3. Create warehouse connections. See the "Working with Warehouses" chapter. 4. Display data in your map window. See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter. 5. Change the appearance of the map-window contents. See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter. 6. Display a data window. See the "Working with Data Windows" chapter. 7. Build and run a query. See the "Working with Queries" chapter. 8. Create a thematic display. See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter. 9. Add labels to the map. See the "Working with Queries" chapter. 10. Print the map. See the "Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional" chapter.

General Data-Capture and Maintenance Workflow


1. Create or open a GeoWorkspace. See the "Working with GeoWorkspaces" chapter. 2. Define a coordinate system for a new GeoWorkspace. See the "Working with Coordinate Systems" chapter. 3. Create warehouse connections. See the "Working with Warehouses" chapter. 4. Display data in your map window. See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter. 1-10

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5. Change the appearance of the map-window contents. See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter. 6. Work with existing features. See the "Working with Features" chapter. 7. Create new features. See the "Working with Features" chapter. 8. Edit features. See the "Editing Features and Geometries" chapter. 9. Register data. See the "Registering Data" chapter. 10. Validate data. See the "Validating Data" chapter. 11. Export data. See the "Exporting Data to Other Systems" chapter.

Data-Capture Workflows
For information on data-capture and cleanup tools, see the Registering Data, Validating Data, Working with Features, and Editing Features and Geometries chapters.

This section presents workflows for building an enterprise GIS with GeoMedia Professional. Whether you digitize from a paper map or an onscreen image, or incorporate data from other digital sources, this product has the right tools for your particular needs. Furthermore, the data-capture and clean-up tools have been optimized for GIS workflows to increase your productivity. The workflows are as follows: Manual input Scanned maps Satellite or photogrammetric images CAD data Attribute data in databases Legacy GIS data

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Manual Input
1. Select the digitizer input. 2. Set up the map on the digitizing table. 3. Register the map coordinates to a GeoWorkspace with the registration tools. 4. Select the vector feature class from a warehouse, or create new feature classes with their own unique database properties. 5. Digitize selected features from the paper map. 6. Clean up the data with the validating and editing tools.

Scanned Maps
1. Select the scanned paper maps. 2. Place the raster image on the screen, and use the registration tools to display the raster in the correct geographic position. 3. Select the vector feature class from a warehouse, or create new feature classes with their own unique database properties. 4. Digitize the features on-screen with the raster image of the scanned map as the background, using the raster snap tools to speed data capture. Note: Raster snap can be used on binary raster data only. 5. Clean up the data with the validating and editing tools.

Satellite or Photogrammetric Images


1. Select the satellite or photogrammetric images. 2. Place the raster image on the screen, and use the registration tools to display the raster in the correct geographic position. 3. Select the vector feature class from a warehouse, or create new feature classes with their own unique database properties. 4. Digitize the features on-screen with the raster images as the background, using the raster snap tools to speed data capture.

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Note: Raster snap can be used on binary raster data only. 5. Clean up the data with the validating and editing tools.

CAD Data
Into GeoMedia Professional:
1. Create a CAD data-server schema to define the folder, maps, coordinate system, and features. 2. Connect to one or more CAD files. 3. Import the CAD features into a read/write warehouse (Access, Oracle, or Oracle Spatial Cartridge). 4. Edit and add the GIS features in GeoMedia Professional. OR Build area features from the CAD linework in GeoMedia Professional.

Into CAD Applications:


1. Return the new and edited features to the CAD applications. 2. Export the features as design (.dgn) files.

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Attribute Data in Databases


1. Prepare the attribute data in databases for features with a unique identifier, for example, a Parcel Identification Number (PIN).

2. Connect to the external data source (database, ASCII file, Excel spreadsheet), using database tools from Access, Oracle, and so forth.

2. In the external source: Display the attribute data using a database or Excel. Sort the rows by a common identifier, for example, a PIN. Copy the attribute values into a paste buffer. 3. In GeoMedia Professional: Display the feature table in a data window. Sort the data window rows by a common identifier. Paste the attribute values from the paste buffer into the data window to populate the features.

3. Execute a Query/Update in the database to load the columns based on a common identifier, for example, a PIN.

Legacy GIS Data


Data in legacy systems, like Intergraphs MGE and ESRIs ARC/INFO and ArcView, already represent the graphic location (the map) and information (the database attributes supporting the location) for each item on a map. So, for a red line on a map that represents a U.S. Highway, the Department of Transportation may have database attributes that tell the resurfacing, accident, or bridge-maintenance records. One problem with systems like these is that they do not talk well to each other. GeoMedia Professional provides a platform where you can easily display and manipulate data from all three legacy systems. For an enterprise that wants to migrate part or all of their current GIS to GeoMedia Professional, the workflow uses Intergraphs powerful dataserver technology combined with industry-standard databases. Operators can then add or edit data in the new environment.

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Migrating Legacy GIS Data into GeoMedia Professional:


1. Connect to the legacy data source (MGE, ArcView, or ARC/INFO). 2. Select the features to migrate. 3. Import the selected features into a read/write warehouse (Access, Oracle, or Oracle Spatial Cartridge). 4. Edit and add the GIS features in GeoMedia Professional. Note: You can import GIS data into any GeoMedia Professionalsupported format into an Access or an Oracle warehouse. You can import an entire feature class or only those features meeting the conditions that you define with an attribute filter. When you import features, the software copies the data from the source warehouse to a target read/write warehouse.

Using GeoMedia Professional to Maintain a Legacy GIS:


With its powerful data-capture abilities, enterprises appreciate GeoMedia Professionals open architecture. This means that they can maintain their investment in a legacy GIS system while capitalizing on the unique productivity tools in the software. 1. Connect to the legacy data source (MGE, ArcView, or ARC/INFO). 2. Select the features to migrate. 3. Import the selected features into a read/write warehouse (Access, Oracle, or Oracle Spatial Cartridge). 4. Edit and add the GIS features in GeoMedia Professional.

5. Export the GIS features as shapefiles. 6. Use ArcView or ARC/INFO tools to merge the new and edited features into the legacy GIS.

5. Use MGE to import warehouse data into an MGE project. 6. Use MGE tools to merge the new and edited features into the legacy GIS.

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Capturing Data for a Legacy GIS:


GeoMedia Professionals open architecture means that you can use its powerful data-capture abilities to populate a legacy system with new data. The use of industry-standard databases supports data-capture, wherever the data is ultimately going to be stored. This means that an enterprise can continue to use their legacy GIS system while capitalizing on the unique productivity tools in GeoMedia Professional. 1. Capture GIS features using GeoMedia Professional, and store them in Access or Oracle.

2. Export the GIS features as shapefiles. 3. Use ArcView or ARC/INFO tools to merge the new and edited features into the legacy GIS.

2. Use MGE to import warehouse data into an MGE project. 3. Use MGE tools to merge the new and edited features into the legacy GIS.

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Working with GeoWorkspaces


A GeoWorkspace is the container for all your work in this product. Within its confines are the warehouse connections to your data, map and data windows, toolbars, coordinate-system information, and queries you have built. The first thing you do is open an existing GeoWorkspace or create a new one. Once you are in a GeoWorkspace, you can change its coordinate system, establish warehouse connections, run queries, display data, and perform spatial analyses. The settings and connections you define in a GeoWorkspace are saved in a .gws file, although the actual data remains stored in warehouses. The software is delivered with an example GeoWorkspace, USSampleData.gws. Note: The U.S. Sample Data Set contains a shaded relief image of the United States, complete with hypsometric tints. The data is a 1000-meter pixel resolution RGB GeoTIFF file. Every GeoWorkspace is built on a template, and you can create your own templates or use an existing one. The software is delivered with a default GeoWorkspace template, normal.gwt, which contains an empty map window, an empty legend, and a predefined coordinate system. If you accidentally delete the normal.gwt file, you must reinstall the software to restore the template; so it is a good idea to back up this file. This is a representative workflow for creating and configuring a GeoWorkspace: 1. Select File > New GeoWorkspace. 2. Select a template. 3. If the coordinate system you want differs from the one in the template, define a different coordinate system for the GeoWorkspace. 4. Make warehouse connections; configure map and data windows (topics covered in other chapters). 5. Save the GeoWorkspace.

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Creating a GeoWorkspace
You create a GeoWorkspace using normal.gwt or another template in the \GeoMedia Professional\Templates\GeoWorkspace folder. The available templates are displayed when you select File > New GeoWorkspace from the GeoMedia Professional menu or Create new GeoWorkspace from the Welcome! dialog box. The software assigns a default title of GeoWorkspace1 to each new GeoWorkspace. When you save a GeoWorkspace, you assign it a filename, and the software automatically adds a .gws extension.

Opening a GeoWorkspace
You can have only one GeoWorkspace open at a time. When you open a second GeoWorkspace in the same software session, the software closes the open GeoWorkspace. If the GeoWorkspace you want to open is read-only, you are advised that it is read-only and asked if you still want to open it. If you open it, the software makes a copy of the read-only GeoWorkspace and opens it as read-only. If you then make changes to this internally copied GeoWorkspace and try to save it, you are advised that you have made changes and asked if you want to save the GeoWorkspace to a different file name because the original GeoWorkspace is read-only. The changes you make to a read-only GeoWorkspace are discarded when you close it unless you save it with a different file name. A list of the most recently used GeoWorkspaces appears at the bottom of the File menu. You can open a GeoWorkspace from this list by clicking the filename.

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Working with GeoWorkspaces

To open a GeoWorkspace:
1. Select File > Open GeoWorkspace.

2. Select the GeoWorkspace you want. 3. Click Open. Note: If a connection fails while attempting to open a GeoWorkspace, an error dialog box appears prompting you to verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct.

Delaying Data Loading


Depending on your data, opening an existing GeoWorkspace may take a long time. The amount of time varies with the number of feature classes being loaded into displays, the amount of data per feature class, and the processing time of any queries. To improve performance, you can delay the loading of data by selecting the Do not load data when opening GeoWorkspace check box on the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). If this check box is not selected, which is the default, the software loads all data when opening a GeoWorkspace.

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Upon setting this option, the map windows and data windows are empty when you open a GeoWorkspace. The legend entries in the map view are created but not in a loaded state; the data view shows a title but displays no records. Any existing queries are not re-executed. Also, any subsequent opening of an existing GeoWorkspace, in the same session or future sessions, does not load the data. After opening a GeoWorkspace, you can selectively load its data as follows: Legend Entries Select View > Update All to update all legend entries in all map windows and all data windows. Select one or more legend entries, display the right mouse menu (on the legend, not the map window), and select Load Data. This is enabled only when one or more of the selected legend entries is in an unloaded state.

Data Windows 2-4 Select View > Update All to update all legend entries in all map windows and all data windows. Display the right mouse menu, and select Load Data. This is enabled only when the data window is in an unloaded state.

Working with GeoWorkspaces

Saving, Closing, and Copying a GeoWorkspace


GeoWorkspaces are not saved automatically, but there are several ways to save or close one. When you save or copy a GeoWorkspace, you are saving all its settingsthe window configuration, the coordinate system, queries, legends, thematic displays, and warehouse connectionseven if you are connected to a read-only warehouse. The default location for GeoWorkspaces is specified during installation, usually the \GeoWorkspaces folder of your root folder. You can change the default folder through the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box. The default file extension for GeoWorkspaces is .gws. To save changes to a GeoWorkspace any time during a session, select File > Save GeoWorkspace. This saves but does not close the GeoWorkspace. To save a new GeoWorkspace, select File > Save GeoWorkspace As, and type a name for the GeoWorkspace in the File name field. Note: To make a GeoWorkspace read-only, you use standard Windows procedures for changing file attributes. To copy the open GeoWorkspace to a new file, select File > Save GeoWorkspace As, and give the GeoWorkspace a different name. This closes the open GeoWorkspace without saving changes to it since the session was opened or since the last save. The newly named GeoWorkspace becomes the open one. To close a GeoWorkspace without saving changes made since the last save or since the current session was opened, select File > Close GeoWorkspace.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

To change the location of your GeoWorkspace files:


The default storage location of your GeoWorkspace files is established when the software is installed, but you can change it from the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box.

E-Mailing a GeoWorkspace
When you select File > Send from the GeoMedia Professional menu, the electronic-mail application on your system starts and attaches a copy of the open GeoWorkspace. Because all warehouse connections are stored as folder paths, the person receiving the GeoWorkspace will be able to open the GeoWorkspace, reestablish all original warehouse connections, and view the data as it appeared when you e-mailed the GeoWorkspace. 1. Select File > Send. 2. Fill in the To and Subject fields as you would for any e-mail message. 3. Send the message.

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Creating a GeoWorkspace Template


The default location for GeoWorkspace templates is \Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Templates\GeoWorkspaces. You can specify a different folder through Tools > Options > File Locations.

To create a GeoWorkspace template:


1. Select File > New GeoWorkspace. 2. On the New dialog box, select the Template option. 3. Select the normal.gwt template, and click New. 4. Define the GeoWorkspace coordinate system (View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System). 5. Make the warehouse connections you want for this template (Warehouse > New Connection). 6. Turn on and positionor turn offthe legend, north arrow, and scale bar (View menu). 7. Adjust the size and locations of the map and data windows. 8. In the map window, display the features and background images you want. 9. Build the queries you want saved with the template. 10. Select File > Save GeoWorkspace As. Note: If you have named an alternate file location for GeoWorkspace templates, that location appears in the Save in field of the Save GeoWorkspace As dialog box. Then if you want to store the new template in the main templates folder, click the dropdown arrow and browse to the \Program Files \GeoMedia Professional\Templates\GeoWorkspaces folder. 11. Verify that GeoWorkspace Template appears in the Save as type field. 12. Type a name for the template in the File name text box. The file extension must be .gwt. 13. Click Save.

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2-8

Working with Coordinate Systems


This product displays all dataeven data from different sourcesusing the coordinate system defined for the GeoWorkspace. Features that are stored in warehouses with different coordinate systems are transformed on the fly into the GeoWorkspace coordinate system when you display them in the map window.
See "Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified" in this chapter.

IMPORTANT: To ensure the accurate display of all ARC/INFO, Arc/View, and MapInfo data and of raster images, CAD, or FRAMME data that does not otherwise specify a coordinate system, you must define a coordinate-system file that describes the coordinate system of this data. A coordinate system provides the mathematical basis for relating the features in your study area to their real-world positions. The software supports two types of coordinate systems: A geographic coordinate system (the default) expresses coordinates as longitude, latitude, where longitude is the angular distance from a prime meridian, and latitude is the angular distance from the equator. A projected coordinate system expresses coordinates as X,Y, where X normally points east on the plane of the map, and Y points north at the point chosen for the origin of the map. The X coordinate is called easting, and the Y coordinate is called northing.

Because the shape of the earth's surface varies from one geographic area to another, the software interprets coordinates with reference to a network of geodetic control points called the geodetic datum. The geodetic datum in turn defines the reference ellipsoid, which is the model used to represent the shape of the earths surface. If you change the coordinate system after displaying data, the data is transformed to the new coordinate system, and the display is updated. Changing the coordinate system in the GeoWorkspace does not affect the data in the warehouse, only data in the map window. When you add a feature class to a GeoWorkspace, the software checks the datums in the warehouse and in the GeoWorkspace for compatibility. If the datums are different, the software automatically builds the appropriate datum transformation for these datums.

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Note: To customize the datum transformation, edit the datumtransformation-building algorithm in the file \Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Program\cssruntm\cfg\autodt.ini. The default coordinate system in the software contains the following settings: Base storage typeGeographic Horizontal resolution1 degree Projection algorithmCylindrical Equirectangular Projection parametersCentered at the equator and the prime meridian Geodetic datum and ellipsoidWGS84 Paper space1:50,000

You can change coordinate-system settings in an individual GeoWorkspace or in an empty read/write warehouse. Or you can create a new template with different settings so that all GeoWorkspaces or warehouses you create with the new template will have the different settings. For projected coordinate systems, you can define a projection algorithm and its specific projection parameters or accept the default of Cylindrical Equirectangular centered at the equator and the prime meridian. For both projected and geographic coordinate systems, you can define the horizontal resolution and storage-center parameters; or you can accept the defaults. You can review but cannot change ellipsoid parameters unless you select user-defined (non-standard) datum and ellipsoid types. Then you can type an equatorial radius value and any other parameter and let the software calculate the remaining values. Finally, coordinate systems are heavily data dependant; therefore, you should not define them arbitrarily. The projection you use in the definition should be the one that best suits the data being displayed.

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Horizontal Resolution
For the coordinate system of a data source, the horizontal resolution (set on the Advanced Storage Parameters dialog box opened from the Define Coordinate System File dialog box) defines what the distance between sequential integer coordinate values is. For example, if the resolution is 0.001 ft., and then the x coordinate of a point changes from 1 to 2, the distance in the x direction of the change is 0.001 ft. This is very important for data sources that store coordinates as integers (MGE, MGDM, MGSM, and CAD with .dgn files) because for these data types, you cannot go between 1 and 2. Thus, the smallest distance that will resolve two values as being separate is 0.001 ft., which leads to the term resolution.

In the context of IGDS/MGE, this concept was presented with the term UOR (Unit of Resolution), whereas GeoMedia Professional uses storage coordinates. Thus, when MGE tells you that you have 1000 UORs per ft., it is telling you exactly the same thing that GeoMedia Professional is telling you when it says you have a horizontal resolution of 0.001 ft. (1 ft./1000 UORs). GeoMedia Professional is just looking at the distance between two adjoining UORs, whereas MGE/MCSO presents the same concept as "how many UORs fill a common distance (such as 1 ft.)". The GeoMedia Professional way of presentation mimics common language, such as, "My data is at cm. resolution" (meaning the distance between UORs is 1 cm., whereas MGE would state this as "100 UORs per m." or "1 UOR per cm."). For CAD and MGE users, the horizontal resolution is expressing the very real limitations of the data. For example, you cannot draw a line and measure between two UORs. 3-3

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For other data sources that use floating point, these limitations do not exist (within reason). Much ArcInfo and MapInfo data is found at a resolution of 1 meter (or for geographic data, 1 degree). That just means that the data source chose to store the coordinates in those units. It is not necessary for floating point data to be stored as hundredths of a foot, for example, which would be wasted calculation; they just store it as feet (or meters, or whateverwhole units, usually). Likewise, data in GeoMedia Professional's own geometry cache is kept as floating point. Thus, it is normally not necessary to adjust the resolution definition for the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. This is especially true due to the ability to match GeoWorkspace and warehouse coordinate systems through the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). You can also set the storage center on the Advanced Storage Parameters dialog box. This is another legacy from integer storage. Integer storage mechanisms such as MGE and CAD .dgn files can only store so many UORs. In some cases, users need to offset the range of UORs that is used (some users wanted all coordinates to be positive, for example). The MicroStation global origin offset would accomplish that. This appears in GeoMedia Professional as the storage center. A normal data set has a center of (0,0), which means no shifting is defined.

Defining a Coordinate System for a GeoWorkspace


You can define the following coordinate-system properties in a GeoWorkspace:
See the "Coordinate System Information" appendix for the settings available in the software.

Base storage type (geographic or projection) Horizontal resolution Storage center Projection algorithm and parameters Horizontal geodetic datum Reference ellipsoid and parameters

To define a GeoWorkspace coordinate system:


1. Select View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System. 2. On the Storage Space tab of the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box, select the Geographic or Projection base storage type.

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Working with Coordinate Systems

3. Optional: To change the horizontal resolution and storage center, click Advanced Parameters. Note: Changing the base storage type from Projection to Geographic will reset the horizontal resolution to 1 degree. Changing the base storage type from Geographic to Projection will reset the horizontal resolution to 1 meter. Either change will reset the storage center to (0,0). 4. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm dropdown list. To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the projection algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only. 5. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic datum drop-down list. 6. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well. 7. On the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box, click OK.

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Defining a Coordinate System for an Access Warehouse


You can define the following coordinate-system properties in an empty read/write Access warehouse:
For information about warehouses and about changing the coordinate system of a new Access warehouse template, see the Working with Warehouses chapter.

Base storage type (geographic or projection) Horizontal resolution Storage center Projection algorithm and parameters Horizontal geodetic datum Reference ellipsoid and parameters

Note: You can view but cannot change the coordinate system for a warehouse in which feature classes already exist. To change the coordinate system for a warehouse in which feature classes do exist, you must create a new read/write Access warehouse, change the coordinate system, import the data into the new warehouse, and then delete the old warehouse. The import operation transforms the geometry to match the new coordinate-system definition.

To define a coordinate system for an Access warehouse:


1. Create or connect to an empty read/write Access warehouse. 2. Select Warehouse > Warehouse Coordinate System. 3. On the Select Connection dialog box, select the Access connection for which you want to define a warehouse coordinate system.

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Working with Coordinate Systems

4. On the Storage Space tab of the Warehouse Coordinate System dialog box, select the Geographic or Projection base storage type. 5. Optional: To change the horizontal resolution and storage center, click Advanced Parameters. Note: Changing the base storage type from Projection to Geographic will reset the horizontal resolution to 1 degree. Changing the base storage type from Projection to Geographic will reset the horizontal resolution to 1 meter. Either change will reset the storage center to (0,0). 6. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm dropdown list. To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the projection algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only. 7. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic datum drop-down list. 8. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well. 9. On the Warehouse Coordinate System dialog box, click OK.

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Matching GeoWorkspace and Warehouse Coordinate Systems


The General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) provides two options to match the GeoWorkspace and warehouse coordinate systems. These options improve performance when loading and displaying data by not imposing unnecessary coordinate-system transformations. Both options are selected by default.

The When making first connection option allows you to match the two coordinate systems by copying the coordinate-system definition of the first warehouse connection made for the GeoWorkspace with the New Connection command to the current GeoWorkspace coordinate system. If you do not select this option, New Connection has no effect on the definition of the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. You can verify the new coordinate-system definition through View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System. The When creating a new warehouse option allows you to match the two coordinate systems by copying the coordinate-system definition of the current GeoWorkspace to a new Access warehouse when it is created. If you do not select this option, active template defines the coordinate system of the new warehouse. 3-8

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The optimum workflow in many situations is to first use New Connection to connect to your data, thus setting the GeoWorkspace coordinate system, and then to use New Warehouse to create any appropriate new Access warehouse(s). This sequence ensures that the new Access warehouse shares the same coordinate-system definition with the data source and the GeoWorkspace. Note: The When creating a new warehouse option does not apply to the Oracle Object Model. When using the Oracle Object Model, you need to verify that the coordinate system is set to what you want it to be; it is not automatically set by the software. Vicinity Connections
New Connection overlooks any vicinity connection when attempting to

determine if it should match the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace to that of the newly connected warehouse. If the new connection is the only non-vicinity connection available, this command copies the coordinate system to the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Related Effects The software automatically updates the various aspects of the system that are affected by copying the coordinate-system definition of the first nonvicinity connection to the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Any transformation pathways to coordinate systems of connections that were previously created and then deleted will be updated. Any spatial filters that exist (either from the GeoWorkspace template or from running Define Spatial Filter By Fence or Define Spatial Filter By Area) will be transformed into the new GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Coordinatesystem information will be updated on all map views, resulting in recalculation of display scale. If the north arrow and scale bar are displayed, they will be refreshed to account for the new coordinate system and display scale. Copying the GeoWorkspace Coordinate-System Definition onto the Coordinate System of a New (Access) Warehouse If you select the matching options, the software copies the definition of the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace new warehouse. This definition overwrites the first row in the GCoordSystem table of the database. If no rows exist in the table, the software creates a new row. This behavior is consistent with the behavior of the Warehouse Coordinate System command, which edits the first row of the GCoordSystem table and creates the row if it does not already exist. 3-9

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You can actually use the New Warehouse command in two slightly different ways to create 1) a new Access warehouse (.mdb the default), or 2) a new Access warehouse template (.mdt). Only when creating a new warehouse (.mdb) does the command establish a connection to the new warehouse. Because an open connection is required to update or to add a row to the GCoordSystem table of the warehouse, it is only when a new warehouse (not warehouse template) is created (and the preference is set) that the New Warehouse command copies the GeoWorkspace coordinate system to the warehouse. The impacts of copying the GeoWorkspace coordinate-system definition onto the coordinate system of a new (Access) warehouse affect the optimum workflow. The optimum workflow in many situations is to first use New Connection to connect to your data source, thus setting the GeoWorkspace coordinate system, and then to use New Warehouse to create any new warehouse(s). This ordering ensures that the new warehouse shares the same coordinate-system definition with the data source and GeoWorkspace.

Getting Coordinate Readouts


To see the coordinates of any location in the map window, turn on the Precision Coordinates display (View > Precision Coordinates).

This control displays the precision coordinates for the current cursor position in the map window. The current coordinate format drop-down list determines if the displayed coordinates are geographic or projected. The read-only coordinate display field displays the coordinate readout for the current cursor position. The precision of the coordinate readout is defined using the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box. You have the option to update coordinates with a mouse move (the default) or with a click.

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Setting Units and Formats


The Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) allows you to set measurement options for all commands that involve measuring, for example, Measure Distance and Analyze Geometry. This tab also allows you to control the way coordinate readout information appears on the Precision Coordinates dockable control.

See the Conversion Tables appendix for multiplication factors for converting from/to the International System of Units (metric) to/from the United States Customary System.

These are the options you can set on the Units and Formats tab:
Type specifies the type of coordinates for which to set the default unit

and precision. Each unit type used by the software is listed. When the software outputs values of the specified unit type, those values by default are displayed using the units and precision specified here. Some commands allow you to override these defaults. Unit sets the linear, areal, or angular unit of measure. The choices vary with the unit type.
Precision defines the number of decimal places of precision in the

coordinate readout applicable commands. A separate precision may be specified for each unit type.
Geographic coordinate order sets the order in which geographic

latitude and longitude coordinate readouts are displayed. 3-11

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Geographic quadrant specifies for geographic coordinates which

hemispheres are defined as positive and which as negative and whether a character designator should be included.
Projection quadrant determines how the ordering of values in

projection coordinates are interpreted. For example, +East, +North indicates that the first coordinate of the pair is positive along the east axis, and the second coordinate is positive along the north axis (like easting,northing in a Cartesian system). Similarly, +East,+South indicates that the first coordinate is positive along the east axis, while the second is positive along the south axis. So, instead of being up, a positive second value would be down. You must have the Precision Coordinates dockable control displayed to see a change in this setting.
Measurement interpretation specifies how Earth curvature is

accounted for in measurements and coordinate calculations, either planar or spheroidal.


True (spheroidal) specifies that measurements are taken on the

surface of the ellipsoid by taking the curvature of the Earth into account. These measurements do not contain any projection distortions.
Projected (planar) specifies that measurements are taken on the

projection plane without taking the curvature of the Earth into account. These measurements do contain projection distortions. This is the default setting.
Azimuth settings specify the direction and starting point when setting and displaying azimuths. An azimuth is a way of specifying an angle by measuring either clockwise or counterclockwise from 0 to 360 degrees. These options apply to the distance and azimuth readouts and keyins, and to some coordinate system projection parameters.

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Configuring for Datum Transformations


See the Coordinate System Information appendix for a list of datum-transformation models the software supports.

To convert data between two coordinate systems that are based on different horizontal geodetic datums, you need a datum transformation. The software uses the autodt.ini file to generate datum transformations during the building of coordinate-system transformation paths, such as the path between the GeoWorkspace coordinate system and a warehouse coordinate system. The autodt.ini file is in the \Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Program\cssruntm\cfg folder. When a datum transformation is needed, the software searches this file from top to bottom. The first entry whose Forward Input and Forward Output datums match the datum pair is used to build the datum transformation. Where more than one such entry exists, only the first will be used. You can cause a different model or definition to be used by changing the order of the entries in the autodt.ini file. You can also define new entries for the Standard Molodensky, Bursa-Wolf, Second Degree Conformal Polynomial, and Second Degree (General) Polynomial models, if you have access to the parameters for these models that suit your needs. The Second Degree Conformal Polynomial model may be used to achieve a Helmert transformation. All datum transformation models can transform in both the forward and inverse directions. For example, an entry that begins "csgdNAD27,csgdNAD83, . . ." will match a transformation from NAD83 to NAD27 as well as a transformation from NAD27 to NAD83. Details of the syntax for model-specific parameters are included as comments in the autodt.ini file. The general syntax for all entries in this file is as follows: ForwardInputDatum,ForwardOutputDatum,DatumTransMod elType[,model-specific-parameters...] Fields are separated by a comma (,). A semicolon (;) in the first column denotes a comment line. Datums are defined using the ASCII mnemonics from the CSGeodeticDatumConstants enumeration. Datum-transformation-model types are defined using the ASCII mnemonics from the CSDatumTransformationModelConstants enumeration.

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This file is never localized for different languages, rather, it is always interpreted in English (it uses the comma for the field separator and the dot for the decimal character). No thousands grouping character is used. Floating point values are never written in scientific notation.

When you make changes to the autodt.ini file, they do not affect any GeoMedia or GeoMedia object-based process that is currently running. This is because the coordinate transformation software only reads the file once at start-up time; so if the file is altered afterwards, the process does not know about the alteration until the next time the process is run. In addition, when you make changes to the autodt.ini file, they do not affect transformations that have already been persisted in a GeoMedia GeoWorkspace. This is because the coordinate transformation software only uses the autodt.ini file to build new datum transformations. If, for example, you make a connection and the software at that time uses the autodt.ini file to include a datum transformation and you then save the GeoWorkspace, any subsequent change you make to the autodt.ini file does not affect that saved GeoWorkspace. This is because the datum transformation has already been created and saved within the GeoWorkspace.

Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified


To be displayed accurately in a GeoWorkspace, all data must specify a coordinate system. MGE, MGDM, and MGSM data already specify coordinate systems (type-56 element), but all ARC/INFO, Arc/View, and MapInfo data and some FRAMME, CAD, and raster data do not. To accommodate data with no specified coordinate system, you first define a coordinate-system file (.csf) outside of the software.

To define a coordinate-system file:


1. From the Windows Start menu, select Programs > GeoMedia Professional > Define Coordinate System File. 2. On the Storage Space tab of the Define Coordinate System File dialog box, select the base storage typeGeographic or Projectionof the coordinate-system file. 3. Optional: To change the horizontal resolution and storage center, click Advanced Parameters. 3-14

Working with Coordinate Systems

Note: Changing the base storage type from Projection to Geographic will rest the horizontal resolution to 1 degree. Changing the base storage type from Geographic to Projection will reset the horizontal resolution to 1 meter. Either change will reset the storage center to (0,0). 4. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm dropdown list. 5. Optional: To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the projection algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only. 6. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic datum drop-down list. 7. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well. 8. 9. On the Define Coordinate System File dialog box, click OK. On the Save Coordinate System File As dialog box, select the drive and folder where you want to save the coordinate-system file. If you do not select a path, the coordinate-system file will be saved in the root folder of your active drive. Select one of the following locations: The folder containing the specific warehouse for which the coordinate-system file defines coordinate data. This is the preferred location. The folder where the warehouses are stored. The default is <drive:>\Warehouses. It may be necessary to use this location, for example, when the actual warehouse data is located on readonly media. For FRAMME data, you can specify the folder containing the gateway file fsa.gtw or the folder named in the gralocs.txt file, which is located on the FRAMME graphics server. The default is \win32app\ingr\frs\cfg.

10. In the File name text box, type the name that you want to give to the coordinate-system file.

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11. Verify that the Save as type is set to Coordinate System File (*.csf). 12. Click Save.

To display ARC/INFO data:


See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

You identify the coordinate-system file for the ARC/INFO data by creating a <workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the ARC/INFO workspace data folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place the <workspace>.ini file in the ARC/INFO workspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the softwares \Warehouses folder specified during installation.

To display ArcView data:


See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

You identify the coordinate-system file for the ArcView data by creating a <workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the ArcView workspace data folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place the <workspace>.ini file in the ArcView workspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the softwares \Warehouses folder specified during installation ($/GeoMedia Professional/bin is the one specified for the .ini file).

To display CAD-server data:


For CAD-server data, perform the following: Specify the coordinate-system file(s) in the CAD schema definition (.csd) file. While creating the .csd file on the Files tab of the CAD Server Definition dialog box, select all the coordinate-system files to be used, and specify the coordinate-system file on the Coordinate Systems tab. For the IGDS Scanner, you can use either a .dgn file (with a type-56 element) or a .csf file (created by Define Coordinate System File) to specify the coordinate-system information. For the AutoCAD Scanner, you can use only a .csf file (created by Define Coordinate System File) to specify the coordinate-system information.

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To display FRAMME data:


For FRAMME data, there are two ways to get spatially accurate displays: Method 1
See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix. See MGE Basic Nucleus or MGE Projection Manager documentation for information about type56 elements.

Under the [CoordinateSystem] keyword of the FRAMME .ini file, specify a design file (.dgn) that contains a type-56 element. The syntax is FILE=<filename>. For example, FILE=myfile.dgn. If the design file you specify does not contain a type-56 element, the working units and global origin defined in the type-9 element will be used to create a coordinate system. If you do not specify a design file, the wrk_seed.dgn file on theFRAMME server will be used to create a coordinate system. Method 2 Define a coordinate-system file (.csf) that contains the coordinate-system parameters of the FRAMME data. Then identify the coordinate-system file under the [CoordinateSystem] keyword in the FRAMME .ini file as follows: FILE=<filename>. For example, FILE=myfile.csf.

To display MapInfo data:


See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

You identify the coordinate-system file for the MapInfo data by creating a <workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the MapInfo workspace folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place the <workspace>.ini file in the MapInfo workspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the softwares \Warehouses folder specified during installation. If there is no .ini file, the data server will look for a .csf file in the MapInfo workspace folder that bears the same name as the MapInfo table and use that .csf file for the corresponding GeoMedia Professional feature class. This way, you need one .csf file for one feature class in the workspace folder. You cannot use a single .csf file for the whole folder unless you specify it in the .ini file.

To display raster images:


See Inserting Images into Warehouses in the Working with Warehouses chapter and the Raster Information appendix.

For Intergraph-format raster images that are inserted using the by-header placement mode or other raster formats that have an associated ESRI word file, you define a coordinate-system file and then insert the image into a read/write warehouse.

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To edit a coordinate-system file:


To edit an existing .csf file, double click the file name. This opens the Define Coordinate System File dialog box. Make changes to the file, and click OK.

Creating Coordinate-System Files from Design Files


You can easily create a coordinate-system file (.csf) from an IGDS design file (.dgn) with Define Coordinate System File. This utility can read a .dgn file if you: 1) drag the .dgn file from Explorer onto the Define Coordinate System File icon, or 2) rename the file from a .dgn extension to a .csf extension and then double click to open the file in Define Coordinate System File. Note that Define Coordinate System File can only read .dgn files, not write to them. The only format this utility can write to is the .csf (OLE compound files structured-storage) format. If you want to write coordinate-system information into a type-56 element of a design file, you need to use MGE.
Define Coordinate System File reads .dgn files with or without a type-56

element. Without a type-56 element, it reads only the information on working units (resolution) and global origin (storage center) from the type-9 element. It then sets the projection to Rectangular Grid, which means no algorithm is defined to get from Projection to Geographic coordinates. With a valid type-56 element, in addition to reading the type9 element, this utility reads projection and datum information from the type-56 element. A potential workflow to use this capability would be with CAD server when you have .dgn data, and 1) the .dgn data does not contain a type-56 element with projection information, and 2) the information of the .dgn about working units (resolution) and global origin (storage center) is valid. In this case, if you know the projection information, but for example were digitizing with vanilla MicroStation, you may want to use Define Coordinate System File to read the working units and global origin information of the .dgn. You would then use it to define the projection and datum, and save the information out to a .csf file.

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See the Creating Data Sever .INI Files appendix for information on data server .ini files.

You display feature geometries and attribute data in a GeoWorkspace through connections to warehouses where the data are stored. Each warehouse connection uses a data server to convert the data into a format that the software can display. This version of the software lets you connect to data created in the following formats: Access ARC/INFO ArcView shapefile CAD AutoCAD MicroStation/IGDS

FRAMME MapInfo Modular GIS Environment (MGE) MGE Data Manager (MGDM) MGE Segment Manager (MGSM) ODBC Tabular Oracle Relational Model Oracle Object Model

Note: A set of Database Utilities is delivered with GeoMedia Professional for managing and updating Access, Oracle 8i Object, and MS SQL Server databases. You can access these utilities from Start > Programs > GeoMedia Professional > Database Utilities. The Database Utilities Online Help provides complete information on using these utilities.
See the Working with Map Windows and Working with Data Windows chapters for more information.

All warehouse types are read-only, except for Access and Oracle. This protects the integrity of your source data. So, if you want only to display data in the software from one or more warehouses, you simply create one or more warehouse connections and then use map windows and data windows to display the data. 4-1

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This is a representative workflow for accessing the warehouse data you want to display: 1. Open a new GeoWorkspace. 2. Connect to the warehouse containing the vicinity data for your area of interest. 3. Use Tools > Options to designate the vicinity connection. 4. Display the vicinity data. 5. Define the spatial filter for your area of interest using the vicinity map. 6. Connect to other warehouse(s), selecting the default spatial filter. 7. Display the feature data. If you want write access to the data in the softwareto add new features or change attributes of existing ones, for exampleyou create a new Access warehouse and import data into it. Whether you are displaying data or writing it, your GeoWorkspace can contain data from many different sources, even those whose native data types are incompatible. This is a representative workflow for importing data into a read/write warehouse: 1. Follow the steps in the preceding workflow to identify the area for which data is to be imported. 2. Optional: Define a coordinate system for the empty warehouse. (The GeoWorkspace defaults to the coordinate system from the first feature added to the legend.) 3. Import feature classes from the connected warehouses into your read/write Access warehouse.

Creating a Read/Write Access Warehouse


See the Working with Features chapter.

A read/write Access warehouse can contain feature class definitions, features, raster images, and a coordinate system. Like a GeoWorkspace, a read/write Access warehouse is built on a template, and you can create your own template(s) or use an existing one. The software is delivered with a default Access warehouse template, normal.mdt.

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If you accidentally delete the normal.mdt file, you may have to reinstall the software to restore the template. If you have Microsoft Access, you can create a blank .mdb file to use as your template. Be sure and follow the instructions for defining a warehouse coordinate system, since this default database will not have one. Better still, make a backup copy of the template.

To create a read/write warehouse:


1. Select Warehouse > New Warehouse. 2. On the New dialog box, select a template. The default is normal.mdt. 3. Verify that Document is selected. 4. Click New. 5. On the New Warehouse dialog box in the Save in field, select a storage location. The default is <drive:>\warehouses. Note: The default storage location is established when the software is installed, but you can change it in the product from the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). 6. In the File name field, type a unique file name. 7. Leave Access as the file type. 8. Click Save.

Defining a Coordinate System for a Warehouse


Normally, you define a warehouse coordinate system only for an empty read/write Access warehouse that you just created. You can view but cannot change the coordinate system in a warehouse in which feature classes already exist, but you can accomplish a change to the coordinate system with the following procedure:
See Defining a Coordinate System for an Access Warehouse in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

1. Create a new read/write Access warehouse. 2. Change the coordinate system. 3. Import the data into the new warehouse. 4. Delete the old warehouse.

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Preparing to Connect
See the Troubleshooting Connection Problems appendix.

As the universal geographic client, the software lets you combine data from many sources and in different formats into one spatially accurate environment. To ensure accuracy, you must set up your data servers and provide the software with certain information about the data you want to view. Each data type requires different information; the following sections cover special procedures or information required for each.

Connecting to an Access Warehouse


To connect to an Access database, you must identify or select an Access GeoMedia Professional Database file (.mdb).

Connecting to an ARC/INFO Warehouse


See Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter, and see the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

To connect to an ARC/INFO warehouse, you must identify or select an ARC/INFO workspace folder. Before trying to connect, check the following: ARC/INFO data must be in native format (not exported). Native format requires a workspace defined as a folder that contains subfolders corresponding to coverages and an \INFO folder that contains an ARCDR9 or ARC.DIR file. A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the ARC/INFO data must be created with Define Coordinate System File. The coordinate-system file for the ARC/INFO data must be identified in a <Arc/Infoworkspace folder name>.ini file, which should be stored in the ARC/INFO workspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the softwares \Warehouses folder. For ease of maintenance, you should store the .csf and .ini files along with the data in the ARC/INFO workspace folder as the primary location. When this is not possible (due to read-only media, for example), you should store these files in the default warehouse location, and the software will find them there.

The software does not support the PC version of ARC/INFO.

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Connecting to an ArcView Warehouse


See Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter, and see the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

To connect to an ArcView warehouse, you must identify or select an ArcView Shape Files folder. Before trying to connect, check the following: For maintenance ease, you should sore the .csf and .ini files along with the data in the ArcView Shape Files folder as the primary location. When this is not possible (due to read-only media, for example), you should store these files in the default warehouse location, and the software will find them there. A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the ArcView data must be created with Define Coordinate System File. The coordinate-system file for the ArcView data should be identified in a <workspace name>.ini file, which should be stored in the Arc View Shape Files folder, or if that is not possible, in the \Warehouses folder of the software. ArcView data must be in native format (not exported). Native format requires a workspace defined as a folder that contains themes with each theme having its individual .dbf, .shp, and .shx files. If an <ArcView Shape Files folder>.ini file is not found, the server looks for a <theme name>.csf file in the workspace folder.

Connecting to a CAD Warehouse


To connect to a CAD warehouse, you must identify or select a CAD Server Schema file. Before trying to connect, check the following:
See Installing GeoMedia Professional and Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

For AutoCAD data, a coordinate-system file (.csf) must have been created with Define Coordinate System File. For IGDS data only, an ODBC data source must have been created if there are any database attribute linkages that have to be served. A CAD schema definition file (.csd) must have been defined with Define CAD Server Schema File. The CAD data server allows you to use MicroStation design files (with or without attribute linkages) or AutoCAD files (.dwg/.dxf without database attribute linkages) as a GeoMedia Professional data source.

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You can specify a .ini file in the .csd file that allows for persistent caching. Persistent caching is done in CAD data server to improve server performance. The .ini file format is as follows: CACHE FILE: <cache file name with .csc extension, with/ without its path> CACHE UPTODATE: < TRUE|FALSE |T| F > [optional] LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD: < a reasonable value, based on the size of the .dxf, .dgn files > [optional] The keywords and their values are not case sensitive. Though the Cache UPTODATE flag is optional, it is a good idea to have it as TRUE if there are not changes in the map files (.dxf/ .dwg/.dgn). Also, set it to FALSE if there are changes to the map files, which helps improve server performance. Similarly, if the lock timeout threshold value is not specified, the default value is 60 seconds. If the map file involved is too big, a higher value than 60 is advised for the display.

This is a representative workflow for setting up a CAD data server: 1. Outside of GeoMedia Professional, open Define CAD Server Schema File. 2. Create or select an existing CAD server schema. 3. Identify the map files and coordinate-system files you want the CAD server to use. 4. Link each map file to a coordinate-system file. 5. Link the CAD graphics to database attributes. This tells the CAD server how to recognize and process each feature. (IGDS only) 6. Specify which attribute the CAD server is to use to for the primary unique key for all graphics-only features and for all database-linked features. 7. Define feature classes. 8. Specify which scanners to use and how to connect to the data. 9. Exit Define CAD Server Schema File.

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To create a CAD server schema:


IMPORTANT: Using CAD with database attributes is for MicroStation only. To set up a CAD server, you must know: The structure of your project. The conventions used for digitizing and assigning attributes to features in your project. How features are defined in your project. Whether graphics in the project have attributes.

1. From the Windows Start menu, select Programs > GeoMedia Professional > Define CAD Server Schema File.

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2. To create a new CAD server schema, select MicroStation or AutoCad on the CAD Server Schema dialog box. Note: The remainder of this workflow reflects a MicroStation example. 3. Click OK.

To identify the files you want the CAD server to use:


1. In the Folders field on the Files tab of the CAD Server Definition dialog box, create a list of folders that contain the maps and coordinate-system or design files you want. To add a folder, click New, and select the folder containing the map and coordinate-system files you want to use.

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To change a folder, click Change, and select the folder you want to use instead of the original. To remove a folder from the list, select the folder name and click
Remove.

2. Select the folder that contains the maps you want. A list of files in the folder appears in the Available maps box. 3. From the Available maps list, select the maps you want. To select all maps, click >>. To select individual maps, select one or more map names (using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple maps), and click >. To remove individual maps from the Selected maps list, select one or more map names (using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple maps), and click <. To remove all maps from the Selected maps list, click <<.

A list of coordinate-system files and design files in the folder appears in the Available coordinate system files box. 4. If it differs from the folder containing your maps, select the folder that contains the coordinate-system files you want. 5. Select the coordinate-system file you want from the Available coordinate system files list. If all of your map files use the same coordinate system, select one coordinate-system file. If your maps have different coordinate systems, select all the coordinate-system files necessary.

IMPORTANT: If you use a design file to specify the coordinate system, verify that it contains a valid type-56 element. You can do this by using Define Coordinate System File to open the design file. A file that does not contain a valid type-56 element is interpreted as having the Rectangular Grid projection algorithm and a user-defined datum and ellipsoid, with ellipsoid parameters equivalent to the WGS84 ellipsoid.

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To link each map file to a coordinate-system file:


1. Click the Coordinate Systems tab.

2. If all of your map files use the same coordinate system, select All maps are in the same coordinate system, and select the name of the coordinate-system file from the drop-down list. 3. If some map files use a different coordinate system, select Maps are in different coordinate systems, and select the name of the coordinate-system file for each map by clicking each row and selecting a file from the drop-down list in the Coordinate system file field.

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To link the CAD graphics to database attributes:


1. Click the Feature Definition tab.

2. Click Database Linkage Options.

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3. In the Graphic to database table linkages section, check the graphic attribute(s) you want to define the graphic-to-database-table linkages. EntityNumber is the default. 4. In the Graphic to database row linkages section, check the graphic attribute(s) you want to define the graphic-to-database-row linkages. OccurrenceNumber is the default. 5. For each checked attribute, change the database scanner attribute name if it differs from the column name in your database. For example, the OccurrenceNumber row in your database is associated with MSLINK, thus you change the database scanner attribute name from OccurrenceNumber to MSLINK. 6. On the Database Linkage Options dialog box, click Close.

To identify primary unique keys:


1. On the Feature Definition tab of the CAD Server Definition dialog box, click Primary Unique Keys.

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2. On the Primary Unique Keys dialog box, check the attribute in the Primary unique keys for all graphic only features list that you want to use as the primary unique key for all graphics-only features. the software supports only one primary unique key for graphic-only feature classes. 3. Check the attribute in the Primary unique keys for all database linked features field that you want to use as the primary unique key for all database-linked features. The software supports only one primary unique key for database-linked feature classes. 4. Click Close.

To define feature classes:


1. In the Feature classes box of the Feature Definition tab, click New to invoke the Feature Definition Wizard.

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2. Type a unique name for the feature class. 3. From the drop-down list, select the file that defines the coordinate system for the feature class. The listed coordinate-system files are those you selected on the Files tab. For the best performance, use the same coordinate system as that used to store the input data. If the input data is stored in multiple coordinate systems, select the coordinate-system file that matches most of the input data. 4. If the feature has database linkages that you want to expose to the software, check This feature has database linkages? If the feature is linked to a database table, all the attributes from that table will be exposed. 5. Click Next.

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6. Select the attributes you want in the new feature class. Choose at least one spatial or graphic attribute. Spatial attributes are also called the GDO geometry. Graphic attributes are used for visual reference but not for spatial operations. Note: The graphic attribute choices do not appear in the Available attributes list by default. You must swap in the file that contains the attribute list to display the graphic attribute choices. Specify the geometry type for the feature class by selecting the corresponding geometry attribute:

For point features, select SpatialPoint or GraphicPoint. For linear features, select SpatialLine if it is appropriate to use the feature for spatial operations, or select GraphicLine if the feature is just for visual reference. For area features, select SpatialArea or GraphicArea. For compound features, select SpatialAny or GraphicAny. For text features, select GraphicText.

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The other available attributes are the standard IGDS element/AutoCAD entity properties and a unique ID that the CAD server automatically generates for each feature. If you pick multiple geometry types, the feature class will have multiple geometry columns, and you must select one geometry type as the primary geometry. Graphic elements that do not conform to the feature-class geometry type will have NULL values in the geometry column. For example, if you chose SpatialLine as the geometry type and also specified that the feature is defined as all graphics (that is, with the geometry type SpatialAny) on level 1, then the point, text, and area geometries that are found on level 1 will have NULL as the value in the geometry column.

7. Check the attribute you want as the primary geometry in the Primary geometry list. Attributes in the Primary geometry list are the spatial and graphic attributes you selected in the previous step. SpatialPoint and GraphicPoint geometry contain the origin point for text and text node elements. If you want to use a text feature for spatial operations, select both SpatialPoint and GraphicText attributes, and then select SpatialPoint as the primary geometry. 8. Click Next.

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9. Select the attributes you want to determine whether a graphic element is a member of the feature class. 10. Click Next.

11. Type values for each of the attributes selected in the previous step. These values define the criteria that determine if a graphic element is a member of the feature class. You can type individual values or a range of values. For attributes of type Text, enter the string in single quotes. For attributes of type Boolean, enter either 1 or 0 for TRUE and FALSE, respectively. For example, if all road features reside on level 1, you would type 1 in the Value field. If road features reside on levels 1 through 5, you could type any one of the following: 1-5 1,2,3,4,5 1,2,3-5 12. Click Next.

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13. Select the maps you want the CAD server to process to find the feature class. The maps that appear in the Available maps list are those you selected on the Files tab. 14. Click Finish.

To select a scanner:
A scanner is software that reads and processes the graphic and database information. This version of the software supports both MicroStation and AutoCAD data. ODBC is used to connect to the database for MicroStation/IGDS only. Some of the fields on this tab are reserved for future use. 1. Click the Scanner Options tab.

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2. From the CAD Scanner class drop-down list, select GCAD.IGDSScanner for MicroStation or GCAD.AutoCADScanner for AutoCAD files. 3. From the RDB Scanner class drop-down list, select GCAD.ODBCDatabaseScanner. To use the ODBC database scanner, you must install an ODBC driver for your database and configure an ODBC data source. 4. In the RDB connect string field, type a standard ODBC connect string. A typical connect string for Oracle would look something like this: ODBC;DSN=<data source name>;UID=<user name>;PWD=<password>;USECURSORLIB; The RDB connect string field has some optional extensions: USECURSORLIB;

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Similar to the USE CURSOR LIBRARY:TRUE keyword in the MGE .ini file. Use if your ODBC driver requires the use of the ODBC cursor library to support static cursors. TABLEOWNER=<actual table owner>; Similar to the TABLE OWNER: keyword in the MGE .ini file. Use to specify the name of the owner of tables you want the CAD data server to process. TABLEQUALIFIER=<actual table qualifier>; Similar to the TABLE QUALIFIER: keyword in the MGE .ini file. Use to specify the name of the schema. Note: If you do not specify either TABLEOWNER: or TABLEQUALIFIER: in the connect string, the ODBC scanner will try to determine the proper values. In most cases this works. The usual cause of failure is that the actual table owner is not the same as the user name you used to log in to the database. TABLENAMERESOLUTION=<class name of alternate table name resolution module>; Use to specify the class name of the alternate table name resolution module. You must use this keyword if there is an alternate way to determine the table name. The default is for the CAD data server to use ENTITYNUM to look up the table name in the MSCATALOG table. The argument is the name of the class which does the translation of a graphic attribute to the name of the table. USEANSIQUALIFIER; Similar to the USE ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER: keyword in the MGE .ini file. Use to specify that the table name in a query must be qualified by the table owner as required by the ANSI standard. In databases that enforce strict compliance with the ANSI standard, a query string would take the following form: SELECT * FROM <owner>.<table> MINIMIZETRANSACTIONISOLATIONLEVEL; Similar to the MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL: keyword in the MGE .ini file. Use to minimize the ODBC transaction isolation level so that other users can connect to the database and modify it while the CAD connection is open.

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5.

In the Scanner .ini file, either type the .ini file created, per the instructions given in the Connecting to a CAD Warehouse section in this chapter, along with the full path, or select it by clicking the Browse button. Specifying the Scanner .ini file is optional.

To exit Define CAD Server Schema File:


1. On the CAD Server Definition dialog box, select File > Exit. 2. Click Yes when prompted to save the file. 3. On the Save CAD Server Schema Definition As dialog box, type a name for the .csd file, and select a location where you want the file stored. 4. Click Save.

Connecting to a FRAMME Warehouse


See Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter, and see the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

To connect to FRAMME data, the software needs a valid gateway file (FSA.gtw). The Warehouse Connection Wizard asks you to specify the location of the FRAMME Gateway file and to select the FRAMME segments you want. If necessary, use Define Coordinate System File to create a coordinatesystem-file for your FRAMME data. Also, certain data configurations may require a <rulebase_name>.ini file for your FRAMME data server.

Connecting to a MapInfo Warehouse


See Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter, and see the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

To connect to a MapInfo warehouse, you must specify the folder location of the MapInfo files, the MapInfo Tables folder with valid MapInfo tables (.tab or .txt files). The server can then read the MapInfo tables in the folder and create the feature classes. Before trying to connect, check the following: A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the MapInfo data must be created with Define Coordinate System File and be referenced by the .ini file. There can be one .csf file for the entire MapInfo dataset or one .csf file created for each MapInfo table. MapInfo data must be in native format (not exported). There should be a table file (.tab), an index file (.id), a map file (.map), and/or an info file (.dat/.dbf or .xls). All four files are needed for both geometry and attribution.

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The coordinate-system file(s) for the MapInfo data should be identified in a <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file using the COORDINATE SYSTEM: .ini variable. If a <MapInfo Tables folder name >.ini file is not found in the \Warehouses folder or the MapInfo Tables folder, the server looks for a <MapInfo Tables folder name>.csf file in the MapInfo Tables folder. If this is not found, the server looks for a <MapInfo Tables folder name>.csf file in the MapInfo Tables folder. The software geometry type (point, linear, areal, graphicstext, or anyspatial) for each MapInfo Table can also be defined in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file using the GEOMETRY TYPE: variable. If there is no entry in the .ini file regarding geometry type for a coverage, the data is served up as AnySpatial. If the coverage has text in addition to a point, linear, or areal geometry, use the TEXT: variable in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file to enable the data server to serve up Text. The server will not display the Text Geometry for a coverage if this is not enabled in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file. The COORDINATE SYSTEM: section should be the first section in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file. The other sections may or may not be present. If they are present, they may be in any order.

Connecting to an MGE or MGDM Warehouse


See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

Before you can connect to an MGE or MGDM warehouse, you must set up an ODBC data source name that identifies the project database. The ODBC data source must have the same name as the schema identified in the MGE or MGDM (.mge) project file. Verify that the path variable in the .mge file matches the actual folder/location for the MGE project. Then, to connect to the warehouse, you need to identify an MGE or MGDM (.mge) project file. If the ODBC connection requires a user name and a password, you are prompted to supply them.

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Connecting to an MGSM Warehouse


See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix.

To connect to MGSM data, you will need to identify the following: MGSM project file(.mge) Parameter file (.prm) Seed file (.dgn) Coordinate file (.crd) RIS schema password (if using RIS and the schema is passworded) or ODBC password (if using a passsworded database connection)

You can access MGSM warehouses through either RIS or ODBC. The SchemaName in the .mge file can refer to either an ODBC data source or an RIS schema. A single MGSM parameter file can point to tables in either or both ODBC- and RIS-accessible warehouses. Distributed attribute tables based on the same linear reference system and accessed through ODBC can be overlaid with tables accessed through RIS (and vice versa). Use your ODBC Administrator to set up access to distributed attribute tables in warehouses that you access through ODBC connections. To access an MGSM warehouse from ODBC client, you need to have an ODBC driver installed on your machine corresponding to your database. You also need to configure the ODBC driver to point to your database with a DSN (Data Source Name). This DSN is the schema name in the .mge file. Make sure that the DSN name is different from the schema names in the RIS Locator. If the same name exists in the RIS client and in ODBC DSNs, RIS is given priority. For access to MGSM warehouses through RIS, the software delivers RIS Client and Schema File Locator, so that you can find an RIS client and an RIS schema file on either a local or a remote system. However, there are some things you should know about accessing MGSM databases: If RIS Client 05.03 or 05.04 already exists on your system, use RIS Schema Manager to locate the RIS client and schema file. The Schema File Locator in the software is built on RIS 05.03. To locate a client or schema file that is RIS 5.04 compatible, specify 5.04 as the version on the advanced options part of the Client and Schema File Locator.

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See the RIS SQL Reference Manual for more information.

If you must have more than one version of RIS on your system, set the RIS_PARAMETERS environment variable to point to the correct parmeter filefor example, RIS_PARAMETERS=c:\Program Files \Common Files\Intergraph\RIS05.04\parmsand specify a fully qualified path when locating the schema-definition filefor example, c:\schema\schemas.

Editing MGSM Server Parameter Files


The MGSM data server allows you to display and to analyze data stored in distributed attribute tables with GeoMedia Professional. These tables are relational tables that do not contain geometry, but instead contain information that allows geometry to be generated for them. The process of generating the geometry is called dynamic segmentation. Dynamic segmentation is very similar to geocoding. Each record in the distributed attribute table contains values that allow it to be located on a linear reference system. The linear reference system is defined and built in the MGSM product and is stored as a coordinate file (.crd) . A parameter file (.prm) is generated in MGSM to store the names of the tables and columns in the database that have special meaning for dynamic segmentation. Of particular interest to the MGSM data server is the list of distributed attribute tables (and associated information) in the parameter file. The MGSM data server uses the parameter file and coordinate file to know what tables and columns to access in the data base and how to perform dynamic segmentation to generate the geometries for each record in each distributed attribute table. It is useful to be able to create your own distributed attribute tables and immediately access them in GeoMedia Professional. For example, Department of Transportation personnel performing what-if analysis often generate new distributed attribute tables to try different scenarios to achieve a desired result. Pavement management studies require construction plans for the next cycle to be evaluated. Potential alternatives need to be mapped and plotted to show results to executives. Individual engineers in district offices need to be able to generate and access their own distributed attribute tables in local databases, such as Access or other ODBC- accessible databases, instead of having to request to have the data added to the master database back in the state capital.

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GeoMedia Professional supports this pavement management workflow (and a variety of others) by:
See the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File Help for complete information on this utility.

Allowing access to distributed attribute tables through ODBC connections, and Using Edit MGSM Server Parameter File to add the new table to the parameter file so that it is recognized by the MGSM data server.

Edit MGSM Server Parameter File allows you to create, modify, and

delete distributed attribute table definitions in the MGSM parameter files. However, you can only edit the distributed attribute portion of the parameter files because that is the only section used in GeoMedia Professional.
Edit MGSM Server Parameter File allows you to describe the structure of

your data so that the MGSM Data Server can display it in GeoMedia Professional. The MGSM Data Server handles data in a number of different formats, including multiple referencing systems and distributed attribute tables in different database schemas.
Edit MGSM Server Parameter File outputs a file that describes the

database tables and column names so that the MGSM Data Server knows what to display and how to display it. You must grant access to attribute tables to RIS schemas that are going to be referenced by a segmentation parameter file. If access is not granted, an error message is displayed when you try to select a distributed attribute table.

To start Edit MGSM Server Parameter File:


1. Select Start > GeoMedia Professional > Edit MGSM Server Parameter File.

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2. Select File > Open Project. 3. Select the appropriate project file from the Open MGE Project File dialog box. 4. Select File > Open Prm File. 5. Select the appropriate parameter file from the Open Parameter File dialog box. 6. Select the appropriate command(s) for your workflow.

Defining Distributed Attribute Linear Parameters


This section discusses how to define distributed attribute parameters, for example, the lanes table. It is assumed that the lanes table contains distributed attribute data and accurately indicates the start and end point of each segment using one of the MGSM-compatible referencing systems.

To define how to access a new linear distributed attribute table:


1. On the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File dialog box, select Settings > New DA Table to start the Distributed Attribute Wizard.

2. In the Schema field, type the appropriate schema name. 3. Select the distributed attribute table you want to define from the Table Name drop-down list; then click Next. 4-26

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4. Select the referencing system that the table uses from the Reference System drop-down list. 5. Select the Linear option to indicate the table is one of distributed linear values, not of point values; then click Next. Different sets of fields are displayed according to the particular referencing system. 6. Select the Associated Column beside each of the reference system parameters; then select the column name from the Column drop-down list. The following are examples of how the lanes table would be structured in each of the referencing systems and how you would define the distributed attribute parameters for each setting:

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Distance Referencing System The following lanes table is structured according to the Distance referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Distance from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Begin Distance Begin Secondary ID End Distance End Secondary ID

Column Name hwy_id b_dist cnty e_dist cnty

Distance-Length Referencing System The following lanes table is structured according to the Distance-Length referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Distance Length from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Distance Secondary ID Length

Column Name hwy_id b_dist cnty length

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Known Marker Referencing System The following lanes table is structured according to the Known Marker referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Known Marker from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows:

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Parameter
Linear Feature ID Begin Control Point ID Begin Secondary ID Begin Offset End Control Point ID End Secondary ID End Offset

Column Name hwy_id marker_id1 cnty offset1 marker_id2 cnty offset2

Geographic XY Referencing System The following lanes table is structured according to the Geographic XY referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Geographic XY from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Begin Longitude Begin Latitude End Longitude End Latitude

Column Name hwy_id b_lon b_lat e_lon e_lat

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Projected XY Referencing System The following lanes table is structured according to the Projected XY referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Projected XY from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Begin Easting Begin Northing End Easting End Norhting

Column Name hwy_id b_east b_north e_east e_north

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Defining units of measure for distributed attribute linear parameters


7. Click Next to open the next Distributed Attribute Wizard dialog box.

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8. For Known Maker, Distance, and Distance Length referencing systems, select the distance units of measure. OR For Geographic X,Y and Projected X,Y, select units of measure for the X,Y coordinates. OR For X,Y coordinates, select the tolerance radius and units of measure.

Defining How to Access a New Point Distributed Attribute Table


This section demonstrates how to define distributed parameters for a point table, for example, an accident table. It is assumed that the accident table contains distributed attribute data and accurately indicates the location of each value using one of the MGSM-compatible referencing systems. A series of examples simulates how the accident table would be structured in each of the referencing systems and how you would define distributed attribute parameters for each system. 1. On the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File dialog box, select Settings > New DA Table to start the Distributed Attribute Wizard.

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2. In the Schema field, type the appropriate schema name. 3. Select the distributed attribute table you want to define from the Table Name drop-down list; then click Next.

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4. Select the referencing system that the table uses from the Reference System drop-down list. 5. Select the Point option to indicate that the table is one of distributed point values, not of linear values; then click Next. Different sets of text boxes are displayed according to the particular referencing system. 6. Select the Associated Column beside each of the reference system parameters; then select the column name from the Column drop-down list. The following are examples of how the accident table would be structured in each of the referencing systems and how you would define the distributed attribute parameters for each setting: Distance Referencing System The following accident table is structured according to the Distance referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Distance from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would select the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Secondary ID Distance

Column Name hwy_id cnty dist_3d

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Known Marker Referencing System The following accident table is structured according to the Known Marker referencing system. To describe this table, select Known Marker from the Reference System drop-down list; then type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Marker ID Offset Secondary ID

Column Name hwy_id marker_id offset cnty

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Geographic XY Referencing System The following accident table is structured according to the Geographic XY referencing system. To describe this table, select Geographic XY from the Reference System drop-down list; then type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Longitude Latitude

Column Name hwy_id lon lat

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Projected XY Referencing System The following accident table is structured according to the Projected XY referencing system. To describe this table, you would select Projected XY from the Reference System drop-down list; then you would type the column names as follows: Parameter
Linear Feature ID Easting Northing

Column Name hwy_id b_east b_north

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Defining units of measure for distributed attribute point parameters


7. Click Next to display the next Distributed Attribute Wizard dialog box.

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8. For Known Maker and Distance referencing systems, select the distance units of measure. OR For Geographic X,Y and Projected X,Y, select units of measure for the X,Y coordinates. OR For X,Y coordinates, select the tolerance radius and units of measure.

Editing, Saving, and Verifying Parameter Files


To edit an existing parameter file:
1. On the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File dialog box, select the appropriate table; then select Edit > Properties, or press ENTER. OR Double click the table name.

2. Select the appropriate command(s) for your workflow from the Edit menu (Cut, Copy, Paste, and/or Delete) to edit the table information.
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To save changes to a parameter file:


On the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File dialog box, select File > Save.

To verify parameter file entries:


1. On the Edit MGSM Server Parameter File dialog box, select Settings > Verify Settings. A report is generated for you to verify that the entries are complete. 2. Copy, save, and/or print the report. Note: Printing requires that you have an application, such as WordPad, associated to .txt files. You can also display this report in WordPad once you have saved it.

Using Reference Readout


For MGSM data-server connections, the Reference Readout command allows you to display the Linear Feature Reference System information for a point that you specify in the active map window. When you select a point in the map window, the point is snapped to the linear network, and the command displays information about that position on the linear network. If multiple Network Linear Features (NLFs) are within the tolerance zone of the specified point, information is displayed for each. The displayed information consists of the following: NLF ID Secondary ID (if there is one) Distance of the selected point on the linear feature Nearest control point to the selected feature Offset of the selected point from the nearest control point that is displayed in the control point field

Note: To use Reference Readout, you must have a connection to an MGSM warehouse.

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To display NLF information for linear features:


1. Select Tools > MGSM Data Server > Reference Readout. 2. Click with the cross-hairs on an appropriate point within the tolerance of an NLF feature on the map window.

The window coordinates are converted into MGSM coordinates, and a query is performed. If the location is within the tolerance zone, information about the closest linear feature appears. 3. Click Close. Note: If the query finds more than one linear feature from single or multiple connections within the tolerance zone of the selected point, the command displays the information of the first feature. After you close the dialog box, it displays the information about another feature. This continues until it displays all the features within the tolerance zone. 4. Optional: While the command is active, continue selecting other locations in the map window to review network linear features information.

Using Reference Keyin


For MGSM data-server connections, the Reference Keyin command allows you to locate a required position on a Network Linear Feature (NLF) by allowing you to type a position in terms of the Linear Reference System and displaying the location in a map window. This command highlights the point on the linear network in the highlight color. 4-42

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As input, this command requires the Network Linear Feature ID, secondary ID (if there is one), and distance information (control point name and offset or distance). You can locate multiple points successively within the same instance of the command. The units and precision and the highlight color are taken from the values set on the Units and Formats and Map Display tabs of the Options dialog box. Note: To use Reference Keyin, you must have a connection to an MGSM warehouse.

To display NLF positions:


1. Select Tools > MGSM Data Server > Reference Keyin.

2. Select the appropriate MGSM connection name from the Connection drop-down list. 3. Type the appropriate network linear feature name in the NLF ID field. 4. If there is a secondary ID, type it in the Secondary ID field. 5. Select the Control point and offset input method; then type the appropriate values in the Control point name and Offset fields. OR Select the Distance input method; then type the appropriate value in the Distance field. 4-43

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6. Click Apply. The NLF location is found and highlighted. 7. Optional: Continue locating linear referencing positions by changing the input information and clicking Apply.

Connecting to an ODBC Tabular Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an ODBC Tabular Model warehouse, you must set up an ODBC connection through the ODBC Data source Administrator. You will need to choose the correct ODBC driver for the database you want to connect and enter the appropriate information. To connect to ODBC Tabular Model data, you will need to identify the following: ODBC connection name ODBC Data source (from the ODBC Administrator) User name (as required by data source) Password (as required by data source)

See the Working with Feature Classes topic in the GeoMedia Professional online Help for information on this command.

The ODBC data server is the usual method for getting data into the product. It allows you to create a connection to any nongraphic table in an ODBC-compliant data source. However, you can also use the Warehouse > Feature Class Definition > Attach Table command to create feature classes by attaching an external data source. Attach Table requires an existing read/write Access connection. This command, a legacy from earlier product releases, has been maintained for use by those who prefer it.

Connecting to an Oracle Object Model Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an Oracle Object Model warehouse, you must have already set up an Oracle database server with Oracles Spatial Cartridge and added a user account containing object model data that you want to access.
See the Oracle 8I documentation.

At a minimum, the Oracle Client software must reside on the system running the software, and you must create a database alias/service. Use the Oracle Net 8 configuration utility to configure a database alias/service.

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To connect to Oracle Object Model data, you will need to identify the following: Oracle connection name User name Password

Host string. The host string is the Oracle database alias/service name that you create with the Oracle network configuration utility.

Connecting to an Oracle Relational Model Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an Oracle Relational Model warehouse, you must have already set up an Oracle database server and added a user account containing relational model data.
See the Oracle documentation.

At a minimum, the Oracle Client software must reside on the system running the software, and you must create a database alias/service. Use the Oracle network configuration utility to configure a database alias/service. To connect to Oracle Relational Model data, you will need to identify the following: Oracle connection name User name Password Host string. The host string is the Oracle database alias/service name that you create with the Oracle network configuration utility.

Working with Connections


To make connecting to your data a simple matter of responding to a few prompts, the software provides the Warehouse Connection Wizard. Before you start the Warehouse Connection Wizard, you need to know what type of connection you want to make, the name and location of certain files, which default spatial filter to associate (if any), and whether you want to open the connection or keep it closed. The connection types available to you depend on which data servers were loaded during setup. The complete list of available connection types appears in the Warehouse Connection Wizard. If you want a connection type for a data server that the software provides but that does not appear in the Warehouse Connection Wizard list, you can add it by reinstalling the software. 4-45

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The connection type you choose determines what additional information you need. At a minimum, the wizard asks if you want to associate a default spatial filter to the warehouse data and what status you want a connection to have.

Default Spatial Features


See Working with Spatial Filters in this chapter for information on defining and applying spatial filters.

While not applying a spatial filter gives you access to all features or queries in the warehouse, applying a spatial filter can significantly shorten access times when you are interested in only those features in a defined geographical area. You can make the association of a default spatial filter and warehouse data with the Warehouse Connection Wizard through the New Connection and Edit Connection commands. You cannot associate a default spatial filter if one has not already been defined, but you can add one to the connection later. The default spatial filter remains passive until a first request for a feature class is made or a query is performed. When you create a warehouse connection, the Warehouse Connection Wizard asks if you want to access all features in the warehouse or if you want to subset features by using a default spatial filter. Associating a spatial filter to an existing connection does not affect feature classes that have already been added to the legend or data window or that have been used in a query. For example, you connect to a warehouse and add the feature classes Roads and Railroads to your legend. You then define a spatial filter in which some of the features in both feature classes are located outside the filter area. After you associate the filter, all features from both feature classes are still displayed because they were added to the legend before you applied the filter. However, a feature class you add to the legend after associating the filter does not include in its display any features that fall outside the filter area. Note: In workflow explained later in this chapter, you can also associate the default spatial filter automatically with the Apply Spatial Filter by View command, and optionally with the Define Spatial Filter by Area and Define Spatial Filter by Fence commands.

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Status
For all connection types except Access, your only choices of status are open as read-only or closed. For an Access connection, you have the additional choice of open as read/write. If you choose an open connection, the software creates a physical connection to the warehouse as the connection is created. If you choose a closed status, the connection will still be created, but you will not have immediate access to the data. Later you can change the status simply by editing the warehouse connection. There are compelling reasons for creating a connection without opening the connection: When you want to connect to a number of warehouses containing large data sets, you can save time by creating the connections without opening them immediately. You can create only one FRAMME connection per warehouse, and you can have only one FRAMME connection open at a time. So, if you have several FRAMME warehouses, you can create a single connection to each warehouse, but you can have only one connection open at a time.

To connect to a warehouse:
1. Select Warehouse > New Connection.

2. Select the Connection Type appropriate for your data, and click Next. 4-47

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3. Type a connection name, or keep the default. 4. Optional: Type a description of the connection. 5. Provide the remaining required information, which varies with each connection type; then click Next. 6. Optional: Select Apply a spatial filter to your warehouse (if any are available), and select the default spatial filter from the drop-down list; then click Next. 7. Select a connection status, and click Finish.

IMPORTANT: Avoid opening more than one connection to a single warehouse.

To open or close a warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection. 2. On the Warehouse Connections dialog box, select the cell in the Status column that corresponds to the connection and status you want to change. 3. From the drop-down list, select the appropriate status.

4. Close the Warehouse Connections dialog box.

To edit an existing warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection. 2. On the Warehouse Connections dialog box, check the status of the connection you want to edit. The connection must be closed before you can edit it; if it is not, close it. 3. Select the connection you want to edit by clicking the selection button in the far-left column.

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4. Click Edit. 5. Edit the parameters you want to change as the Warehouse Connection Wizard displays them, and then click Next. (You can edit everything except the connection type and the connection name.) Note: When a vicinity connection (described later in this chapter) has been selected, the drop-down list of available spatial filters is empty. This prevents the selection of a spatial filter with a vicinity connection. 6. Click Finish. 7. Close the Warehouse Connections dialog box.

To delete a warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection. 2. On the Warehouse Connections dialog box, check the status of the connection you want to delete. The connection must be closed before you can delete it; if it is not closed, close it. 3. Select the connection you want to delete by clicking the row selector. 4. Click Delete. Note: If you have ever had legend entries, queries, or internal references using the connection, a confirmation message informs you that deleting the connection also deletes these legend entries, queries, and internal references. 5. Close the Warehouse Connections dialog box. 4-49

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To associate a default spatial filter to an open warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection. 2. On the Warehouse Connections dialog box, click anywhere in the Default spatial filter cell of the warehouse connection you want to filter to display the drop-down arrow. 3. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of available spatial filters.

4. Select the spatial filter that you want to associate. 5. Click Close. 6. Optional: If you want to apply this spatial filter immediately to any existing legend entries, data windows, or queries, use the Spatial Filters command.

To remove a default spatial filter from a warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection. 2. Select the row for the warehouse connection. 3. Click the Default spatial filter column to display a drop-down list, and then select the blank area.

When the filter name no longer appears in the Default spatial filter column, the filter is removed from the warehouse connection. 4. Click Close.

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5. Optional: If you want to apply this change immediately to any existing legend entries, data windows, or queries, use the Spatial Filters command.

Working with Spatial Filters


To limit the geographical area and thus the number of features that can appear in the map window, you can define a spatial filter in the GeoWorkspace and apply it to data in the GeoWorkspace with the Define Spatial Filter by Area, Define Spatial Filter by Fence, and Apply Spatial Filter by View commands. Depending on the size of your data set, spatial filters can save a great deal of processing time. In defining a spatial filter by area or by fence for one or more feature classes or queries, you can: Give the spatial filter an appropriate name. Select the appropriate spatial operator. Automatically apply the filter for all feature classes in all legend entries and data windows in the GeoWorkspace. Associate the filter as a default for all connections, for subsequent filtering of feature classes from those connections that have not yet been filtered, and for new legend entries and data windows in the GeoWorkspace. Associating the filter as a default does not update filters on feature classes in existing legend entries, data windows, or queries. Automatically apply the filter and associate the filter as a default. In this case, you would not see any immediate effect from setting the filter as the default until you loaded new data because this default only applies to data loaded after this option has been selected. Neither automatically apply the filter nor associate the filter as a default. This would be the case when you are creating multiple spatial filters for use later in your workflow. For example, you may have several areas within a dataset to access and may want to create all the filters beforehand without necessarily applying them at the time of creation.

See Managing Spatial Filters later in this chapter.

To identify individual feature classes to apply a spatial filter to, you use the Spatial Filters command.

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Note: As explained earlier in this chapter, you can also use New Connection and Edit Connection to associate a default spatial filter for a connection. In applying a spatial filter by view, you: Create a new spatial filter from the view extents of the active map window. Automatically apply the filter immediately to all existing feature classes and queries in the GeoWorkspace. Associate the filter as the default spatial filter for the GeoWorkspace.

This command does not allow you to specify the filter name or spatial operator. It uses the default filter name ViewFilter and the default spatial operator overlap. Upon applying a spatial filter by view, there is no apparent change in the map window display. To view the display of the filter results, you can use the Fit All command.

Selecting a Spatial Operator and a Geographic Area


A spatial filter consists of one of three spatial operators and a geographical area defined by a fence, by a single area geometry, or by the view extents of the active map window.

Spatial Operators
The available spatial operators are the following: Overlap (the default) lets you access any feature that falls within or touches at any point the boundaries of your filter. Inside lets you access only data that falls completely within the boundaries of your filter. Course overlap lets you access all data inside or overlapping the boundaries of your filter, but it may also return some additional features. The purpose of this operator is to allow the data server to quickly and efficiently return data according to its internal spatial indexing system, without doing individual geometry comparisons against the boundaries of the spatial filter. This varies with server efficiency and data complexity and often results in excess features being returned, but the results are usually returned more quickly.

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This spatial operator is available for Oracle and Access data servers only. If you choose this spatial operator with any other data server, it reverts to the overlap spatial operator. Each database has a different indexing system, so the spatial filtering results may vary drastically. The Access data server employs a quadtree algorithm for its spatial indexing. When applying a spatial filter with the coarse overlap spatial operator to data in an Access warehouse, the results returned include all features overlapping the spatial filter boundary, and any features that lie on certain quadtree boundaries. This often includes strips of features that are at some distance from the spatial filter boundary, particularly for linear and areal features.
See the Spatial Data Indexing section of the Using Oracle's Relational Spatial Model appendix for information on quadtrees and Oracle.

The Oracle data server also employs a quadtree algorithm for its spatial indexing. The software compares the extent of the spatialfilter area to the appropriate quad tiles and only retrieves those geometries that fall within them. This can dramatically reduce the number of records transferred from the Oracle warehouse to the GeoMedia session.

Geographic Areas
You can identify a geographical area to define a spatial filter in a map window by using the following: FenceDefine Spatial Filter by Fence places a rectangular fence, which you draw by placing a data point and dragging the fence to the opposing corner of the geographic area you want to view. AreaDefine Spatial Filter by Area selects a single area geometry. ViewApply Spatial Filter by View creates and applies a new spatial filter from the view extents of the active map window and associates it as the default spatial filter.

When to Define a Spatial Filter


You can define a spatial filter for a warehouse almost any time, but it is easier when you can see at least the outline of the map. If you have a very large data set and want to import features into a read/write warehouse, you can greatly reduce processing time by displaying only the feature class containing the boundaries of your map, using that view to define a spatial filter, and then importing features.

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For example, from the large sample data set of the United States delivered with the software, you want to study the northwestern states. After connecting to the U.S. Sample Data Access warehouse, you display only the States feature class. If you define and apply a spatial filter that includes only the northwestern states, importing features will be much faster because the geographic area covered is only about one-fourth the size of the entire data set. Here are two common scenarios for defining a spatial filter: Before you create an additional warehouse connection. If your map window contains data from one warehouse and you want to add it to data from another warehouse, you can easily define a spatial filter to confine your display to one geographic area: 1. Create a warehouse connection. 2. Display the data to determine the exact area of interest. 3. Define the spatial filter using the option to set the filter as a default for all connections. 4. Create additional warehouse connections to other warehouses.
See the Working with Map Windows chapter for instructions.

After you create all your warehouse connections. This workflow gives you the most precise display: 1. Create all warehouse connections. 2. Display enough data from at least one warehouse to determine the exact area of interest. 3. Define the spatial filter using the option to apply the filter to all existing legend entries and data windows.

To define a spatial filter by area or by fence:


1. Select Warehouse > Define Spatial Filter by Area or Warehouse > Define Spatial Filter by Fence. You are put into an active map window. 2. Define the filter area by drawing a rectangular fence. OR Define the filter by selecting an existing area geometry.

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3. In the Filter name field, type a name for the new filter, or use the default. 4. Select the appropriate spatial operator. 5. Select Apply to GeoWorkspace to apply the filter to all existing legend entries and data windows. AND/OR Select Set as default filter for existing connections to associate the filter as the default for subsequent new legend entries (no effect is seen until you load new data). Note: If neither option is selected, only the new spatial filter is created. 6. Click OK.

To apply a spatial filter by view:


1. Open the appropriate map view. 2. Select Warehouse > Apply Spatial Filter by View. A spatial filter named ViewFilter is created with the overlap operator from the view extents of the active map window. The filter is automatically applied to the entire GeoWorkspace and is associated as the default filter for all connections. 4-55

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3. Optional: Select View > Fit All to view the filtered area more clearly.

Managing Spatial Filters


After you have defined spatial filters, you can manage them by using the Spatial Filters command to: Display spatial filters. Selecting the name(s) of the spatial filter(s) from the dialog box displays the spatial filter geometry in the map window, using a dashed line style and the current highlight color. Apply spatial filters (or no filter) to feature classes. You can apply spatial filters to one or more selected feature classes, and all selected feature classes within the GeoWorkspace are newly filtered. Those feature classes from a designated vicinity connection are omitted from the list of available filters. The results of applying a spatial filter are displayed in the map and data windows. Because this process forces a re-query of all affected data, the processing time may be lengthy, depending on the size and complexity of the data. Review spatial-filter properties. The command displays the filter name and spatial operator in read-only mode. Delete spatial filters. Deleting a spatial filter deletes the filter from the list of available spatial filters. This does not affect any current legend entries, data windows, or queries; however, it makes the filter unavailable as the default spatial filter for any connections.

To display a spatial filter:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filters.

2. Select the appropriate filter name(s). The spatial filter(s) is displayed in the map window. 4-56

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To apply a spatial filter:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filters. 2. Select the appropriate filter name or <None>. The spatial filter is displayed in the map window. 3. Click Apply.

4. From the Available features list, select one or more feature classes or queries. To select an individual feature class, connection, or query, select one or more (using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiples), and click >. To select all feature classes and queries, click >>. To remove individual feature classes or queries from the Selected features list, select one or more (using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiples), and click <. To remove all feature classes and queries from the Selected feature classes list, click <<.

5. Click OK. The spatial filter is applied to all selected feature classes and queries. Displays are updated in all map and data windows, and queries built on the selected features are updated.

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To view spatial-filter properties:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filters. 2. Select the appropriate filter name. The spatial filter is displayed in the map window. 3. Click Properties.

To delete spatial filters


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filters. 2. Select the appropriate filter name(s), using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiples. The spatial filter(s) is displayed in the map window. 3. Click Delete.

4. Click Yes to delete the filter(s).

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Working with Warehouses

Working with Vicinity Connections


A vicinity connection is a connection to a vicinity warehouse. A vicinity warehouse usually provides a small-scale, sparse, backdrop, overview display of features to function as a vicinity map. A vicinity map helps you navigate and orient yourself in your data. This map should be small enough to connect and to display features quickly, but detailed enough to present you with a reasonable visual representation of the data, from which you can more easily place spatial filters. For example, you might set up a vicinity connection to a vicinity warehouse consisting only of the boundaries of a particular state. You can also set up a GeoWorkspace template with a map window display of the vicinity data so that you are immediately presented with a vicinity map upon which to place spatial filters. You designate a vicinity connection by selecting a connection from the Vicinity connection drop-down list on the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). The first entry by default is <None>, and the rest are the names of all the connections in the GeoWorkspace. The software stores the name of the connection (if any) that you want to have designated as the vicinity connection.

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A vicinity connection interacts with several other commands as follows:


Define Spatial Filter by Fence, Define Spatial Filter by Area, Apply Spatial Filter by View, and Spatial Filters overlook the vicinity

connection when applying spatial filters, so the vicinity map is never filtered itself. Define Spatial Filter by Fence, Define Spatial Filter by Area, and Apply Spatial Filter by View skip the feature classes of the vicinity connection when applying a spatial filter. Spatial Filters removes the vicinity connection and its feature classes from the list of available feature classes.
New Connection overlooks the vicinity connection when attempting

to determine if it should match the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace to that of the newly connected warehouse. If the new connection is the only non-vicinity connection available, then this command copies the coordinate system to the GeoWorkspace.

Importing Data into a Read/Write Warehouse


You can import data in any GeoMedia Professional-supported format into a warehouse. You can import an entire feature class, or you can import only those features that meet conditions that you define with an attribute query. The software uses the Import Warehouse Wizard to help you import data. You must provide the wizard with the following information: The name of the source warehousethat is, the warehouse that contains the data you want to import. If the source warehouse has a spatial filter applied, only the features allowed by the filter can be imported. The name of the target warehousethat is, the warehouse into which you want to import data. Spatial filters to target warehouses are ignored.

The software checks to see if the feature class names already exist in the target warehouse. If they exist, the software gives a default name to each feature class name that exists in the target warehouse. The default name is constructed by appending a number to the end of the feature class name to make sure that the constructed default name does not exist in the target warehouse.

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You can change the default name given by the software. If you change the name to an existing one in the target warehouse, the software checks to see if the source and target feature classes match in definition. If they do not, the software gives an error message. A source feature is said to match the target feature class if and only if the number of attributes in the source feature class is less than or equal to the number of attributes in the target feature class. Additionally, all the attributes of the source feature class must match in name and type with the corresponding attributes of the target feature class. You can import data from several feature classes that match in definition to a single feature class even if the incoming tables have an AutoNumber field. This command does not write or copy any of the non-displayable fields. An exception is that this command copies any non-displayable fields to the output feature class if they are part of a unique index on the input feature class and there is no other unique index consisting solely of displayable fields. Any index based on one or more fields not copied to the output feature class are dropped. If you change the default name given by the software and conflicts exist, you have to resolve the conflicts with the following solutions: Create a new feature class in the target having the default name given by the software. Append the data from the source feature class to the existing feature class, in which case the software appends only new rows with unique primary keys to the existing feature class. Update the existing feature class with the data of the source feature class, in which case the software updates existing data with the data from the source feature class. Append and update the existing feature class.

To update a feature class, the primary-key fields must match. If you append and update the existing feature class, the software appends new rows and updates existing rows. You can import data and append data to an existing feature class if the name of this feature class has been changed from the original feature class name in the first import. The following operating sequence provides an example of importing data into an Access warehouse. The procedure will vary somewhat for other warehouses.

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To import data into an Access warehouse:


1. Create or open connections to the source and target warehouses. 2. Select Warehouse > Import from Warehouse. 3. Read the first dialog box, and click Next.

4. Select the source warehouse from the list of existing connections by clicking the row selector, and click Next. 5. If necessary, change the status of the connection to open read/write. 6. Select the target warehouse from the list of existing Access warehouse connections by clicking the row selector, and click Next.

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7. Use the SHIFT or CTRL key and your cursor to select the feature classes you want, and click the right arrow (>). Or click the double arrows (>>) to copy all feature classes without selecting them. If you copy a feature class more than once, an incremented number is added to the end of the feature name. 8. To filter the features being imported, select a feature class in the Import to target warehouse list, and click Filter.
See the Working with Queries chapter for information about building attribute filter queries.

9. On the Filter dialog box, build an attribute filter query that meets your criteria, and click OK. 10. On the Import Warehouse Wizard dialog box, click Next. 11. If you clicked Next and you want the source feature class to be output to the target feature class of the same name, click the default name and change it to that feature class name.

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12. Click Next.

13. If you do not want to display the imported feature classes in the map window, select Do not create new legend entries, and click Finish. OR To display the imported feature classes in a map window: 4-64 Select Create new legend entries.

Working with Warehouses

Select a map window in which to display the feature classes by double clicking the map window name or by selecting it and clicking the right arrow (>). Click Finish.

14. On the Import Statistics dialog box, watch the progress of the import.

The Existing features column shows the number of features in the feature class that already exist in the target warehouse, and the Features imported column shows the number of features imported. If your query filter is invalid, a message box informs you that the feature class for which the query definition was defined will not be imported. If you click OK, the software continues importing the next feature class. If you click Cancel, the software terminates the import process and displays the Import Statistics dialog box. The Features imported column shows the number of features that were successfully imported prior to import termination. Note: Because you are still connected to the source warehouse, you must either select the target warehouse connection before displaying imported feature classes or build a new query on the imported data.

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15. Close the Import Statistics dialog box by clicking Close. Changes to the filter do not affect any existing displays of feature data. Only new feature classes added after the edit to the filter will apply.

Inserting Images into Warehouses


See the Raster Information appendix.

You can insert a raster imagesuch as a scanned map sheet, an aerial photograph, or a satellite imageinto a read/write warehouse and use it as a logo or backdrop in your GeoWorkspace. The image is not moved from its original location, but the path to the image is saved in the warehouse. To edit or change the image, you must edit the source file. Note: Avoid inserting multiple images with the same file name into a single warehouse, even if the images are stored in different folders. The file type and information contained in the file determine whether the file can be inserted interactively or automatically.
Interactive placement requires you to draw a fence in the map

window to define the size and location of the image. Automatic placement inserts geo-registered images directly into a map window and preserves image geometry. There are two types of automatic placement, Georeferenced and By header:
GeoReferenced placement uses GeoTIFF tags (if GeoTIFF tags

are available in the header), a geo-tie packet, USGS DOQ header information, or an associated world file. GeoTIFF is an exchange standard for georeferenced raster imagery. A GeoTIFF image is a TIFF image with geo-tag information in its header. The software places GeoTIFF images using the geodetic information stored in its header. When the raster image is displayed, the appropriate transformation is applied to its display matrix. This transforms the data from its original coordinate system into the one in the active GeoWorkspace.

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Note: The following World Wide Web site contains the GeoTIFF specification, details about who is supporting GeoTIFF and when, source code, and sample images:

http://home.earthlink.net/~ritter/geotiff/geotiff.html
Geo-tie-packets contain coordinates for the map image in a geographic coordinate system based on a WGS84 datum and design-file unit information. Since geo-tie-packets preserve geographically sensitive information relating an image to geographic coordinates, you can place an image into a read/write warehouse regardless of the units of measurement (UOMs), units of resolution (UORs), or projection of the image. Intergraph raster-file formats support Geo-tie-packets. A USGS DOQ image is an image with geodetic information in its header in a format specific to USGS data. The software places USGS DOQ images using the geodetic information stored in its header. When the raster image is displayed, the appropriate transformation is applied to its display matrix. This transforms the data from its original coordinate system into the one in the active GeoWorkspace. MrSid files, TIFF files, or Jpeg files can have associated world files (*.sdw , *.tfw, or *.jgw). These world files contain the six parameters necessary to define an affine matrix that will transform the image to the desired geographic location in a specific coordinate system. World files do not contain coordinate-system information, so you must specify this information in a coordinatesystem file or a design file.
By header placement uses a transformation header defined in the

image header for Intergraph raster files. IMPORTANT: When using the placement mode By header or Georeferenced using a world file, you must supply a design file to which the image was originally registered or create a coordinate-system file for the image. The coordinate system you define in the coordinate-system file does not have to match the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace. When you insert an image into your map window, you specify the design file or coordinate-system file to be used in the Coordinate system information file field.

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To insert an image:
1. Select Insert > Image. 2. Browse to select the image you want to insert.

3. From the Warehouse drop-down list, select the read/write warehouse where you want to store the path to the image. 4. Select a placement method. If you select By header or Georeferenced using a world file, browse to select the file that contains coordinate-system information. 5. Click OK. If you selected Interactive placement, the software prompts you to define the image size and scale. When you release the mouse button, the image is displayed in the active map window. The aspect ratio of the image is maintained. If you selected an automatic placement mode, the image is displayed in the active map window. A new image entry is added to the top of the legend associated with the active map window, and the path to the image is saved in the read/write warehouse.

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Managing Warehouse Images


You can easily manage the raster image entries that exist in a selected warehouse connection with the Images command. This command lets you review the image entries, update the filenames of any image entries not pointing to valid raster image files, and delete specific image entries. You can delete both valid and invalid filenames, but you can only update invalid filenames. Each image listed for a connection has a corresponding icon to denote if it has a valid file name as follows: This icon indicates an invalid filename. This icon indicates a valid filename.

To manage warehouse images:


1. Select Warehouse > Images to open the Images dialog box. 2. Select an appropriate connection to display a list of its image filenames.

3. To update an image, select an appropriate image filename with the invalid filename icon; then click Update. 4. Locate the correct image file on the File Open dialog box; then click OK. The image entry is updated, and the valid filename icon is displayed beside the filename. 4-69

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5. To delete an image(s), select an appropriate image filename(s); then click Delete. 6. Click Close.

Viewing Changes in a Multi-User Environment


If you are working in a multi-user environment and want to view changes others have made to the read/write warehouse, select Warehouse > Refresh with Warehouse Changes from the GeoMedia Professional menu. All changes you make to the warehouse will be broadcast as in a normal single-user connection. Changes you make through non-GeoMedia software will not appear unless you close and reopen the connection or restart your session.

Creating an Access Warehouse Template


The default location for warehouse templates is <drive:>\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Templates\Warehouses. You can specify a different folder through Tools > Options > File locations.

To create an Access warehouse template:


1. Select Warehouse > New Warehouse. 2. On the New dialog box, select the Template option. 3. Select the normal.mdt template, and click New. 4. On the New Warehouse dialog box, accept the default storage folder, or browse to select a new one. If you have named an alternate file location for warehouse templates, that location appears in the Save in field. 5. Verify that Access Template appears in the Save as type field. 6. Type a name for the template in the File name text box. 7. Click Save.

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Changing the Coordinate System of a New Access Warehouse Template


See Defining a Coordinate System for an Access Warehouse in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

Because the New Warehouse command does not establish a connection when you use it to create a new Access warehouse template (.mdt), you should use the following workflow to change the coordinate system of such a new template.

To change the coordinate system of a new access warehouse template:


1. Using the procedure from the previous section, create and save a new Access warehouse template, selecting normal.mdt as the template on the New dialog box. Note: Because you are creating a template, no GeoWorkspace coordinate-system matching occurs, regardless of the preference setting. 2. Select Warehouse > New Warehouse.
See Working with Connections in this chapter.

3. On the Warehouse Connection Wizard, select Access as the connection type. 4. Type a connection name, or keep the default. 5. Select your new template as the new GeoMedia Professional database file. You must either type the full path or change the file dialog filter to *.* if you browse for your new template. 6. Optional: Type a description of the connection. 7. Click Next on the next two screens, taking the defaults; then click Finish. 8. Select Warehouse > Warehouse Coordinate System, and proceed to change the appropriate values.

See Working with Connections in this chapter.

9. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection to close and to delete the connection to the template.

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Note: After changing the coordinate system, the new Access warehouse template is ready for you to use to create new warehouses. When you turn on the Match GeoWorkspace and Warehouse coordinate systems options on the General tab of the Options dialog box, the coordinate system defined in the template by the previous procedure will be the coordinate system of the newly created Access warehouses created from the template.

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Working with Map Windows


See the Working with Data Windows and the Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional chapters for information on data and layout windows, respectively.

The GeoMedia Professional GeoWorkspace can contain one or more windowsmap windows, data windows, and a layout window. These windows provide you with different ways of visualizing your data. The map window shows graphic display or features (geographic and other map objects). The data window shows the same features in attribute form, that is, nongraphic data associated with the geographic objects (geometries). Thus, if a feature is displayed in multiple map and data windows, it highlights in all when selected. The layout window, in contrast, does not support this highlighting. This window allows you to design and to plot a map layout. Map graphics in the layout window can be optionally linked to reflect changes made in the map window, or they can be a static snapshot reflecting the characteristics of the map window at the time of placement. Each map window contains the following marginalia items: a legend, a north arrow, and a scale bar. You can select or deselect each of them on the View menu to turn them on or off. Whatever the active parameters are for these marginalia items in the map window, the same parameters are used to render these items in the layout window. For the most part you define the content and design of each map window through its legend. While a traditional legend simply reflects what is displayed on a map, you use the GeoMedia Professional legend to control what is displayed in the map window and how it looks. This is a representative workflow for displaying geographic data and map objects in a map window: 1. In an open GeoWorkspace, connect to the warehouse(s) containing the data you want to display. 2. Display the legend in the active map window. 3. Add entries to the legend. 4. Customize the look of your map by using the legend to change the display characteristics of the map objects. 5. Turn on the north arrow and change its appearance. 6. Turn on the scale bar and change its appearance. 7. Customize the appearance of the legend. 8. Add new map and/or data windows to the GeoWorkspace to show different views of your map and/or data. 5-1

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Understanding the Legend


The legend contains the following parts: A title bar, which you can turn on or off. The title bar must be turned on before you can dismiss the legend. Legend entries, which you use to control the display of the objects in the active map window. Legend entries can have titles, subtitles, and headings.

The legend contains a separate entry for each map object. When a feature class or query has multiple geometry or text attributes, a separate entry is added to the legend for each of these attributes. Each entry contains a title and a style key. If statistics for a legend are turned on, the entry displays the count of map objects in parentheses next to the title. Style keys for feature classes and queries are dynamic and represent the geometry type of the feature class (point, line, area, or compound). Style keys for thematic displays, images, and text are static and represent the object type. 5-2

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Style keys include the following: Style Key Object Type Point feature class Linear feature class Area feature class Text label Compound feature class Image Range thematic display Unique-values thematic display Style keys can also indicate the state of the following legend entries: Style Key Indicates The data is not loaded. Here are some possible causes: If you press the ESC key while the map object is being loaded, the legend entry is created but the data is not loaded. If you turn off the display of a map object, close the warehouse connection or the GeoWorkspace, and then reopen the connection or the GeoWorkspace, the data is not loaded. If you replace a legend with a named legend, and the named legend has the display of a map object turned off, the data for that map object is not loaded. If you have checked the Do not load data when opening GeoWorkspace option on the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options), all legend entries are not loaded.

The warehouse connection is closed.

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Style Key

Indicates The legend entry is in an invalid state. This could mean that the feature table has been deleted or that an attribute has been altered in such a way as to prevent the display of data. Map object is locatable, which means you can use your mouse to click on a map feature and retrieve its attribute information. Map object is displayed by scale, which means the feature only appears when the map window is displayed within a specific scale range.

Displaying or Hiding the Legend


If the legend is not displayed in the map window, you display it in one of the following ways: From the GeoMedia Professional menu, select View > Legend. A check mark next to Legend on the menu indicates that the legend display is turned on. Press the right mouse button, and select Legend from the pop-up menu. From the GeoMedia Professional menu, select View, and deselect Legend. Right click the legend, and deselect Legend from the pop-up menu. Double click the legend icon or the X on the legend title bar, if it is displayed.

You hide the legend in one of the following ways:

Adding Entries to the Legend


When you add a map object, such as a feature class or raster image, to the legend, it also appears in the active map window when it is in the display area. The legend entry controls the style of the features and queries. You can add the same map objects multiple times to create multiple legend entries with different styles. However, the features or queries themselves are only loaded once. There is no feature or query duplication, just different ways of visualizing the same features.

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Note: If you interrupt the loading of map objects by pressing ESC, the entry will still appear on the legend, but data for subsequent legend entries will not be loaded. To reload the data, select Load Data from the Legend right mouse menu. There are four types of map objects you can add as entries to the legend: Feature classes (Legend > Add Feature Class) Queries (Legend > Add Query) Thematic displays (Legend > Add Thematic) Raster images (Legend > Add Raster)

To manually add feature-class entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Feature Class.

2. On the Add Feature Class Entry dialog box, select the connection to the warehouse that contains the feature classes you want to add.

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If the table associated with the feature class has one or more spatial or graphic fields, the feature class appears on the Add Feature Class dialog box, and the additional fields are automatically added as new legend entries. 3. Select the feature classes you want to add. Use the CTRL or SHIFT keys (and click with the mouse or use arrow Up/Down keys) to select multiple feature classes. 4. Click OK. An entry is added to the top of the legend for each feature class, and the associated map objects are displayed in the active map window. 5. If any point features, styles, or labels do not display properly in the map window, adjust the nominal map scale on the Paper Space tab of the Display Properties dialog box (View > Display Properties).

To add query entries to the legend:


The procedure to add queries to the legend is similar to that just described for adding feature-class entries. You can add a query to the legend only if one has been predefined. When you add a query entry to the legend, the query results appear in the active map window, regardless of the display preferences set under Tools > Options > Query.

To add image entries to the legend:


The procedure to add image entries to the legend is also similar to that for adding feature-class entries. You can add a raster image to the legend only if it has already been inserted into the map window. An entry is added to the top of the legend, and the associated image appears in the active map window. IMPORTANT: If multiple images with the same name and extension (with or without the same path) have been inserted into a warehouse, the Add Image Entry dialog box appends a colon and number to the end of each image's name and extension (for example, image.bmp:1, image.bmp:2). These numbers are recalculated each time the Add Image Entry dialog box is invoked. Deleting an image from the warehouse between two invocations of the Add Image Entry dialog box changes the number appended to an image's name. Since these numbers are used but not updated on the legend, this can cause the image names on the legend to differ from the image names on the Add Image Entry dialog box.

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To add thematic display entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Thematic.

2. On the Add Thematic Entry dialog box, select the feature class or query you want. 3. Select an attribute from the list of available attributes. 4. Click Unique or Range to set the type of values you want for the attribute. 5. Click Define. 6. On the Unique Values or Map by Ranges dialog box, define the thematic display for the attribute. 7. Optional: Select another attribute and repeat Steps 4 - 6. 8. Click OK. An entry is added to the top of the legend for each thematic display, and the active map window reflects the changes. Note: To edit a thematic display attribute, double click the attribute key. This brings up the appropriate Unique Values or Map by Ranges dialog box, on which you can redefine the thematic display for the attribute.

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Controlling the Map Window


To the left of a map-window title or in the upper-left corner of a maximized map window is the map-window icon. Clicking this icon displays a menu that allows you to control the map window. Depending on the current state of the map window, this menu lets you do the following: Restore a minimized window. Move, restore, minimize, or maximize the window. Close the map window. Activate the next map or data window in the stack.

The GeoMedia Professional Window menu contains tools for cascading or tiling windows and for activating a different window. The bottom of this menu lists all the open windows in the GeoWorkspace. A check mark appears next to the title of the active window. You set the title and behavior of a map window by setting its properties. To adjust the display in a map window, you use the mouse and the map viewing tools. The north arrow and scale bar, which you can turn on and off from the View menu, dynamically update to reflect changes to the map window. The status bar dynamically updates to reflect the current display scale or view extents. On the Map Display tab of the Options dialog box, you can specify with the When resizing map windows options that the contents of a map window be fit automatically when the window is resized, or that the map scale be preserved.

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Changing Map-Window Properties


When you set map-window properties, you specify the title that appears in the map window and the way the map window behaves when selecting in another window. Because the windows in a GeoWorkspace are linked, features you select in one map or data window always highlight in the other map or data windows. Moreover, you can set certain properties in a map window to have its view change when you select a feature in another window. For example, suppose you set the properties in Map Window A to fit and zoom out at 200%. When you select a feature in a data window or in another map window, the view in Map Window A changes to fit the selected feature and zooms out at double the view scale. In another example, you can use these properties as a simple queuing mechanism. The following properties determine the display in the map view when a feature is selected in another window:
View at current scale (the default)Features in the select set are highlighted, but the map window does not shift or change scale.

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Center at current scaleFeatures in the select set are highlighted

and centered in the map view, but the map window does not change scale.
Fit and zoom outFeatures in the select set are fit to the map view,

and the view zooms out according to the percentage you specify. The default setting is 105%. If you set the properties in Window 1, for example, to Center at current scale or Fit and zoom out, selecting features in any window changes the zoom scale or window location. You probably do not want this to happen when selecting features in Window 1 itself, only when selecting in other windows. To override this behavior in Window 1, you select the View at current scale option. The following diagram shows a feature selected in the left map window. The same feature is centered, fit, and zoomed out in the right map window:

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The following diagram shows a the same feature selected in a data window and centered, fit, and zoomed out in the map window:

To change the properties of a map window:


1. Select Window > Map Window Properties.

2. On the Map Window Properties dialog box, type a new title in the Map window name field if appropriate. 3. Select the option you want in the For items in the select set box. 4. If you selected Center at current scale or Fit and zoom out, select or accept the setting for selecting in the current window. 5. Click OK. 5-11

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Defining Map Window Display Properties


See Defining Map Window Display Properties for Plotting in the Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional chapter for using this command in a plotting workflow.

View > Display Properties helps you visualize what your map data in the

map window will look like when viewed or plotted at a given map scale.

This command lets you define the following properties that affect the way the map graphics are displayed:
Display scaleTypically associated with screen displays, display

scale is the scale factor with which to view the map data in a map window. This factor is flexible, changing every time you zoom in or out. The current display scale is shown in the GeoWorkspace in the lower-right corner of the Status bar. Nominal map scaleWhen you set the style of a feature (for example, line thickness, point size, or text size), it is set at a given point size. This point size is only correct at a certain scale, the nominal map scale. As you zoom in and out in a map window and the display scale changes, the appearance of the features in the display also changes. However, when the features are plotted on a paper map, they will plot at the point size that is correct at the nominal map scale. You can choose from two different ways of displaying data in a map view: Size remains constant as display scale changes and Size changes as display scale changes (true at nominal map scale). When Size remains constant as display scale changes is turned on, the appearance of features will not change as you zoom in and out on the map window. In other words, the size of the symbols and text features, and the thickness of the lines, will not increase or decrease. When Size remains constant as display scale changes is turned off, zooming in will make the text and symbol size bigger and the line thickness larger. Zooming out will have the opposite affect. This effect of zooming in and out is much like moving a paper map closer to and farther from your face.

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When Size remains constant as display scale changes is turned off, the nominal map scale becomes important in controlling the display in the map window because the features are being displayed at a point size that is valid only at the nominal map scale at which they were placed. Thus, if your nominal map scale is set to 1:10,000, and you symbolize your text feature to be 12 point size, they will only appear this size on the screen when the display scale is set to 1:10,000. If you zoom out to 1:20,000, the text will then appear to be 6 point in size. For this reason, you may notice that certain features sometimes are too small to be seen, even though you set the style to be 20 points. This is because your nominal map scale is large, for example, 1:5,000, and you are zoomed out so the display scale is much smaller, for example, 1:100,000. The text is thus being displayed at 1/20th of its point size. You can fix this by changing the nominal map scale, close to something you want to plot at. Or you can turn off an option so it always displays at 20 points, regardless of how far in or out you are zoomed (display scale). When you set the Nominal map scale value, the warehouse connections are closed and reopened so the coordinate system object can properly scale and project all the legend entries. For performance reasons, when a connection is opened or reopened, if the legend entry is not displayable, the data is not loaded. For example, on the Entries tab of the Legend Properties dialog box, the legend entries with the display off setting (no check in the Entry column) display the data not loaded icon ( ) on the legend after the Nominal map scale is changed.
Rotation angleRotation angle of the map view. When the units are degrees (deg), the values in the drop-down list are: -90, -75, -60, -45,

-30, -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. When the units are not degrees, the values are the preceding degree values converted to the current angular units.
UnitsAngular units. Changing the units converts the rotation value

to the new units.


Set all legend entry styles toLegend entry display in the map

window:
Size remains constant as display scale changesThe styles on all legend entries are display-scale independent, overwriting the setting of the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting on the legend Style Definition dialog box.

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Size changes as display scale changes (true at nominal map scale)The styles on all legend entries are display-scale dependent, overwriting the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting on the legend Style Definition dialog box.

See Zooming to Nominal Map Scale in the Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional chapter.

To achieve a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) display in the map view, you set the Display scale and Nominal map scale to the intended plot scale, set the Set all legend entries to setting to Size changes as display scale changes (true at nominal map scale), and apply any rotation angle. The display of the features on the screen is how they will look when plotted. If line weights, text sizes, and symbol sizes appear too small or too large, you should make the necessary adjustments in the style definition for those features. In general, the nominal map scale will be the same as the plot scale. However, it is not necessary that they be the same, and having them differ does offer additional design flexibility. After you have set these properties, you can use the View > Pan command to view different areas of the intended plot area.

Using the Mouse in a Map Window


Note: If your mouse has been reconfigured so that the button functions are reversed, you must reverse left and right mouse-button instructions in all GeoMedia Professional documents. In a map window, you use the left mouse button to do the following: Activate the window. Create a select set. Place or move a map object. Zoom and pan when the appropriate viewing tool is selected. Invoke a hypertext link.

You use the right mouse button to click an empty space in the map window and invoke the map-window pop-up menu. This menu contains tools most commonly used in the map window.

Using an IntelliMouse
If you have a Microsoft IntelliMouse, you can use it to manipulate the display in your map windows faster and more efficiently. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel forward causes the view to zoom in at the current cursor location, and rolling the IntelliMouse wheel backward causes the view to zoom out at the current cursor location. 5-14

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Using Map Viewing Tools


The following viewing tools are available only when a map window is active. You exit persistent viewing tools by pressing ESC, by selecting another viewing tool, or by selecting the select tool.
Zoom In

Zoom in on a point you identify with a single mouse click or on an area you define by pressing and holding the left mouse button on one corner of the area, dragging the fence to the diagonally opposite corner, and then releasing the mouse button. Zoom out on a point you identify with a single mouse click or on an area you define with a dynamic twopoint line. Return a map window to its previous zoom scale and view extents. Zoom the display scale of the map window to the current nominal map scale as specified on the Display Properties dialog box. Fit all displayable objects to the active window. Fit the contents of a select set to the active window. Drag the display in the direction of the cursor. Refresh the display in all map windows.

Zoom Out

Zoom Previous Zoom to Nominal Map Scale Fit All Fit Select Set Pan Update All

On the General tab of the Options dialog box, which you access from the Tools menu, you can specify whether to display in the status bar the view extents or the zoom scale. If you have the status bar turned on, the view extents or current zoom scale appears in the rightmost panel at the bottom of the GeoWorkspace window. To see the zoom scale change, select it on the Options dialog box, and zoom in or out in the map window.

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Changing Display Characteristics of Map Objects


You change the display characteristics of a map object by changing the properties of its legend entry. Map windows are independent of each other, and each has its own legend. This means, for example, that you can display highways as blue dashed lines in one map window and as red solid lines in another map window within the same GeoWorkspace. The look and function of a map is determined by certain display characteristics of each map object: Display priority. Which map objects are displayed on top of other map objects? Style. What does each map object look like? Scale range. At what scale range can map objects be displayed? Locatability. Can the map object be selected or highlighted in the map window?

Changing the Display Priority of Map Objects


The order in which map objects are displayed determines which object can be seen when more than one object has the same spatial location. Depending on their relative size, type, and display setting, the object on top is likely to be the only one you can see. You change the display priority of a map object by changing its order on the legend. The map object associated with the bottom legend entry is drawn first, the object associated with the next-to-last entry is drawn on top of it, and so forth. The map object associated with the first legend entry has highest priority and is drawn last. There are two ways to change display priority: On the legend, select an entry and drag it up or down the list of legend entries. On the Entries tab of the Legend Properties dialog box, select the entry you want to move, and click the Priority buttons to move the entry up or down.

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Changing the Style of Map Objects


See the Line Weight Conversions and Line Styles appendix for line weight information.

To change the style of a map object, double click its style key on the legend or on the Legend Properties dialog box. This displays a dialog box appropriate to the type of map object. If the map object is a thematic display, the Map by Ranges or Unique Values dialog box appears so that you can redefine the entry. If the map object is a raster image, the Image Display dialog box appears so that you can change the display parameters of the image. If the map object is any other typefeature class, query result, or textthe appropriate tab of the Style Definition dialog box appears.

Styles that are defined as Size remains constant as display scale changes on the Style Definition dialog box maintain their size definition when you change the zoom factor in the map window. Line weight, text size, and symbol size definitions are always rendered at the current display scale. When you zoom in on a line that is defined as Size remains constant as display scale changes, the line continues to be the same number of pixels wide in the display. The following diagram shows the affect of having the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting turned on for text features at three different zoom levels. The text remains the same size at all levels.

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See Defining Map Window Display Properties in this chapter.

A map object whose style is not defined as Size remains constant as display scale changes is display scale dependent, meaning that its display is associated with a particular scale. Line weight, text size, and symbol size are rendered at the nominal map scale defined on the Display Properties dialog box. The display appears larger as you zoom in and smaller as you zoom out. The following diagram shows the affect of having the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting turned off for text features at three different zoom levels. The size of the text varies with the zoom factor but remains proportionate to the map.

On the Style Definitions dialog box, the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting is enabled by default. When this setting is enabled, a fixed number of screen pixels is used to define the style size, such as line width or text font size. Whereas, if the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting is disabled, the style size represents a fixed number of map (ground) units. For text, area, point, lines, and compound features, the Size remains constant as display scale changes setting is enabled by default. If you accept the defaults, text, lines, areas, and compound objects will not appear larger as you zoom in, that is, the thickness of the line used to draw the features does not change as the display scale changes.

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To change the style of a feature class or query:


On the legend, double click the style key of the feature class you want to change.

On the corresponding tabs of the Style Definition dialog box, you set the appropriate style options for a feature class or query. On all style tabs, you can turn on or off the Size remains constant as display scale changes option. The tabs are as follows:
PointDefine the font, point size, color, and a character to represent the point feature class. You can browse to select a bitmap image and specify its size. You can also browse to select a symbol file. LineDefine a single, multiple, or patterned line style, choosing the color, line weight, and line style, and line pattering. Area BoundaryDefine a single or multiple line boundary, choosing

its color, line weight, and style.

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Area FillDefine the type of background for the primary fill and

color for the area feature and a pattern for the area feature for the secondary fill. Optionally, you can choose a symbol with which to pattern the area feature.
TextDefine the font, size, color, and font style. You can also define

the frame border and fill characteristics.

To change the style of individual features:


1. Run a query to find the feature or features. 2. Change the style of the query results. 3. The features returned by the query appear in the style defined for the legend entry that has highest priority on the legend. 4. If necessary, change the display priority of the feature class and query results. For example, you add a feature class named roads to the legend and define its color as blue, which means that all roads in the class appear blue on the map. To change the color of just one road, you run a query to find only that road and define the style of the query to be red so that the road displays in red. Because you have run the query after adding the feature class roads to the legend, the legend entry for the query result is placed above the roads legend entry. Because the query entry is on top, it has highest priority and the single road appears red. If you move the roads legend entry above the query legend entry, all roads, including the one in the query result, will display as blue.

Obtaining Symbols for Feature-Class Displays


GeoMedia Professional delivers several symbol libraries that contain symbols you can use to represent point-type features and to pattern linear and area features. The symbol libraries are organized by industry, such as GIS (GISsym.fsm), Utilities (UTILsym.fsm), Recreation (Recreation.fsm), Transportation (Transportation.fsm), and so forth. They are installed in the <drive:>\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Symbols folder. If these symbol-library files do not contain the symbols you want, you can create your own symbol library files from these or other .fsm files, from AutoCAD .dwg files, and from MicroStation .cel files. To use symbols from the SmartSketch product symbol files (.sym), you should first save the file as an AutoCAD block file (.dwg), and then use the following workflow to convert it to the GeoMedia symbol file library file format. 5-20

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To create your own symbol files:


1. From the Start menu of the Windows taskbar, select Programs > GeoMedia Professional > Define Symbol File.

2. To place symbols, blocks, or cells from an existing .fsm, AutoCAD .dwg, or MicroStation .cel file into the new file: Click Add. Select a file from the list on the Add from File dialog box, and click Open. Use the SHIFT and CTRL keys to select symbols from the list. Click Insert. Click Close.

The symbols you selected are appended to the new library file. Symbol colors that match the map-window background may be replaced with another color so they can be seen against the GeoMedia Professional background. 3. To change the name or description of a symbol, select it, click Edit, make the changes, and click OK on the Edit Symbols dialog box. 4. To remove a symbol from the library, select it and click Remove. 5. Click Save As, and save the opened file in the \symbols folder. 6. Close the Define Symbol File dialog box.

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Note: To have the correct color definition transferred from your MicroStation cell library to the new GeoMedia symbol file, copy the MicroStation design-file color table used when creating the cells to <drive>:\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Program\Color.tbl. The RGB definitions obtained from the color table will be used when creating the new symbols.

To open an existing .fsm file:


On the Define Symbol File dialog box, click Open, and browse to select the file. Once the file is open, you can edit, add, or remove symbols.

Setting a Scale Range for a Map Object


One way to define the display in your map window is to set a scale range for map objects. This means that, when the view scale of the map window falls within the scale range of a legend entry, whether or not the object is displayed depends on whether or not the Display property of the legend entry is set to By scale. For example, interstate highways might be set to display at scales between 1:250,000 and 1:1,000,000. Zooming to a scale outside this range causes the display of interstate highways to turn off and the legend-entry title to be gray. You can also use this to display feature classes differently depending on the display scale. For example, at 1:1,000,000 U.S. Interstates may be drawn as a single line, but as you zoom in they could be drawn as thicker, double lines.

To set a scale range for a map object:


1. Select Legend > Legend Properties. 2. On the Entries tab of the Legend Properties dialog box, select the Display cell of the entry you want to set a scale range for. 3. From the drop-down list, scroll down and select By Scale. 4. Click Scale.

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5. On the Scale Range dialog box, select a predefined range, select minimum and maximum range values from the drop-down lists, or key in minimum and maximum range values between 1 and 1,000,000,000. 6. Click OK.

Changing the Locatability of Map Objects


A map object must be locatable to be selected with the cursor. Turning off the locatability setting helps when you have several feature classes clustered in one area but only want to select from one feature class. Likewise, it makes no sense to select certain map objects, such as backdrops or logos. You can turn its locatability off to prevent its being selected accidentally. An arrow next to the legend entry indicates that an object is locatable. You control this through the Locatable column on the Entries tab of the Legend Properties dialog box or the Locatable item on the right mouse menu. An arrow in the cell means the map object is locatable. Clicking the cell toggles locatability on and off.

Setting Defaults for Feature-Class Legend Entries


When a feature-class entry is added to a legend for the first time, an entry for that feature class or query is automatically added to the master legend, where default styles and properties for these legend entries are set. The master legend serves as a template for map objects on all the legends in a GeoWorkspace. Through the master legend, you can change the default properties for a feature class so that it will display with the same properties each time it is added to any legend in the GeoWorkspace. When a feature class that already has a master-legend entry is added to a legend, it is displayed with the properties defined in the master legend. 5-23

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All feature classes in connected warehouses are available from the master legend but do not have master-legend entries until they have been added to a legend or accessed from the Master Legend dialog box. For example, if you want the feature class railroads to be displayed by default as green dotted lines when subsequently added to a legend, you can change the default legend-entry properties through the Master Legend dialog box. You can change master-legend entries at any time by selecting Legend > Master Legend from the GeoMedia Professional menu. Changes to the master legend do not affect existing legend entries, but do affect future additions to legends. You can use the master legend to change the default legend properties for a feature class, and still customize individual legends with the Legend Properties dialog box.

Displaying the North Arrow


By default, the north arrow is not displayed. You can toggle the display on and off in the active map window through View > North Arrow. You can display only one north arrow in a map window. You can click and drag the north arrow anywhere within the map window. The size of the north arrow remains constant regardless of how the scale is changed in the map window. If the azimuth is defined by the coordinate system, the north arrow is intelligent, that is, it updates dynamically when you move it or when you resize or pan through the window. If the azimuth is user-defined, the north arrow does not update dynamically. 5-24

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The direction of the north arrow is determined in the following manner: 1. The center of the north arrow window is calculated (the center of the square box around the north arrow). 2. The position of this center point on the earth is determined. 3. The world coordinates for the center point are given to the Coordinate System Manager and the azimuth of that point is returned. 4. The arrow is rotated about the center point to match the azimuth.

To change the appearance of the north arrow:


You can change the size, background color, position, symbol used, and azimuth of the north arrow. You can also display a compass rose instead of a north arrow. Note: If your operating system is Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows 98, you cannot change or rotate the north-arrow symbol. 1. With the north arrow displayed in the active map window, select Edit > Properties > North Arrow, or right click the north arrow and select Properties from the pop-up menu.

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2. To change the north-arrow symbol, browse to select a different one. GeoMedia Professional delivers north arrows and compass roses in the \GeoMedia Professional\Program folder, but you can select another one if you have it. Note: To see graphics of all the north arrows and compass roses, open the arrows.doc file, which is also in the \GeoMedia Professional\Program folder. 3. Select the size from the Size drop-down list, or type the appropriate value. The north arrow is not defined in ground units; it is printed at the position and size specified in the map window. Note: The largest value in the drop-down list is 96, but you can type a larger value in the Size field. The maximum size allowed is 32767 points. 4. Click the Background button to change the background color. If you want the arrow to appear transparent in the map window, select a color that matches the background of the map window. 5. To define your own azimuth of north, select User-defined, and change the degrees. The azimuth of north is measured clockwise from the vertical: 0 points straight up, 90 points horizontally to the right, 180 points straight down, and so forth. If the north-arrow azimuth is defined by the coordinate system, the north-arrow azimuth updates automatically when the coordinate system is changed. However, if the north-arrow azimuth is userdefined, you must change the north-arrow azimuth when the coordinate system is changed. 6. To save the settings on the North Arrow Properties dialog box as the default settings for all map windows in the GeoWorkspace, check the Save as defaults check box. If you do not check the box, only the properties and location of the north arrow in the active window are saved. 7. To make the background of the north arrow transparent during printing, check Print transparent. The north arrow appears in a printed copy exactly as it appears in the map window. 8. Click OK. 5-26

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Displaying the Scale Bar


The scale bar shows intervals in ground units to indicate the distance on a map. You toggle the display of the scale bar on and off in the active map window through View > Scale Bar. The scale bar shows the scale for the window in which it is displayed. You can display only one scale bar in a map window. You can click and drag the scale bar anywhere within the map window. The scale that the scale bar uses is the scale of the map window. Note: Initially, the scale bar uses the measurement units defined using Tools > Options > Units and Formats. Once you change the units on the Scale Bar Properties dialog box, the scale bar uses its own setting.
See the Conversion Tables appendix for converting from the International System of Units (metric) to the U. S. Customary System and vice versa.

If you modify the extents of the map window, the scale bar automatically resizes to indicate the correct scale-bar length. The scale-bar length and the number of displayed intervals may be shortened or lengthened to maintain a length that is approximately one-fifth the width of the map window. To ensure that information is displayed clearly, the scale bar holds a minimum length. When you specify the number of intervals and/or interval length, the scale bar maintains those values regardless of the effects of resizing or rescaling. If the resulting display is inappropriate, change the scale-barinterval properties. You can change the appearance of the scale bar displayed in the active map window by selecting Map > Properties > Scale Bar, and setting appropriately the options on the Scale Bar Properties dialog box.

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Measuring Distances
See the Conversion Tables appendix for converting from the International System of Units (metric) to the U.S. Customary System, and vice versa.

The Measure Distance tool calculates the linear distance between two or more points. The measurement interpretation option, the units of measure, and their precision are set on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box. In addition, this tool updates the Precision Coordinates control with the coordinate values of each snapped point found as you move the cursor in the active map window instead of the coordinate values of the actual cursor position. Note: To find the area of a feature, right click a single area feature that you have selected, and select Select Set Properties from the pop-up menu. The area of the feature is listed on the General tab.

To measure distance:
1. Optional: Select Tools > Options > Units and Formats, and change the units to be used to measure. 2. Select Tools > Measure Distance, or select Measure Distance from the map-window pop-up menu.

3. In the map window, click the starting point, and move the mouse to draw a dashed line to the second point. The dashed line moves with the mouse, and the Distance field in the Measure Distance dialog box is updated dynamically. If the Update coordinates on mouse move option has been set on the Precision Coordinates control, its coordinate values are also updated dynamically. Note: You can use snaps during measurement to snap to specific locations. 4. Click the second point, and move the mouse to the third point, click it, and continue in this fashion until you have the measurement you want. You can press the BACKSPACE key to delete a previous point measurement, and right click to reset and start over. 5-28

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Now the Distance field shows the distance from the last point as you move the mouse, and the Total field shows the cumulative distance between all points clicked (it does not update dynamically as the mouse moves). 5. Press the right mouse button to clear the measure. 6. Leave the Measure Distance dialog box displayed while you work on other tasks, or dismiss it by clicking the X on the title bar.

Taking a Snapshot of the Map Window


You can copy an image of the active map window to the Clipboard by selecting the Snapshot tool from the GeoMedia Professional Edit menu or from the map-window pop-up menu. Use the Paste tool to paste it into any application that supports Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), such as Word or MSPaint.

Deleting Map Objects Through the Legend


You remove an object from a map window and from a legend by deleting the associated legend entry. Deleting the legend entry does not delete the data from the warehouse. There are two ways to delete map objects through the legend: Select the associated legend entry or entries, using the SHIFT key to select contiguous entries and the CTRL key to select discontiguous entries or to deselect entries, and press DELETE. On the Legend Properties dialog box, select the row selector for the map object you want to remove, and click Delete or press DELETE.

Customizing the Legend


You can move, resize, and close the legend as you would any standard window. Generally, you control how the legend and legend entries appear in the map window by setting the legend properties. After customizing a legend, you can save it by giving it a name, and then you can use it in other map windows within the same GeoWorkspace. When you create a new map window, the New Map Window dialog box presents a list of all the named legends in the GeoWorkspace. You can select one of the named legends or an empty one.

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IMPORTANT: If you close a map window without naming the legend, the legend is deleted. In addition to the steps listed below, you can use certain shortcuts to change legend (and thus map-object) properties. To edit the style of a map object, double click the style key on its legend entry. To change a thematic-display attribute, double click the attribute key. To edit a title or subtitle of a legend entry, double click the title or subtitle. To change the display priority of map objects, drag legend entries up or down the legend with the cursor. To delete a map object, select its legend entry and press DELETE.

If you have created and customized a legend that you want to use in other GeoWorkspaces, save the GeoWorkspace in which you have customized the legend as a template. Then, when you create a new GeoWorkspace, select that template and use the customized legend.

To control the appearance of legend entries:


1. Select Legend > Properties. 2. Select the General tab of the Legend Properties dialog box.

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3. Set the font characteristics of the legend-entry text by clicking the Title, Subtitle, and Heading buttons in the Font box. The Title column on the Entries tab contains the legend-entry title, and the Subtitle column contains the legend-entry subtitle. Subtitles are not added by default. 4. Click Background color to select the background color of the legend. 5. Turn tooltips on or off to suit your preference. Tooltips are helpful instructions that appear in pop-up windows when you pause the cursor over legend entries. For example, if you hold the cursor over a query style key, the message Double click to edit style appears. Note: This check box does not control tooltips for the GeoMedia Professional toolbar. You control the display of the toolbar tooltips through View > Toolbars. 6. Turn statistics on or off to suit your preference. The type of statistics shown depends on the type of legend entry. For example, feature classes and queries show count statistics. You specify the type of statistics for thematic displays on the Map by Ranges and Unique Values dialog boxes. 7. Turn the title bar on or off to suit your preference. 8. Check Autofit legend if you want the legend to resize automatically whenever an entry is hidden, deleted, added, collapsed, or has a title or subtitle change. 9. Click OK to accept the changes.

To fit the legend:


You fit the legend in one of the following ways: Double click the title bar or the white space around legend entries. From the GeoMedia Professional menu, select Legend > Fit
Legend.

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To turn off the display of legend entries:


To gain space on the legend, you can turn off the display of some legend entries without turning off the display of map objects in the map window. The Entry column on the Entries tab controls whether the legend entry is visible or hidden on the legend. A check indicates that the entry is visible. Clicking the cell toggles the status on and off.

To name a legend:
1. To name and thus save the legend in the active map window, select Legend > Name Legend.

2. On the Name Legend dialog box, type a name for the legend. 3. Click OK.

To rename a legend:
1. Select Legend > Legends.

2. On the Legends dialog box, click Organizer.

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3. On the Legend Organizer dialog box, click Rename. 4. On the Rename Legend dialog box, type the new name in the Name field. 5. Click OK. 6. Close the Legend Organizer and Legends dialog boxes.

To replace a legend:
You can replace the legend in the active map window with a copy of another named legend. 1. Select Legend > Legends. 2. Select the legend that you want to use as the replacement. 3. Click Replace.

To delete a legend:
1. Select Legend > Legends. 2. On the Legends dialog box, click Organizer. 3. On the Legend Organizer dialog box, select the legend that you want to delete. 4. Click Delete. 5. Close the Legend Organizer and Legends dialog boxes.

Customizing the Legend Toolbar


The default Legend toolbar contains buttons for the most commonly used legend operations, but you can customize it to suit your preferences.

To customize the Legend toolbar:


1. Select Tools > Customize. 2. On the Toolbars tab of the Customize dialog box, select Legend from the list of categories. 3. Drag buttons for functions you do not want off the Legend toolbar. 4. Drag buttons for functions you do want from the grouping of available buttons onto the Legend toolbar. 5. If you want to add the button that turns the legend on and off, select it from the View category. 6. Close the Customize dialog box. 5-33

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Using the Legend Pop-up Menu


You display the legend pop-up menu by clicking the right mouse button with your cursor on a legend entry. You can select multiple legend entries while holding down the CTRL or SHIFT key. The status of the legend entry or entries that you select determines which options are available on the pop-up menu. Option
Display On Display Off Display by Scale Locatable

Does this Turns on or off the display of objects in the map window associated with the selected legend entries. Displays map objects associated with selected legend entries according to scale. Toggles locatability of map objects associated with the selected legend entries. A check mark by this menu item indicates that all map objects associated with selected legend entries are locatable. No check mark indicates that one or more map objects associated with selected legend entries have locatability turned off. When a legend entry has locatability turned off, the arrow beside it disappears. Hides selected legend entries on the legend without affecting the display of associated objects in the map window. To display a hidden legend entry, use the Legend Properties dialog box.

Hide Legend Entry

Collapse Legend Entry

Collapses or expands selected thematic display legend entries. A check mark by the menu item indicates that all selected legend entries are collapsed. No check mark indicates that one or more selected legend entries are not collapsed. If multiple entries are selected and not all are collapsed, clicking on this option collapses expanded entries.

Fit Legend Legend Properties

Fits the legend to display all entries. Hides the legend. Displays the Legend Properties dialog box.

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Creating Additional Map Windows


You can create multiple map windows in a GeoWorkspace to display different views of your map. Each map window contains its own legend, north arrow, and scale bar.

To create a map window:


1. Select Window > New Map Window.

2. Type a title for the map window in the Window name field. 3. Select a legend for the map window. The legend can be one that has already been named (saved) in the GeoWorkspace, if one exists, or an empty legend. 4. Click OK.

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Displaying Design Files


See Connecting to a CAD Warehouse in the Working with Warehouses chapter and the online Define CAD Server Schema File Help.

Display Design Files allows you to quickly and easily display

MicroStation/IGDS file data in a map window based solely on levels. This command provides an alternative to using the delivered Define CAD Server Schema File to specify the parameters the software uses when creating connections with the CAD server. Thus, you do not need to have a complete understanding of the CAD data or knowledge of the project, for example, how the features are defined in the project and whether the graphics in the project have attributes. This is useful for quick viewing or backdrop data. This command automatically builds the CAD server schema (.csd) file from a level-based template, makes a connection to that .csd file, and then displays the data in the active map window according to the specified levels. Depending on your selection, there is one legend (feature class) entry displayed per level. In addition, you can create a feature class that encompasses all of the levels. This additional feature class is a convenience to you if you want to see the entire map without style differentiation between levels.

To display design files:


1. Select Tools > Display Design Files.

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2. In the Folder field, type the complete path of the folder containing the design files, or use Browse to locate the folder. 3. From the Available files list, select one or more design files you want to display. 4. Optional: In the Coordinate system file field, type the complete path of the file to be used for all selected design files, or use Browse to select the file.
See Defining a Coordinate System for a GeoWorkspace in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

Note: The coordinate system file you specify defines the coordinate system of the selected design files, but it does not alter the coordinate system settings of the GeoWorkspace. If the display does not yield the results you want, you may need to modify your current GeoWorkspace coordinate system settings using View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System to set the proper projection. 5. Optional: Change the default in the CAD server schema file field by typing the complete path of the CAD server schema output file or by using Browse to locate the file. 6. Optional: In the Connection name field, change the default connection name. 7. Accept the default All levels together display option, or select Levels individually and type the appropriate levels in the field. Note: These settings are not mutually exclusive, so you have the ability to map individually selected design file levels as separate feature classes in addition to mapping all design file levels into a single feature class. 8. Click OK. Note: If you do not select a display option, the command terminates after making the connection. You then need to use Legend > Add Feature Class to display any features.

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Working with Data Windows


Each data window contains the nongraphic attributes of a single feature class or query. This equates to a feature table, with each column representing an attribute and each row representing an instancea featureof the feature class. The data in each cell is called a value or attribute value. Data windows do not display geometry or spatial index key attributes. In a read/write warehouse, you can edit the features and values in a data window, and any changes you make will be reflected in the map window. So, if you delete a row in a data window, the corresponding feature is also deleted from the map.

Opening a Data Window


To open a data window, you must be connected to a warehouse. Once you open a warehouse connection, you can select a feature class or query result to display in a data window.

To open a data window:


1. Select Window > New Data Window.

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2. Type a title for the data window in the Window name field. 3. Click the plus sign next to the warehouse or query folder that contains the feature class you want to display in the data window. If you select a query that has not been run, the software runs the query and displays the results in the data window. If you select a query that has been run, the existing results are displayed in the data window. 4. Click OK.

The Data menu replaces the Legend menu.

Controlling the Data Window


To the left of a data-window title or in the upper-left corner of a maximized data window is the data-window icon.

Clicking this icon displays a menu that allows you to control the data window. Depending on the current state of the data window, this menu lets you do the following: 6-2 Restore a minimized window. Move, restore, minimize, or maximize the window. Close the data window. Activate the next data or map window in the stack.

Working with Data Windows

In addition, the GeoMedia Professional Window menu contains tools for cascading or tiling windows and for activating a different window. The bottom of this menu lists all the open windows in the GeoWorkspace. A check mark appears next to the title of the active window.

To change the title of a data window:


1. Select Window > Data Window Properties.

2. On the Data Window Properties dialog box, type a new title in the Data window name field. 3. Click OK.

Using the Mouse in a Data Window


Note: If your mouse has been reconfigured so that the button functions are reversed, you must reverse left and right mouse-button instructions in all the products documents. In a data window, you use the left mouse button to do the following: Activate the window. Place the cursor. Create a select set. Select a table, row, column, or cell.

You use the right mouse button to open the data-window pop-up menu. This menu contains tools commonly used in the data window.

Using the IntelliMouse


If you have a Microsoft IntelliMouse, you can use it to manipulate the display in your data windows faster and more efficiently. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel forward scrolls up at the cursor location. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel backward scrolls down at the cursor location. 6-3

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Using the Data-View Tools


To adjust the display in a data window, you use the data view tools, which you access on the Data menu, from the Data toolbar, or from the datawindow pop-up menu. These tools are available only when a data window is active. Before you use some of these viewing tools, you generally have to select the entire table, one or more rows, one or more columns, or one or more cells. To select the entire table, click the table button in the upper-left corner of the data window, or select Edit > Select All Rows. To select cell contents, click the cell. To select a row, click the row selector. To select adjacent cells in a row, click and drag the mouse cursor across the cells. To select a column, click the column header. To select adjacent cells in a column, click and drag the mouse up or down.

You can use the SHIFT and CTRL keys to add and remove rows or columns to or from a select set, but you cannot select a column and then add a row, or select a row and then add a cell from another row.

To show columns in the table:


1. Select Data > Show Columns.

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2. On the Show Columns dialog box, toggle the display of individual columns (attributes) on or off. A check beside a column name means that the column is shown in the data window. Removing the check hides the column, but does not delete it. 3. Click OK.

To hide columns in the table:


You can hide columns in one of two ways. One way is to toggle it off on the Show Columns dialog box. Here is another: 1. Select the column you want to hide by clicking its header cell. You can select multiple contiguous cells by dragging the cursor across the column headers. You select discontiguous columns by pressing the CTRL key while clicking the column headers. 2. Select Data > Hide Columns. This tool is only available when at least one column is selected. You can hide all but one column.

To promote rows in the table:


1. Click the row selector(s) of the rows you want to promote to the top of the table. 2. Select Data > Promote Columns. When multiple rows are promoted, they are displayed at the top, but they retain their original order in the table.

To sort rows in the table:


1. Click the header of the column by which you want the rows sorted. 2. To sort rows in ascending order, select Data > Sort Ascending. 3. To sort rows in descending order, select Data > Sort Descending.

To display column statistics:


1. Click the header of the column for which you want statistics. The attributes must be numeric. 2. Select Data > Column Statistics.

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To change the contents of the active data window:


1. Select Data > Change Contents.

2. On the Data Window Contents dialog box, select another feature class or query. 3. Click OK to update the active data window.

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Working with Data Windows

Editing Cells in the Data Window


When you edit a cell or field in the data window, you are changing the value of an attribute of the affected feature. The software uses standard Windows editing tools and the Clipboard to allow you to cut, copy, and paste text in the data window. These actions do not affect hidden cells or cells containing hypertext. You can also use the Clipboard to copy features in the data window, but associated graphics are not copied.
Edit > Cut deletes selected cell values. You cannot cut cells

containing the primary key or other required values.


Edit > Copy copies selected cells to the Clipboard as text. Edit > Paste copies data from the Clipboard to the selected cell(s).

When you select a single cell, the data on the Clipboard is pasted to the right and down from the selected cell, replacing the selected cell. When you select a contiguous block of cells, the data on the Clipboard replaces each selected cell with the corresponding entry on the Clipboard.
Paste will not work in the following circumstances:

If the shape you want to paste does not match exactly the shape of the selected cell(s), except when pasting to one cell. If pasting to the right and down would exceed the number of columns in the data window. If pasting would create null values for required cells. If the primary key column is not displayed. If pasting would require an invalid data conversion, such as trying to paste a text string containing letters into a numeric field. If pasting would require duplicate values for the primary key field or any other fields requiring unique values. In pasting into the last row, the software tries to paste all cells from the Clipboard. If you have selected multiple cells in the last row, the shapes must match exactly. If you have selected a single cell, cells are pasted to the right of the selected cell, but not down. If the paste would populate required fields and create a unique primary key, the paste creates new features in the database corresponding to each row from the Clipboard. Pasting does not occur if the paste would not populate the required fields, or if the paste would create duplicate primary keys. 6-7

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If you have not moved your cursor to another row, you can use Edit > Undo to delete text you typed or restore text you deleted in that row.

Taking a Snapshot of the Data Window


You can copy an image of the active data window to the Clipboard by selecting the Snapshot tool from the GeoMedia Professional Edit menu or from the data-window pop-up menu. Hidden columns and cells containing hypertext are not copied.

You can paste the snapshot into any application that supports OLE, such as Word or Excel.

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Working with Features


A feature is represented in a map window by geometry and is further defined by nongraphic attributes in the database. The values of these nongraphic attributes can be viewed as cells in the data window view on the non-spatial data of the feature. For example, a parcel of landParcel 126-Ais represented graphically in the map window by area geometry. The area geometry attributes for Parcel 126-A are part of a single row in the Parcels table. The Parcels table contains information about all the members of the Parcels feature class. Parcel 126-A is one of 15 members of this feature class. The Parcels table, therefore, contains 15 rows, one for each parcel. Among the nongraphic attributes of Parcel 126-A are its identification number (126A), the name of its owner (P. Brown), and its assessed value ($10,000). Each of these attributes is a column in the Parcels table. So, the Parcels table has at least the following three columns: ID, OWNER, and ASSESSED_VALUE. 126A, P. Brown, and $10,000 are values (or cells) in the ID, OWNER, and ASSESSED_VALUE columns of the row containing the geometry for the Parcel 126-A geometry.
See the "Editing Features and Geometries" chapter.

In a read/write warehouse, you can create a new feature class, delete a feature class, and edit a feature class definition. You can edit a feature class in the following ways: By adding attributes (columns) By removing attributes By changing attributes

In a read/write warehouse, you can also manage feature data in the following ways: By changing attribute values (cells) By adding or deleting features (rows)

IMPORTANT: Changes to data in a read/write warehouse are automatically saved as soon as you make them.

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Understanding Geometry Types


Geometry refers to the graphic representation of a feature in the map window. Features are represented by five geometry types: A point feature is represented by one or more points on a map that represent the location of a feature. A point can also represent features that cannot be mapped at the defined map scale. Points can have an orientation, that is, they can be rotated. Elevation control points, oil wells, and manholes are all examples of point features. A linear feature is represented by one or more lines and/or arcs. What appears on the map to be a single line may actually be line segments strung together to form a single feature. Rivers, railroad tracks, utility lines, and roads are examples of linear features. An area feature is represented by closed boundaries. Each boundary may or may not contain one or more holes, and the boundaries and holes themselves may be composed of one or more lines and/or arcs. Counties and land parcels are examples of area features. A compound feature may have point, linear, and/or area geometry within the feature class or even within a single feature. A text feature is represented by text that appears at a point location on a map. You can place text in an existing text feature class or create a new one to contain it. Text can have orientation, that is, it can be rotated. Features can be contiguous or discontiguous. A contiguous feature has a single geometry. In a map data set, for example, California is a single contiguous feature that consists of one geometry. A discontiguous feature consists of multiple geometries. For example, Hawaii is a single discontiguous feature that consists of several islands, each island being a separate geometry. Note: When a discontiguous area is placed so that it completely encloses a second discontiguous area, the second discontiguous area becomes a hole inside the area being placed. When the hole completely encloses a third discontiguous area, the third discontiguous area becomes an island. You can create a hole in an area geometry by adding a second area geometry that falls entirely inside the boundary of the first area geometry. You can create an island inside the hole by adding a third area geometry that falls entirely inside the boundary of the second area geometry. 7-2

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Working with Feature Classes


In GeoMedia Professional, you can create a feature class only in an open read/write warehouse. The coordinate system defined for the warehouse that will contain the new feature class is used as the coordinate system for the geometry. The software allows you to create feature classes in various ways: From scratch By copying some of the information from an existing feature class into a new feature class in the same warehouse By importing data By outputting to feature classes By attaching an external data source

Each feature class created from scratch or by copying must contain a key attribute and a primary, unique index value on that key. When you add a feature to a feature class, you have the option of placing geometry. A feature does not need geometry to exist, although most features do have geometry.
See Connecting to an ODBC Tabular Warehouse in the Working with Warehouses chapter and the Working with Feature Classes topic in GeoMedia Professional online Help.

The ODBC Tabular Data Server allows you to create a connection to any nongraphic table in an ODBC-compliant data source. Thus, you can access additional data stores containing tabular-only data, such as coordinate locations, addresses, and additional attribute information. In addition, you can attach one or more tabular-only feature classes from the following external data sources with the Feature Definition command: a text file, an Excel worksheet, or an Xbase database. You can, however, only attach an external data source to a read/write Access warehouse connection. You can view and handle the resulting table(s) in the target read/write connection similarly to other tables except that the feature class is readonly. For example, you can edit the name, description, and data source name of the attached table and copy an attached table. When you copy an attached table, the software creates a local table without data. This new, empty table then serves as a template into which you can add data. The software also allows you to easily review the general and attribute feature class properties or an attached table definition, to delete a feature class, and to detach an attached table.

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To create a feature class from scratch:


1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.

2. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, select the connection to the read/write warehouse where you want to store the new feature class. 3. Click New.

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4. On the General tab of the New - <FeatureClass> dialog box, type a name for the feature class. The feature class name must be unique within a warehouse. 5. Optional: Type a brief description of the feature class. 6. From the Geometry Type drop-down list, select a geometry type. To create a feature class for labels or for inserting text, select a geometry type of Text. 7. Select the Attributes tab, which contains a grid with a row for each attribute definition.

8. In a cell in the Key column, define a unique primary key for the feature class. You can click the cell to have the software define a primary key for you. You can have only one primary key for a feature class. 9. In the Name column, type attribute names. Each of these must be unique for the feature class. 10. Click the cell in Data Type for each row to display the drop-down list of available data types.

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11. Select a data type, and define its parameters at the bottom of the Attributes tab. The AutoNumber data type has no parameters for you to define. 12. Optional: Type a brief description of the attribute in the Description cell of each attribute. 13. Click OK.

14. Note the new class on the Feature Class Definition dialog box, and close the dialog box.

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To add, change, and delete attributes


Note: You can change the geometry type of a feature class only if the feature class is empty. 1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition. 2. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, select the connection to the warehouse that contains the feature class you want to edit. 3. Select the feature class, and click Edit. 4. On the Edit - <FeatureClass> dialog box, click the Attributes tab. 5. To add an attribute, enter the attribute name, data type, and description in the bottom row, and select a primary key. 6. To change an attribute, click the cell you want to change, and make the changes. 7. To delete an attribute, select the attribute row, and press DELETE. 8. Click OK to update the feature class. 9. Close the Feature Class Definition dialog box. Note: Editing an existing Oracle feature class definition is an Oracle administrative task and is, therefore, not allowed in the GeoMedia Professional Feature Class Definition tool.

Outputting Feature Classes


The Output to Feature Class command lets you create feature classes from existing feature classes or queries. You should bear in mind that features are static and are stored in the database; in contrast, queries are dynamic and are not stored in the database. Many operations output queries that you may want to output to a feature class, depending on your workflow.

To output feature classes:


1. Select Warehouse > Output to Feature Class.

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2. Select the source feature class or query from the Select features to output drop-down list. 3. From the Connection drop-down list, select the connection to the target read/write warehouse. 4. In the Feature class box, type a new name for the feature class, or select an existing feature class to which you want to append the features in the source feature class. 5. Optional: Type a description for the feature class. 6. Select a map or data windowor bothin which to display the features. If you select a map window, you can also change the style of the features. 7. Click OK.

Selecting Features in the Map Window


You select features with a left mouse click or by drawing a fence on the map when the Select Tool is active. The Select Tool is located on the Selection toolbar and is the default active mode. When Select mode is active, the Select Tool button is depressed, and the tip of the cursor has a circle around it called the locate zone.

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The locate zone determines how close to a feature you must be to highlight it or to select it. The size of the locate zone is set using the Size of cursor locate zone slider on the SmartLocate tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).

The size, or tolerance, is measured in screen pixels. You drag the slider to the right to increase the size and to the left to decrease it. A preview of the locate zone is displayed next to the slider.
See the "SmartSnap" section in this chapter.

Note: The locate zone is referred to as the snap zone when using the SmartSnap tools. A feature can be located (identified) only if it is displayed in the active map window and its Locatable property is turned on. A feature within the locate zone of the cursor is not located or highlighted until the cursor has been paused over the feature for a short time, but you do not have to pause the cursor to select the feature. The duration of the pause interval is set using the Delay before cursor highlights features slider on the SmartLocate tab of the Options dialog box.

See Changing the Locatability of Map Objects in the Working with Map Windows chapter.

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When you select one or more features, they become a select set. A select set can contain features from one or more sources. You create a select set to edit it. When the select set contains more than one object, any Edit tool you select affects all objects in the select set simultaneously. A select set can also contain both read-only and read/write features. Objects in the select set are distinguished as read-only or read/write by the display of handles in the map window when you select an edit tool. For example, if you select the Move tool when a select set is active, handles appear on read/write objects but not on the read-only objects in the select set. Note: You can change the highlight, select, and handles colors on the Map Display tab of the Options dialog box. You can have only one select set active in a GeoWorkspace at a time. The same select set is visible in all displayed windows, both map windows and data windows. Note: You can also select a feature by selecting its row in the data window by clicking on the row selector or using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple features.

To select a single feature:


You select a single feature with a left mouse click when the Select Tool is active. The feature is highlighted as long as any part of it is within the locate zone of the Select Tool. The feature changes to the select color when you click it.

To add features to a select set:


Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while left clicking the highlighted feature.

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To select a hidden or overlapped feature:


When multiple features are within the locate zone and you pause the cursor over them, an ellipsis (three dots) appears at the lower-right edge of the Select Tool. If you left click when the ellipsis is displayed, the PickQuick dialog box appears.

You use PickQuick to select features that overlap each other or features that are hidden by other features. A numbered button is displayed for each selectable feature. If there are more than six features, the dialog box displays scroll buttons. Move the Select Tool over the buttons without clicking to highlight the corresponding features. When the feature you want to select is highlighted, click the corresponding button on the PickQuick dialog box. When you move the cursor over a numbered button representing a feature in the map view, a tooltip appears showing the name of the feature class or query of the highlighted item. If the Add connection prefix to feature names check box is selected on the General tab of the Options dialog box, the feature class name is prefixed with the connection name.

To select multiple features:


There are several ways to place multiple features in a select set. When the Select Tool is active, you can: Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while left clicking the highlighted features. Draw a fence with the Select Tool that encompasses the area containing the features you want in the select set. The features included in the select set are determined by which of two other selection buttons (fence modes) is depressed: When the Inside selection button is depressed, all features that fall completely within the fence will be selected.

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When the Overlap selection button is depressed, all features that fall inside and are overlapped by the fence will be selected.

To select all features for a legend entry:


Highlight the associated entries on the legend, and select Edit > Select by Legend Entry.

This selects all map objects in the map window associated with highlighted legend entries, regardless of whether objects are fitted in the map window. Legend entries must have the display turned on and must be in the current view scale, but map objects do not need to be locatable.

To select all features for a data window:


Click on the table selection button in the upper-left corner of the data window grid, or select Edit > Select All Rows.

This selects all features in the data window, whether they are visible in the data window or not.

To clear a select set:


You can clear a select set in the following two ways: Select Edit > Unselect All. Left click an empty space on the map window.

To remove features from a select set:


You can remove a feature from a select set in the following two ways: Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while left clicking the feature you want to remove from the select set. Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while clicking and dragging to place a fence around the features you want to remove from the select set.

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Note: You must hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key or the select set will be replaced.

Collecting Data
GeoMedia Professional supports several methods of collecting data. You can digitize features directly on screen, digitize features using a digitizing table, digitize features on-screen off a scanned image, or enter features using precision keyins plus coordinate geometry input. In addition, you can bring in data from outside sources using GeoMedia Professionals import capabilities, and you can bulk create features from existing linework. You may also want to collect the geometry first and populate the attribute information later, or vice versa. Alternatively, you may want to collect attribute information as you digitize a feature. GeoMedia Professional supports all of these workflows. This section describes the tools and capabilities available to address these workflows. It begins with a description of specialized productivity tools that are common to multiple placement and edit commands.

Tools for Speeding Up the Digitizing Workflow


GeoMedia Professional provides several unique tools for speeding up traditional capture and edit workflows. All of GeoMedia Professionals commands are optimized to reduce the number of mouse clicks required for common tasks, but there are four additional tools that work in conjunction with other commands to speed up workflows even more. These tools are the following: SmartSnap Using Existing Geometry Coincidence Automatic Feature Breaking

Placement and Editing Tab


The Placement and Editing tab on the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) contains options for settings to use with these tools for speeding up digitizing. It also is used for controlling editing behavior and tolerances and for various other commands as described in this chapter.

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SmartSnap
See Setting Tolerances in this chapter.

As you digitize and move the cursor within a tolerance distance of locatable features in the map window, a glyph is displayed on the cursor. (The glyph is the same as the symbol on the corresponding SmartSnap button on the SmartSnap toolbar.) If you click to a place a vertex when the glyph is displayed, that vertex will be automatically snapped to the feature based on the type of SmartSnap glyph that was displayed (example shows vector snap glyphs only).

SmartSnap, therefore, provides two important benefits: Rapid digitizing by removing the need to set snaps, to tentative click, or to check connectivity after snapping. Correct connectivity, thus greatly reducing the number of digitizing errors, such as undershoots and overshoots. In this way, the data are collected cleanly and require little or no post-collection cleanup.

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GeoMedia Professional provides both vector and raster snaps for simple digitizing and for digitizing over an image. Raster snaps speed up digitizing over an image by reducing the need for constant zooming in and out and panning, which is typically necessary in this kind of data capture. The automatic visual display of potential snap points allows you to zoom out farther and work on a larger area. The SmartSnap toolbar contains buttons that allow you to turn vector and raster snaps on and off as you work. Individual snaps can be turned on and off anytime a map window is active, but the settings apply only to placement tools, such as Insert Feature, and to editing tools, such as Edit Geometry and Continue Geometry. The vector snap and raster snap icons on the SmartSnap toolbar are the following:

Vector Snaps
All vector snaps are on by default.
End Point SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of an end point of a line feature. Vertex SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of a vertex of a line or area feature. On Element SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate

tolerance of any point on a line or area feature.


Origin SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of

the origin point of a text object or a symbol.


Midpoint SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of the midpoint of a single segment in a line or area feature.

Raster Snaps
See the Raster Information appendix for supported formats.

All raster snaps are turned off by default. To use raster snaps, the raster image must be in binary format.
Intersection SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate

tolerance of the intersection point of two geometries.


End of Line SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate

tolerance of the end of a raster line. Corner SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of a corner. A corner is the point where a raster line changes direction abruptly at an angle close to 90 degrees. (The farther from 90 degrees the angle is, the less likely a corner snap will find it.) 7-15

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Open Symbol SnapAn open symbol refers to an unfilled circle. When

you click within the open symbol snap tolerance, a point is placed in the center of the circle.
Closed Symbol SnapA closed symbol refers to a filled circle. When you click within the closed symbol snap tolerance, a point is placed in the center of the circle. Center SnapDisplayed when the cursor is within the locate tolerance of the center of a raster line. A point is placed at the center of the raster line.

Setting Tolerances
Snap tolerances are set by using SmartSnap Tolerances. You can define tolerances for the snap zone, the noise size, the open symbol size, and the closed symbol size. The search distance tolerance for raster and vector snaps is set using Locate zone. The distance is measured in pixels. Clicking Locate zone opens the Options dialog box with the SmartLocate tab selected.
For information on the SmartLocate tab, see "Selecting Features in the Map Window" in this chapter.

Note: This is the same setting that defines the locate zone when highlighting or selecting features. Changing the Locate Zone setting when defining snap tolerances changes the locate zone used when highlighting or selecting features. The size of small raster elements to be ignored when snapping to raster data is set using Noise size. To determine the tolerance, you should measure across any pieces of raster data considered to be noise. The tolerance is measured in the defined GeoWorkspace distance units (as defined on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box). For example, when the tolerance is set to a value that is equivalent to two pixels, any isolated clump of raster data that is less than or equal to two pixels wide will be ignored during snapping. The size of raster symbols that contain holes (for example, a circle) is set using Open symbol size. A raster image can have multiple open symbols of varying sizes. The size is defined by a minimum and a maximum tolerance. The minimum value is the smallest size of the holes of open symbols that SmartSnap detects. The maximum value is the largest size. Both values are measured in GeoWorkspace distance units.

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The size of closed (solid) raster symbols is set using Closed symbol size. A raster image can have multiple closed symbols of varying sizes. The size is defined by a minimum and a maximum tolerance. The minimum value is the smallest size of closed symbols that SmartSnap detects. The maximum value is the largest size. Both values are measured in GeoWorkspace distance units. Note: Measuring slightly smaller and slightly larger than the actual hole for the open symbols allows for variations in the raster symbols and improves the software's ability to locate the symbol. The same applies when measuring the size of closed (solid) raster symbols.

You can set the snap zone by clicking Locate zone and then by using the Size of cursor locate zone slider on the SmartLocate tab of the Options dialog box to define the size of the snap zone. You type the tolerance values for Noise size, Open symbol size, and Closed symbol size. Or you can click the corresponding Define button to set the tolerances interactively by clicking two points in the map view. The units are set on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box, which you can change appropriately.

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See the " SmartSnap" and "Placement and Editing Tab" sections in this chapter.

Note: When digitizing a new feature or using any other placement or editing tool, you can turn snapping on and off as necessary using the icons on the SmartSnap toolbar. For example, you can snap to vector end points and vertices and to raster intersections and line ends. You can also turn the automatic display of the Properties dialog box on and off, and you can set other placement options by using the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box.

Reusing Geometry to Digitize New Features


In many digitizing workflows, features will share common boundaries or geometry. For example, adjacent parcel features, or a political boundary that follows the course of a river. In these cases you do not want to have to digitize the geometry twice because it is time consuming and likely to introduce errors, such as gaps between features, that will have to be cleaned up later. Using the Options tool bar option Use existing geometry when digitizing in conjunction with SmartSnap allows you to reuse existing features when placing a new feature or editing existing features.

This option allows you to click two points along the existing feature to copy all the vertices between those two points to the new feature. The Use existing geometry when digitizing option affects the following tools when you create new features or edit existing features:
Edit > Insert > Geometry > Feature Continue Redigitize

Note: This option also applies when digitizing with offset. This option is on by default, but you can turn it off on either the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box or on the Options toolbar.

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The following examples illustrate the use of this option: Using existing geometry to place a new feature:

The shortest distance between the two points highlights by default. Pressing TAB highlights the feature in the opposite direction:

Turning off Using existing geometry when digitizing from the toolbar has the following result:

This is an example workflow used to add an adjacent feature to the following figure:

1. Place the first point of the feature. 2. Move the cursor within the snap tolerance of an existing feature from a locatable feature class, and the appropriate snap glyph is displayed.

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3. Place the second point of the feature, and the point snaps to geometry according to the snap type displayed.

4. Move the cursor to another location on the geometry that has just been snapped to, and the geometry is highlighted.

5. Click the third point along the geometry, and the geometry between the last two points is duplicated on the feature being placed.

6. Click to place the fourth point.

7. Double click to end the feature.

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Maintaining Coincidence
Coincidence refers to the relationship of features to each other, whether it be a connectivity relationship such as Feature 1 connecting to Feature 2 or a spatial equality relationship in which two features share common geometry. In the following two cases, the features share common vertices:

If this relationship is broken, errors will be introduced into your spatial database, and you have to spend time cleaning them up. Sliver Polygon

Gap Polygon

Undershoots

Overshoots

In traditional GIS systems the relationship can easily be broken when placing and editing features, for example, if you do not snap in correctly when digitizing, or if you edit features in one layer and do not edit common boundaries in a second layer. GeoMedia Professional makes it easy to maintain these relationships by implementing SmartSnap and the automatic maintenance of coincidence throughout the placement and editing commands. This means that when you edit a common boundary, all boundaries are edited simultaneously or if you move a vertex that is connected to another feature, all connected features are edited. This behavior is optional and is controlled by the Maintain coincidence check box on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box or through the Maintain Coincidence option on the Options toolbar.

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Maintain Coincidence affects the following commands in GeoMedia

Professional:
Edit > Feature > Merge Split Edit > Geometry > Edit Continue Redigitize Trim to Intersection Extend to Intersection Insert > Feature (including digitizing with offset)

Maintain Coincidence will modify placement and edit commands so that

they add a vertex to all displayed and locatable features at the location of a snap when any action occurs that involves snapping to another geometry. This does not mean that the feature is split into two or that its shape is modified. All it means is that an additional shape point is added to the feature. It also means that if you delete or move a vertex, all coincident vertices will be deleted or moved at the same time. In this way, feature relationships can be automatically maintained within and across feature classes whenever an edit or placement operation occurs. It is important to note that coincidence only applies to features that are displayed and locatable. You can use the locatable setting for a legend entry to control which features participate in coincidence. An exception to the normal behavior for coincidence is supported when using arc geometry. By default, you cannot insert a vertex into an arc because it would require that they are automatically modified arcs do not support additional vertices. Therefore, if you commonly use arcs in your spatial database, you can control how they react to coincidence by selecting the Segment arcs when inserting vertex check box on the Options dialog box. If both Maintain coincidence and Segment arcs when inserting vertex are turned on, snapping to an arc divides the arc into two parts at the snapped point. The two arcs are still part of the original feature, that is, they are not split. The composite feature (a single feature containing more than one piece of geometry) formed by the two new arcs replaces the original arc.

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If Maintain coincidence is turned on but Segment arcs when inserting vertex is turned off, snapping to an arc opens the following dialog box:

Clicking Yes divides the arc as previously described. Clicking No results in the arcs not being divided nor made coincident. Note: If Maintain coincidence or Segment arcs when inserting vertex is turned off, this dialog box opens every time you snap to an arc. To stop the dialog box from opening, select the Do not display this message again check box. If Maintain coincidence is turned off, the Segment arcs when inserting vertex option is disabled, and arcs are not divided nor made coincident. Note: If intersecting features do not have vertices at the intersection (because they were not snapped when digitized, or because they were collected in another software package and imported into GeoMedia Professional), you can use Insert Intersection to insert a vertex, or you can use Edit Geometry to add a vertex. If Maintain coincidence is on when you add a vertex, a vertex is also added at coincident features. If several intersections exist without vertices, you can use Validate Geometry to locate all non-coincident intersecting features, and then you can use Insert Intersection to connect them.

Automatically Splitting Features


Some data capture workflows require features to be modeled using polylines with only start points and end points and no intermediate shape vertices. This is common, for example, in many land parcel and utility network databases.

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To maintain this model anytime a new feature is snapped into an existing linear feature, the existing feature must be split into two at the snap point. This has often been a cumbersome workflow in GIS and CAD systems requiring several steps to achieve the result. GeoMedia Professional provides the Break linear features option for automatically splitting features on a snap. When this option is selected, any edit or placement operation that snaps into an existing feature will split the feature into two features at the snap point. This option is off by default, but you can turn it on by selecting its check box on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box or its button on the Options toolbar.

For information on these tools, see the "Validating and Fixing Data" chapter.

Note: You can find unbroken intersecting lines by using Validate Connectivity, and then you can fix them by using Insert Intersection with the Break linear features option turned on or by using Fix Connectivity. When the Break linear features is turned on, you have two options for breaking linear features: Break same feature class only and Break all feature classes.
Break same feature class only determines whether the break capability

breaks all linear features coincident at the snap point or just those belonging to the same feature class as the feature being edited. When this option is turned on, any placement or edit operation that involves snapping to another feature only breaks features in the same feature class as the feature being edited.
Break all feature classes determines whether the break capability breaks all linear features coincident at the snap point or just those belonging to the same feature class as the feature being edited. When this option is turned on, any placement or edit operation that involves snapping to another feature breaks features in all feature classes at the snap point.

The Break linear features option affects the following tools: Edit > Geometry > Edit (only on end point vertex edit)
Continue Redigitize Trim to Intersection Extend to Intersection Insert Intersection Insert > Feature (including digitizing with offset)

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Break Conditions
The Break linear features capability: Works on any locatable feature class from a read/write warehouse. Must snap to the feature to be broken. All snaps are valid, but the type of snap and type of geometry snapped to will modify the behavior of a break. Breaks all coincident features, that is, they do not have to be in the select set.

The following are cases of specific break conditions:

Case 1: Create crossing geometry without snapping to existing geometry. Setting: Break same feature class.

Result: No break occurs, regardless of the current break setting. A break only occurs on a snap. Case 2: Area breaking. Setting: Break all feature classes.

Result: The operation places a vertex at the snap point on the area geometry. The area features cannot be broken. Note: An area feature can break a linear feature, but a linear feature cannot break an area feature.

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Case 3: Break between coincident line features. Setting: Break same feature class.

Results: Only the Highway feature is broken at the snap point. Case 4: Break between coincident line features. Setting: Break all feature classes.

Results: All coincident features are broken at the snap point, not just the Highway feature.

Interaction between Coincidence and Break


The following cases show the interaction between coincidence and break:

Case 1: Snapping to coincident features A. Break: Across all feature classes. Coincidence: Off

Solution: Lines A and B are broken at the snap point, regardless of the coincidence setting. 7-26

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Case 2: Snapping to coincident features B. Break: In same feature class only. Coincidence: On

Solution: Line B is broken into two features at the snap point because it is the same feature class as line C. Line A is a different feature class, and because the setting is to break within a single feature class only, it is not broken. Line A, however, is split with a vertex at the snap point. Note: You can control which features get broken or which features have a vertex inserted into them by turning locatability on/off for a specific feature class. For example, suppose you have Break all feature classes turned on, but you do not want road features to break river features. To prevent roads from breaking rivers, select the rivers legend entry, click the right mouse button, and select Locatable. (A menu item is deselected when the checkmark disappears.) Also note that each time you place a feature with Break linear features turned on, the Properties dialog box displays if you turned on Display Properties dialog box for new features on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box, or if there are required values. This is because you are creating a new feature.

Undoing and Redoing Placement and Editing


The Undo and Redo commands allow you to sequentially undo or redo database changes that you have made with placement and editing commands in the current session. When you open the Edit menu after you have made a database change, the commands appear followed by the type of undo or redo to be made. For example, if the last operation was moving a feature with the Move command, the menu would display Undo Move or Redo Move.
Undo restores all database changes made by a single operation. A single

operation consists of one or more database changes, depending on the placement or editing command. For example, if you use Move to move a single feature, Move makes a single database change (the change of the geometry of a single feature instane). Undo then moves the single feature back to its original position. 7-27

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If, however, you used Move to move several features in a select set, multiple database changes would occur (the change of the geometry of every feature instance in the select set). In this case, using Undo once moves all the features back to their original locations. Because Undo can store multiple operations, you can use this command repeatedly until all operations have been undone. For example, using Undo once would undo the last operation; using Undo a second time would undo the next to the last operation, and so forth up, to the limit set through the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. You access Undo and Redo from the Edit menu, from their toolbar buttons, or by pressing CTRL+z and CTRL+y, respectively. You can use Undo and Redo with the following placement and editing commands in map and data windows: Map Window
Insert > Feature Traverse Interactive Area By Face Interactive Label Text Edit > Attribute > Update Attributes Feature > Change Feature Class Copy Copy Parallel Delete Merge Split Geometry > Continue Edit Extend to Intersection Delete Insert Intersection Move Redigitize Rotate Trim to Intersection Select Set Properties

Data Window
Edit > Cut Paste

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See the corresponding layout window topics in the GeoMedia Professional online Help.

Note: The Undo/Redo commands in the layout window pertain to the layout window graphics commands, which are accessible only when the layout window is the active window. You set the Undo and Redo parameters through the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. The Undo check box turns Undo and Redo on and off; the default is on, checked. The Limit undo operations check box lets you set a limit for the number of operations that you can undo; the default is on, with a value of 5. Turning off this option makes Undo unlimited, except by your system memory, for the current session. If any feature class or query that has been edited is closed, the Undo buffer is cleared. The primary case in which this would happen is when the GeoWorkspace coordinate system is changed. The Undo buffer can become very large during a long work session and thus begin to affect software performance, especially if a large number of bulk operations have been performed, for example, deleting a large number of features. If memory usage or performance degrades in a long session or after large numbers of database modifications, you should try reducing the Undo buffer size or turning Undo off and then on again to clear the buffer.

Inserting Features
Once you have made a connection to a read/write warehouse containing feature classes, or you have created a new feature class from scratch, you can begin to create new features using the Insert Feature command.
Insert Feature is a very powerful command that gives you access to a

wide range of placement tools, including the following: Point, line, area, and compound feature placement Arc placement modes Stream digitizing Rotation modes for point symbol placement Ability to constrain placement to a specific angle Offset digitizing Perpendicular placement Relative placement 7-29

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Coordinate keyin Placement of areas with holes, discontiguous feature placement

These capabilities are discussed in detail in the following sections.


Insert Feature allows you to digitize a new feature and, optionally, to

define its attributes. To do this, you must have a connection to a read/write warehouse. You must also have created a new feature class and have added a new feature class entry to the legend in your map window. You select the appropriate warehouse, feature class, and, if the feature is compound, the geometry type from the Insert Feature dockable control, which is displayed when you select Insert > Feature.

Note: This dockable control is also used by the Continue Geometry and Redigitize commands; only the name of the control and its default values are different.
For more information on geometry types, see "Selecting Features in the Map Window" in this chapter.

The geometry types that you can place are point, line, and area. For point, line, and area features, the geometry type icons only indicate the geometry type of the selected feature class; all other icons are disabled. For example, suppose you select a feature class that consists of area features, such as counties. In that case, the geometry type is area, the area icon is selected, and all three iconspoint, line, and areaare disabled. However, if the geometry type of the selected feature class is compound (meaning that features of this feature class can consist of point, line, or area geometry), all three icons are enabled so that you can select the geometry type of the feature you want.

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Note: GeoMedia Professional lets you enter new features for feature classes that have not been added to the legend. However, because the legend controls what is displayed in the map window, these features are not be displayed until you add the legend entry. Setting the Automatically add legend entries option on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box automatically adds a legend entry for a feature class when it does not exist on the legend, or setting this option turns on the display mode when it is turned off on an existing entry. This option is set on by default.

To insert a feature into a map window:


1. Select Insert > Feature.

2. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of feature classes in the read/write warehouses to which you are connected.

3. Click the feature class of the new feature. 4. Click the left mouse button to place the first vertex of the feature. 5. Continue left clicking until you have finished the feature.
Note: If you are in the middle of placing a feature, pressing ESC

results in a prompt to discard the current feature and to remain in the command. Otherwise, it will terminate the command. 6. Double click the left mouse button to end the feature. 7-31

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Note: You can also end a feature by selecting End Feature on the right mouse menu. 7. Place the next feature. The command remains active until you press ESC or click the Select Tool button on the main toolbar; thus you can continue placing features without having to re-execute the command. Note: When using Insert Feature, Continue Geometry, or Redigitize, use the back arrow key to sequentially remove previously placed points.

Placement Modes
The previous insert feature workflow showed a simple capture workflow. The following section describes additional placement modes for digitizing features. You can easily switch between the placement modes by clicking on the buttons on the Insert Feature dockable control or by using keyboard shortcuts. In this way, you can create features containing polyline geometry, arcs, and/or angle constraints. The placement modes are as follows:
Point by PointPlaces lines and area features one vertex at a time,

resulting in a single feature with multiple vertices. You can also use this mode for placing individual point features (Shortcut L).

Arc by Start, End, Point on EdgePlaces arc geometry by entry in the

following order: the arc start point, the arc end point, and a point along the arc (Shortcut A).
Arc by Start, Point on Edge, EndPlaces arc geometry by entry in the

following order: the arc start point, a point along the arc, and the arc end point (Shortcut R).
Place at AnglePlaces polyline geometry by placing each point at a user-

specified angle, depending on cursor location, relative to the last segment placed by digitizing in Place at Angle mode. If the previous geometry is an arc, the previous segment is considered to be that tangent to the arc at the arc end point. 7-32

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If there is no previous geometry, the point is placed at a user-specified angle, depending on cursor location, relative to the horizontal. You can type any angle value in the angle field of the control to restrict placement. The default angle for this placement mode is 90 degrees (Shortcut P).

To insert a feature in Place at Angle mode:


1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Select a feature class with linear or area geometry to place. 3. Digitize a few vertices. 4. Select the Place at Angle placement mode from the Insert Feature dockable control. The default angle is 90o, relative to the last segment placed. If there is no previous segment, the angle is relative to horizontal. 5. Type an appropriate angle value in the placement angle field. The next points placed are constrained to a multiple of the typed angle, based on the cursor position and relative to the last segment placed. 6. Move the cursor over the map window. A line is shown in dynamics that is constrained to a multiple of the specified angle, based on cursor position, and relative to the last segment placed. So, for example, if you entered 45o, the segment will dynamically snap to an angle of 0o, 45o, 90o, 135o, 180o, 225o, or 270o as you move the cursor. 7. Click in the map window. The next point is constrained to a multiple of the specified angle, based on cursor position, and relative to the last segment placed.

Rotation Modes
When placing a point feature class consisting of points, you can select a rotation mode for placing the point feature. These modes are useful for placing point features that are displayed as symbols. By default, the active rotation mode is Place at angle, and the active angle (the field to the right of the rotation mode) is 0 deg (zero degrees). In this mode, the new feature is placed at the specified angle.

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The other rotation modes are Orient to geometry and Rotate dynamically. In Orient to geometry mode, the new feature is oriented in the same direction as the existing geometry to which you snap. If no geometry is snapped to, the placement is at zero-degrees rotation. In Rotate dynamically mode, the new feature is placed using two clicks of the left mouse button. The first click displays a temporary feature and a dynamic crosshair that you move to define the rotation angle. When the feature is displayed at the appropriate angle, a second click places the feature in the map window. Note: When you digitize a symbol in Orient to geometry mode, the symbol appears dynamically before it is placed. You can also switch the orientation based on the direction of the line by pressing TAB.

To digitize oriented points:


1. Verify that the legend entry style is set to something that will show rotation, such as a symbol or font.

2. Choose a point feature class to insert. Place at angle: 1. Set the rotation mode to Place at angle. 2. Type an angle in the angle field. Use 180o, for example, and each time you click to place a point feature, it will be placed at an angle of 180o.

Rotate dynamically: 1. Set the rotation mode to Rotate dynamically. 2. Click to place the origin point of the symbol. The symbol is displayed in dynamics in the selected point style and highlight color. 3. Move the cursor to rotate the point symbol dynamically. 4. When you have adjusted the point symbol to the appropriate rotation angle, click to place the feature. 7-34

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Orient to geometry: 1. Set the rotation mode to Orient to geometry. The point symbol is displayed in dynamics as you move the cursor around the map window. 2. Move the cursor into the snap zone of the line segment.

The symbol is displayed dynamically oriented to the segment based on the direction in which it was digitized. 3. Press TAB to switch the alignment if required.

4. Click to place the point that is oriented to the direction of the line. Note: If you click without snapping, the point is placed at zerodegrees rotation. If the snap zone includes more than one potential snap point location, the closest will be the chosen location.

Offset Mode
Offset mode (Digitize With Offset) is very useful if you want to place a feature parallel to an existing feature, but offset at a certain distance. For example, you might want to digitize a utility line offset twenty feet from a property boundary. Offset mode will place a temporary feature at a specified offset distance from a user-selected feature. You can then use the Options toolbar Use existing geometry option (or the Use existing geometry when digitizing option on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box) to quickly use all or part of the temporary feature to create a new feature.

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Offset mode remains on until you turn it off, at which point the temporary feature is deleted. While offset mode is on, all the SmartSnap tools and all the placement and editing options are available for use with the temporary feature.

To digitize with offset:


1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Select the feature class of the feature to be placed. 3. On the dockable control, click the Digitize With Offset button to turn on the offset mode.

4. Type the offset value in the Offset Distance field. 5. Select the feature to offset from (Line A in the example).

A temporary offset feature is displayed around the selected feature. 6. Verify that the Use existing geometry option is turned on.

7. Snap to and click on the first point and the last point of the temporary feature to copy it to the new feature. 8. Click Digitize With Offset again to turn off the offset mode.

9. Digitize normally, with offset turned off.

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10. Click Digitize With Offset to turn on the offset mode. The offset distance field remains populated with the previously entered value. 11. Select Line C.

12. Again, use the Use existing geometry option to snap to the first point and the last point of the temporary feature and to copy it to the new features.

13. Double click to end digitizing.

Stream Digitizing Mode


In stream digitizing mode (no toolbar button), you press and hold the left mouse button while moving the mouse to place the feature using a continuous stream of points. Releasing the button puts you back into the mode that was active before you began stream digitizing. This mode is especially useful for digitizing features with a lot of detail. By dragging the cursor over the feature, either on a paper map attached to a digitizing tablet or a scanned image displayed in the map view, you can quickly add the feature to your digital database.

Stream Tolerances
Stream tolerances control how many vertices are created as you stream digitize. If you have the tolerances set too large, you will need to weed out too many vertices, and your digitized line will not have enough detail. If you set the tolerances too small, your features will contain a large number of unnecessary vertices, negatively affecting performance. The distance and delta of the stream tolerance are described in the following discussion. It is recommended that you experiment with different tolerance values to determine which is most appropriate for your data. 7-37

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You set stream tolerances on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. The Distance tolerance is the distance the cursor must move before a new point will be placed. For example, if this tolerance is set to one meter, the vertices will not be placed closer than one meter apart. The Delta value sets the stream digitizing thinning tolerance for stream digitizing. After you place geometry, the tolerance reduces the number of streamed linear or area feature vertices by filtering out unneeded vertices. A high filter value results in the removal of many vertices. The valid range of numeric values is greater than zero, with no upper limit. The filter moves along the placed vertices as follows:

Middle vertex is not dropped.

Middle vertex is dropped.

Right Mouse Menu Placement Modes


At anytime while you are digitizing a feature, you can click the right mouse button to bring up the Insert Feature right mouse menu. This menu includes options for perpendicular placement and relative placement.

Perpendicular Placement
Perpendicular placement allows you to place a segment of a feature at a 90-degree angle from or to an existing feature. This placement also lets you snap from an arc to place the next vertex perpendicular from or to the tangent to the arc at the snap point. The Perpendicular To command prompts you to select the non-point feature to be perpendicular to. At this point, the next segment will be displayed in dynamics at a 90-degree angle to the selected feature.

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This command does not automatically snap into the feature, but is dynamically extended as you move the cursor. You can use SmartSnap to ensure that you snap into any other feature along the perpendicular extension. Once the point is placed, the perpendicular placement mode is ended. The Perpendicular From command is only enabled if the last vertex is currently snapped to a non-point feature. As you move the cursor, the next segment is drawn in dynamics at 90 degrees from the feature currently snapped to.

To insert a feature with perpendicular placement:


1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Select a feature class with linear or area geometry to place. 3. Digitize a few vertices. 4. Click the right mouse button to display its menu; then select Perpendicular To. 5. Select the vertex you want to be perpendicular to. The next vertex is drawn in dynamics at a 90o angle to the selected vertex. 6. Move the mouse cursor into the snap zone on the feature you want to be perpendicular to. 7. Click to place the next vertex at a 90 o angle to the selected vertex. 8. Digitize a few more segments. 9. Snap to a non-point feature. 10. Click the right mouse button to display its menu; then select Perpendicular From. 11. Move the cursor. The next segment is drawn in dynamics that are constrained to be at a 90o angle from the segment snapped to in Step 8. 12. Click to place. The segment is placed at a 90o angle, and you are returned to the previous mode.

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Note: You can cancel the perpendicular mode without placing a segment from the right mouse menu.

Relative Placement
You can use the relative placement commands with the placement and editing commands when you know the location of the next point only by its relationship to another known location. There are two types of relative placement: Place the next point at a user-specified distance along a feature. Place the next point at the user-specified distance and direction from a known location.

Distance Along Feature


The Distance Along Feature command lets you snap to a location at a specified distance along a feature. For example, you would use this command if you were digitizing a parcel and you knew that the next vertex of the parcel was located along the boundary of a second parcel 20 meters from the parcel corner. You first type a distance into the Distance Along Feature dialog box and then hover over the feature at the start point.

As the dynamic cursor snaps to the feature, a segment is shown in dynamics from the last vertex placed to the proposed point along the feature.

Place the next point 20 meters from the parcel corner. If the distance is greater than the feature length or the area perimeter of an area, no dynamics display. Highlighting is in the direction in which the feature was digitized unless the line is too short in this direction. 7-40

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However, you can switch the direction by selecting the right mouse menu Switch Direction command or by pressing TAB. You do not have to snap to the start point or end point of the feature; you can snap to any vertex or the midpoint on the feature. Distance Along Feature does not work with the On Element Snap vector snap.

To insert a feature with relative placement (Distance Along Feature):


1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Select a feature class to place. 3. Place the first point.

4. Place the second point.

5. Click the right mouse button to display its menu; then select Distance
Along Feature.

6. Type the appropriate Distance. 7. Identify the source location by hovering over the vertex you want to place the next point a distance from.

The feature is drawn in dynamics from the last point placed to the specified distance along the feature from the current cursor snap point. 7-41

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8. Move the cursor along the feature.

The dynamic segment/arc connecting the last point placed and a point the specified distance along the area feature is moved as the cursor is moved. 9. Select Switch Direction from the right mouse pop-up menu to highlight the opposite direction (or the switch direction button on the dialog box or TAB on the keyboard).

10. Click to accept and to determine direction. The control is dismissed, and focus is returned to the mode that was active before the distance/direction option was chosen.

Distance and Direction


The Distance and Direction command lets you place the next vertex of a feature at a location that is a specified distance and direction from a known location. For example, you would use this command if you were placing a parcel feature and you knew that the next vertex was located N40E and 30 meters from the corner of another parcel feature.
See Using Precision Keyins in this chapter.

You type the distance and direction (distance bearing, distance azimuth, and so forth) in the Precision Coordinates dockable control. You first specify the source point, which can be a mouse click snapped to a location on a feature or a point in space, or it can be a precision keyin. The source point is then shown in dynamics. Next, you type a distance and direction in the dockable control, and the vertex is placed at the specified location. Note: You will have to change the coordinate format to distance/bearing or distance/azimuth on the Precision Coordinates dockable control.

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To insert a feature with relative placement (distance and direction):


1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Select a feature class to place. 3. Digitize a few vertices. 4. Click the right mouse button to display its menu; then select Distance
and Direction.

5. Click or type a value to place a temporary point. 6. Change the coordinate format in the precision coordinates control to distance/azimuth or to distance/bearing. 7. Type the distance and direction values in the precision coordinate control. A segment is connected from the last point placed to the point that is, the specified distance and direction from the temporary point.

Digitizing Discontiguous Features and Features with Holes


Discontiguous Features
As stated at the beginning of this chapter, GeoMedia Professional supports modeling features with multiple unconnected geometries, such as the islands of Hawaii, as a single feature or multiple separate features. If you choose to model them as a single feature with multiple geometry, it will have a single set of attributes, as opposed to separate attributes for each geometry. It will also behave as a single feature when you select it in the map window, that is, clicking on any one geometry will highlight all geometries. There are two ways to create discontiguous features: Add new geometry to an existing feature using the Continue
Geometry command.

Use the Insert Feature command with the CTRL key modifier.

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Note: In the following workflows, left double click is the same as ALTclick (pressing ALT while left clicking), except that ALT-click places a point at the location of the click, and left double click does not place a point. Also, CTRL-left double click is the same as CTRL+ALT-click. The following is a Continue Geometry workflow: 1. Select the feature you want to continue in the map window. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Continue. 3. Place additional geometry using the normal tools. Note: Continue Geometry uses the same toolbar as Insert Feature, so all the same tools are available. The following is a workflow for digitizing discontiguous features with Insert Feature: 1. Digitize vertices normally using left mouse button clicks. 2. Instead of completing the first geometry with a double click, press and hold CTRL while double clicking to complete the geometries. The status bar prompts you to place the first point of additional geometry. 3. Digitize the next geometry in the normal way. Note: By holding down CTRL each time you complete a geometry, you can add as many additional geometries as needed.

Areas with Holes


Often real word area features will contain holes, as in the following example:

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It is easy to model these features in GeoMedia Professional. The workflows are the same as those for creating discontiguous features except that when you add the additional geometry in this case a hole you place it inside an existing area feature. The software is smart enough to recognize this and will automatically create a hole in the containing area feature.

Creating Features with More than One Geometry Type


It is possible that you may have features that contain both arc geometry and linear geometry. An example is a parcel that has its corner defined as an arc, as in the following example:

GeoMedia Professional supports the placement of these features called composite features by allowing you to switch between placement modes when you are digitizing individual features. To digitize a composite polygon: 1. Select Insert > Feature. 2. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of feature classes; then click the appropriate area feature. 3. Click the appropriate placement mode to place for the first geometry. 4. For Point by Point Placement or Place at Angle, enter each point of the polygon. 5. Switch to one of the arc placement modes, and enter the arc points in the appropriate order. Note: The last vertex placed is used as the start point of the arc. 6. Double click to end the feature. The area features are automatically closed. Note: This works for linear features also.

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Using Precision Keyins


When digitizing new features, or when editing existing features or geometry, you can use precision keyins to specify the map coordinates of input points. A precision coordinate is the exact real-world coordinate location of a vertex. They are used as an alternative method of data capture in which instead of clicking with the mouse to place a point, you use the keyboard to type its actual coordinate location. This may be in one of several formats, such as latitude/longitude coordinate, an easting/northing, or a distance and direction from the last vertex. Although they can be used for the capture of any feature type, precision coordinates are often used as a way of entering parcel features where the information is provided in coordinate and/or bearing/distance format.
See the Inserting Traverses chapter for additional precision entry tools.

In GeoMedia Professional, you can use the Precision Coordinates dockable control to type a coordinate anytime you are prompted to enter a point. This includes placing features, editing vertices, and editing control points for image and vector registration. The advantage of this method of data entry is that it is much more accurate than digitizing off a paper map or a scanned image. The disadvantage is that it is a somewhat slower technique. Note: The Precision Coordinates dockable control provides dynamic readout of the cursor location.

See Setting Units and Formats in the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

You select the appropriate coordinate format, type the coordinate values, and select an update setting using the Precision Coordinates dockable control. The map coordinates corresponding to the current location of the screen cursor are displayed next to the formats list. Some of the coordinate formats and units that you can select are, for example: Latitude,Longitude(d:m:s),[Height(m)] (optional) Easting,Northing(m),[Height(m)] (optional) Distance(m),Azimuth(deg) (Geodesic or Planar) Distance(m),Bearing(deg) (Geodesic or Planar)

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You can set preferences for the coordinate formats and readouts on the Precision Coordinates dockable control by using the Units and Formats tab on the Options dialog box. This tab contains controls for setting the order to use when displaying geographic coordinates; the hemisphere and quadrant to use when displaying projected coordinates; the coordinate type, units, and precision; the distance and starting point to use when displaying azimuths; and the default height to use when placing and editing features. The active update setting on the Precision Coordinates control dropdown list is Update coordinates on mouse move by default. This setting displays the coordinates dynamically; when you move the mouse over the map window, the coordinates update. The other settings are Update coordinates on click, which updates the coordinates when you click the left mouse button in the map window, and Clear coordinates after entry, which tells the software to clear the entry field after you enter the coordinate values. You display the dockable control by selecting View > Precision Coordinates.

To change the default update setting, you click the down arrow next to the coordinate display, and you select a setting from the menu.

To display the list of available coordinate formats, you click the dropdown arrow, and you select the appropriate format.

After you type the coordinate values that correspond to the location of the input point in the field to the right of the format field, you press ENTER.

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Tools for Collection of Attribute Information


So far the discussion of data collection tools has focused mostly on geometry. The following section describes some of the tools for collecting the information about the features the attributes. Some capture workflows involve capturing the geometry first and adding the attributes later; others focus on collecting the attributes and geometry separately and combing them at a later stage. Still others call for collecting the attributes of a feature at the time it is digitized.

Collecting Attributes
See the Working with Data Windows chapter.

Attribute information can be added or updated at anytime using either the data window or the feature Properties dialog box.

Collecting Attributes as the Feature is Digitized


This workflow is supported by the use of the Display Properties dialog for new features option on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box, which determines whether the Properties dialog box automatically displays when you create a new feature with a placement or editing tool. For example, this option affects any operation when you create a new feature, such as Insert > Feature. When turned off, the dialog box does not display, except when the newly created feature has required attribute values that must be populated. In that case, the dialog box always displays regardless of the check box setting. You can also turn this option on and off from the Options toolbar.

Using this tool ensures that attribute information is always entered when new features are created.

Adding Geometry to Features


If you have created new features by adding rows in a data window, you can add geometry to those features using the Continue Geometry command, as follows: 1. In the data window, select the feature for which you want to create new geometry. 2. Digitize the geometry in the map window. The geometry is automatically added to the existing feature. 7-48

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Linking Existing Geometry to Existing Attributes


See Working with Joins in the Working with Queries chapter.

If you have created attributes and geometry separately, you can link this information by creating a join between the two on a common key value and outputting the result of the join to a new feature class. If there is no common key value, there is no way to automatically link the two sources of information, and you then must perform this task manually.

Automatically Populating Attributes


See Updating Feature Attributes and Updating Feature Attributes Using Text in the Editing Features and Geometries chapter, Working with Joins in the Working with Queries chapter, and Outputting Feature Classes in this chapter.

GeoMedia Professional provides two ways of automatically populating attribute values as you digitize: Setting required values on default values on the Feature Class Definition dialog box Copying attributes from the last feature placed

In addition, other tools described in separate sections of this document allow you to populate the attributes of multiple features after collection. These include Update Attributes, Update Attributes Using Text, Join features, and Output to Feature Class. The last two are used to bring in attribute information from other sources and to connect it to existing feature geometry. This section describes the copying of attributes from previous features.

Copying Attributes from Previous Features


When successively placing two or more features of the same feature class with Insert Feature, Insert Text, or Interactive Label, you can automatically copy the attribute values of the record of the first feature to the record of the second feature, and so forth. Thus, when features have many attributes that do not change from feature to feature, you only have to edit those attributes that do change. To copy attributes from previous features, you turn on the Copy attributes from previous feature check box on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). By default this check box is unchecked. If the Properties dialog box is open for the second feature you are placing, the attribute values are displayed.

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Inserting Area Features Automatically


The Insert Area By Face and Insert Interactive Area By Face tools each allow you to create multiple area features from existing linear or area features. These commands are useful in two data-capture workflows. First, when converting large amounts of area data, it is often more efficient to collect the lines that make up the areas rather than digitizing each area one at a time. These commands allow you to collect the linework in the most efficient way and then to convert it into area features. Second, a data-capture workflow often requires integrating line data collected in a CAD system. You can use these commands to automatically convert this linework into area features. With these commands, you create a select set of component linear/area features, select an area feature class for the new features (which must be a writeable feature), and decide in the creation of new area features to ignore holes, to include holes, or to include holes as features. These two commands use the softwares topology-on-the-fly concept to generate the area features. You should use the Validate Geometry command to ensure that no invalid geometry conditions exist in the input features before running the area creation commands. When using Insert Area By Face, clicking OK on the dialog box begins processing. A new area feature is automatically created for each closed region in the select set. Note: Because you are creating new data, the height value you receive is always the default height value you specified on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). When using Insert Interactive Area By Face, pause the cursor over a proposed area feature. When the feature highlights, click the left mouse button to create the new area feature. In both tools, no extrapolation of data is performed; that is, no gaps in the select set are closed. When the Include holes option is turned on, holes are formed by feature geometries that form polygons within closed regions in the select set. However, nested holes and islands are not detected. When Include holes as features option is turned on, holes are converted into features.

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The following examples show the results of using these commands:

Area data collected as lines.

Area inserted ignoring holes.

Area inserted including holes. Area inserted including holes as features. Note: Both tools preserve the original linear or area features used as components of the new area feature. Therefore, you may want to delete the component features manually.

To insert an area feature:


1. Select Insert > Area By Face.

2. Click the Feature class drop-down arrow to display the list of feature classes in the read/write warehouses to which you are connected. 7-51

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3. Click the feature class in which you want to create area features. 4. Select the appropriate Hole processing option. 5. Click OK. If Display Properties dialog for new features is on, or if input is required for the selected feature class, specify attribute values for each feature on the <Feature> Properties dialog box; then click OK. If Display Properties dialog for new features is off, and no input is required for the selected feature class, all potential area features are highlighted in the highlight color. 6. When prompted, click Yes to place the highlighted features in the database. Or, click No to reject the highlighted features and to exit the command.

To insert an area feature interactively:


1. Select Insert > Interactive Area By Face.

2. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of feature classes in the read/write warehouses to which you are connected. 3. Click the feature class in which you want to create area features. 4. To include holes, select Include holes. 5. Pause the cursor over each closed region of linework. For each closed region over which you pause, the new feature is highlighted. 6. Click to accept the feature. If Display Properties dialog for new features is on, or if input is required for the selected feature class, specify the feature attributes on the <Feature> Properties dialog box; then click OK. If Display Properties dialog for new features is off, and no input is required for the selected feature class, the feature is written to the database immediately after you click to accept. The following message is displayed: Writing area feature to database. 7. Continue until all area features have been created.

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Inserting Text Features into a Feature Class


Insert Text allows you to insert text features into a feature class and to

place them on the map interactively. You must have a connection to a read/write warehouse to use this command. You first select the appropriate warehouse, feature class, alignment, and rotation angle and then type the text using the Insert Text dockable control. If the text is numeric, you can also specify an increment value.

When typing text, you can see characters appear next to your cursor as you type, even if you make a mistake and have to re-type. If, after typing your text, you change the alignment setting, you can see the position of the text change next to your cursor. By default, the active rotation mode is Place at angle, and the active angle (next to the rotation mode) is 0.00000 deg (zero degrees). In this mode, the new text feature is placed at the specified angle when you click the left mouse button. In Rotate dynamically mode, the new text feature is placed using two clicks of the left mouse button. The first click displays a temporary feature and a dynamic crosshair that you move to define the rotation angle. When the text is displayed at the appropriate angle, a second click places the text in the map window. If you want to place multiple copies of the same text, you can do so with additional left clicks. Because Insert Text is an interactive tool, you must press ESC or click the Select Tool to return to Select mode.

To insert text:
1. Select Insert > Text.

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2. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of text feature classes in the read/write warehouses to which you are connected. If none of the open read/write warehouses contains a feature class, create one through Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.

3. Click the feature class that you want to contain the text. 4. Click the drop-down list next to the feature class to display the list of alignments; then select an alignment. 5. Type the text you want to place. To create a new line in the text, hold down CTRL while pressing ENTER. As you type, the text appears next to the cursor. Note: If the text is numeric text, you can type an increment value in the field next to the text field. The text increments by this value as you place it. 6. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of rotation modes, select a mode, and type the angle you want in the next field. 7. Position the text where you want it on the map, and click the left mouse button. 8. To place additional instances of the same text, repeat Step 8. 9. To place additional but different text, repeat Steps 4 - 8. 10. To exit Insert Text, press ESC, or click the Select Tool. Note: If you dismiss the control by clicking the X on the title bar, the control disappears, but Insert Text remains active.

To edit a text feature:


1. Select the text feature in the map window. 2. Select Edit > Edit Text.

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3. Type replacement text in the Text field. 4. Select a different alignment from the Alignment drop-down list. 5. Click OK.
See the "Working with Map Windows" chapter.

Note: To change the text style, double click the appropriate Style icon on the map legend, or select Legend > Properties.

Adding Hypertext to a Feature Class


Hypertext is a link to an external file. Inserting hypertext into a feature table is essentially attaching an external file or Web location to a feature in the read/write warehouse. Once hypertext has been inserted into a table, you can invoke the external application associated with the file and activate the file by clicking the hypertext cell in the data window. If the feature table does not already have a hypertext attribute defined, you must define one in the warehouse before inserting hypertext. Once you have a hypertext column in a table, you can add hypertext links to as many features as the table contains.

To define a hypertext attribute in a read/write warehouse:


1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.

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2. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, navigate to the warehouse connection that contains the feature class in which you plan to insert the hypertext; then select the feature class. 3. Click Edit. 4. On the Attributes tab of the Edit - <Feature Class> dialog box, click the bottom row selector that contains an asterisk (*).

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5. Click somewhere in the Name field, and replace the automatically generated attribute name by typing a meaningful name, such as HYPERTEXT. 6. Click the Hypertext check box. 7. Click OK. 8. Close the Feature Class Definition dialog box.

To insert hypertext into the data window:


1. In the data window, select the empty cell in the hypertext column of the feature you want linked to an external application. 2. Select Insert > Hypertext. 3. From the Insert Hypertext dialog box, navigate to the appropriate folder, and select the file or Web location that you want to attach to the feature. 4. Click Open.

To insert or edit hypertext from the map window:


1. Select the feature in the map window. 2. Double click the selected feature, or select Edit > Select Set
Properties.

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3. On the Attributes tab of the features Properties dialog box, select the hypertext cell in the Value column, and type the path and name of the file or Web location. To edit, highlight the file name or Web location, and type the new file name or Web location. 4. Click OK.

To designate a column in the database as a hypertext link in MGE:


See the Creating Data Sever .INI Files appendix for more information.

In MGE and MGSM, you must identify both the table and column names in the .ini file for the MGE or MGSM data server using the HYPERTEXT: keyword. You can identify several columns without repeating the keyword, but each table-column pair must appear on a separate line. For example, the Birds table contains a hypertext column that links a record to a photograph of the species, one that references an audio clip of the bird's call, and one that identifies a video clip of the bird in flight: HYPERTEXT:Birds,Photo Birds,Audio Birds,Video The MGE or MGSM data server looks for hypertext files in the multimedia folder of the project unless the HYPERTEXT PATH: keyword appears in the .ini file. Use this keyword to identify one or more folders in which to search for multimedia files. If more than one folder is specified, the folders are searched in the order specified. You may use either a comma (,) or a semicolon (;) to separate the path components. Path components may contain UNC-style folder names: HYPERTEXT PATH:C:\Images,D:\AudioClips, \\BIGSERVER\VIDSHARE\Birds\Video

Placing Buffer Zones Around Features


A buffer zone is a region around or within one or more features, generally used for spatial analysis or as input to spatial queries. When you place buffer zones, you are creating a new feature class that is associated with an existing feature class. Buffer zones are inserted as area features. You can define and place buffer zones around a feature class or the results of a query.

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The types of buffer zones you can insert depend on the geometry type of the feature class or query result. For example, if you define a buffer zone around a point feature class, a single, multiple-stacked, or multiple-ring buffer zone is created around each point-type feature in the feature class. The buffer-zone types available for each geometry type are described below. Point Features. Each buffer zone encompasses the area inside a circle placed at a distance you specify from each point feature. SingleOne separate buffer zone surrounds each point feature in the feature class.

Multiple stackedEach buffer zone is stacked on the last and includes the buffer zones beneath it. For example, if you create stacked buffer zones at distances of 1, 3, and 5 miles, the first buffer zone is placed at a radial distance of 1 mile from the point feature. The second is placed 3 miles from the point feature and includes the first buffer zone. The third is placed 5 miles from the point feature and includes the first and second buffer zones. The results cannot be merged. Multiple ringsEach ring is a separate buffer zone placed at a specified distance from the point feature and does not include smaller rings inside it. For example, if you create ringed buffer zones at distances of 1, 2, and 6 miles, the first ring is placed 1 mile from the point feature. The second ring is placed 2 miles from the point feature but does not include the first ring. The third ring is placed 6 miles from the point feature but does not include the first and second rings. The results cannot be merged. Note: Multiple-stacked and multiple-ring buffers are not available for compound feature classes.

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Line Features RoundThe end points of each line are buffer zoned as half circles.

SquareThe end points of each line are buffer zoned as square shapes with the shortest distance to the end point equal to the buffer-zone distance. Area Features InsideThe interior of each area feature is the buffer zone.

OutsideBuffer zones are placed the specified distance around the outside of each area feature.

In defining certain buffer zones, you must request unmerged or merged results. Unmerged buffer zones are placed around or within each feature of the selected feature class or query. Overlapping buffer zones are not merged. The following diagram illustrates six distinct buffer-zone features:

The boundaries of overlapping merged buffer zones dissolve, and a single buffer-zone feature is created for those that overlap. The following diagram shows four buffer-zone features:

Overlapping buffer zones around discontiguous geometries of the same feature are always merged, regardless of the merge option selected. 7-60

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To create buffer zones:


1. Select Insert > Buffer Zone.

2. Select a feature class or query from the Buffer zone around dropdown list. 3. From the Warehouse drop-down list, select the open read/write warehouse to which you want to output the buffer-zone feature class. 4. In the Feature class text box, type the name for a new buffer-zone feature class, or select the name of an existing buffer-zone feature class to which you want to add the buffer-zone feature from the dropdown list. 5. Look at the Style button to see how the buffer zone will appear. If this buffer zone is a new feature class, you can change the style of the new feature class as follows: Click Style. On the Style Definition dialog box, define the area boundary and fill of the buffer zone. Click OK.

6. From the Buffer type drop-down lists, select the type of buffer zone to create.

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7. From the Constant distance drop-down list, select a unit of measure; and in the associated text box, type a radial distance from the feature to the boundary of the buffer zone. The example below the Constant distance text box shows how to type distances depending on the buffer type selected. For example, if the feature class is a point and the buffer type is single, you would type one distance. But, if the selected buffer type is multiple stacked, you would type a distance for each buffer-zone stack, separated by semicolons. 8. Select Unmerged or Merged. 9. Click OK to create the buffer zones. If the buffer zone is a feature in a new feature class, the buffer zone automatically displays in the active map window, and an associated entry is added to the legend. 10. If the buffer zone is a feature of an existing feature class that has been added to the legend, select View > Fit All to display all of the buffer zones in the active map window. 11. If the feature class has not been added to the legend, add the feature class to the legend to display the buffer zone.

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Editing Features and Geometries


GeoMedia Professional provides various tools that allow you to edit features and feature geometry. With these tools, you can perform the following functions:
See Placement and Editing Tab in the Working with Features chapter.

Change feature attributes Update feature attributes Update feature attributes using text Change feature class Copy features Copy features parallel to other features Merge features

Split features Delete features Edit geometry Rotate geometry Move geometry Redigitize geometry Delete geometry

These editing tools work with the settings on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).

Changing Feature Attributes


You can change the attribute values of features either in a map window or in a data window.
See Editing Cells in the Data Window in the "Working with Data Windows" chapter.

In a data window, you use standard Windows editing tools and the Clipboard to cut, copy, and paste text in cells. You cannot, however, edit hidden cells or cells containing hypertext.

To change feature attribute values in a map window:


1. In the map window, select a single feature that you want to change. 2. Select Edit > Select Set Properties.

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Note: You can also double click a feature to open its Properties dialog box. 3. On the Attributes tab of the <Feature> Properties dialog box, click the cell in the Value column that you want to edit. The arrow on the row selector moves to the row you clicked. 4. Type the new value in the cell.

If the warehouse is read/write, a pencil appears on the row selector when you begin to type. 5. Click OK.

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Updating Feature Attributes


Update Attributes allows you to change the attribute values for multiple

features automatically rather than one at a time. You can update the attributes by typing a constant value (such as 5 or Smith), a combination of values in other columns, or a simple mathematical expression into the dialog box of this command. You can use this command on a feature class, a query, or a select set. Creating Expressions You can type expressions directly into the Value fields of the Update Attributes dialog box, or you can build the expressions on the separate Expression dialog box. Note: Character values must be enclosed in single quotes. The following operators and functions are supported by this command: Field Names A common expression involves the use of another field name on the feature, for example, Population Growth: Pop98 Pop90 Constants Constants are values that do not change. For example, in the expression Parcel Area * 0.8 , the value 0.8 is a constant. Character constants, such as Smith, must be enclosed in single quotes. Numeric Operators The following numeric operators are supported: Operator Description Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Percentage

+ * / %

Character Operators The concatenation operator + is available for string data types. For example, Name: First Name + Last Name . 8-3

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Calculated Attributes The following calculated attributes can be used in expressions: AREACalculates the area for all features to be updated. LENGTHCalculates the length of all features to be updated. PERIMETERCalculates the perimeter of all features to be updated. Example: Parcel Area: [AREA] The type of calculated attributes available is determined by the geometry type of the features being updated. For example, for features with area geometry, the LENGTH option is disabled. The measurement units are taken from the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).
Note: Analyze Geometry also calculates area, length, and perimeter. The difference between these two commands is that Analyze Geometry does not update the input feature class. Instead, it creates a

new query with dynamic links back to the original data. This means that if any of the input data is edited, the value is automatically updated. With Update Attributes, the link is not dynamic, and the value must be updated by running the command again if there have been edits. Operator Precedence For more complicated expressions, you can use parenthesis to control the order in which parts of the equation are evaluated. The following table shows the order in which the operators are evaluated: Precedence 1 2 3 Operator Concatenation operator + *, / +, -

For example: Attribute A / Attribute B * 100 evaluates differently from Attribute A / (Attribute B * 100). Expression Creation
Update Attributes expression creation is implemented for the

following cases:

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Assignment operator (=) is supported for all the previously listed data types. That is, <Attribute1>= Attribute2 is valid for all data types provided Attribute1 and Attribute2 are of the same data type. No operators are supported for Boolean or date data types. Common mathematical operators and mathematical functions are supported for number and currency data types.

The date field can be updated by a date value, that is, <Attribute>= '25-Feb-99' or <Attribute>= '2/25/99', and so forth. Note that you also must type the date in single quotes. Date attributes can be updated by other date fields as <Attribute1>= Attribute2 . Currency has been treated as any number data type, that is, you can type a value in any currency attribute field without quotes . For example, <Attribute1>= 111 is updated as Attribute1= $111.00 , and so forth. All the operators valid for number data type are valid here, too. For example, <Attribute1>= Attribute2+Attribute3-Attribute4 , and so forth.

Conversion Between Data Types An integer field can be updated with float/double values. The value will be rounded off to the nearest integer when conversion is performed. For example, <IntegerAttribute>=11.2345 will be updated as <IntegerAttribute>=11. Float/double fields can be updated with integer values. If the attribute being updated is an integer or float/double, all number attribute fields are displayed in the Attributes field in the Expression dialog box and are selectable. You can type values in any numeric format. Appropriate conversion, rounding, and truncation are automatically performed by the software.

Invalid Expressions The result of an expression may be invalid for various reasons. Among the possible causes are a division by zero (0) or calculated values too big for the designated field. In such cases, an error message appears with the choice to either ignore the current feature attribute or not.

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If you click Ignore current, the command updates the current feature attribute with a value of zero (0), and the update operation continues with the remaining features to be updated. If another error appears, the error message does also. If you click Ignore all, a value of zero (0) is placed in the attribute of the current feature, and the update operation continues with the remaining features to be updated. If another error appears, the attribute is automatically updated with a value of zero (0) without displaying the error message.

To update feature attributes:


1. With a GeoWorkspace open with a connection to a read/write warehouse, select Edit > Attribute > Update Attributes.

2. Select an appropriate existing feature class, query, or select set object from the Update features in tree view. Note: For selected features there is an additional node in the tree view named Select Set. For each feature class having an instance in the select set, there is a leaf node in the tree view named <feature class name> under leaf node <connection name> that is a leaf node of Select Set. 3. Select the appropriate attribute(s) from the Attributes to update list; then type the update value(s) and/or expressions into the corresponding Value field(s).

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Note: Holding the cursor over an attribute name displays its data type. AND/OR Select the appropriate attribute(s) from the Attributes to update list; then click Expression.

4. On the Expression dialog box, define the expression for the selected attribute using the attributes and valid operators/functions; then click OK to write the expression back to the selected attribute field. 5. After forming expressions and/or entering values for all the features you want to update, click Apply to compute and to update the values. 8-7

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Updating Feature Attributes Using Text


Update Attributes Using Text allows you to update feature class attributes using spatially related text or label features. This is performed by copying the text string stored in the geometry of the feature attribute into the selected column in the output feature class or query. If the output feature class is an area feature class, the text from the text feature whose origin falls within the area is used to update the output feature class attribute. If the output feature class is a point or a linear feature class, the text of the closest text feature is used to update the output feature class attribute, but with the specified distance defined in the Options area of the dialog box. You can use this command on features in feature classes, queries, and select sets.

An example workflow involves data captured in a CAD system. Frequently in a data-collection workflow, the geometry and attributes are collected separately, and the conversion operator types text that represents the key for joining them together. This command allows you to load text onto spatially related features so that you can use this as the key for joining to a database table. This command detects the following error conditions and writes them to a log file: Area Features No text features found inside an area. Multiple text features found inside an area. No text features found within distance of a point feature. No text features found within distance of a line feature. Multiple text features found within distance of a point feature. Multiple text features found within distance of a line feature.

Linear and Point Features

To update feature attributes using text:


1. With a GeoWorkspace open with a connection to a read/write warehouse, select Edit > Attribute > Update Attributes Using Text.

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2. Select an appropriate existing geometry feature class, query, or select set object from the Update features in drop-down list. Note: For selected features there is an additional node in the tree view named Select Set. For each feature class having an instance in the select set, there is a leaf node in the tree view named Selected <feature class name>. 3. Select an appropriate character attribute from the Attributes to update drop-down list. 4. Select an appropriate label feature class (the text to use to update) from the Update using text in drop-down list. 5. When loading text to point or linear features, type the appropriate search distance, and/or select the unit of measure from the drop-down list of the Distance field. This field is disabled for area features. 6. Change the default error filename if appropriate, and/or click Browse to select a different location.

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7. Click Apply. The attribute is updated for the feature class or query in the database, a message with the number of features in the feature class updated is displayed, and any errors are written to the error file.

Manipulating Features
You can easily manipulate features by moving, merging, splitting, copying, copying parallel, and deleting selected features. You can change the location of a feature and change the orientation of text and point symbols by creating a select set in a map window or a data window and then activating the appropriate tool. You can move a single feature, multiple features, or an entire feature class together. Selected features can belong to different feature classes. You can rotate one or more text and/or point features that are represented by symbols.

Merging Features
Merge allows you to take two or more features in a select set and merge

them into a single output feature. This tool works with features that are of the geometry types point, line, area, or compound and that are of the same feature class. Merging features copies the attributes from the first input feature in the select set to the merged output feature. Merging also deletes the input features and outputs the new feature with merged geometry. The resultant merged geometry is discontiguous if the original geometries cannot be merged into a single geometry. Merge honors the height settings on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. Merge modifies existing geometry, so it uses the height values of the existing geometry. If the input geometries have different height values, the resulting merged geometry will have different height values as well.

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The following are examples of area merge conditions:

If the features are not adjacent, merging the features creates a single feature with discontiguous geometry.

The following are examples of line merge conditions:

To merge two or more features of the same feature class into one feature:
1. Select two or more features of the same feature class. 2. Select Edit > Feature > Merge. If the Properties dialog box option is off, the features are merged and the new feature is written to the database, and the original features are deleted. If the Properties dialog box option is on, the features are merged, and the dialog box is opened for entry of attribute values. Once the attribute values have been specified, the new feature is written to the database, and the original features are deleted.

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Splitting Features
Split Feature allows you to split one or more features, copying the attributes from the old features to the new features.

You split area features by digitizing an intersecting line across the selected feature. You can use existing geometry when digitizing an intersecting line. Splitting occurs along the intersection of the split line and the feature to be split. For areas, this is the portion of the line that intersects the face of an area.

When splitting a geometry and using an existing area geometry to help define the intersecting line (by using the Maintain coincidence option), press TAB to reverse the direction of the highlight between snaps on the feature. You split line features by snapping to a selected line and double clicking or digitizing a split line.

See the Working with Features and Working with Coordinate Systems chapters for more information on these tabs.

This tool does not honor the break setting on the Placement and Editing tab, but it does honor the coincidence setting and the automatic pan map window setting on the SmartLocate tab of the Options dialog box. Any features coincident to the split feature will have vertices inserted at the snap points.
Split modifies existing geometry, so it uses the height values of the

existing geometry. For splitting areas, the split line is actually new data, so you specify the height values for the split line in the Default height value field of the Placement and Editing tab. When digitizing the split line using precision key-ins, you can override the default height value by typing a different value in the Precision Coordinates dockable control. Snapping to an existing feature will take the height value of the snapped point.

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Splitting Area Features


The following cases are split feature conditions for area features: Case 1: The split line intersects the area boundary at two points.

Solution: The area is split into two features. Case 2: The split line crosses the area boundary at more than two points.

Solution: This is a value split. The area is split into three area features. Case 3: A split line intersects two area boundaries at two points each.

Solution: The two areas are split into six features. Case 4: Given an area with a hole, the split line is snapped to the boundary only.

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Case 5: Given an area with a hole, the split line snaps to the boundary in one location.

Solution: Invalid split. The larger area would share the middle vertex, resulting in invalid topology. Case 6: Given an area with a hole, the split line crosses the boundary multiple times and has its end points outside the boundary.

Solution: The area is split into four features.

Splitting Line Features


The following cases are split feature conditions for line features: Case 1: The split point intersects a feature.

Solution: The feature is split into two features at the intersection point. Case 2: The splitting line can be digitized using stream digitizing and can cross the feature(s) multiple times to split it into more than one feature.

Solution: The line is split into multiple lines at the intersection points.

Splitting and Maintaining Coincidence


If the Maintain coincidence option on the Placement and Editing tab is selected, any features coincident to the split features will have vertices inserted at the snap points.

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The following example is a split feature condition for maintaining coincidence in which the split line snaps into area and coincidence line geometry.

Line B is coincident with the portion of the boundary of Area D Solution with coincidence on: Line B is split by a vertex only.

Solution with coincidence off: Line B is not split in any way; coincidence is broken.

To split a feature:
1. Select the feature(s) to be split. 2. Select Edit > Feature > Split. 3. Place the first point of the line that will intersect the feature by clicking the left mouse button.
4. Place the next point(s) of the intersecting line, or place the final point

by double clicking the left mouse button. Right-mouse menu item End will also end the split line without adding any additional points. 8-15

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If the Use existing geometry when digitizing option has been selected on the Placement and editing tab of the Options dialog box, a portion of a bisecting feature that extends across the feature can be used to split the features. While digitizing the split line, snap to a bisecting feature at two points. The portion of the bisection feature between them will be highlighted. If this option is not selected, a straight two-point line will be highlighted, ignoring the bisecting feature. 5. Optional: You can terminate the split by pressing ESC. 6. If the Display Properties dialog box for new features option is selected, type the attributes for the new feature in the Properties dialog box. 7. Click OK. Note: Precision key-ins may be used at any time instead of clicking with the left mouse button to place the feature.

Copying Features
Copy (features) lets you make multiple copies of one or more selected

features to new features of the same feature class from a read/write connection. The copied features are identical to the originals except that any autonumber field is incremented automatically. If there are required fields or key fields on the features to be copied that are not autonumbers, the Properties dialog box opens for each copied feature, letting you resolve these values. The Properties dialog box also opens if you have selected the Display Properties dialog for new features option on the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). You can copy features from multiple feature classes in a single operation just by placing them in a select set, which must contain at least one feature from a read/write connection. You can designate the source point and destination point for the copy with the cursor or by typing values on the Precision Coordinates dockable control.

To copy features:
1. Select one or more features. 2. Select Edit > Feature > Copy. 3. Click to place a source point for the copy. OR 8-16

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Type the coordinate value of the source point in the Precision Coordinates dockable control and press ENTER. The writable selected feature(s) appear in dynamics on the cursor. Note: Any read-only features in the select set do not appear in dynamics. 4. Move the cursor to the appropriate destination. 5. Click to place the feature(s). OR Type a destination point and press ENTER. If there are no required unique attribute values and the Display Properties dialog for new features option is turned off, the selected feature(s) are copied and again appear in dynamics. Go to Step 8. If there are required unique attribute values and/or the Display Properties dialog for new features option is turned on, dynamics are turned off for all features, and the first read/write feature in the select set is highlighted. The Properties dialog box for the first read/write feature in the select set is displayed. Continue with Step 6. 6. Type the appropriate attributes on the Properties dialog box. Note: Pressing Cancel or ESC when the Properties dialog box is open displays a message asking if you want to discard the current feature copy or all subsequent copies. The feature is copied, and the Properties dialog box is displayed for the next feature. 7. Repeat Step 6 for each read/write feature in the select set. All writable features in the select set appear in dynamics on the cursor again. 8. Perform another copy. OR Select the Select Tool or press ESC to exit the command. 8-17

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Copying Features Parallel to Other Features


Copy Parallel allows you to copy a linear or area feature and offset it to a specified distance from the original feature.

See the Working with Features and Working with Coordinate Systems chapters for more information on these tabs.

The copied feature parallels the shape, angles, and lengths of the original feature proportionally. You can copy a feature to the same feature class as the selected feature or copy the feature to a different feature class. The copied feature is created in the active destination feature class selected in the feature selection control of the Copy Parallel dockable control, which opens when you select this tool. Changing the Target feature class in this window changes the feature class of the copied feature. Only feature classes from read/write connections appear in this control. Copy Parallel also honors the Properties dialog box setting on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. This tool creates new data, so it uses the height value you specify in the Default height value field of the Placement and Editing tab. It uses the default height for click or height-coordinate keyins.

You can specify the offset copy distance by either typing the distance in the Offset field or by picking data points with your cursor. The unit and precision for the offset distance comes from the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box. You can also lock in the current distance value by selecting the Lock offset check box. This locks the feature in dynamics at the offset distance value, and the feature no longer moves with the cursor. You can then place the new feature on either side of the original feature with a click. When the offset value is not locked, the feature is displayed in dynamics at the cursor location, and the offset value is automatically updated as you move your cursor.

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You can also place multiple copies of the selected features at different offsets. You can easily do this with the CTRL+click keystroke combination to place multiple features, each at the specified offset from the last copied feature. The additional features are always placed on the same side as the original.
Copy Parallel sets the height of every vertex of the new geometry to the height of the input point. If the input comes from the mouse, the value is the default height. If the input comes from a keyin, the value could either be the default height or the height value you type.

To copy parallel:
1. Select Edit > Feature > Copy Parallel.

2. Select a feature to copy parallel from the Target drop-down list. The feature is displayed in dynamics, and the Offset field is updated based on the cursor location. 3. Optional: Select the Lock offset check box to maintain the offset at the given value; then type a new value in the Offset field and press ENTER. 4. Click to place the copy of the feature. The feature is copied to the specified location with no change in feature class, displayed in its correct style, and written to the database. The Properties dialog box is opened if the setting of the Placement and Editing tab is on or if the new feature has required values. 5. Select a different feature class in the Target drop-down list. 6. Click to place the feature. The feature is copied and changed to the specified feature class. 7. Click to select another feature to copy parallel. The feature selection control is not populated with the feature class of the selected feature. 8. Click to place the feature. The feature is copied and changed to the specified feature class. 9. Click to select another feature to copy parallel. 10. When finished copying parallel, press ESC to end.

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Deleting Features
When you delete a feature, it is removed from the warehouse and from all windows. However, the legend entry is not affected, and you must delete it separately. IMPORTANT: This procedure deletes all selected features, including those not displayed in the active view.

To delete a feature:
1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature(s) you want to delete. OR In a data window, select the row(s) for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. Select Edit > Feature > Delete. Note: Through Tools > Options > Placement and Editing, you can specify whether the confirmation box is displayed before processing. All views that were displaying the deleted features are updated.

Manipulating Geometry
See the Validating and Fixing Data chapter for tools to trim and to extend geometry and to insert intersections.

Edit Geometry allows you to edit (insert, move, and delete) vertices on

the selected features. This tool honors the break and coincidence settings on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).
Edit Geometry modifies existing data, so it uses the height values of the

existing geometry. Moving a vertex only affects the height and width coordinates of the vertex. Inserting a new vertex gets the height value by interpolating between the height values of the two bounding vertices. This command also allows you to edit the height value. Manipulating tips: You can have multiple features selected for editing, but you can only edit vertices from a single feature at any one time. The exception to this is if there are coincident vertices, which are edited automatically if coincidence is turned on.

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You can select all the vertices in a geometry by selecting a vertex and then pressing CTRL+A. You can select all the vertices between two vertices in a geometry by selecting a vertex (1) and then selecting another vertex (2), while pressing SHIFT, as shown in the following example:

If you want to move multiple vertices, select the vertices and then hold down CTRL on the last one while dragging them.

To insert, move, edit height values for, and delete verticies:


1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature(s) you want to edit. OR In a data window, select the row for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit. Vertex handles appear on all geometries of the selected feature(s) to indicate that the geometries can be edited. 3. To insert a vertex, click on the point of the geometry where you want to insert the vertex. 4. To move one vertex(es), press and hold the left mouse button on the vertex (CTRL+left mouse button to select multiple vertex(es)) you want to move, drag it to the desired location, and release the mouse button. 5. To delete the vertex(es), select the vertex(es) and press DELETE. OR Select the vertex(es), right click to open the popup menu; then select Delete Vertex.

To edit the vertex height:


1. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit. 2. Select the vertex(es) whose height you want to change. 3. Right click to open the popup menu. 8-21

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4. Select Edit Height.

If a you selected a single vertex, the field displays the current height value. If you selected multiple vertices, the field is blank. 5. Type the new value in the Height field. 6. Click OK to update the coordinates of the selected vertex(es).

Moving a Vertex by Precision Keyin


In addition to dragging a vertex to a new position, you can move a vertex by precisely defining where the vertex should be relocated by precision keyin to the Precision Coordinates dockable control. Such a keyin move honors all placement and editing options honored by a move with the mouse. For multiple vertexes, moving a vertex by keyin is based on the last point selected. The coordinate of the selected vertex defines the anchor point of the move operation. When you type a location to which to move the vertex, the last vertex selected is moved to the new location, and all other selected vertices are moved relative to their original locations. If snaps are turned on and the keyed-in location of the vertex is within the snap tolerance of another geometry, it automatically snaps to it, overriding the precision keyin value. If you do not want this to occur, you must turn off all snaps before moving the vertex.

To move a vertex by precision keyin:


1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature you want to edit. Or, in a data window, select the row for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit. 3. Select a vertex.

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4. Using the Precision Coordinates control, type the coordinates of the new location to move the selected vertex; then press ENTER.

5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until the appropriate edits have been made.

Editing Coincident Geometry


Edit allows you to edit (insert, move, and delete) coincident geometry when the Maintain coincidence option of the Placement and Editing tab is on. You can use the Locatable and Display On/Off options of the Legend Properties dialog box to prevent features of individual feature classes from interfering in coincidence for a given edit. For Edit, a vertex

is coincident with another vertex if and only if they share the same (X, Y) position. To edit coincident geometry, you must first select the geometry with the Select Tool through the map window or the data window. When you move or delete a vertex, Edit searches to determine if a coincident vertex exists on any feature in the select set. If a coincident vertex exists, it is moved or deleted, too. When you insert a vertex, the tool searches to determine if a coincident line segment exists. If one or more coincident line segments exist, they are selected and vertices are inserted in them, too.

To edit coincident geometry:


1. In a map window, select the feature you want with the Select Tool. OR In a data window, select the row for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit.

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Handles are shown on all geometries of the selected feature to indicate that the geometries can be edited. All features coincident are highlighted by no handles are shown. 3. To insert a vertex, select the point of the geometry where you want to insert the vertex. OR To move a vertex, press and hold the left mouse button on the vertex you want to move, drag it to the desired location, and release the mouse button. OR To delete a vertex, select the vertex and press DELETE. The selected vertex and coincident geometry are edited.

Editing Geometry with a Snap-and-Break Workflow


You can use a productive snap-and-break workflow with the snap-andbreak capability of Edit.

To edit geometry with a snap-and-break workflow:


1. Select Tools > Options > Placement and Editing; then turn on Display Properties dialog for new features and Break linear features with the appropriate break option. 2. Select the features to be edited. 3. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit. 4. Select a vertex, and move it so that it snaps to another feature.

The features are split into two features when snapped to by the edited feature with break on, and the attributes are copied. Note: This is true only for end points. In the following example, you would not break line 1 because the edit was not done at an end point on line 2:

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5. Select Tools > Options > Placement and Editing; then turn off Break linear features, and turn on Maintain coincidence. 6. Select a vertex, and move it so that it snaps to another feature.

The feature is not split into two features when snapped to by the edited feature. A vertex is placed on the geometry snapped to by the digitized line, but the snapped-to feature is not split in two.

Deleting Geometry Using Edit Geometry


Edit also allows you to delete an entire geometry or a range of vertices.

To delete an entire geometry:


1. Select the features to be edited.

2. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit.

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3. Select a vertex on the hole geometry.

4. Press CTRL+a.

5. Press DELETE.

To delete a range of vertices:


1. Select the features to be edited. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Edit.

3. Select a vertex (1) on the geometry. 4. Press SHIFT and select a second vertex (2).

5. Press DELETE.

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Continuing Geometry
See the Working with Features and Working with Coordinate Systems chapters for more information on these tabs.

Continue Geometry allows you to digitize additional geometry for a

selected feature or to add new geometry to a feature that has no geometry. In the latter case, you would select the feature from a data window. This command, like many of the placement and editing commands, honors the settings on the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) for controlling default height values, automatic breaking of features, and maintenance of coincidence when snapping to other features. When you select a feature to be continued and select Continue, the Continue Geometry dockable control opens. This control is similar to the Insert Feature and Redigitize Command controls, except in this case it opens with the feature class field filled in with the name of the feature class of the selected feature to be continued.

See Inserting Features in the Working with Features chapter for information on using this control.

To continue geometry:
1. Select the feature to be continued. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Continue. The dockable control is opened with the feature class of the selected feature. 3. Place the new geometry in the map window.

To continue feature geometry with a snap-and-break workflow:


1. Select Tools > Options > Placement and Editing; then turn on Display Properties dialog for new features and Break linear features with, and the appropriate break option. Verify that Maintain coincidence is turned off. 2. Select the feature to be continued. 3. Select Edit > Geometry > Continue. The dockable control is opened with the feature class of the selected feature. 8-27

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4. Digitize the geometry.

The features are split into two features when snapped to by the digitized feature with breaks on, and the attributes are copied. 5. On the Placement and Editing tab, turn off Break linear features, and turn on Maintain coincidence. 6. Continue the geometry.

The feature is not split into two features when snapped to by the digitized feature. A vertex is placed on the geometry snapped to by the digitized line, but the snapped-to feature is not split into two features.

Moving Geometry
Move allows you to easily move feature geometry through a map window or a data window.

To move a geometry:
1. In a data window, click the row selector of the feature geometry you want to move. Press and hold the CTRL key while selecting multiple features. 2. Activate the map window. 3. Select Edit > Geometry > Move. Handles are displayed on all geometry and text associated with the selected rows to indicate that they can be moved. 4. Click a select-set handle to attach it to the cursor and drag the select set to the new location.

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Rotating Geometry
Rotate allows you to rotate a point symbol or text.

To rotate a point symbol or text:


1. In a map window, select the point symbols or text you want to rotate; or select the row for the point symbols or text in the data window, and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Rotate. An origin handle appears in the map window for each selected point symbol or text. 3. Click the origin handle. A baseline (dashed line) and reference line (solid) appear from the origin handle. 4. Move the cursor, using as a guide the dynamic rotation of the reference line in the active map window.

Moving the cursor in a clockwise direction counts degrees backwards (0, 360, 359, . . . ). Moving the cursor in a counterclockwise direction counts degrees forward (0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ). When you click, the first reading before the cursor is moved shows the beginning active angle. As you move the cursor in either direction, the active angle changes and the readout in the status bar updates dynamically. 5. Click to accept the angle.

Redigitizing Feature Geometry


Redigitize allows you to delete any part of a linear or area feature

geometry and to redigitize it as a modification to the original feature. The command prompts you to place a start and end point for redigitizing, and you must place these points on the same geometry. For example, you cannot place a start point on an area geometry and an end point on a hole geometry. Redigitizing always begins from the start point. If the end point is snapped to an end point of a line, you can continue digitizing without being constrained by the end point as if you were extending the feature. 8-29

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See Inserting Features in the Working with Features chapter for more information on this control.

When you select a feature to be redigitized and then select Redigitize, the Redigitize Command dockable control opens. This identifies the selected feature class and geometry type of the selected feature. The Redigitize Command control is similar to the Insert Feature and Continue Geometry controls.

Note: The rotation modes are displayed on the control but cannot be enabled for Redigitize because it does not work with point geometries.
See the Working with Features and Working with Coordinate Systems chapters for more information on these software features.

Redigitize also allows you to use the back arrow key to undo previously

placed point, and it supports stream digitizing by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse. This command, like Insert Feature and many other placement and editing commands, honors the settings on the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) for existing geometry, automatically breaking features, and maintaining coincidence. Redigitize uses the height value you specify for new points in the Default height value field of the Placement and Editing tab. Finally, you can digitize in stream mode by holding down the left mouse button.

To redigitize a line feature:


1. Select a line feature to redigitize. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Redigitize. 3. Snap to a point on the line to identify the start point for redigitizing. 4. Hover over the end point for digitizing.

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The snap glyph is displayed, and the geometry is highlighted between the start and end points. 5. Place the end point. (a = highlight color, of what will be placed; b = select color)

The section of geometry between the start and end points is deleted, and the line feature is displayed in dynamics from the start point. 6. Place the next point. 7. Double click to end.

To redigitize an area feature:


1. Select an area feature to redigitize. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Redigitize. 3. Snap to a point on the area to identify the start point for redigitizing.

4. Hover over the end point for redigitizing.

The snap glyph is displayed, and the geometry is highlighted between the start and end points. 5. Press the TAB key.

The area boundary is highlighted in the opposite direction.

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6. Place the end point. (a = highlight color, of what will be placed; b = select color)

The section of geometry between the start and end points is deleted, and the area feature is displayed in dynamics from the start point to the end point. 7. Click to place the next point.

8. Click the new point.

9. Double click to end.

To redigitize a feature with a break:


1. Turn on Break linear features and Display Properties dialog for new features on the Placement and Editing tab. 2. Select Edit > Geometry > Redigitize. 3. Snap to a point on the feature to identify the start point for redigitizing. 4. Place the end point. The feature is displayed in dynamics from the start point to the end point. 8-32

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5. Place a point by snapping to another line. The line feature snapped to is broken, and the Properties dialog box is opened. 6. Type the required attribute values for the feature snapped to; then click OK. Note: The break only occurs if the geometry being redigitized is a line and if the end point for redigitizing is snapped into another line. Then the line that is snapped into is broken, the Properties dialog box is displayed for the new piece, and the redigitize operation is ended. If the end point for redigitizing is not the end point of the line, the break option is ignored when snapping into another feature, and the command continues normally.

Deleting Feature Geometry


When you delete the geometry of a feature in a map window, the feature is no longer displayed in the map window. Deleting geometry, however, does not delete the feature. Attribute data still exists for the feature, which can be viewed in a data window. You can add geometry back at any time with the Continue tool. IMPORTANT: When you select multiple rows in a data window, this procedure deletes all the geometry and text for all selected rows, including those not displayed in the active view.

Changing Feature Class


When you collect data using other software packages and import it into GeoMedia Professional, some of the features may have the wrong feature class. This is especially true for CAD data in which all the features were collected into a single file. Change Feature Class allows you to select one or more features and change their feature class to another feature class. To perform this, you select the feature, or features, to be reclassified and the target feature class. If Display Properties dialog for new features is turned on (Tools > Options, Placement and Editing tab), the Properties dialog box displays for each feature that has changed, allowing you to enter attribute values.

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Note: If the target feature class contains required values that cannot be automatically calculated, the Properties dialog box displays regardless of whether or not Display Properties dialog for new features is turned on (Placement and Editing tab, Options dialog box).

To change feature class:


See "Selecting Features in the Map Window" in the Working with Features chapter.

1. In a map window, create a selection set that contains the feature(s) that you want to reclassify. OR In a data window, select the row(s) for the feature(s) that you want to reclassify and then activate the map window by clicking the title bar. 2. To display the Properties dialog box for each reclassified feature so that you can enter attribute values, select Tools > Options and do the following: On the Options dialog box, click the Placement and Editing tab. Select Display Properties dialog for new features.

Click OK. 3. Select Edit > Feature > Change Feature Class.

Note: The Target feature class field is blank the first time you use the tool. 4. From the Target feature class drop-down list, navigate to the warehouse connection that contains the target feature class that you want, and select the feature class. 5. Click OK. Note: If the select set contains features of different geometry types, a message displays; click OK and reselect your features. 8-34

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Each feature in the select set is highlighted and converted from the current class to the target class as follows: a new record is created in the target class for all features in the select set, the records in the source class for all features in the select set are deleted, and all open windows and queries displaying the target class are updated. If Display Properties dialog for new features is turned on, or if the target class contains values that cannot be automatically calculated, the Properties dialog box displays for each feature. Type the required attribute values, and click OK to process the next feature. Note: If the select set contains features of the same geometry type but that belong to different feature classes, the Properties dialog box updates with the attribute values of the next feature. Type the required attribute values, and click OK to process the next feature.

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Registering Data
See the SmartSnap section in the Working with Features chapter.

GeoMedia Professional provides you with easy-to-use tools to capture new data. These tools reduce the number of steps required to accomplish every task. With integrated vector and raster snaps, you can capture vector data from raster images with accurate heads-up digitizing. This product also allows table-top digitizing and vector transformation for existing vector data that requires geometry transformation to match your database. This chapter deals with tools that provide data registration: Digitizer Setup, Image Registration, Output to GeoTIFF, and Vector Registration. These tools follow a similar source-and-target data collection workflow with a similar graphic interface.

Performing Digitizer Setup


Digitizer Setup allows you to configure GeoMedia Professional to receive

input from a digitizing device for creating and editing features. Once you have created this configuration, the digitizer setup, you can save it for future use, and then edit, report on, and delete the saved setup. This is a representative workflow for setting up a digitizer: 1. Install the digitizer software, and attach the digitizer tablet and digitizer cursor. 2. Attach your paper map to the digitizer tablet. 3. Collect the appropriate control-point pairs. (A minimum of three pairs is required.) 4. Check the calculated error, and make any necessary corrections. 5. Add a name and an optional description to the new setup. 6. Register the new setup.

Supported Digitizers
GeoMedia Professional supports all digitizer tablets that are Wintab32 compliant. This means that if your digitizer was delivered with a Wintab32 driver (typically named wintab32.dll) for Microsoft 32-bit operating systems (such as Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98), you should be able use it with this product.

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The following list contains various manufacturers and their models of Wintab32-compliant digitizers. However, you should contact your hardware vendor for a complete, current list. Manufacturer Acecad Aristo Calcomp Models A-1812 Geo Board 3300 series (DrawingBoard III) 3400 series (DrawingBoard II) 3100 series (DrawingSlate) 3200 series (DrawingSlate II) EstiMat Roll-up Digirule Gtco The RAT Model 1000 Ultima II Roll-up Sketch Master AccuTabSuper L II Hitachi Kurta Numonics Summagraphics SummaExpression SummaExpert SummaFlex SummaPad SummaSketch II SummaSketch III SummaSketch FX SummaSketch LC961 SummaGrid IV MicroGrid III Wacom ArtZ II series HDG 1212E XGT series

Note: To avoid the most common digitizer problems, verify that you install the latest available Wintab32 driver and perform the installation according to the vendors instructions.

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Collecting Control-Point Pairs


Setting up the digitizer involves creating control-point pairs (X and Y coordinate values) required to register a digitizer device to a map view. A control point-pair is a point on a map for which an accurate easting, northing or geographic coordinate is known, and its corresponding X,Y location on a digitizer tablet. A minimum of three control-point pairs are required for registration. Control-point pairs allow the software to determine a mathematical transformation between the digitizer surface and the coordinate system in the map window and to help ensure more accurate digitizing. The New Digitizer Setup dialog box contains the X and Y coordinates of the digitizer control points (source) and the X and Y coordinates of the realworld location, map easting and northing, for the corresponding control points (target). Note: You can use the vector snap and/or raster snap tools to snap to existing geometries when interactively placing control points in a map window.

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You can collect the control-point pairs in several different ways, depending on your workflow: Collect all the digitizer (source) control points, and then collect all the corresponding (target) control points, or vice versa. Collect the control-point pairs by clicking Add Points on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box and then following the prompts. Collect control points graphically by clicking on the map in the map view (target) and on the digitizer tablet (source). This automatically populates the grid on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box with the corresponding values. Type them directly into the grid on the dialog box or cut and paste them into the Precision Coordinates dockable control if you know the actual coordinates of the target control point.

After you collect all of your control-point pairs, you need to check their accuracy with the Root Mean Square (RMS) value on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box. The RMS value is a measure of the fit of the transformed source points as a whole for the whole set of control-point pairs whenever their number meets or exceeds the minimum number for the transformation. If the RMS error is too high, you need to experiment with the Control/Check toggle of the Type column on the suspect pairs. A control-point pair of the type Control is used in the registration calculation and contributes to the overall RMS error value. A controlpoint pair of the type Check is saved, but it is not used in the registration or RMS value calculation. Once you have found the inaccurate controlpoint pair, you can either modify or delete it. Click Edit Source or Edit Target to edit the respective control points by selecting a row and then clicking on a new location for the control point. Note: You need to have a digitizer installed at startup, and a digitizer tablet and digitizer cursor attached to perform digitizer setup.

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To create a new digitizer setup by entering all source control points first:
1. Secure your paper map to the digitizing surface of your digitizer. 2. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup.

9
3. Click New.

4. Click Edit Source. The dialog box is closed, and placement prompts are displayed. 5. Click an appropriate point on the digitizer to place digitizer control point 1.

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Note: It is recommended that you mark your paper map with the control-point number assigned by the software (in the # column on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box) for later reference when entering the target control-point values. 6. Click the next appropriate point to place digitizer control point 2. 7. Continue placing control points until you have entered them all; then press the mouse key assigned to the left double click action to complete source point placement. The New Digitizer Setup dialog box is opened, with the X,Y coordinates of the placed digitizer control point displayed. 8. Type the corresponding map control points directly into the control point grid on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box. 9. Check the automatically calculated error in the Residuals field after you have entered at least three control-point pairs. If it is not acceptable, use the Control/Check toggle of the Type column to examine the effect each control point has on the total RMS error. Note: Those control points that reduce the total RMS error when toggled to Check should be kept that way. Those control points that increase the total RMS error should be toggled back to Control. The goal is to have the smallest RMS error that can be obtained with a reasonable amount of time and effort. Also, you must have a minimum of three control-point pairs with their type being Control. 10. Select the Type column in the grid to remove pairs with a high calculation error. 11. Type an appropriate name and an optional description for the digitizer setup.

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Registering Data

9
12. Click Register to save and to apply the digitizer setup. 13. Verify that the setup was successful with the name appearing in the list on the Registrations dialog box.

To create a new digitizer setup by entering tablet and map control-point pairs:
1. Secure your paper map to the digitizing surface of your digitizer. 2. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup. 3. Click New on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Add Points on the Digitizer Setup dialog box. The dialog box is closed. 5. Click on an appropriate point on the digitizer to place digitizer control point 1. 6. Click to place the corresponding map control point 1 on the map. 7. Continue placing control-point pairs until you have entered them all; then press the digitizer cursor key assigned to the left double click action to complete source point placement. The New Digitizer Setup dialog box is opened, with the X,Y coordinates of the placed digitizer control point displayed.

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8. Check the calculated error in the Residuals field after you have entered at least three control-point pairs. If it is not acceptable, use the Control/Check toggle of the Type column to examine the error for individual control-point pairs. 9. Select the Type column in the grid to remove pairs with a high error from the calculation; then edit individual control-point pairs using the editing steps that follow. 10. Type an appropriate name and an optional description for the digitizer setup. 11. Click Register to save and to apply the digitizer setup. 12. Verify that the setup was successful with the name appearing in the list on the Registrations dialog box.

To edit control points before applying setup:


1. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup. 2. Click New on the Registrations dialog box to create a new digitizer setup. Continue with Step 3. OR Select a digitizer setup from the list on the Registrations dialog box to edit an existing setup. Go to Step 4. 3. Collect control points by one of the four methods from the previously described new digitizer setup procedure. 4. Edit the control points by performing the following, as appropriate: Select and delete a row in the control-point grid; then type the appropriate information in a new row placed in the grid using Append. Type edits directly into the control-point grid. Select a row with the control points to be edited; then click Edit Source (to update the digitizer control-point source value) or Edit Target (to update the map control-point target value).

5. Click Register to save and to apply the digitizer setup.

To perform a digitizer setup by applying an existing setup:


1. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup. 2. Select an existing digitizer setup from the list on the Registrations dialog box.

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Registering Data

3. Click Edit and retype the tablet control points, or use Edit Source, if the paper map has been moved on the digitizing tablet; then click Register.

9
OR If you do not need to re-register the tablet control points, click Register.

To report on a digitizer setup:


1. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup. 2. Select an existing digitizer setup from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 3. Click Report. 4. Type a filename and location for the report file on the Save As dialog box; then click OK.

To delete a digitizer setup:


1. Select Tools > Digitizer Setup. 2. Select an existing digitizer setup from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 3. Click Delete.

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Setting Digitizer Mode


Setting the digitizer mode allows you to define the behavior of the digitizer cursor as screen mode or digitizer mode. In screen mode (with the Digitizer Mode item on the Tools menu unchecked, the default), the digitizer cursor has access to the entire monitor screen and behaves like a mouse cursor. In digitizer mode (with the Digitizer Mode menu item checked), the cursor has access to only open map windows and cannot access menus. You must be in digitizer mode to digitize from a paper map using a digitizer registration. When you move the digitizer on the digitizer tablet in this mode, the distance is translated to a real-world distance in the map window on the registration created with Digitizer Setup. You can only set the digitizer mode when you have a digitizer attached, and you can only have one mode active at a time. Note: In digitizer mode, the cursor can move out of the map window if the digitizer tablet area is bigger than the window area. In this case, the cursor disappears from the screen. You can still place points with the digitizer, but they will not be visible at the current view extents of the windows. Before you can use your cursor in digitizer mode, you must have the following: Digitizer installed on startup Digitizer tablet attached Digitizer setup registered Active map view

To set digitizer mode to add features:


1. Secure your paper map to the digitizing surface of your digitizer. 2. Start GeoMedia Professional. 3. Use Digitizer Setup to register your paper map to a map window. 4. Select Tools > Digitizer Mode to change it to digitizer mode (checked). 5. Select Insert > Feature with the digitizer puck, and select a feature to digitize. 6. Digitize the selected feature(s). 9-10

Registering Data

Digitizer Button Mapping


In general, if a digitizer button has been mapped to a mouse action outside of GeoMedia Professional (for example, by using the tablet manufacturers own software), the mapping takes precedence, and the tracker tool ignores the button. Buttons 0-3 are mapped as specified through the setup software provided with your digitizer tablet. Buttons 4-15 are mapped to specific buttons or sequences of buttons by the tracker software. Buttons 4-9 are mapped to specific system buttons as specified in this section. Buttons 10-15 are mapped to specific key sequences as specified in this section. The following is the recommended button mapping to meet all GeoMedia Professional requirements: Button Number Recommended Wintab32 Mapping 0 1 2 3 (if present) Left Click Left Double Click Left Drag Right Click

Buttons 0, 1, and 2
When there are only three buttons on the cursor, you must be able to use the keyboard simultaneously to carry out all the placement and editing tools. For example, to enter a CTRL+Double Click, required for discontinuous feature placement, you would need to hold down the CTRL key while pressing button 1 on the cursor.

Buttons 3 and Higher


With more than three buttons, you can do the following: Allow more types of mouse events to be mapped using Wintab32. Add other keys used in placement and editing (TAB, BACKSPACE, DELETE). Simulate metakey presses SHIFT and CTRL. For example, if the button assigned to CTRL is pressed, all events coming from the cursor, until and including the next button key pressed, will have a CTRL metakey mask. Initiate and terminate tools commonly used during placement or editing actions, such as Zoom In and Zoom Out. 9-11

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Note: Command mapping is done at a level of indirection, thus allowing you more flexibility. Instead of calling commands directly, the tracker command sends unused key strings to the application, such as CTRL+ALT+w, which you can map through Tools > Customize. Button Number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Recommended Wintab32 Mapping Exit to screen mode (Right Click in screen mode) Send ESC (To terminate command) Send SHIFT keymask Send CTRL keymask Send TAB Send <- (Backspace) Send DEL Send CTRL+ALT+Z (Zoom In suggested) Send CTRL+ALT+Y (Zoom Out suggested) Send CTRL+ALT+X (Fit All suggested) Send CTRL+ALT+W Send CTRL+ALT+V Send CTRL+ALT+U

Registering Images
Image Registration allows you to register a selected image by creating a

new registration or applying an existing registration. Creating a new image registration involves registering an image to its real-world coordinates, that is, transforming raster points to map control points. You can enter these points in any order and can collect them by placing data points or by precision keyins. This tool also allows you to re-register a selected image by editing the registration originally used to register the image. In the process of creating or editing image registration, you create or edit the control-point pairs. This tool is different from Digitizer Setup and Vector Registration in that it changes the display matrix of the image but does not change the data itself. In addition, this tool allows you to report on and to delete previously saved image registrations. Image Registration currently uses only the Affine transformation model. To create a new image registration, a single image must be in the select set before you select Image Registration. You must select an image to re-register it, and you must register it manually with the Register button; the tool does not do it automatically. 9-12

Registering Data

After you collect all of your control points, you need to check their accuracy with the RMS (Root Mean Square) value on the New Digitizer Setup dialog box. The RMS value is a measure of the fit of the transformed source points as a whole for the whole set of control points whenever the number of control points meets or exceeds the minimum number for the transformation. If the RMS error is too high, you need to experiment with the Control/Check toggle of the Type column on the suspect pairs. A control-point pair of the type Control is used in the registration calculation and contributes to the overall RMS error value. A control-point pair of the type Check is saved, but not used in the registration or RMS value calculation. Once you have found the inaccurate control point, you can either modify or delete it. Click Edit Source or Edit Target to edit the respective control points by selecting a row and clicking on a new location for the control point Note: You must have at least one map view open during image registration and interactive selection of control-point pairs. Also, controlpoint icons are displayed in all appropriate open map windows.

To register an image by creating a new registration:


1. Insert an image into your GeoWorkspace. 2. Place the image you want to register in a select set. 3. Select Tools > Image Registration.

4. Click New.

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5. Collect control-point pairs using the following available options: Click Add Points; then follow the prompts for adding controlpoint pairs. When complete, double click to fill the grid with control-point pair coordinates. Type the coordinates directly into the grid. Click Add Points; then type the coordinate values into the Precision Coordinates dockable control. Collect all source points by clicking Edit Source; then add the target points by typing them directly into the grid or by clicking Edit Target. Collect all target points by clicking Edit Target; then add the source points by typing them directly into the grid or by clicking Edit Source. 6. Check the calculated error in the Residuals field after you have entered at least three control-point pairs. If it is not acceptable, use the Control/Check toggle of the Type column to examine the error for individual control-point pairs. 7. Select the Type column in the grid to remove pairs with a high error from the calculation; then edit individual control-point pairs using the editing steps that follow. 8. Type an appropriate name and an optional description for the registration. 9. Click Register to register the image. OR Click Save to save the registration without registering the image. 9-14

Registering Data

To register an image by applying an existing registration:


1. Select the image you want to register. 2. Select Tools > Image Registration. 3. Select the appropriate registration from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Register.

To re-register an image by editing its registration:


1. Select the image you want to re-register. 2. Select Tools > Image Registration. 3. Select the registration originally used to register the image from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Edit.

5. Make the required changes in the registration. 6. Click Register to re-register the image.

To edit a saved image registration:


1. Remove any images from the select set. 2. Select Tools > Image Registration. 3. Select the appropriate registration from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Edit. 9-15

Working with GeoMedia Professional

5. Make the required changes in the registration on the Edit Registration dialog box; then click Save.

To report on an image registration:


1. Select Tools > Image Registration. 2. Select the appropriate registration from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 3. Click Report. 4. Type the appropriate folder and filename on the Save As dialog box; then click OK.

To delete an image registration:


1. Select Tools > Image Registration. 2. Select one or more registrations from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 3. Click Delete.

Outputting to GeoTIFF
Output to GeoTIFF takes a selected TIFF image and writes it out to a

GeoTIFF image file containing geographic header information. The selected TIFF image could have been inserted with Insert Image into any location and registered with Image Registration to put it in the correct geographic location. The output header information (also called GeoTIFF tags) in the GeoTIFF file allows the image to be inserted in another GeoWorkspace in the correct geographic location automatically with Insert Image or to be used in other software packages that accept GeoTIFF-formatted image filters. You can only select one raster at a time, and the raster must be a TIFF file without GeoTIFF tags; GeoTIFF tags cannot be written to other raster formats. You cannot overwrite the original TIFF file, thus this command protects you against destroying your original data. Note: GeoMedia does not permit you to overwrite an existing GeoTIFF file. If you were able to overwrite a GeoTIFF file, the existing GeoTIFF tags would be overwritten, and an unforeseen combination of tags that does not conform to the GeoTIFF specifications might accidentally be produced. As a result, your geographic data would be incorrect and the file would not place properly, if at all.

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Registering Data

See the Coordinate System Information appendix for a list of supported coordinate systems for writing GeoTIFF files.

Output to GeoTIFF can write out to only certain projections and datums of coordinate systems. Insert Image can, however, read almost any data

that is correctly defined within the GeoTIFF specifications. You can use GeoMedia and GeoMedia Professional to insert any GeoTIFF image with Insert Image. You can use GeoMedia Professional to output some TIFF images as GeoTIFF images as long as the coordinate system is one of those supported by Output to GeoTIFF.

To output to GeoTIFF:
1. Insert a TIFF image without any existing GeoTIFF tags. 2. Register the image with Image Registration to the correct geographic location OR Move the image to the correct location. 3. Select the image. 4. Select Warehouse > Output to GeoTIFF. 5. On the Save File dialog box, select the appropriate folder to which to save the file. 6. Type an appropriate filename; then click OK.

Registering Vector Data


Vector Registration allows source vector data to be transformed to match a set of already correctly registered target (base) features in a map. This tool is useful in situations where input features either do not have any projection information, such as a local coordinate system, or where discrepancies exist between the input data registration and the base data, such as a result of different accuracy of data collection. Thus, you can adjust (rotate, move, and scale) survey data to better fit with the surrounding parcel data in your master database. You can define a new vector registration or select an existing registration from a set of previously defined saved registrations. You can also edit, report on, and delete saved registrations.

With Vector Registration, you can select a source feature class to be registered, selecting by feature name, and apply a transformation to its geometry. This tool supports the Affine and Helmert transformation models, which require a minimum of three or two control-point pairs, respectively. Each pair must consist of one point from the source and one point from the target. 9-17

Working with GeoMedia Professional

This tool displays the residual value (the difference between the transformed source point and its corresponding target point) for each point pair whenever the number of control points meets or exceeds the minimum number for the transformation. Also displayed is an RMS (Root Mean Square) value (a measure of the fit of the transformed source points as a whole) for the whole set of control points whenever the number of control points meets or exceeds the minimum number for the transformation.
Vector Registration produces two types of output, review and feature class, whose display style you can customize for optimum results. Review output allows you to view the data in an appropriate style to verify the that the registration is correct, and to make changes if it is not, before performing the actual transformation.

Feature output allows the source data to be transformed directly into a feature that is stored in the target connection, which must be read/write. This is useful if the transformation has already been verified and there are many vector features to be registered. Certain conditions apply to storing the output in an existing feature class. For example, the source and target attribute lists must be compatible, that is, the source attributes must be a subset of the attributes of the target feature and have the same type definitions. Also, any unique key field cannot have duplicates in the target feature after the new features have been added. Note: For this command to work properly, the features being transformed must have a coordinate system defined. If you are using ArcInfo, ArcView, or MapInfo as a data source, you must specify in an .ini file a coordinate system file that matches the coordinate system the features were originally collected in. This is a representative workflow for registering vector data: 1. Input the features to be transformed and the features for identifying the target transformation location. 2. Specify the transformation parameters. 3. Identify the source and destination control points. 4. Review the transformation, and make corrections if necessary. 5. Perform the actual transformation.

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Registering Data

To create a new vector registration and to register source vector data for review and output feature:
1. Connect to an appropriate source warehouse. 2. Open a source map view, and display the source features you want to transform in the source map view. Note: You can further specify features with connection filters or any query conditions. 3. Connect to the target warehouse/server as read/write. 4. Open a target map view. 5. Display various target features in the target map view. 6. Select Tools > Vector Registration.

7. Click New.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

8. Click Add Points; then follow the prompts to register the source features against the target features by choosing corresponding controlpoint pairs. 9. Check the residual errors, and make corrections if necessary. 10. Click Transform.

11. Select the correct source feature class from the Transform features in drop-down list. 12. Verify that the Output as option is set to Review. 13. Optional: Click Style to open the Style Definition dialog box and customize your display; then click OK. 9-20

Registering Data

14. Select the appropriate map window from the Map window name drop-down list to display the source features and target features in a map view. 15. Click Apply on the Vector Transformation dialog box to review the transformation. 16. Visually check the placement of the transformed feature against the base feature display. 17. If the transformation is not acceptable, edit the transformation control points, repeat the process, and again check the results. OR If the transformation is acceptable, press ESC to return the Vector Transformation dialog box; then select the Feature class output option. 18. Select the appropriate connection from the Connection drop-down list. 19. Select the appropriate feature class from the Feature class drop-down list, or type a new feature class name in the field. 20. Optional: Type a description in the Description field. 21. Click Apply to perform the transformation. 22. Click Close to close the Vector Transformation dialog box. OR Continue by specifying each additional source feature class in turn, and use the specified registration to transform it directly into the output feature table

To report on a vector registration:


1. Connect to an appropriate warehouse. 2. Select Tools > Vector Registration. 3. Select the appropriate registration from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Report. 5. Type the appropriate folder and filename on the Save As dialog box; then click OK.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

To delete a vector registration:


1. Connect to an appropriate warehouse. 2. Select Tools > Vector Registration. 3. Select the appropriate registration from the list on the Registrations dialog box. 4. Click Delete.

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Inserting Traverses
Insert Traverse provides coordinate geometry key-in and digitizing tools for input and maintenance of linear and area feature data sources in the GeoMedia Professional environment. Examples of such data sources are registered survey/plat maps, parcel deeds, and title documents. An area feature generally consists of one primary feature class (for example, parcel) and various component feature classes (for example, the individual boundaries as separate feature classes). In addition to area features, you can precisely insert and maintain linear features. When you select a compound geometry feature class as the primary feature class, this command creates an area geometry for the primary feature. When you select a compound geometry feature class as the component feature class, this command creates a linear geometry for each component feature. In addition, this command dynamically displays the feature geometry in the map window as you define the geometry.

Once defined, you can save the geometry definition data to a .trv file and/or insert the geometry into a read/write warehouse. The .trv files have many uses. You can save coordinate geometry input from many different input/editing sessions into a .trv file until the geometry for an entire region or area is captured. You can then Load and Apply this data to a read/write warehouse. This provides both an audit trail of the data and an ASCII archive. Also, you can use .trv files as templates in which the data is loaded and edited for the creation of subsequent geometry features. The primary area and component feature-class definition capability provides a dual analysis capability. In a parcel data capture workflow, there is a need for both area-based (that is, parcel polygon area computations, spatial analysis, thematic mapping, and so forth) and component-based (that is, frontage boundary length, interior parcel boundary parameter, spatial referencing, and so forth) segregation and analysis. To do this, the software stores the parcel as an area feature and stores the component parts separately. Using the unique coincidence capability of this product, you can edit the component features separately (automatically editing the underlying area feature), while still allowing for area analysis. For example, when defining a rectangle parcel feature, you could define the eastern boundary to be a street, the northern boundary to be a country line, the western boundary to be a street, and the southern boundary to be a highway.

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The type of information entered depends on the feature being created and on the traverse type (Start_Point, Point, Line, Jump_Line, Arc, or End). In general, you can enter traverse information by one of three methods: Typing the traverse data directly into the grid or dimension frame of the Insert Traverse dialog box. Specifying points and line features from a map window. Loading an ASCII file containing the coordinate geometry definition.

You can also use a combination of these input methods for coordinate geometry input.

Defining a Traverse
Depending on your particular workflow, you may switch between these three methods while defining a traverse.

Typing Data
This method involves direct typing of point coordinate, distance, bearing, azimuth, deflection, and/or arc parameter values into the dialog box fields. The dimension frame for data entry on the Insert Traverse dialog box switches according to the type of traverse you are placing. You can enter the data for both linear and point coordinates.

Linear Dimensions
For linear (Line or Jump_Line) input, you enter the parameters for one of the three line-placement methods, distance/bearing, distance/azimuth, or distance/deflection. The default is distance/bearing. The name of the direction field changes with each method.

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Inserting Traverses

Deflection Angle Computation


Selecting the distance/deflection method supports deflection angles by setting the next traverse leg to be relative to the orientation of the previous leg. This allows placement of a traverse leg by angle and distance where the angle is relative to the previous traverse leg rather than the compass direction. When you select the distance/deflection method and specify a distance (d) and an angle value ( ), this command creates a new traverse segment (d) in the direction resulting from the angular deviation ( ) relative to the previous traverse segment, as shown in the following figure:

Positive ( ) values indicate a clockwise, or right-turn, deflection angle relative to the direction of the previous segment (as in the previous figure). Negative ( ) values indicate a counterclockwise, or left-turn, deflection angle. If the previous traverse segment is an arc, the deflection angle is computed relative to the chord of the arc, as shown in the following figure:

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Point Dimensions
For a point, you enter the point coordinates for one of the two pointplacement methods, geographic or projected. The default method is based on the coordinate readout control setting.

Arc Dimensions
To define an arc, you must select one of the four arc-placement methods (arc, chord, delta, or end point) and enter the required (enabled) parameters.

The following table shows the four arc placement methods and their required input:
Arc Length Arc Chord Delta End Point Chord Direction Chord Length Delta Direction Path Radius Tangent Direction

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Inserting Traverses

Selecting Data
In selecting points/features from a map window (Use Map), the Insert Traverse dialog box closes, and you provide input by clicking on a geometry displayed in a map window. Insert Traverse computes the values (that is, coordinates, direction, distances, and so forth) needed and automatically populates the dimension information frame on the dialog box. Your input and the type of coordinate information gathered depends on the particular traverse geometry type being defined. This method is useful when you want to use an existing geometry that forms a common boundary with the features you are creating or when you want to use the coordinates of a displayed control point rather than typing them into the dialog box. For Start_Point, Point, and End coordinates, simply click on an existing point or vertex in the map window to retrieve the coordinates. For Arcs, click two points on an existing arc geometry in the map window to add coordinate information. Insert Traverse retrieves the arc definition parameters and inserts these into the arc input fields of the dialog box. The two points are not used as start and end points; only the arc definition parameters are retrieved from the selected geometry. The start point of the arc being defined is the last point entered on the dialog box, as shown in the following figure of arc placement:

Disconnected arc identified

Resulating arc placement

In selecting data in the map window, you can also copy existing geometry information into a geometry type, as when designating a common geometry. In this case, you do not select the geometry itself, but SmartSnap is active so that you can snap to two points on the geometry to copy the definition values to the dialog box. However, the command draws a straight line between the two points and does not follow along any geometry when determining the distance and direction, as shown in the following figure of line placement: 10-5

Working with GeoMedia Professional

The following figure shows the resulting placement if a disconnected line is defined by two clicks:

Disconnected line identified

Resulating line placement

Importing Data
In importing (Load) data from an ASCII text file, you select the appropriate file from the common file-selection dialog box to populate the Insert Traverse dialog box with the traverse definition. You can import a .trv format file. When you save a traverse definition, the command saves it as a .trv file. This file contains all point, line, and arc definition information, from the start point through feature creation. You can also modify a saved traverse definition and save it as a new traverse file. When you load a traverse from a .trv file, the unit values are taken from the file rather than from the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).

Additional Command Features


Insert Traverse allows you to close (Close Feature) the current area

feature by inserting a Line from the current position to the point of beginning of the feature, not to the Start_Point. The point of beginning is the first point of the first Line, Point, or Arc traverse type. This allows you to have the software enter the closing boundary of the area feature being defined.

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Inserting Traverses

This command also allows you to adjust (Adjust) the closure of the feature using a Compass or Bowditch rule adjustment to distribute the small error that accumulates through precision input of direction, distance around the area feature. Through this adjustment, the error is distributed to each traverse leg based on its length in comparison to the total perimeter of the area feature. The perimeter value is the sum of all Line and Arc distances that make up the area feature; it does not contain any traverse-line distances leading up to the start of the Line/Arc components. You can only adjust the closure if the primary feature class of the feature to be adjusted is an area feature class. Any rows in the grid that are set to Lock will not be adjusted. You enter the Line or Arc definition information for each boundary from point of beginning, then from boundary to boundary, and back to the point of beginning. Consequently, the closure error should be very small. The total tolerance of the area feature is calculated on the absolute tolerance you type in the Tolerance field. You enter the tolerance value as a check on the incorrect closure of a feature. If the closing error exceeds the tolerance specified, the feature is not adjusted. It is important to note that the Adjust and Tolerance capabilities of Insert Traverse are built in to solely help prevent operator input errors, for example, inputting a bearing using the wrong direction notation or transposing the digits for a distance value, which would then be result in large Adjust error values. During an adjust operation, you can exclude (Lock) individual traverse legs/points from being altered. Any traverse in the edit grid populated by clicking in the map view is automatically locked, so any adjustment does not break coincidence conditions. Additionally, each traverse leg can have a linear feature placed for it. You can toggle between locked and unlocked while defining a traverse. (To lock or unlock a traverse, you must click the Lock check box twice.) The Display label option allows you to automatically display labels for the bearing distance in the start, end, or center position of each traverse leg, as the traverse is being defined. The labels are not written to the database. They are only used to allow a quick reference between the map view and the grid to determine which row in the grid goes with which leg of the traverse in the map view.

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When you have completed traverse definition, clicking Apply places the primary/component feature(s) into the map window. The coordinates of the traverse are calculated based on the Start_Point coordinates. Linear features are created in the respective component feature classes. Area/Linear features are created corresponding to the primary feature class selected for that feature. During Apply, the Properties dialog box opens to allow input of attribute values if there are required values or if the Display Properties dialog for new features option on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) is turned on. When the Properties dialog box opens, the Insert Traverse dialog box closes until you have input all the attribute values, at which time the Insert Traverse dialog box again opens.
Insert Traverse honors the Measurement interpretation setting on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). If set to True (spheroidal), the distances for all subsequent traverse

segments are computed with the curvature of the earth taken into account. If set to Projected (planar), the distances for all subsequent traverse segments are computed as planar distances.

Insert Traverse Workflows


Primary Workflow
The primary workflow for Insert Traverse is the collection, closing, and adjustment of individual area features. The recommended method of storing this area information is to store the area as one feature (the primary feature, for example, parcel) and the individual boundaries as separate features (which is automatically performed if the component feature class is defined). This command allows you to select a feature class to place and to select the component feature class for each traverse leg. When you are placing an area feature as the primary feature, Close Feature and Adjust are enabled once you have defined enough legs to make them useful. At least two legs must be defined before Close Feature is enabled, and at least three legs must be defined before Adjust is enabled.

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Inserting Traverses

Secondary Workflow
A secondary workflow is the collection of area features without components for each traverse leg. This command also allows the collection of linear features; however, Close Feature and Adjust are not enabled for such features.

To insert a traverse by typing plat data:


1. Create a read/write connection. 2. With an active map window, select Insert > Traverse.

3. Select the Start_Point traverse type from the Traverse type dropdown list. Note: You must always start a new traverse with Start_Point.

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4. Type the coordinates for the start point directly into the grid for the first traverse leg. OR Type the coordinates for the start point into the Point dimensions frame fields; then click Add to Grid. Note: Point dimension method defaults to the coordinate readout control setting, that is Lat/Long or Projected coordinates. A new row is added to the grid with the traverse type of line, and the dimension frame switches to show line dimensions. 5. Type the appropriate traverse coordinates. 6. Select the primary feature class (area, linear, or compound) of the feature being digitized from the Primary feature class drop-down list. 7. Select the traverse type. The Component feature class field is enabled for selection of the component feature class (linear or compound feature only) for the selected traverse. For Point, enter the coordinates as in the previous steps. For Line, enter the legal distance and bearing or distance and azimuth values in the line dimensions frame. For Arc, use one of the four placement methods for entering the arc dimensions. The dynamics of the feature are shown upon clicking Add to Grid unless the traverse type is Jump_Line. 8. Repeat these steps for all traverses forming the feature. 9. Click Close Feature to join the end and start points of the feature being digitized with a new line when the points are close together. A line is shown joining the end point of the previous linear feature and the start point of the feature. Two new rows are added to the feature detail grid with traverse type as Line, the distance and bearing values are populated, and the second has the traverse type set to End. 10-10

Inserting Traverses

Select the feature class of the line that closes the feature from the Component feature class drop-down list. OR Click Adjust to adjust the closing error if the primary feature is an area feature class and the feature is not closed, and verify that the closure error is within your specified tolerance limit. The Calculated traverse columns in the feature detail grid are populated with the corrected values of bearing and distances or coordinates of the Line/Point or Arc length features. 10. When finished, click Apply to insert the traverse geometry and to hide the dialog box during feature placement. If Display Properties dialog for new features is on, or if input is required for the selected feature class, specify the feature attributes on the Properties dialog box; then click OK to exit and to again open the Insert Traverse dialog box. 11. Click Save to save the traverse definition as a .trv file.

To insert a traverse using the map window:


1. Create a read/write connection. 2. With an active map window, select Insert > Traverse. 3. Click Use Map. The dialog box is dismissed. The prompt displayed and the required input vary with the traverse type. 4. If the traverse type is Point, select a single point in the map window by clicking a point in space or snapping to a vertex. The dialog box opens with the coordinates of the point in the dimension frame. OR If the traverse type is Line, select two points in the map window by clicking two points in space, snapping to a vertex, or a combination of the two. The dialog box opens with the distance and direction information for the line in the line frame. OR

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If the traverse type is Arc, select two points in the map window by clicking two points on an existing arc geometry, snapping to a vertex, or a combination of the two. The dialog box opens with the distance and direction information for the line in the arc frame. 5. Click Add to Grid to populate the grid. A new line is added to the grid with the same traverse type and component feature class as the previous line. 6. End the feature as in the previous workflow.

To insert a traverse using an imported file:


1. Create a read/write connection. 2. With an active map window, select Insert > Traverse. 3. Click Load. 4. Select the appropriate .trv file to populate the grid in the Insert Traverse dialog box. Only the first two fields of the grid are populated. 5. Optional: Edit the appropriate values. 6. Complete the feature as in the first workflow.

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Validating and Fixing Data


See the Working with Features and the Editing Features and Geometries chapters for information on other editing tools.

GeoMedia Professional provides tools that allow you to maintain data integrity by reviewing geometry information, validating geometry and connectivity, and analyzing geometry. In addition, this product provides tools to correct data by trimming and extending geometry to intersections, inserting intersections, fixing connectivity, and fixing geometry. These tools are the following:
Geometry Information Analyze Geometry Validate Geometry Fix Geometry Validate Connectivity Fix Connectivity Insert Intersections. Extend to Intersection Trim to Intersection

This product also contains other editing tools for editing other conditions. There are two basic workflow scenarios for using these tools. In the first, you perform all of the data capture within GeoMedia Professional. Because the functionality of this product stresses getting the data right the first time, there should be a minimal number of conditions found that need to be corrected. In the second workflow, you import data that was captured outside of GeoMedia Professional, then validate its composition. In either workflow, you would typically perform data validation as a first step in using your data because clean data is required for accurate results of subsequent processing.
See Placement and Editing Tab in the Working with Features chapter.

These correction tools honor the settings on the Placement and Editing tab on the Tools > Options dialog box for coincidence, linear feature break, stream tolerance, display of the Properties attribution dialog box, and use of existing geometry when digitizing. You can also set coincidence, break, and attribution from the tool bar.

Using Editing Tools with Data Validation Tools


Validate Geometry, Validate Connectivity, and Analyze Geometry

See Changing MapWindow Properties in the Working with Map Windows chapter.

produce output queries of found conditions to a map window and/or data window. In a typical workflow, you would have both windows open and vertically tiled. You would also use Window > Map Window Properties to set the display so that you could zoom in on each found condition. In addition, you need to set the map legend so that the found anomalies are under the features because you edit the features, not the anomalies. You can also turn the locate off for the anomalies on the legend. 11-1

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The display of the anomalies in the map and data windows allows you to make use of the powerful GeoMedia Professional function, dynamic queued editing. Dynamic queued editing presents each problem in sequence, so you do not have to perform time-consuming searches. Then as you fix each problem, the queue is automatically updated. If you fix a problem in the data window, the solution is automatically reflected in the map window and vice versa. Also, if you create a feature or an error while editing in one window, this is reflected in the other window, too. When you are validating or editing, the GeoWorkspace coordinate system and the warehouse coordinate system should be the same. All calculations are performed in the warehouse coordinate system. It is possible that anomalies between two geometries in the warehouse may not visually look like anomalies when displayed on a map that is in a different coordinate system. Also, an edit that looks good on a map may not be sufficient to resolve an anomaly in the warehouse. An output query produced by Validate Geometry, Validate Connectivity, and Analyze Geometry remains dynamic until you: Delete it from the GeoWorkspace using the Queries command. Remove it from all map window legends. Remove it from all data windows.

If you do not perform the above, leaving active queries lowers system performance, especially when you have several active queries running at the same time.

Displaying Geometry Information


Geometry Information allows you to investigate the geometry of individual features in a dataset. This command is a useful tool for understanding problems with a given feature that may have been uncovered by the validation or other commands in GeoMedia Professional.

Using this command, you can: Determine the geometry type of a feature, for example, a polyline, two-point line, arc, polygon boundary, hole in a polygon. Determine if a feature consists of more than one geometry. For example, a feature can be a composite geometry made up of a polyline and an arc. Determine the order in which vertices are stored. Display the coordinate values for individual vertices. Display arc information.

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This information is useful in determining the best way to fix a problem uncovered in the validation process that may not be obvious from looking at the feature itself. For example, you can determine if two points that appear to be the same on the screen are in fact the same, which part of a polygon hole geometry falls outside its boundary, or which vertex needs to be changed to fix a loop error.
Geometry Information is also useful because many GeoMedia Professional operations behave differently depending on the geometry type of a feature. For example, a two-point line can be broken but cannot have a vertex automatically inserted.

To display this information, you simply select a feature from a map window or a data window, and the corresponding geometry highlights in all map windows. To use this command, you must have at least one readonly or read/write warehouse connection, an active map window, and one or more features in the select set. With this command you can customize the display by selecting the following: Whether to display the height value for point geometries. Whether to display the coordinate values vertically or horizontally. The color and the weight of the highlight display in map windows. The format of the coordinate display (geographic or projection)

Supported Geometry Types


Geometry Information supports the following geometry types:

Geometry Type Information Point Vector Matrix Oriented Point Geometry Text Point Geometry Line Geometry Rectangle Geometry Arc Geometry Polyline Geometry Polygon Geometry Geometry Collection

Displays x, y, z i, j, k Four Column Vectors Origin Point, Orientation Vector Text String and x, y, z Start Point, End Point Origin Point, Height, Width, Rotational Vector, Normal Vector Start Point, Origin Point, End Point, Radius, Normal Vector List of Points List of Points List of Geometries 11-3

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Geometry Type Information Boundary Geometry Composite Polyline Geometry Composite Polygon Geometry Raster Geometry

Displays Exterior Geometry, Geometry Collection of Holes List of Geometries List of Geometries Display Matrix, Translation Vector, Polygon Geometry

To display geometry information:


1. Select a feature in a map window or a data window. 2. Select Tools > Geometry Information.

3. Optional: Click Options to change the map window and coordinate displays.

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4. Optional: Click the Color button to change the highlight color. 5. Optional: Select an appropriate highlight weight from the Weight drop-down list, or type a different value to change the weight. 6. Optional: Set the Display height check box to display or not display the height values on point geometries. 7. Optional: Set the Display vertical check box to display coordinate values vertically or horizontally under the point geometry. 8. Optional: Select the appropriate coordinate display option, Geographic or Projection. 9. Press ENTER or RIGHT ARROW, or double click on the top level geometry in the Geometry Information dialog box to display its subgeometries. 10. Select a child geometry and double click to display its values. 11. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 until the appropriate results have been displayed. 12. Click Close.

Validating Geometry
Validate Geometry finds geometry errors in the GeoMedia Professional

data model that will cause problems in other processes. For example, you cannot perform buffer zoning on an area with a loop. These errors may not prevent subsequent processing from running successfully because some error conditions are ignored; however, the results may be unexpected. Examples of such errors are areas closing on themselves, coincident sequential points in linestrings, and holes crossing area boundaries. You should run this tool on all your data as an initial cleanup step, especially if you import the data from another source, such as design files, ARC/INFO, and ArcView. You then need to fix the detected geometry errors by using the appropriate editing tools. 11-5

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You access Validate Geometry from the Tools menu and input a feature class or query containing the features for which geometry is to be validated. Each record from the input feature class or query may have zero, one, or more anomalies. Next, you specify the output query and its display. This tool displays the output query to a map window containing geometric depictions of the location and nature of the anomalies and/or a data window containing a text description of the anomalies. You also have the option of changing the default display style of the map window for optimum results.

Geometry Validation Error Conditions


Validate Geometry can find the following error conditions:

Error Kickback and Duplicate Point

Definition An area boundary or hole, or linear geometry that reverses direction temporarily so that it doubles back over itself and then proceeds in the original direction without creating a face. This includes conditions of repeating consecutive vertices.

Loop

The geometry of an area boundary or hole intersects itself.

Unclosed Area

An area boundary or hole that does not close on itself, that is, the last vertex does not equal the first vertex.

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Error Uncontained Hole

Definition A hole that is not contained within its boundary.

Overlapping Holes

Holes that overlap within a boundary.

Invalid Geometry Type Empty Geometry Collection Too Few Vertices Unknown Geometry Type

Actual geometry stored in a GDO field that does not match the GDO type/subtype definition. Geometry collection contains zero geometries.

Polygon geometries contain fewer than four vertices; polyline geometries contain fewer than two vertices. Binary format cannot be converted into a geometry object.

To validate geometry:
1. Connect to a read/write warehouse. 2. Select Tools > Validate Geometry.

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3. Select the feature class or query for which to validate geometry from the Validate geometry contained in drop-down list. 4. Verify, and change if appropriate, the default name <Feature> anomalies assigned to the output record set in the Query name field. 5. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 6. Verify that the Display results in map window box is checked in the Map window name area, and change, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a map window, click the Display results in map window box to remove the checkmark. 7. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 8. Verify that the Display results in data window box is checked in the Data window name area, and change, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a data window, click the Display results
in data window box to remove the checkmark.

9. Click OK to perform geometry validation. Validation processing is performed in the selected feature class or query, and an output query is produced with the query name from the dialog box. 11-8

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If the map window display check box was selected, the map window with the anomalies is displayed. If the data window display check box was selected, the data window with the anomalies is displayed. 10. If you have a map window, set its properties for display of each error found. If you have two windows, you can tile them vertically for ease of use. Perform the appropriate maintenance on the errors found.

Fixing Geometry
Fix Geometry allows you to automatically correct duplicate points and kickbacks geometry problems found by having first run the Validate Geometry command, which outputs the errors as a query. There must be at least one such query to be able to run Fix Geometry. Thus, the Validate Geometry query becomes the input for Fix Geometry Fix Geometry fixes what it can and leaves the residual problems for manual fixing. The automatic fixing process is similar to the manual fixing process in that it makes edits to the original geometry, broadcasts changes to the database, re-evaluates the edited geometry through notification, and, if the anomaly has been fixed, it removes the anomaly from the Validate Geometry query.

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Other errors found by Validate Geometry cannot be automatically corrected; they require your intervention to be resolved. You can use the output query with the Map Window Properties command and the data window to set up a queuing workflow for scrolling through the list of anomalies and for correcting them with Extend to Intersection, Trim to Intersection, Insert Intersection, and other geometry editing commands if necessary.

To fix geometry:
1. Run Tools > Validate Geometry to determine the types of problems associated with your data. 2. Select Tools > Fix Geometry.

3. Select a query from the Fix geometry errors in drop-down list of Validate Geometry anomaly queries. 4. Select the appropriate Errors to fix check box(es), Duplicate points and/or Kickbacks. Note: If there are no duplicate points or kickbacks, an error message is displayed. 5. Click OK. The message Fixing <query name> and a progress bar are displayed as the geometry problems are automatically fixed; then a message is displayed with statistics on the number of problems fixed per selected option. Note: You can stop processing at any point by pressing ESC; however, this does not undo any fixes that have already been made.

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6. Optional: Manually fix those problems that could not be fixed automatically.

Validating Connectivity
Validate Connectivity finds anomalous conditions caused by inaccurate

digitizing, such as undershoots and overshoots. These conditions are not necessarily errors, but they should be examined to see if they need to be corrected to ensure that your data is clean. You access Validate Connectivity from the Tools menu. The digitizing and editing tools of the software (such as SmartSnap, automatic break, and automatic maintenance of coincidence) are designed to allow you to collect clean data the first time rather than having to clean up problems as a post-process. Thus, creating and editing features within the software usually result in a relatively small number of connectivity errors. Some errors are inevitable, however, especially those involving coincidence and automatic breaking. The connectivity validation tools are designed to find these problems. Data brought in from other sources, such as CAD files, that have been spaghetti digitized without much attention to connectivity often include a large number of connectivity errors such as undershoots, overshoots, node mismatches, and slivers. Validate Connectivity also locates these problems. This command takes two feature classes and/or queries as input and creates a new query containing any connectivity errors as output. The input can be the same feature class or query (for example, Street versus Street, in which case you validate connectivity between features within the same feature class) or a combination (for example, Street versus Railroad). You can display the output query in a map window or in a new data window containing a text description of the anomalies. When outputting to a map window, you have the option of changing the default display style of the connectivity errors. You can use the output query with the Map Window Properties command and the data window to set up a queuing workflow for scrolling through the list of anomalies and for correcting them with Extend to Intersection, Trim to Intersection, Insert Intersection, and other geometry editing commands if necessary. You can also use the Fix Connectivity command to automatically correct connectivity problems. Because the query is dynamic, the software automatically removes errors from the map window and the data window as they are corrected so you do not have to run the validation command again to see the updates. Similarly, a placement or edit operation that creates a new error is automatically displayed without having to run the validation command again. 11-11

See Fixing Connectivity in this chapter.

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Validate Connectivity detects the following potential error conditions:

Undershoots Overshoots Node mismatches Unbroken intersecting geometry Non-coincident intersecting geometry Nearly coincident geometry

Note: If you select both the unbroken intersecting geometry and the noncoincident intersecting geometry conditions, the unbroken intersecting geometry takes precedence. It is strongly recommended that you use Validate Connectivity in an iterative manner. You should first select one validation condition most appropriate for your purposes, run the command, and then change the query parameters by editing the query to further refine the validation. Thus, you would alternate commands, checking one validation condition at a time. If you use Validate Connectivity with many validation conditions in one run, the output query may contain an excess of anomalies for you to work with at one time.

Connectivity Conditions
Validate Connectivity allows you to choose from among six connectivity

conditions to be found for the selected feature classes/queries and to define the distance tolerance to be used to search for errors. Note: In the following examples, the squares represent how the different conditions are symbolized. You can select any point style with the style dialog box for the legend entry. Overshoot This condition occurs when the end of a linear geometry extends beyond the point at which it should intersect with, and stop at, another geometry.

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Undershoot This condition occurs when the end of linear geometry or a point geometry falls short of intersecting another geometry.

Node Mismatch This condition occurs when the end of a linear or point geometry falls short of intersecting with the end of another linear or point geometry.

Unbroken Intersecting Geometry This condition occurs when features intersect one another without creating corresponding end point nodes at the intersection points. Only linear geometries can be broken, but the intersecting geometries can be either points, lines, or areas. Non-coincident Intersecting Geometry This condition occurs when features intersect one another without creating corresponding vertices at the intersecting points. Both linear and areal geometries can have vertices inserted. The intersection geometries can be points, lines, or areas. Nearly Coincident Geometry This condition occurs when an interior vertex of one geometry falls within the tolerance of either a vertex or an edge of another geometry. The geometry types affected are point (discontiguous), linear (single and discontiguous geometry), and area (single and discontiguous geometry, boundary, and holes). 11-13

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Examples of Connectivity Conditions by Feature Class


Line versus Line Overshoot

(Intersection not broken, intersection not coincident. If all these switches are on, overshoot takes precedence.)

Undershoot

Node Mismatch

Node Mismatch Undershoot

(If both switches are on, node mismatch takes precedence.)

Nearly Coincident

Nearly Coincident

Intersection Not Broken (This takes precedence over intersection not coincident.) 11-14

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Intersection Not Coincident

Line versus Area Overshoot

Undershoot

Node Mismatch

Nearly Coincident

Nearly Coincident

Intersection Not Broken

Line versus Point Node Mismatch

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Nearly Coincident

Intersection Not Broken

(The line needs to be broken at the point.)

Intersections Not Coincident

(The line needs a vertex at the point.)

Area versus Area Nearly Coincident

Nearly Coincident

Intersections Not Coincident (The area needs vertices at the intersection points.)

Area versus Line

Nearly Coincident

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Nearly Coincident

Intersection Not Coincident

(The area needs a vertex at the intersection.)

Area versus Point Area vertex nearly coincident with point.

Intersection Not Coincident

(The area needs a vertex.)

Point versus Point Node Mismatch between two points

Point versus Area

Node Mismatch between point and vertex.

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Undershoot of point to a segment.

Point versus Line Node Mismatch

Node Mismatch

Undershoot

To validate connectivity:
1. Open a read/write warehouse. 2. Select Tools > Validate Connectivity.

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3. Select the feature class(es) or the quer(ies) for which geometry is to be validated from the Features in drop-down lists, in the Validate connectivity between selection area. 4. If you want to validate connectivity within a single feature class/query, you must enter the same feature class or query in the two input fields. (The only way to validate within a feature class is to enter the same one in both fields.) 5. Select the appropriate Find check boxes for the conditions to be found. 6. Type the appropriate tolerance value in the Tolerance field, and select the appropriate unit of measure. 7. Verify, and change if necessary, the default query name for the output query in the Query name field. 8. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 9. Verify that the Display results in map window box is checked in the Map window name field, and change, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a map window, click the Display results in map window box to remove the checkmark. 10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 11. Verify that the Display results in data window box is checked in the Data window name field, and change, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a data window, click the Display results in data window box to remove the checkmark. 12. Click OK to validate connectivity. Validation processing is performed in the selected feature class and/or query, and an output query is produced with the query name from the dialog box.

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If the map window display check box was selected, the map window with the anomalies is displayed. If the data window display check box was selected, the data window with the anomalies is displayed. 13. If you have a map window, set its properties for display of each error found. If you have two windows, tile them vertically for ease of use. Perform the appropriate maintenance of the conditions found. 14. Optional: Change the query parameters to further refine the validation. Select Analysis > Queries, select the query on the Queries dialog box; then click Edit. Edit the query, and run Validate Connectivity again.

Fixing Connectivity
Fix Connectivity allows you to automatically correct connectivity problems for polylines, polygons, and boundary geometries by:

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Trimming overshoots Extending undershoots Breaking crossing lines Inserting a vertex into crossing lines

Validating and Fixing Data

You identify these problems by having first run Validate Connectivity, which outputs an anomaly query. There must be at least one such query to be able to run Fix Connectivity. The Validate Connectivity query in turn becomes the input for Fix Connectivity, which fixes what it can and leaves the residual problems for manual fixing. The automatic fixing process is similar to the manual fixing process in that it makes edits to the original geometry, broadcasts the changes to the database, re-evaluates the edited geometry through notification, and, if the anomaly has been fixed, it removes the anomaly from the Validate Connectivity query. Fix Connectivity honors the Break linear features options on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). Examples of problems Fix Connectivity corrects: Trim Overshoots

Line A is trimmed back to Line B. Extend Undershoots

Line A is extended to Line B. Break Crossing Lines

Line A is broken into two segments, A and C, at the intersection of Line B.

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Insert Vertex into Crossing Lines

A vertex is inserted into Line A at the intersection with Line B. Examples of problems Fix Connectivity cannot correct: Extend Undershoots

The extension of Line B is outside the tolerance.

The extension of Line B does not intersect Line A. Order of Processing The order in which you fix connectivity problems is important. In general, you should trim overshoots first, then fix undershoots, and finally break crossing lines or insert a vertex into crossing lines. The following example shows where breaking crossing lines was performed before trimming overshoots:

Line A was broken into two segments, A and C, at the intersection with line B. Because Line C is now a separate feature, it is no longer detected as an overshoot. 11-22

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Infinite Loops In a few situations, Fix Connectivity can get caught in an infinite loop. If this happens, you can easily exit the command by pressing ESC. You can then restart the command using different options. You may also want to change the detection options on the query through the Edit Query command. The following is an example that results in an infinite loop:

Line A overshoots line B. Line A is trimmed to Line B. Line A undershoots line C. Line A is extended to Line C. Line A overshoots Line B, and so forth into an infinite loop.

To fix conectivity:
1. Run Tools > Validate Connectivity to determine the types of problems associated with your data. 2. Use Edit Query to change parameters and/or tolerances for the Validate Connectivity output query. 3. Select Tools > Fix Connectivity.

4. Select a query from the Fix connectivity errors in drop-down list of Validate Connectivity anomaly queries. 5. Select any or all of the Connectivity errors to fix check boxes. 11-23

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Note: Depending on the types of problems, fixing one type at a time may reduce possible errors. 6. Click OK. The message Fixing <query name> and a progress bar are displayed as the connectivity problems are automatically fixed; then a message is displayed with statistics on the number of problems fixed per selected option. Note: You can stop processing at any point by pressing ESC; however, this does not undo any fixes that have already been made. 7. Optional: Manually fix those problems that could not be fixed automatically.

Analyzing Geometry
Analyze Geometry calculates geometric statistics for each feature instance of a selected feature class or query and displays the output as a query, which can be displayed in a map window and/or data window.

The statistics available are as follows: Area featuresarea, perimeter, area/perimeter Linear featureslength Point featuresnone Compound featuresarea, length, perimeter, area/perimeter Graphics text featuresnone Coverage featuresnone
2 2

In addition, you can use this command as an analytical tool to find certain specified conditions. For example, you could use it to locate all the parcel areas of a certain size or to prepare a thematic map. You access Analyze Geometry from the Analysis menu. This tool takes a feature class or query as input and outputs the results as a new query containing all the fields from the input feature class, plus additional fields for each appropriate geometry statistic selected on the dialog box. You can display this resultant query in a map window and/or a data window. In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results. 11-24

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A query or data window sort can be performed to find small areas or short lines, which allows greater flexibility in the use of the tool. For example, you may want to find all features with large area or those with areas within a specific range. The default unit values are populated from Tools > Options, but you can overwrite them on the dialog box. The distance and area units, however, are not displayed in the output query. The query is dynamically linked back to the input feature class or query and is automatically updated when any changes are made. This means that you can select features in the output query and delete them, and they will be deleted from the original feature class. In this way, for example, you could find all areas less than a certain minimum size or lines less than a minimum length and eliminate them.
Analyze Geometry performs calculations based on the options selected on the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box. You can, however, override these options by selecting different unit values from the dropdown lists.

You also have the option of using a spheroidal or planar reference space when computing the statistics. The default distance and area values are taken from the Units and Formats tab of the Options dialog box. All computations take place in the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Note: Existing queries produced by this command in GeoMedia Professional 3.0 continue to be computed in the warehouse coordinate system. Only new (GeoMedia Professional 4.0) queries are computed in the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. After running Analyze Geometry, you can perform maintenance on the detected conditions. Any changes you make to the geometries of the features for which the statistics were calculated update the statistics automatically in any open map window and/or data window displaying the affected features. For example, if you wanted to delete small areas found by Analyze
Geometry, you would do as follows:

1. Run Analyze Geometry to find the small areas. 2. Open a data window on the new query. 3. Sort the area column. 4. Select all rows with less than the appropriate area. 5. Delete the selected rows. The data window and map windows are updated for the deletion. 11-25

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Analysis Options
You can choose from among the following four analysis options for the statistics you need:
LengthCalculates the length of discontiguous geometries, and holes

are accounted for in the area calculation each feature with a linear geometry and stores the value in a new field called Length. The length is calculated only for those features with a linear geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is an area geometry, this option is ignored. Discontiguous geometries are accounted for in the length calculation.
AreaCalculates the area of each feature with an area geometry and stores the value in a new field called Area. The area is calculated only for those features with an area geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is a linear geometry, this option is ignored. PerimeterCalculates the perimeter of discontiguous geometries, and

holes are accounted for in the area calculation each feature with an area geometry and stores the value in a new field called Perimeter. The perimeter is calculated only for those features with an area geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is a linear geometry, this option is ignored.
Area/perimeter Calculates the area/perimeter of discontiguous
2

geometries, and holes are accounted for in the area calculation each feature with an area geometry and stores the value in a new field called AreaPerimeterRatio. The statistics are calculated only for those features with an area geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is a linear geometry, this option is ignored. The output feature class or query contains a new field for each selected analysis option that applies to the geometry type of the input feature class or query. The default headings of the new fields are Area, Perimeter, Area/PerimeterRatio, and Length. If a column exists with one of these names, the new name is the same but with a ## symbol appended to the end of the name, where ## begins at 01 and is revved until a unique title is found.

To analyze geometry:
1. Open a read/write warehouse. 2. Select Analysis > Analyze Geometry. 11-26

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3. Select a feature class or query from the Features to analyze dropdown list. 4. Select the appropriate analysis option(s) from the Find selection area. 5. Verify, and change if necessary, the default query name for the output query in the Query name field. 6. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field. 7. Optional: Change the Distance units and Area units values. 8. Optional: Change the Distance and area interpretation option. 9. Verify that the Display results in map window check box is selected in the Map window name field, and change, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a map window, select the Display results
in map window check box to remove the checkmark.

10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box.

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11. Verify that the Display results in data window box is selected in the Data window name field, and change, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the results. OR To not display the results in a data window, click the Display results
in data window box to remove the checkmark.

12. Click OK to analyze the geometries. Analysis processing is performed in the selected feature class or query, and an output query is produced using the query name from the dialog box.

If the map window display check box was selected, the map window with the geometries is displayed. If the data window display check box was selected, the data window with the geometries is displayed.

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Extending Geometry to Intersections


Extend to Intersection allows you to extend linear features, one at a time,

to the closest intersecting feature in a view. The vicinity of the cursor to the end points determines the extend direction, that is, the closest end point is extended. You access Extend to Intersection from the Edit menu. Selecting this tool clears any select set. You next move the cursor over the end segment of a linear feature, which then appears in dynamics. This does not occur if the cursor hovers over internal segments. If the feature is editable, Extend to Intersection highlights and calculates the line segment that extends to the first intersecting feature in the current map view. You can then use a data point to accept the extension or move to another feature without accepting the extension. If there are multiple features, you can use PickQuick to select the feature to extend.
Extend to Intersection honors the coincident settings, delayed attribute settings, and break settings on the Options dialog box. If the coincident

setting is on, this tool adds vertices to all features on which the new extended end point falls. This tool modifies existing geometry, so it uses the height values of the existing geometry. The height value for the extend point will be a point extrapolated from the original geometry, not on the geometry that is being extended to.

Possible Extend Cases


The following are the two possible extend cases handled by Extend to Intersection: Candidate feature to be extended =

Case 1. Intersection: No closest feature found.

If you place the cursor on a linear feature that has no close features in both directions, the figure does not highlight.

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Case 2. Polyline feature to be extended to linear feature.

These figures show the two possible extend cases.

To extend geometry to intersecton:


1. Connect to a read/write warehouse. 2. Display the linear features in a map window. 3. Optional: Select Tools > Options, and set the appropriate Placement and Editing tab options. 4. Select Edit > Geometry > Extend to Intersection. 5. Move the cursor over a portion of the feature you want to extend. The feature is highlighted with the extended line segment. 6. Click the highlighted feature to extend it to the nearest intersecting feature. If the coincident setting is on, vertices are added to all features on which the new extended end point falls. If the Break within same feature class only option is on and the feature being extended to is the same feature class as the feature being extended, it is broken into two features. If the Break all feature classes option is on, all features on which the new extended end point falls are broken into two features. If the Display Properties dialog for new features option is on or if there are required attributes in the new feature(s) being created, its dialog box opens. The relevant map window, data window, and queries are updated, and the cursor waits for further input of features to be extended. 7. Double click to exit Extend to Intersection.

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Trimming Geometry to Intersections


Trim to Intersection allows you to trim overlapping linear features. In this process, the tool highlights the portion of the feature to be trimmed, trims the selected feature to the closest intersection from the end point that is closest to the cursor, and updates the modified feature in the warehouse. The intersecting feature can be a linear feature or an area boundary. This tool modifies existing geometry, so it uses the height values of the existing geometry. The height value for the trim point will be a point on the original geometry, not on the geometry that is being trimmed. You access Trim to Intersection from the Edit menu.

Selecting this tool clears the select set of any selected items. You then move the cursor over a linear feature. If the feature is editable, Trim to Intersection highlights the portion of the feature to be trimmed, calculating this portion from the closest end point to the cursor to the first valid intersecting feature. If there are multiple features within the locate zone or the cursor, you can use PickQuick to select the feature to trim. If no intersection is found within the search range, which is bounded by what is displayed on the screen, Trim to Intersection does not process the selected feature. This does not apply to read-only features or features with locate turned off.

Possible Trim to Intersection Cases


The following are the possible trimming cases handled by Trim to Intersection: Intersecting feature = Candidate feature to be trimmed =

Case 1. Intersection: Not found.

If you place the cursor on a linear feature that has no intersection points on both directions, the feature is not highlighted and there is no trim action.

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Case 2. Intersection: One linear feature intersecting with another linear feature.

(Break option off)

(Break option on)

If the break option is on, the intersecting feature has to break with respect to the intersection point into two linear features. These two broken features take the attributes that you or the software enter.

Case 3. Intersection: One linear feature intersecting with an area boundary.

The segment to be trimmed when intersecting with an area boundary.

To trim geometry to Intersection:


1. Connect to a read/write warehouse. 2. Display the linear features in a map window. 3. Optional: Select Tools > Options, and set the appropriate Placement and Editing tab options. 4. Select Edit > Geometry > Trim to Intersection. 5. Move the cursor over a portion of the feature you want to trim. 6. Click the highlighted feature portion to accept the trim. If the coincident setting is on, vertices are added to all features on which the new end point of the modified feature falls. 11-32

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If the Break same feature class only option is on and the feature intersecting the feature being trimmed is the same feature class, it is broken into two features. If the Break all feature classes option is on, all features on which the new end point of the modified feature falls are broken into two features. If the Display Properties dialog for new features option is on, its dialog box opens if a break occurs or if there are required attributes in the new feature(s) being created. The relevant map window, data window, and queries are updated, and the cursor waits for further input of features to be trimmed.

Inserting Intersections
Insert Intersection inserts a vertex at the intersection point of two or more

crossing geometries. The geometries can be from a linear feature, a point feature, or an area boundary. This tool is modeless, so you can process multiple inserts without restarting it. You access Insert Intersection from the Edit menu. Selecting this tool clears the select set of any selected items. You then move the cursor over a feature in the area of the intersection with another feature. If the feature classes are editable, the tool highlights and calculates the closest intersection point. The search for an intersection stops at the boundary of the active map view; if there is no intersection, no highlighting occurs. You use a data point to accept the intersection. If one or more of the intersecting features is read-only, the tool inserts the intersection into all features that can be written to and ignores the readonly features. This tool modifies existing geometry, so it uses the height values of the existing geometry. The height value for the inserted points will be on the original geometries.
Insert Intersection honors the settings on the Placement and Editing tab except coincidence. If coincidence is turned off, this tool still places a vertex at the intersection. Insert Intersection overrides coincidence because it is intended to insert vertices.

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This tool honors the Break linear features settings as follows:


Break all feature classes Break same feature class only

Action

Yes No Yes

Yes Yes No

Vertex is placed on all features at the intersection point. All features are broken at the intersection point. All features of the same feature class as the highlighted feature tolerance of the intersection point are broken. Vertex is placed on all features of a different feature class at the intersection point.

You also have the option to type the attributes of the broken features on the Properties dialog box or to let the software do it automatically. You can set these provisions on the Placement and Editing tab of the Options dialog box. This tool does not honor the coincidence setting on this tab. It always inserts a vertex on all features at the located intersection regardless of the coincident setting.

Possible Intersection Cases


The following are the possible intersection cases handled by Extend to Intersection: (The dots indicate the intersection point. The gray lines indicate the located features.)

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Solutions
For all the following cases, assume F1 to be the located feature. Case 1. Same feature class (linear).

Break same feature class: F1 and F2 are broken at the intersection. Break all feature classes: F1 and F2 are broken at the intersection. Break off: Vertex is inserted on F1 and F2 at the intersection. Case 2: Different feature class (linear).

Break same feature class: F1 is broken at the intersection; F2 is not broken but a vertex is inserted at the intersection. Break all feature classes: F1 and F2 are broken at the intersection. Break off: Vertex is inserted on F1 and F2 at the intersection. Case 3: Line and area features.

Break same feature class: Neither F1 or F2 is broken, but a vertex is inserted at the intersection on both features. Break all feature classes: F2 is broken at the intersection; F1 is not broken, but a vertex is inserted at the intersection. Break off: Vertex is inserted on F1 and F2 at the intersection. Case 4: Two area features.

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Break same feature class: Neither F1 or F2 is broken, but a vertex is inserted at the intersection on both features. Break all feature classes: Neither F1 or F2 is broken, but a vertex is inserted at the intersection of both features. Break off: Vertex is inserted on F1 and F2 at the intersection.

To insert intersections:
1. Connect to a read/write warehouse. 2. Display the linear features in a map window. 3. Optional: Select Tools > Options, and set the appropriate Placement and Editing tab options. 4. Select Edit > Geometry > Insert Intersection. 5. Hold the cursor over the feature near the intersecting geometry. A point is placed in dynamics at the closest intersection. 6. Click the highlighted feature to accept the intersection. Vertices are added to all features at the intersection point regardless of coincidence setting. If the Break within same feature class only option is on and the intersecting features are the same feature class, they are broken into two features. If the Break all feature classes option is on, all features that intersect are broken into two features at the intersection point. If the Display Properties dialog for new features option is on, the Properties dialog is opened for each new feature created by a break operation, and the new feature is highlighted in the map window. The dialog box is displayed whether the setting is on or off if there are required values that cannot be automatically populated for the new feature. The relevant map window, data window, and queries are updated, and the cursor waits for further input for inserting intersections. 7. Double click to exit Insert Intersections.

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Broadly, a query is a request for information. Specifically, it is a request for the features that meet the conditions you define and/or a request for certain information about the features. The software gives you several ways to define these conditions. To find features that meet your conditions, you query feature classes in any open warehouse in the GeoWorkspace or query previously built queries. Queries are stored in the GeoWorkspace so that, if a warehouse changes, all queries are updated each time they are displayed. If a spatial filter is applied to the warehouse connection at the time the query is defined, the query is limited to the geographic area defined by the spatial filter. The software scans the query area for the features that meet your conditions and then displays the results geographically in a map window or in tabular format in a data window. An entry for the query result is added to the legend, and its display can be manipulated through the legend properties like any other legend entry. In fact, once built, a query can be treated just like a feature class.

Working with Filter Queries


Filter queries are distinguished primarily by the fact that they return a subset of the features in a single feature class or query. You can build several types of filter queries although they have much in common: An attribute-filter query allows you to limit the search to individual features whose attributes contain values that meet the conditions specified by an operator. An operator is a symbol or expression, such as = (equals) or > (is greater than), that represents the relationship between two values. For example, an attribute-filter query would return all parcels with an assessed value of $50,000 or more. A spatial query allows you to limit the search to individual features whose geometry has a spatial relationship to features from another feature class or query. For example, a spatial query would return all parcels that are within 500 feet of a railroad. 12-1

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A combined attribute and spatial query requests features with certain attribute values that meet specified spatial conditions, such as overlapping or being contained by another feature class or query. For example, a combined attribute and spatial query would return all parcels with an assessed value of $50,000 or more that are within 500 feet of a railroad.

To retrieve information from an MGSM warehouse, you build linear network queries. MGSM stores distributed attributes that are linearly referenced to network linear features such as roads, rivers, or pipelines. Linear network queries are a type of combined spatial and attribute query. For example, a linear network query would return all segments of a railroad that intersect accident sites.

Defining Attribute-Filter Queries


In an attribute-filter query, you identify the features you want by defining an attribute filter. A filter consists of one or more expressions, each consisting of an attribute, an operator, and a value for the attribute. In a where statement, you can specify a specific value or a range of values for one attribute or a combination of attributes. For example, in an attribute-filter query to select all schools where enrollment is less than 400, schools is the feature class, enrollment is the attribute, less than (<) is the operator, and 400 is the value. The following operators are available for all attribute queries:
= >= <= <> > < () and or

Equals Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Not equal to Greater than Less than Parentheses for grouping expressions Logical and between two expressions Logical or between two expressions

Additional operators, such as the wildcard character % and the Structured Query Language (SQL) function AVG, are also available from a dropdown list on the Filter dialog box. Just which operators are available depends on your warehouse connection type. 12-2

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Example 1: The following query would find all parcels where the accessed value is greater than the average accessed value for all parcels:
. . . where assessed_value > (select AVG (assessed_value) from parcels);

You create compound expressions with the and or the or operator and group expressions with parentheses ( ). Example 2: The and operator means that both statements must be true to produce a query result. For example, the following query would find all parcels where the owner is J. Smith and the assessed value is over $50,000:
. . . where parcel_owner = J. Smith and assessed_value > 50000;

Example 3: The or operator means that either statement can be true to produce a query result. For example, the following query would find all parcels where the owner is either J. Smith or M. Brown:
. . . where parcel_owner = J. Smith or parcel_owner = M. Brown;

Example 4: Parentheses can be used to control the order in which an expression is evaluated. By default, all relational comparison operators (<, >, <>, =,<=, >=) are evaluated first, from left to right. The logical and operator has a higher precedence than the logical or operator; so all and operations are performed first. You can use parentheses to change the order. To find all roads with more than four lanes or divided roads that were paved before 1994, you would create the following filter:
last_paved < 1994 and num_lanes > 4 or divided = yes;

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Example 5: Because of the precedence of the and operator, you would get all roads that are divided or all roads where the number of lanes is greater than four and paved before 1994. To get the correct results, you would use parentheses as follows:
last_paved < 1994 and (num_lanes > 4 or divided = yes);

The software uses SQL for creating attribute-filter queries, but its pointand-click interface allows you to build a query without knowing SQL. Note: Different connection types require different SQL dialects. For example, Access connections require pound sign (#) delimiters around date and time values, whereas MGSM connections require the keyword TIMESTAMP followed by single-quote () delimiters. The software formats SQL statements into the appropriate dialect for each connection type except MGE and MGDM. The SQL dialect for MGE and MGDM connections depends on the ODBC driver. For date and time queriesand possibly othersyou must manually edit the SQL text on the Filter dialog box to issue a successful query.

To define an attribute-filter query:


1. Select Analysis > New Query.

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2. To specify where you want query results displayed, click Options and specify an output window for the query.

3. Click the Confirm show value operations option to turn on or off the display of the confirmation dialog box that appears if you click Show Values when you define a filter, and click OK. 4. From the Select features in drop-down list on the New Query dialog box, select a feature class or query. 5. If you know SQL and the attribute you want to query, type the where clause in the Filter box and skip to Step 11. Otherwise, click Filter to display the Filter dialog box.

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6. Select an attribute from the selected feature class and click the down arrow below the Attributes box, or double click an attribute. Note: MGE features use the MSLINK value as an identifier. Features in an MGE warehouse that have graphics but no attributes do not have an MSLINK value. When a query is performed on such features, the MGE data server assigns them MSLINK values that are numbered sequentially in the order that they are encounteredthat is, sequentially within each category in map-table order. The first MSLINK number assigned is 16777217. When you view attributes in a data window or on the Filter dialog box, non-attributed features will have the MSLINK identifier assigned by the MGE data server, whereas attributed features will have an MSLINK, a MAPID, and other attributes. 7. Select an operator. If you select an operator from the drop-down list, you must click the down arrow to make it appear in the Filter box. 8. To see the list of values in the selected attribute, click Show Values. If you checked Confirm show value operations on the Options dialog box, the confirmation message appears. 9. Type a value for the attribute in the Filter box, or select one from the list of values and click the down arrow, or double click an attribute. You can also type a value in the Values box. 12-6

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10. Verify that the SQL statement in the Filter box is correct, and click OK.
See the ODBC documentation for instructions.

Note: For date and time queriesand possibly otherson MGE and MGDM connections, you may have to manually edit the SQL text on the Filter dialog box to issue a successful query. This is due to the varying SQL dialects of the various available ODBC drivers. 11. On the New Query dialog box, type a name and description for the query. 12. To display the query, click OK. The query is displayed in accordance with the query options you set.

Defining Spatial Queries


A spatial query defines the relationship between two feature classes using a spatial operator. The spatial operator forms the that clause of the query statement. For example, in the query, the word touch is the spatial operator because it defines the relationship between the two-lane highways and interstate highways:
Find all two-lane highways that touch interstate highways;

The following spatial operators are available:


Touch returns features that touch the defined

features in any waymeeting, overlapping, containing, or being contained by.


Are within distance of returns features having any part located within the specified distance of the defined features. If either the starting or ending point of a linear feature, for example, falls within the specified distance, it is returned. Contain returns features that surround defined

features. Contained features can touch but not overlap the borders of the surrounding features. Points cannot contain other features. 12-7

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Are contained by returns features that fall

completely within the defined features. Contained features can touch but not overlap the borders of the surrounding features.
Entirely contain returns features that surround defined features. Contained features cannot touch or overlap the borders of the surrounding features. Points cannot entirely contain other features. Are entirely contained by returns features that fall completely within the defined features. Contained features cannot touch or overlap the borders of the surrounding features. Overlap returns features that overlap the defined features.

Meet returns features that fall next to the

defined features, touching without overlapping.


Are spatially equal returns features that

occupy the same space and location. Features must be of the same type to be spatially equal.

Note: The spatial operators used by Spatial Query are different from the Oracle Spatial Cartridge specific operators used by the Native Query command when querying an Oracle warehouse.

Spatial Queries and Tolerance


Spatial queries are now executed with a consistent centimeter-level tolerance in processing geometry. Often, when calculating or storing geometries using floating-point accuracy, coordinates that are supposed to be identical may in fact vary slightly. This tolerance is used in determining coordinate equivalence, that is, vertices that are within one centimeter of one another on the ground are assumed to be equal. This may have two kinds of affects on your spatial queries. 12-8

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First, you may find the software less tolerant of invalid or highly extreme geometric conditions. For example, a linear feature less than one centimeter in length would be interpreted as a zero-length line, and flagged as invalid. In a similar way, if the boundary of an area has a long sliver-shaped projection less than one centimeter in width, that would also be flagged as invalid. Furthermore, note that extreme geometric conditions, which appear valid when examining features independently, can sometimes generate invalid topology when those features are combined during a spatial query. This is due to the application of the onecentimeter tolerance to the intersection calculations and to the creation of nodes at the intersections of the features. Second, you may find the software generating different answers for your spatial queries. For example, if one geometry approaches to within four millimeters of another geometry, this would previously have been considered not touching. Now these features are considered to touch, and such a query may, therefore, return more features. Likewise, a feature that was once considered entirely contained by, even though it came within less than a centimeter of a containing feature, would no longer be considered entirely contained by that feature. In this case, the query may, therefore, return fewer features.

To define a spatial or combined query:


1. Select Analysis > New Query. 2. From the Select features in drop-down list on the New Query dialog box, select a feature class or query. 3. Click Spatial. The New Query dialog box expands.

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4. Type a name and description for the query. 5. Select a spatial operator for the that clause from the drop-down list. 6. Select the second feature class or query from the Features in dropdown list. 7. Before you add an attribute filter to either or both feature classes or queries, click Options, specify an output window for the query, turn the Confirm show value operations option on or off, and click OK. 8. To create a combined query, define an attribute filter for either or both feature classes or queries. 9. On the New Query dialog box, click OK.

Defining Linear Network Queries


If you are using an MGSM warehouse, you can define the search conditions for a linear network query by combining sets of segments in distributed attribute tables with overlay operators. The distributed attribute values that the query returns are displayed as point or linear segments along their respective network linear features. These new segments are created dynamically when you display the query.

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The following overlay operators are available: The intersect operator searches for segments that overlap. For example, a query for accidents that intersect construction returns only segments containing accidents where there is also construction.

The difference operator searches for segments that differ. For example, a query for accidents that differ from construction returns only segments containing accidents where there is no construction.

You can also apply attribute filters and spatial queries to linear network queries. For example, you can build a query to find roads that intersect construction and touch wetlands where geese have nests. The linear network query finds roads that intersect construction. The spatial query limits the search for roads that intersect construction to those that touch wetlands. The attribute filter limits the search for roads that intersect construction to those where geese have nests.

The procedures for creating a linear network query are the same as for any other query, except that you can include intersect and difference overlay operators.

To define a linear network query:


1. Select Analysis > New Query. 2. Click Options, specify an output window for the query, turn the Confirm show value operations option on or off, and click OK. 12-11

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3. From the Select features in drop-down list on the New Query dialog box, select a feature class or query. 4. Click Filter. 5. Select an attribute, and click the down arrow below the Attributes box. 6. Select an operator and, if necessary, click the down arrow in the Operators box. 7. To see the list of values in the selected attribute, click Show Values. 8. Type or select a value, and click the down arrow below the Values box. 9. Click Add Overlay.

Note: The Add Overlay and Remove Overlay buttons only appear on the Filter dialog box if you are querying a feature class from an MGSM warehouse. 10. Select an overlay operator from the drop-down list. 11. Select a distributed attribute table. 12. Click OK.

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13. On the overlay tab, select an attribute, and click the down arrow below the Attributes box. 14. Select an operator and, if necessary, click the down arrow in the Operators box. 15. To see the list of values, click Show Values. 16. Type or select a value, and click the down arrow below the Values box. 17. To add an additional overlay, click Add Overlay, and repeat Steps 10 - 16. Note: Clicking Remove Overlay removes the overlay displayed on the active tab, thereby removing that portion of the query statement. 18. Click OK. 19. On the New Query dialog box, type a name and description for the query. 20. To add a spatial query, click Spatial and define the spatial query. 21. To display the query, click OK.

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Working with Native Queries


Native Query provides server-based native querying by performing a

spatial query on an Oracle data server and by performing a query on an MGSM data server to generate an offset display. This allows you to take advantage of the particular capabilities of each data server.
Native Query takes as input a connection to a warehouse that supports

native-query capability and an additional set of inputs specific to that type of connection. The command then appends the query to the query folder and optionally outputs the resultant query to a map window and/or data window. You can adjust the display style for optimum viewing in the map window.

Defining Native Queries against an Oracle Warehouse


When working with a connection to an Oracle database (with Spatial Cartridge), this command allows you to select the feature classes to query and an Oracle Spatial Cartridge spatial operator. The query is executed on the Oracle database, taking full advantage of the Spatial Cartridge engine and the speed of the hardware containing the database. The performance of this command depends on how well you tune the Oracle database and the Spatial Cartridge. Performance also depends on the nature of your query, for example, if your query retrieves a small number of feature instances out of a large data set. A spatial query defines the relationship between two feature classes using a spatial operator. The spatial operator forms the that clause of the query statement. The following spatial operators are available:
TouchThe boundaries intersect but the interiors do not.

Disjoint The boundaries and interiors do not

intersect.

Overlap Boundary DisjointThe interior of

one object intersects the boundary and interior of the other object, but the two do not intersect. This relation occurs, for example, when a line originates outside a polygon and ends inside that polygon. 12-14

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Overlap Boundary IntersectThe boundaries and interiors of the two objects intersect. EqualThe two objects have the same

boundary and interior.

ContainsThe interior and boundary of one object are completely contained in the interior of the other. InsideThe opposite of Contains. A Inside B implies B Contains A.

CoversThe interior of one object is

completely contained in the interior of the other, and their boundaries intersect.
Covered ByThe opposite of Covers. A Covered By B implies B Covers A.

Any InteractThe objects are non-disjoint.

This is the default operator unless there is a valid session preference. Note: The spatial operators used by Native Query when querying an Oracle warehouse are specific to Oracle Spatial Cartridge and are different from those used by the Spatial Query command.

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To define an Oracle native query:


1. Select Analysis > Native Query.

2. From the Connection drop-down list, select an Oracle. 3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select the feature class on which to query. 4. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the attribute filter dialog box.

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5. From the That drop-down list on the Native Query dialog box, select the appropriate spatial operator(s). 6. From the Features in drop-down list, select the appropriate constraining feature class. 7. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected constraining feature class on the attribute filter dialog box. 8. Accept the default query name, or type an appropriate name in the Query name field. 9. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field. 10. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the query results. OR To not display the query results in a map window, select the Display query in map window check box to remove the checkmark. 11. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 12. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the query results. OR 12-17

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To not display the nongraphic attributes of the query results in a data window, click the Display query in data window box to remove the checkmark. 13. Click OK to generate and to display the native query results in the specified map window and/or data window. Note: If you do not select either a map window or a data window, the query is only appended to the query folder.

Defining Native Queries against an MGSM Warehouse


When working with a connection to an MGSM dataset, Native Query allows you to perform a query against an MGSM warehouse and have the results of the query displayed offset from the original centerline. These queries can be from a single distributed attribute table or from an overlay of multiple distributed attribute tables using the intersect and difference overlay operators. The offset display can be a fixed offset, a scaled offset, or a combination. It is important to note that the offset display definition does not persist, that is, it is not maintained beyond the initial definition of the query. If you save a GeoWorkspace with an offset query, the next time you open the GeoWorkspace, the offset defined for the query is lost, and the display reverts to the centerline of the control network as defined in the coordinate file. Although the offset definition is not maintained, the offset geometry in the query is maintained as long as the MGSM connection is open in the current session.
See Editing Queries and Defining AttributeFilter Queries in this chapter.

The software also allows you to edit a query to redefine the offset. When you bring up the query in the Edit Query dialog box (even if the query is currently displayed with an offset), the query has no offset defined for it because the offset display definition is not maintained. If you define a native query with an offset and then edit the query through the New Query command, the offset is not known to the query. When you edit an MGSM native query, the offset definition reverts to zero, and you have to redefine the offset.

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Offset Display Concepts


Offsets let you display distributed attributes to the left or right of the Network Linear Feature centerline. Offsets can be defined as fixed, scaled, or a combination of fixed and scaled. A fixed offset is used to display the distributed attributes at a constant offset distance from the centerline for all segments. A scaled offset is a ratio of a stored database value that is used to display the distributed attributes at a scaled offset distance from the centerline. The fixed offset value and the size of the scaled offset value are defined in paper working units. For example, you could define a fixed offset of 50 feet and a scaled offset of 25 feet multiplied by the value stored in the LaneNumber field in the distributed attribute table. If the LaneNumber was equal to two for a a particular segment, the display of that segment would be offset 100 feet (50 + 25 * 2).

Offsetting to the Right or Left


Offsets can be positioned to the right or left of the centerline by typing a positive number or a negative number, respectively, in the Offset field. If you use a fixed offset that is a positive number, the offset is to the right of the centerline when you are looking in the positive direction of a highway (the direction of increasing distance). If you use a fixed offset that is a negative number, the offset is to the left of the centerline when you are looking in the positive direction of a highway (the direction of increasing distance). Scaled offsets are different because the offset display is depends on the value used in the database offset column (Scale attribute). If you use a scaled offset size that is positive and the offset value in the database is also positive, the offset is displayed on the right of the centerline. If your database offset value is negative, the offset is displayed to the left of the centerline. However, if you use a scaled offset size that is negative and the database offset value is positive, then the offset is displayed to the left of the centerline. If your database offset value is negative, the offset is displayed to the right of the centerline. The command retrieves the scale attribute value from the database and multiplies it by the scale factor to obtain the offset distance in the specified unit of measure. The scale factor is the server the command applies to the value of the scale attribute of the segment.

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To define an MGSM native query:


1. Select Analysis > Native Query. 2. From the Connection drop-down list of the Native Query dialog box, select the MGSM connection that supports native queries.

3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select the feature class on which to query. 4. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter and/or an overlay filter for the selected feature class on the Filter dialog box. 5. Select the appropriate offset type(s), Fixed offset and/or Scaled offset. 6. Enter the appropriate corresponding offset parameters. 7. Accept the default query name, or type an appropriate name in the Query name field. 8. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field. 9. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the query results. 12-20

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OR To not display the query results in a map window, select the Display query in map window check box to remove the checkmark. 10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 11. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the query results. OR To not display the nongraphic attributes of the query results in a data window, click the Display query in data window box to remove the checkmark. 12. Click OK to generate and to display the native query results in the specified map window and/or data window. Note: If you do not select either a map window or a data window, the query is only appended to the query folder.

Working with Joins


To create a join containing the appropriate features from each feature class, you select the attribute in each feature class that contains the matching value. Attribute pairs need not have the same name, but they must be the same data type. Only the values in each attribute need to match. Note: For values to match, they must be a perfect match. For example, Kansas is not a perfect match for Kansas<space>. A join query combines data from two feature classes or queries that have common attribute values. For example, a join would return all attributes for parcels from the parcel feature class along with parcel ownership information from another feature class, based on a common parcel ID, even if the latter feature class is in another warehouse.

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Defining Joins
You can create the following types of joins: Inner join Records are added to the join only if the value from the left field matches the corresponding value in the right field. Records from either feature class that do not match are not included in the join. All records from the left feature class are included in the join, but only matching records from the right feature class are included. Records from the right feature class that do match are not included. All records from the right feature class are included in the join, but only matching records from the left feature class are included. Records from the left feature class that do match are not included. All records from both feature classes are included in the join.

Left outer join

Right outer join

Full outer join

In any of the outer joins, fields in records with unmatched values have null values. Accordingly, join attributes with null values cannot be matched to any record in the other feature class. If a record in one feature class contains a value that has a match in more than one record in the other feature class, the query will return multiple copies of the first record. To display the join in a map window, the software uses the geometry from the left feature class or query. So, when you create a join from two feature classes or queries that contain geometries, select the feature class or query whose geometry you want from the left side of the Join dialog box.

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To create a join:
1. Select Analysis > Join.

2. From the Left side of join drop-down list, select the left feature class or query. 3. From the Right side of join drop-down list, select the right feature class or query. 4. From the lists of available attributes, select the attributes on which to create a join. 5. Click the down arrow to add the attribute pair to the Selected attribute pairs list. 6. If the records have to match in more than one attribute, repeat Steps 2 - 5 to add additional attribute pairs to the join. Note: To remove an attribute pair, select it from the Selected attribute pairs list and click Remove. 7. Select the type of join to perform. 12-23

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8. In the Query name field, type a name for the join or accept the default name. 9. Optional: Type a description for the join. 10. Select a window in which to display the join. If you select a map window, you can also change the style of the join. 11. Click OK.

Working with Labels


A label can be a query or a feature class. As a query, a label outputs as graphics text the values of the attributes you select from a feature class or query, along with any constant text that you specify. For example, a label query would return as text the names of each stop along a single railroad route. In GeoMedia Professional, there are two labeling tools: Insert Labels and Insert Interactive Labels. The Label tool is used to label all the features in a query or a feature class. The Interactive Label tool allows you to select individual features and label them one at a time. The difference between the labeling tools and the Insert Text tool is that the labeling tools automatically place text using feature attribute values. Insert Text requires you to type in the text to be placed. You create labels as a query or feature class, depending on how you want the labels to behave and what you want to do with them in the map window. Each has advantages: Create labels as a query in the GeoWorkspace if you want each label linked to the feature with which it is associated. As a query, the labels will be updated each time you edit the labeled features or open the GeoWorkspace. When, for example, a feature is deleted from the feature class, its label is deleted as well. Similarly, when a new feature is inserted into the feature class, the new feature will be appropriately labeled. The content of a label output as a query is composed of text that you type and zero or more attribute values derived from attribute values stored in the warehouse. When an attribute value changes, the text in the label associated with the feature whose attribute value has changed will also change.

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See Inserting Text Features into a Feature Class in the Working with Features chapter.

Labels created as a feature class do not have an active link to attribute values or geometry. However, the text in the labels can be edited, and you can insert them as features into a feature class in a GeoMedia Professional read/write warehouse. In addition, labels that are output as a feature class can be moved, rotated, and deleted like any other feature. Whether you output labels as a query or as a feature class, you can define their content, style, and layout in the map window. Among other things, you can display a frame around the text in a label, give it a solid or transparent background, and define it as display scale independent. By default, text is display-scale dependent.

See Changing the Style of Map Objects in the Working with Map Windows chapter.

Labels can also be created interactively, which allows you to place labels for individually selected features. The label text is taken from the selected database value(s) for the selected feature. Use the dialog box to control content, layout, and position. Available options include: feature class or query to be labeled, attribute(s) to use, rotation, alignment and output to a feature class. After completing the setup, you can place multiple consecutive labels by selecting the feature to label and clicking the label location. To change the text style, use the Legend. To print your map and labels using the font size defined in the text style, set the nominal map scale in the GeoWorkspace equal to the print scale you set in Page Setup.

Note: Interactive labels are created on a predefined feature class selected in the Output label as selection area.

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To create a label:
1. Select Insert > Label.

2. From the Label features in drop-down list, select the feature class or query for which you want to place labels. 3. To place an attribute variable in the Layout box, select it from the Attributes list. You can place as many attribute variables as you want. Values for each attribute are extracted from the warehouse when the labels are created. 4. Place the cursor in the Layout box where you want common text to appear on the label relative to the field, and type the text. For example:

The text Snow = is inserted before the ANNULSNOW field, and is added after the field. 12-26

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In the map window, each feature with an ANNULSNOW value will display the constant text Snow = xx, with the variable xx displaying the value for the ANNULSNOW attribute. 5. To define each labels position relative to its origin, select the alignment you want from the Alignment drop-down list. 6. To define the distance each label is placed from the feature it is labeling, specify the horizontal and vertical offsets. 7. In the Output label as box, select Query or Feature Class. 8. If you elect to output the label as a query, accept the default query name or type a new one in the Name box. 9. If you elected to output the label as a feature class, select from the Connection drop-down list the read/write connection to which the feature class will be output, and type or select a feature-class name from the Feature class drop-down list. Selecting a feature class adds the labels to an existing feature class. Typing a new feature-class name creates a new feature class. 10. Optional: Type a description of the labels in the Description box. 11. Specify the map window in which to display the new labels by selecting a map-window name from the Map window name dropdown list. 12. To change the default text style, click the style button. Define the font, size, color, font style, and frame for the label. Turn display-scale independence on or off. Click OK.

13. On the Label dialog box, click OK.

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To create an interactive label


1. Select Insert > Interactive Label.

2. On the Interactive Label dialog box, select the feature class or query to be labeled from the Label features in drop-down box. If this is the first time the tool has been run in this session, the default alignment will change based on the feature type selected. 3. From the Output labels to drop-down list, select the feature class in which you want to place labels. 4. To place an attribute variable in the Layout box, select it from the Attributes list. You can place as many attribute variables as you want. Values for each attribute are extracted from the warehouse when the labels are created. 5. Place the cursor in the Layout box where you want common text to appear on the label relative to the field, and type the text. You can also format the appearance of the label by placing new lines with CTRL+ENTER. 6. To define each labels position relative to its origin, select the alignment from the Alignment drop-down list. The available alignments are one of nine positions. 7. Specify the rotation mode for the labels to be placed. 12-28

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Rotate dynamically places a point by two clicks. The first click

places the point and the second click determines the rotation. The rotation is dynamically displayed.
Orient to geometry places text that is rotated to the direction of

the geometry to which you snapped. If no geometry is snapped to, placement will be at 0 degrees rotation. The rotation is dynamically displayed.
Place at angle places text at the angle specified in the angle field. The default mode is Place at angle with a default angle of 0 degrees. The angle is dynamically displayed.

8. On the Interactive Label dialog box, click OK. Layout definition is displayed dynamically on the cursor for any feature highlighted. 9. Select a feature to label. (Use PickQuick if necessary.) The label is dynamically displayed with attribute variables. 10. If you have selected Rotate dynamically, click to establish a location for the label origin, and then click again to define the label rotation. If you have selected Place at angle or Orient to Geometry, the first click will place the label. 11. Click to place the label. 12. Repeat Steps 9 - 11 for any other features to be labeled interactively. 13. If you want to make changes, click the right mouse button while in the map window to return to the Interactive Labels dialog box. Note: Labeling is restricted to features of the feature class selected on the Interactive Labels dialog box. To label features from another feature class, enter the new information on the dialog box. 14. To exit the Interactive Label tool, click the Select Tool, press the ESC key, or press the Cancel button on the Interactive Labels dialog box.

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Working with Spatial Analysis Queries


The software contains two commands that allow you to perform spatial analysis queries, Spatial Intersection and Spatial Difference. Both commands output results to a map window and/or data window.

Defining Spatial Intersections


See Defining Spatial Queries in this chapter for a description of the spatial operators.

Spatial Intersection allows you to perform a spatial overlay on two

feature classes or queries to find the intersecting areas, or areas of coincidence. The spatial operators available for this command are touch, contain, are contained by, entirely contain, are entirely contained by, overlap, meet, and are spatially equal. After you choose the two sets of input features to intersect and the type of spatial operation to perform, this command outputs the results as a new query. The results include the geometry for the points, lines, and areas of spatial coincidence as well as the attributes for each pair of spatially intersecting features, that is, a spatial join. The features can be point, line, area, or combinations of these feature types. You can output the resultant new spatial intersection to a map window and/or data window. In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results. One can think of this command as producing results that are the opposite of those produced by Spatial Difference. The following two figures from the delivered Madison County, Alabama, sample dataset demonstrate use of this command:

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Map features before using Spatial Intersection:

Spatial Intersection results with the touch operator showing the intersection of the Major Water Polygons features and the Parks features:

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To use spatial intersection:


1. Select Analysis > Spatial Intersection.

2. Select the first feature class from the First input feature drop-down list. 3. Select the second feature class from the Second input feature dropdown list. 4. Optional: Change the default spatial operator in the Spatial operators list. 5. Optional: Change the default value in the Query name field. 6. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 7. Verify that the Display intersection in map window check box is selected, and change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the new spatial intersection. OR To not display the new spatial intersection in a map window, select the Display intersection in map window check box to remove the checkmark.

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8. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 9. Verify that the Display intersection in data window box is checked, and change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the new spatial intersection. OR To not display the nongraphic attributes of the new spatial intersection in a data window, click the Display intersection in data window box to remove the checkmark. 10. Click OK to generate and to display the new spatial intersection in the specified map window and/or data window. Note: You may need to adjust the style for better viewing.

Defining Spatial Differences


See Defining Spatial Queries in this chapter.

Spatial Difference allows you to perform spatial masking, that is, to perform a difference operation on two sets of areas to produce resultant geometries. You can output the resultant new spatial difference to a map window and/or data window. In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results.

This command takes as input two area feature classes or queries, the features to be masked or cropped (the from-feature), and the features to be used as a mask (the subtract-feature). After processing using the touch spatial operator, this command outputs the results as a new query. This resultant geometry is calculated by removing all portions of each fromfeature that are overlaid by any subtract-feature. Thus, the output consists of any portion of each from-feature not overlapped by the geometry of the subtract-feature. If a from-feature is completely overlaid by the subtractfeature, the from-feature does not appear in the output query. One can think of this command as producing results that are the opposite of those produced by Spatial Intersection. Or, one can think of a cookiecutter process, with the results being the sheet of dough from which the cookies have been cut out, as shown in the following example from the delivered Madison County, Alabama, sample dataset:

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Map features before using Spatial Difference:

Spatial Difference results showing the difference of Major Water Polygons features and the Parks features. The difference is shaded gray.

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To use spatial difference:


1. Select Analysis > Spatial Difference.

2. Select the feature class to be masked from the From feature dropdown list. 3. Select the feature class to be used as a mask from the Subtract feature drop-down list. 4. Optional: Change the default value in the Query name field. 5. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 6. Verify that the Display difference in map window check box is selected, and change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the new spatial difference. OR To not display the new spatial difference in a map window, select the
Display difference in map window check box to remove the

checkmark. 7. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 8. Verify that the Display difference in data window box is checked, and change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the new spatial difference. 12-35

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OR To not display the nongraphic attributes of the new spatial difference in a data window, click the Display difference in data window box to remove the checkmark. 9. Click OK to generate and to display the new spatial difference in the specified map window and/or data window. Note: You may need to adjust the style for better viewing.

Geocoding Coordinates
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

Geocode Coordinates creates point geometries for a feature class or

query based on coordinate values stored in fields of that feature class or query. This command outputs the results as a new query. You can display the resultant geocoded points in a map window and/or the attributes of the geocoded points in a data window. In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results.
Geocode Coordinates supports:

2-D and 3-D coordinate attributes. Geographic or projected coordinates in any GeoMedia Professional coordinate system. Field types: text, integer, long, single, and double. Coordinate units (for example: degrees, radians) and formats (for example: decimal degrees, d:m:s) of all types supported by GeoMedia Professional coordinate systems. Definition of the coordinate system through the standard Define Coordinate System File and by reading an existing .csf file or MicroStation design file. Output of a status indicator for troubleshooting bad coordinate data.

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To geocode coordinates:
1. Select Analysis > Geocode Coordinates.

2. In the Geocode attributes in field, select the feature class or query containing attributes to be geocoded.
See the Define Coordinate System File Online Help.

3. Optional: Click Define to review and/or to change the default coordinate-system definition. 4. Optional: Click Browse to look for, to open, and to load an existing coordinate-system file. 5. Optional: Click Save As to save the current coordinate-system file to a .csf file. 6. Optional: Click Units and Format to change the defaults assigned to the coordinate system. 7. In the Coordinate attributes area, select the attribute to be used for the first coordinate from the drop-down list. Note: The names of the first and second coordinate fields vary dynamically with the selected coordinate system, units, and format. 8. Select the attribute to be used for the second coordinate from the dropdown list. 12-37

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9. Optional: Select the attribute to be used for the height value from the drop-down list. 10. Optional: Change the default value in the Query name field. 11. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 12. Verify that the Display points in map window check box is selected, and change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which to display the geocoded points. OR To not display the geocoded points in a map window, select the
Display points in map window check box to remove the checkmark.

13. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box. 14. Verify that the Display points in data window box is checked, and change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display the nongraphic attributes of the geocoded points. OR To not display the nongraphic attributes of the geocoded points in a data window, click the Display points in data window box to remove the checkmark. 15. Click OK to generate and to display the points in the specified map window and/or data window.

Manipulating Queries
The software provides various commands that allow you to manipulate queries in order to obtain the exact results you need for each specific condition of your workflow.

Displaying Queries
In general, a query is displayed automatically when you build it. If you build a query without displaying itto use in another query or for creating a thematic display, for examplethere are many ways to display it later.

To build a filter query without displaying it:


1. Select Tools > Options. 12-38

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2. On the Query tab of the Options dialog box, turn off all options in the Display named query results in field. 3. Click OK. 4. Select Analysis > New Query, and build the query.

To display a query:
Add the query to the legend. This displays queries in the active map window and ignores query option settings.

When a data window is active, select Data > Change Contents, and select the query.

Open a new data window, selecting the query as the data you want to display.

Or, use the following procedure: 1. Select Analysis > Queries.

2. From the Queries dialog box, select the query you want to display, and click Display.

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3. On the Display Query dialog box, select a window in which to display the query. 4. To display the query in a new window, type a name in the appropriate window name field. To display the query in an open window, select it by name from the drop-down list. 5. To change the style of a query display in a map window, click Style, define the style, and click OK on the Style dialog box. The style of the query depends on the feature class type returned by the query. 6. Click OK.

Editing Queries
Once a query has been defined, you can change everything except the feature class or query on which it is built. If you change a query name, the new name is not changed in any existing legend-entry titles, data-view captions, or dependent query names. Editing a query that is used as input to other queries may affect the other queries. If a feature class or query that is used in a query changes, the dependent query is also affected: Changes to the definition of a feature class or query can invalidate a dependent query. If the dependent query is an attribute-filter query, its display will be removed from the map window. Data windows associated with the feature class will not contain any data if the dependent query is rendered invalid by the change.

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If you close the connection to a warehouse containing a feature class on which a query is dependent, the data will be removed from the display, but you will have to edit the legend to remove the entry.

To edit a query:
1. Select Analysis > Queries. 2. On the Queries dialog box, select the query you want to edit and click Edit. The type of query selected determines what is displayed on the Edit Query dialog box. For example, if you selected a query that is a label, the Edit Query dialog box appears with the options that were available on the Join or the Label dialog box. Note: The Edit Query dialog box has a different appearance with queries generated from the following commands: Analyze Geometry, Attribute Filter, Geocode Addresses, Geocode Coordinates, Join, Label, Spatial Difference, Spatial Intersection, and Spatial Query. 3. Edit the items available for the specific selected query. For example you can edit the query name or description, or click Filter to edit the attribute filter for an attribute-filter query,. All existing displays of the edited query and any other query built upon that query will be updated. 4. Click OK to accept the changes. 5. To create a new display for the query, click Display to bring up the Display Query dialog box.

Deleting Queries
When you delete a query, you are deleting the query definition but not the data associated with the query. Similarly, if you delete a legend entry for a query, you are removing the display of the query in the map window but not deleting the query itself.

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To delete a query:
1. Select Analysis > Queries. 2. On the Queries dialog box, select the query you want to delete and click Delete.

Querying Graphics-Only Features in MGE and MGSM


The MGE and MGSM data servers expect valid map ID values in attribute tables, which means that the feature geometries actually exist in the design file identified by the map ID. This allows the data servers to limit queries for geometry to the identified design file.
See the Creating Data Server .INI Files appendix for setting the MAPID IS RELIABLE keyword in the mge.ini file.

If a query on an MGE or MGSM warehouse includes graphics-only features (features that have no associated attribute table) or if map IDs are not valid, the query could take a very long time, depending on the number of design files that must be searched. This is because the server has to search all design files allowed by the connection filter. If a category contains design files for multiple feature types, then the MGE or MGSM server will have to search design files that have no elements relevant to the query. So, if you have multiple graphics-only features in a single category, a query will take longer than if the features were separated into different categories. Furthermore, the MGDM server uses additional memory when it must search for graphics-only features. One way to improve the performance of queries on graphics-only features is to limit the size of the categories. The best way, of course, is to clean up your MGE and MGSM data.

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Working With Addresses


The software provides two commands to work with addresses and intersections, Find Address and Geocode Addresses. Find Address is a view navigational tool that finds the location of an input address or intersection and displays it as a point in a map window. Geocode Addresses provides basic functionality for address geocoding by creating point geometries for a feature class or a query based on the input addresses or intersections. You can then display the results in a map window and/or data window.

Address Coding Guide


Both Find Address and Geocode Addresses use a Geographic Data Technology, Inc. (GDT) Address Coding Guide (ACG). An ACG consists of a set of files that provides the needed street, city, state, and ZIP Code data to locate addresses. The currently available GeoMedia Professionalcompatible ACGs contain address data for the 50 United States and Puerto Rico in several versions, which provide you with the level of detail and accuracy required for your specific address-matching solution. The software delivers a sample ACG of Madison County, Alabama (\Warehouses\MadisonCountyAL ACG) in the product folder to allow you to explore the capabilities of these two commands. You can obtain complete AGCs from your Intergraph Sales Representative or Intergraph Business Partner. Note: Find Address and Geocode Addresses return a result for an intersection or address only if there is a single match found. If more than one intersection or address matches with equal reliability, an ambiguous match notice will be displayed.

Address-Match Strategies
Both Find Address and Geocode Addresses allow you to tailor the tolerance of your address search by using one of the three address-match strategies: Aggressive, Normal (the default), or Conservative. The following table lists the conditions of each of these address-match strategies: 13-1

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Conservative

Aggressive

Normal

Address-Match Strategy Conditions

ZIP Code is used to match the address if the address fails to match with the city name and state. Spell correction is more lenient (such as the first character can be corrected). Spell correction is moderate. Spell correction is strict. Input address will match only to segments whose first letter matches the input street name within the locality. Input address will match within 200 address numbers to a segment's address range. Input address will match within 100 address numbers to a segment's address range. Input address will match to the other side of a street segment. For example, if the input house number is odd and there is no odd address range, it will match to the even side of the segment. Input address will match even though it has pre- and/or post-directionals and the street segment does not, and vice-versa. Input address will match to a street segment with different pre- and/or postdirectionals. Input address will match when the pre- and post-directionals are transposed. For example, the input address of N 18th St West will match to W 18th St North. Input address will match to a street segment with a different ZIP Code. Input house number must be within a street segment address range. If the input house number is odd, then the associated street segment must have an odd address range, and vice versa. Pre- and post-directionals must match. ZIP Code must match.

Note: Spell correction generally fixes errors such as one-letter differences, extra spaces, missing spaces, and transposed characters.

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Examples In the first example, you want to find the house address of 420 James St., but the street database only contains segments for James St. with the ranges of 2-98, 100-198, and 200-298 (for the given locality). The software would not match this address with the Conservative or Normal address-matching strategies. With Aggressive, it would match to the 200-298 segment because the house address number 400 is within 200 of the house address range on that segment. The software would place the geocoded point on the high end of the segment at the same point where the address 298 James St. would be placed. In a second example, you want to find the house address of 320 James St. As in the previous example, the Conservative or Normal addressmatching strategies would match to the 200-298 segment because that is within 100 of the range on that segment. This would also match with Aggressive.

Finding Addresses
Find Address allows you to locate an address or intersection in a map

window based on the address information (street address or intersection, city name, state name, and ZIP Code) and the Address Coding Guide (ACG) being used. Once you specify an ACG, this command provides a dockable control that allows you to perform view-manipulation commands while finding addresses. The list of previously located ACG paths and the current selection are stored as a user preference that is remembered between sessions. It is also shared between the two commands, so if you located an ACG for one command, the other need not redefine it. In addition, you can use this command as a navigational tool to orient yourself on a map window. You have the option to change the default offset distance and unit, match strategies, and style. Without any offset values, this command constructs the point, given an address match at the actual location. It applies offset distance and units by taking into account the parity of the data, if appropriate (odd addresses on one side of the street, even addresses on the other). The offset is not applied when locating an intersection. The three match strategies (conservative, normal, and aggressive) allow you to tailor the specificity of your search. Setting the style allows you to choose the point style for optimum display results.

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To find addresses:
1. Select View > Find Address.

2. In the ACG location field, type the complete path of the appropriate ACG, or use Browse to locate it; then click OK.

3. On the Find Address dockable control, type the street address, specifying a street name and number, or an intersection of two streets, separating street names by And, At, &, or @ (based on your workflow if you need to locate an intersection). 4. Type the city name. 5. Type the state-name abbreviation, or select it from the drop-down list. 6. Type the ZIP Code. 7. Optional: Click the Options button on the dockable control to open the Find Address Options dialog box to change the ACG offset distance and unit, match strategy, and/or style.

8. Click the Find Address button on the dockable control to generate and display the geocoded point for the address in the active map window and to center the window around this point.

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Note: You may need to adjust the offset and style for better viewing. You may also need to adjust the match strategy to obtain the appropriate results based on the matrix provided earlier in this section. Click the Options button on the dockable control to reopen the Find Address Options dialog box.

Geocoding Addresses
Geocode Addresses provides basic functionality for address geocoding by creating point geometries for a feature class or a query based on the input addresses or intersection. This command takes a feature class or query and the Address Coding Guide (ACG) as input. The ACG allows the command to output a query containing the longitude and latitude corresponding to the input address and to display the geocoded address points. You specify the following attributes: street address or intersection, city, state, and ZIP Code. You also have the option to change the advanced default parameters of offset distance and unit, match strategy, and additional output fields, which are dependent on the selected ACG.

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The list of previously located ACG paths and the current selection are stored as a user preferences that remembered between sessions. They are also shared between the two commands, so if you located for one command, the other need not redefine them.
Geocode Addresses outputs the results as a new query set. You can display the resultant geocoded points in a map window and/or the nongraphic attributes of the geocoded points in a data window. In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results.

Geocode Addresses Columns


In addition to the street address, city, state, and ZIP Code columns, the data window results contain the longitude and latitude of the matched address and the following Geocode Addresses-specific columns:
CoordGeocodeStatus This column contains a null value for successfully geocoded coordinates. It contains an error description for coordinates that are not successfully geocoded. MatchCost For each item in an address that needs to be changed to

resolve the address, the software assigns a cost value to the change or to achieving the match. The value in this column is the sum of each addressmatch cost. The range is 0-999, with 0 (zero) representing a perfect match and 999 representing a match with many changes made to resolve it. If the address cannot be matched, the value is NULL. The value of this column is a good indicator of how accurate the addresses are and can be used for comparison between results.
ParsedAddress This column contains the standardized address that the command returns. This is a concatenation of the whole address and is separated by blanks and commas. If the address could not be resolved, the column contains the parsed street name. Status This column contains output status information concerning the match strategy and how this relates to the location output by the process. This field is limited to 255 characters. As you correct the listed problems, this field is updated. This column has the following three states:

If the match is successful, the column contains a status message and a match rationale. The match rationale states why the match cost was not 0 (zero). If the match fails and there was not an error, the column contains a match status message and a statement about what is missing or incorrect.

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If there is an error, the column contains an error status and an error message describing the problem.

StreetSide This column contains the side of the street on which the

address is located. This can be one of three values for a valid match: 0 (zero) when the address has neither a left or right side of the street. This is the case when the input address given is an intersection of two streets. 1 when the address is on the left side of the street. 2 when the address is on the right side of the street.

If the address cannot be matched, the value is NULL.

To geocode addresses:
1. Select Analysis > Geocode Addresses.

2. In the Geocode addresses in field, select the appropriate feature class or query with the attributes to be geocoded. 3. In the ACG location field, select the folder with the ACG, or use the browse button to locate it.
4. In the Address attributes frame, select the appropriate attributes containing the Street address, City, State, and ZIP Code data,

specifying a street name and number. 13-7

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OR Select an intersection of two streets, separating street names by And, At, &, or @ (based on your workflow if you need to locate an intersection).

5. Optional: Click Advanced to change the default advanced input and output parameters; then after making changes, click OK.

6. Accept or change the default name in the Query name field. 7. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field. 8. Verify that the Display points in map window check box is selected, and change, if appropriate in the Map window name field, the default active map window in which to display the geocoded points. 13-8

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OR To not display the geocoded points in a map window, select the


Display points in map window check box to remove the checkmark.

9. Optional: Click Style, and change the style on the Style Definition dialog box. 10. Verify that the Display points in data window box is checked, and change, if appropriate in the Data window name field, the default new data window in which to display the nongraphic attributes of the geocoded points. OR To not display the nongraphic attributes of the geocoded points in a data window, click the Display points in data window box to remove the checkmark. 11. Click OK to generate and to display the points in the specified map window and/or data window. Note: You may need to adjust the match strategy, offset, and style for better viewing. Click the Options button on the dockable control to reopen the Find Address Options dialog box.

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Linking and Printing in GeoMedia Professional


GeoMedia Professional provides many ways to output the data in your GeoWorkspace. The following are covered in other chapters in this document:
See Editing Cells in the Data Window in the Working with Data Windows chapter. See E-Mailing a GeoWorkspace in the Working with GeoWorkspaces chapter. See the Working with Map Windows and Working with Data Windows chapters for snapshot information.

Copy cells in the data window into a spreadsheet application, such as Excel, to create charts and run sophisticated calculations on the data. To do this, you select the cells you want, omitting the header row. Then select Edit > Copy, and paste the cells into the spreadsheet. E-mail a copy of the open GeoWorkspace to another GeoMedia Professional user. The person receiving the GeoWorkspace can open it and view the data just as it appeared when you e-mailed the GeoWorkspace. Take a snapshot of a map or data window, and paste it into another application.

This chapter covers the following additional ways to output your data: Insert a GeoWorkspace as an object into any application that can act as an OLE container. Print a hard copy of a map window or a data window. Print a map window or data window to a file for later processing. Use the Layout Window commands to design map layouts populated with GeoWorkspace map window graphics, including legends, north arrows, and scale bars; then use graphic design functionality to embellish maps and to print them.

Linking and Embedding a GeoWorkspace


GeoMedia Professional can act as an OLE server, which means you can insert a GeoWorkspace as an object into a container application that supports OLE. All such applications have an Insert Object command, or something equivalent, that lets you link or embed objects. You can also embed a GeoWorkspace by dragging and dropping the .gws file name from Windows Explorer into a container application.

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Only one view in a link can be active, and the container application shows the active view by default when you link a GeoWorkspace. However, in some container applications, you can edit the link and change the item part of the link source to a named view, which is the title on a map or data window (by default, MapWindow1 or DataWindow1, for example). When you embed a GeoWorkspace, the entire GeoWorkspace is embedded, not just a single map or data window, although you can see only the active view of the embedded GeoWorkspace in the document of the container document. The embedded GeoWorkspace can be edited in one of two ways. First, you can in-place activate GeoMedia Professional within the container application. When you do this, the container application displays its own File and Windows menus, but all other menus and tools belong to GeoMedia Professional. Clicking outside the embedded GeoWorkspace takes you back to the container document. Second, you can open the embedded document in a separate GeoMedia Professional window. This allows access to the other windows in the embedded GeoWorkspace.

Printing Map, Data, and Layout Windows


You define the printing parameters of map windows, data windows, and layout windows independently. This lets you assign, for example, a different printer or plotter to each type of window. Once you set print parameters, they persist until you change them. Although many of the controls on the Data Window Page Setup, Map Window Page Setup , and Layout Window Page Setup dialog boxes are the same, changes to controls on one do not affect the controls on the other. IMPORTANT: Before you can print in GeoMedia Professional, you must install a local printer or network printer queue. The following print parameters are common to map, data, and layout windows:
Paper SizeSelect a paper size that best accommodates your output.

Your choices are provided by the printer device driver and may not reflect the paper that is actually loaded into the printer. The paper unit in the Paper Size group title is set on the Units tab.
OrientationSelect portrait or landscape orientation for the page.

This setting overrides the default printer setting.

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MarginsSet left, right, top, and bottom margins relative to the edge of the paper. The paper unit in the Margins group title is set on the Units tab. Paper UnitsSelect inches, centimeters, or millimeters. All print

parameters are calculated in the selected units.


PrinterSelect a printer name and, if necessary, change the printer properties. The properties available can vary with your system.

Printing a Map Window


If the map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar, are displayed when you print the contents of a map window, they appear on the printout. The map and legend print just as they appear in the map window. The north arrow prints at the size specified on the North Arrow Properties dialog box. The drop-down list of available north arrow sizes ranges from 8 to 96 points, but you can also type values that exceed 96 points. The scale bar prints using either automatic sizing or the size set on the Scale Bar Properties dialog box. The preferred method for the scale bar properties is to use a fixed interval definition. This approach produces predictable results, generating a scale bar at a fixed size. Automatic sizing creates a scale bar that is twenty percent of the width of the plot, which may be too large for some plots. In addition, you can set the following print parameters for a map window:
Print ScaleType or select a predefined scale ratio, define a custom scale, or identify a number of pages for your printed output to fit.

The scale represents the ratio between one distance unit on the printed output and the number of distance units on the ground. As you change the scale, you can see the effect in the Output box. The scale precision is set on the Units tab. To define a custom scale ratio, type the distance in paper units on the left and the distance in ground units on the right. If you select Fit to and specify a number of pages wide and tall, the printout will not be distorted to fit the specified number of pages. For example, for a map window whose defined graphic extents and scale inputs would result in output that is two pages wide and one page tall, you specify four pages wide and four pages tall. The resulting output would be twice as widefour pagesbut only two pages tall, and eight pages would be blank.

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Center to page(s)Select this option to center the output on the page. Normal justification is bottom left. Overlap Page MarginsIf turned on, this option causes the margins

to be duplicated so they can be overlapped. This is useful for aligning tiles so they can be spliced together later.
Ground UnitsSelect a ground unit for the various controls on the Page Setup dialog box. Input and output are calculated in the

specified units. The ground units in the GeoWorkspace are not affected by this setting.
Scale PrecisionSelect a precision option to control the fractional part of the Print Scale group input.

To print a map window:


1. Configure the map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar so that they look the way you want them to print. 2. Select File > Page Setup.

3. On the Size and Scale tab of the Map Window Page Setup dialog box, set the paper size, orientation, and print scale for your output. 4. On the Margins tab, set the margins and turn on or off the center and overlap options. 5. On the Units tab, select paper units, ground units, and scale precision. 6. On the Printer tab, select the printer or plotter for your output. 14-4

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7. Click OK. 8. Select File > Print.

9. Select a printer from the Name drop-down list. 10. Specify the Number of copies to print. 11. If you want Draft Quality and your printer supports that option, check that option. 12. Click OK.

Printing a Data Window


You can print more or less than what is displayed in the data window, all rows or a range of rows. In addition, you can set the following print parameter for a data window:
Print ScaleIf a print scale of 100% would split a column across more than one page, the highest percentage possible to fit the entire column on the page will be less than 100%. You can reduce or enlarge the size of the output by selecting a percentage above or below 100%; this represents a scale in which the point size of the cell text in the data window is enlarged or reduced for the printed output.

For example, if the point size of the cell text in the data window is 10, a print scale of 50% reduces the size of the printed output by 50%. Thus, the point size of the cell text on the output would be 5. Conversely, a point scale of 200% doubles the size of the output so that the point size of the text on the output is 20. 14-5

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To print a data window:


1. Configure the data window so that it looks the way you want it to print, hiding columns you do not want to print and showing those you do. 2. Select File > Page Setup.

3. On the Size and Scale tab of the Data Window Page Setup dialog box, set the paper size, orientation, and print scale for your output. 4. On the Margins tab, set the margins. 5. On the Units tab, select the paper units. 6. On the Printer tab, select the printer or plotter for your output. 7. Click OK. 8. Select File > Print.

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9. Select a printer from the Name drop-down list. 10. Identify the Print Range of the rows you want to print. 11. Specify the Number of copies to print. 12. If you want Draft Quality and your printer supports that option, check that option. 13. Click OK.

Printing to a File
Printing to a file is similar to printing a hard copy.

To print to a file:
1. Activate the map or data window that you want to print to a file for later processing. 2. Select File > Print. 3. On the Print Map Window or Print Data Window dialog box, select a printer, and select the Print to file check box. 4. Click OK.

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5. Navigate to the appropriate folder; and in the File name box, type the name of the file you want to save. 6. Click Save. Note: To submit a .prs file, at a DOS prompt, type: copy filename path_to_queue, where filename = the name of the *.prs file, and where path_to_queue = the name of the printer and queue (for example, \\b17bpn\hp_101).

Designing Map Layouts and Printing Maps


The Layout Window lets you design a map layout with intelligent SmartFrames. You can populate the SmartFrames with the maps, legends, north arrows, and scale bars originating from any of the map windows in the GeoWorkspace. To embellish the map, you can use an assortment of drawing commands available in the layout window to place title blocks, additional text, company logos, and so forth. When you are satisfied with the design, you can plot the resulting map layout.
See Help Topics in the Start Here chapter for information on accessing online Help, and see the Layout Window Graphics Commands appendix for a list of these commands.

Note: This section documents the Layout Window commands for designing, populating, and printing map layouts, and several of the drawing commands (Layout Window Graphics Commands). For ease of use, complete documentation for all the Layout Window Graphics Commands is accessible in context-sensitive online Help.

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Layout Window Overview


The layout window always exists, with a minimum of one layout sheet. Unlike the map window and data window, the layout window only supports a single instance; it is either open or closed. However, multiple layout sheets can exist in the layout window, exposed as pages or sheets in the same manner as in the Excel or SmartSketch products. A default sheet setup and a few GeoMedia layout templates provide examples and a starting point for the layout and plotting environment.

Accessing the Layout Window


You access the layout and plotting environment from a map window or a data window by selecting Window > Layout Window from the GeoMedia Professional menu bar to open the layout window. When the layout window is active, you can append new layout sheets to it in two ways. First, you can create a new layout sheet by selecting Sheets > Insert Sheet from the layout window menu bar or Insert from the right click mouse menu of the sheet tab. Second, you can import external files as new layout sheets by selecting Sheets > Import Layout from the layout window menu bar or Import Layout from the layout window toolbar. File types supported by Import Layout include Imagineer or SmartSketch drawing files or templates and GeoMedia layout templates.

Defining Page Setup


The page setup parameters for layout sheets created using the Insert Sheet command are based on the current settings of the active sheet when the command is started. The page setup parameters of the active sheet are copied to the new sheet. If the page setup parameters have been defined as the default, the page setup parameters are based on the saved default settings. The page setup parameters for imported files or templates are based on the parameters defined for the imported sheet. The parameters you use to define the page description of the new sheet are derived from one of two sources, the template file or the active layout sheet. The source used is determined by the current status of layout sheets resident in the layout window. If there are no layout sheets present, which is the case when you start the layout window for the first time in a new GeoWorkspace, the parameters are obtained from the delivered GeoMedia template file normal.glt. You can bring this file into the layout window with Import Layout and then modify it to reflect your default layout parameters.

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A working sheet and/or a background sheet can be components of a layout sheet. Typically, the working (foreground) sheet is where you place the map graphics and the additional layout graphics that are unique to the map layout. You can attach a background sheet to the working sheet. The background sheet is typically used for graphics that you want to display on more than one layout, such as a border, title block, company logo, or raster background picture (watermark). The background sheet is displayed behind the layout sheet, and its features cannot be selected unless the background sheet is the active sheet. A background sheet can be displayed and printed along with any layout sheet to which it is attached.

Placing Graphics
After defining the page setup, you can begin placing graphics in the layout sheet. You can place two kinds of graphics, layout graphics and map graphics. Layout graphics are graphics such as borders, titles, company logos, and so forth. Map graphics consist of an extracted subset of the map window (a map) and supporting marginalia (legend, north arrow, and scale bar). The order of placement is up to you; there are no requirements to place map graphics before layout graphics, or vice versa. To place map graphics, you first extract the appropriate map content from the map window and then place the supporting marginalia. All marginalia placed in the layout are associated with the originating map. This means that the legend automatically reflects the graphic symbology used to define the map in the layout sheet. The north arrow automatically reflects the projection parameters and view rotation of the map in the layout sheet, and the scale bar automatically reflects the plot scale in the layout sheet. Placing marginalia is possible only if a map exists in the layout sheet. In addition, you can place multiple maps in a layout sheet when appropriate. To place layout graphics, you use the drawing commands available in the layout window.

Plotting
Upon completion of your map design, you can submit the plot to a plotter, the Digital Print Room (DPR), or an offline file. By default, all plot sessions are saved for referencing at a later date. The layout window and all of its associated layout sheets are automatically saved in the GeoWorkspace when you save the GeoWorkspace. If you do not want to save the plot session, you can manually delete the plot upon completion.

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You can plot to any available Windows printer or to a Digital Print Room archive by means of the InterPlot Organizer printer driver that is delivered with InterPlot Client, Version 10.0. The InterPlot Organizer printer driver creates a .dpr file that can be submitted to the Digital Print Room with InterPlot Client, either as a single plot or combined with other .dpr, .dgn, .dwg, and standard raster files as a plot set. However, you do not need InterPlot products to plot to a paper plotter, such as an HP2500; you simply use the standard Windows printing interface. Nevertheless, you can enhance your GeoMedia Professional plotting workflows by adding InterPlot plotting products to the system. In addition, you can store GeoMedia Professional images electronically and distribute them over the Web by using the Digital Print Room. Furthermore, you can use InterPlot to construct complete plot sets and to submit them as one job to a production plotter. GeoMedia Professional layouts can be printed to an intermediate .dpr file format using the new Organizer printer driver included in InterPlot Client, Version 10.0. InterPlot Client can then be used to assemble plot sets consisting of several of these .dpr files, or combinations of .dpr files with .dgn, .dwg, and standard raster files. The resulting plot sets can be configured to print in the manner you want, that is, plot orientation, scale, order, and so forth, and then can be saved for submittal as needed. You can repeat a plotting job quickly at any time at the push of a button, taking advantage of collating, stapling, and other features of production output devices. When a GeoMedia Professional layout in the plot set is modified, the designer can print an updated .dpr file to replace the previous one, thereby keeping the plot set up to date.
See www.interplot.com for complete information.

Digital Print Room brings a new dimension to the document storage and distribution workflow. By replacing InterPlot Server with a copy of Digital Print Room, you can continue to plot to paper exactly as before because the Digital Print Room contains a full implementation of InterPlot Server. You also have a choice of plotting to disk and making the plots available to authorized customers or employees over the Web. The process is simple and very powerful.

Layout Workflows
The flexibility of the Layout Window commands lets you tailor the actual workflow you use to your exact requirements. The following are several basic workflows that show typical uses of these commands.

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Quick Plotting
This workflow is commonly used for producing a quick plot of data displayed in a map window, starting from scratch with a blank canvas. 1. Set up your map window with the specific data you want displayed at the appropriate zoom level. 2. Create a layout window, and open a blank layout sheet. 3. Insert the appropriate map; then place the marginalia of the map into the location you want in the layout sheet. 4. Zoom to actual size to preview the plot. 5. Plot the layout.

Multiple Map Plotting


This workflow involves adding two maps, text, and redlines to the plot. 1. In the map window, create a map that displays the content you want to plot. 2. Create a layout window, and import a predefined plot template. 3. Insert graphics from the map window into a frame in the layout window. 4. Add text to the layout window. 5. Insert a second frame of map content into the layout window. 6. Add more text to the new plot in the layout window. 7. Add redlines to complete the plot. 8. Plot the layout.

Creating and Updating a Layout Window


In this workflow, you create a map in a layout sheet and then update it to reflect changes in the map window. 1. In the map window, create a map that displays the content you want to plot. 2. Create a layout window, and import a predefined plot template. 3. Insert graphics from the map window into a frame in the layout window using the dynamic mode option. 4. Return to the map window, and change the features to reflect data updates. 14-12

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5. Return to the layout window, and update the layout sheet to correspond to the changes in the map window. 6. Plot the layout.

Using Background and Working Sheets


In this workflow, you create a map in a working layout sheet, add graphics to the background sheet, and then plot the layout to show both background and working sheets. 1. In the map window, create a map that displays the content you want to plot. 2. Create a layout window, and import a predefined plot template. 3. Display the background sheet. 4. Draw appropriate shapes, add text, and so forth. 5. Provide a unique name for the background sheet. 6. Display the working sheet, and attach the previously defined background sheet using Page Setup. 7. Insert map graphics, and add text into the working sheet. 8. Plot the layout to show both background and working sheets.

Starting Layout Window


Select Window > Layout Window from the GeoMedia Professional menu bar to display the layout window. When you display the layout window, it becomes active, the menus change to enable the layout commands on other menu bar drop-down menus, the layout window drawing commands are enabled, and the toolbars change. If you select Layout Window when the layout window is already displayed, the layout window becomes hidden and the menus and toolbars revert to their former states. To add a new layout sheet to the layout window, you can use the following two commands, which append a new layout sheet to the layout window:
Sheets > Import LayoutImports one of three types of layout sheets:

GeoMedia layout template .glt files, Imagineer or SmartSketch template .igt files, or Imagineer or SmartSketch drawing .igr files.
Sheets > Insert SheetInserts (adds) a new layout sheet using the page setup parameters of the active sheet. You can change the parameters with the Layout Window Page Setup command.

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Importing Layout Templates and Drawing Files


Import Layout lets you add external files to the GeoWorkspace. You can

append an existing Imagineer or SmartSketch .igr drawing file or an Imagineer or SmartSketch .igt template file as multiple layout sheets, or you can create a new layout sheet by copying the layout graphics from an external GeoMedia layout template .glt file. Layout templates and drawing files are external files that you can import into the layout window. The location of the templates is defined as \Templates on the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options). The default location is <drive:>\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Templates\Layouts. If you require a predefined layout template, you have two options. You can import an Imagineer or SmartSketch template file (.igt) created from legacy workflows in GeoMedia Professional 2.0 or 3.0, or you can import a GeoMedia layout template file (.glt) created in GeoMedia Professional 4.0 or above.

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When you import a GeoMedia layout template file (.glt), you copy the layout graphics from an external file stored on disk to a new plot layout sheet stored in the layout window. This template is limited to a single layout, supporting background and working sheets. A GeoMedia layout template is intended to store standard title block type graphics used across an enterprise. It should only contain layout graphics, including SmartFrames, generated with the Design Map Layout command. A SmartFrame functions as a container that identifies the type of content and the physical extent of the map graphics being placed into the layout sheet. SmartFrames are intelligent, that is, they know what type of map graphic they contain. A GeoMedia layout template should never contain GeoWorkspace connections. If a template does contain GeoMedia graphics, the GeoMedia graphics are ignored during the import process. Similarly to importing a GeoMedia layout template, you can copy the graphics from an external Imagineer or SmartSketch template file (.igt) or drawing file (.igr) and place them as a new layout sheet in the layout window. This option supports legacy workflows in case you have invested a lot of time building Imagineer or SmartSketch plot layout drawings and templates. Unlike the import of a GeoMedia layout template, the import of a .igt template file or a .igr drawing file brings all the sheets contained in the drawing or template, including multiple working sheets and background sheets. GeoMedia layout templates created with GeoMedia 4.0 (or above) using the Export Layout command contain only layout graphics. Imagineer or SmartSketch files or templates created using GeoMedia 2.0 or GeoMedia 3.0 plotting workflows may contain a combination of map graphics and layout graphics. When importing these file types, only the layout graphics are imported. Map graphics are ignored, but the SmartFrames used to contain the map graphics are imported to provide a point of reference in the layout design. Because the older style SmartFrames are not associated as a group, they will need to be redrawn using the Design Map Layout command.

To import .glt, .igt, or .igr files:


1. Select Window > Layout Window. 2. Select Sheets > Import Layout.

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3. Select GeoMedia Layout Templates (*.glt) from the Files of type drop-down list; then select the appropriate .glt template file.

The sheet located in the selected .glt file is appended (copied) into the current GeoWorkspace as a new layout sheet and is made active. OR Select Imagineer/SmartSketch Template Files (*.igt) from the Files of type drop-down list; then select the appropriate .igt template file. The sheet or sheets located in the selected .igt file are appended (copied) into the current GeoWorkspace as new layout sheets, with the last sheet added is made active. 14-16

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OR Select SmartSketch Files (*.igr) from the Files of type drop-down list; then select the appropriate .igr drawing file. The sheet or sheets located in the selected .igr file are appended (copied) into the current GeoWorkspace as new layout sheets, with the last sheet added is made active.

Exporting Layout Sheets


Export Layout lets you export the active layout sheet in the layout

window to an external GeoMedia layout template file (.glt) to be used as a template. You can insert GeoMedia layout templates into the layout window using the Import Layout command. Thus, you can re-create a layout sheet to reproduce the design of an existing plot. Export Layout only exports layout graphics (titles, borders, logos, and so forth) and SmartFrames; it does not export map graphics (map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar). This command only exports one sheet at a time and includes a background sheet if one is referenced by the layout being exported. You can construct and export two types of templates from the layout window. The first type contains only layout graphics. The second type contains layout graphics that include intelligent SmartFrames. If you place the SmartFrames as a map, legend, north arrow, or scale bar before exporting the template, each SmartFrame knows that it is intended to hold a particular type of map graphic, such as a map or north arrow. This becomes beneficial in later processes as you select the map graphics to place in the template. If there are intelligent SmartFrames, the items are automatically placed into their preset locations.

To export a layout sheet:


1. Verify that you have the appropriate information in the active layout sheet. 2. Select Sheets > Export Layout.

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3. Select the appropriate folder, and type the name of the file to export in the File name field; then click Save. The active layout sheet is written to the specified filename. Note: The default layout template directory location is defined on the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box in case you want to review or modify.

Selecting and Manipulating Layout Sheets


To display or to manipulate a layout sheet, you select a layout sheet tab from those displayed at the bottom of the layout window. There is a tab available for each layout sheet.

To select a layout sheet:


To select a layout sheet, select its tab from the bottom of the layout window. You can select both working sheets and background sheets. The layout sheet is displayed as the active sheet with its name on the tab.

Renaming Layout Sheets


Rename Sheet renames the active layout sheet. You can rename both working sheets and background sheets.

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To rename a layout sheet:


1. Make the appropriate layout sheet active. 2. Select Sheets > Rename Sheet. OR Place the cursor over the layout sheet tab, right click, and select Rename from the menu.

3. Type the new name.

Deleting Layout Sheets


Delete Sheet deletes the active layout sheet. You can delete both working

sheets and background sheets.

To delete layout sheets:


1. Make the appropriate layout sheet(s) active. 2. Select Sheets > Delete Sheet. OR Place the cursor over the layout sheet tab, right click, and select Delete from the menu.

Viewing Background and Working Sheets


Selecting View > Background Sheets switches the view from the active working sheet to the background sheet. When you select this command, all of the background sheets in the document are displayed as tabs at the bottom of the window, and all the working sheet tabs are hidden. You can display background sheet graphics on any or all working sheets with the Layout Window Page Setup command.

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Selecting View > Working Sheets displays all working (foreground) sheets in a document. If a background sheet is attached to the working sheet, the graphics on the background sheet are displayed on the working sheet. When you attach a background sheet to a working sheet, the software automatically adjusts the size and the margin of the working sheet to match the size and the margin of the background sheet.

Defining Layout Window Page Setup


Layout Window Page Setup lets you define a unique page setup for each layout sheet in the layout window. However, if you have the same layout configuration for all plots or layout sheets, you can save the parameters for the page setup as the default setting to be used every time you insert a new layout sheet. A page setup consists of the layout sheet name, description, background sheet, paper size, and layout orientation. This command also displays the map graphics (geographic links) associated with the plot layout.

You can access this command by selecting File > Page Setup or by double clicking on the row of a listed layout sheet on the Layout Windows Properties dialog box. The Layout Window Page Setup dialog box is automatically populated with the parameters of the selected sheet.

General Tab
The Layout Window Page Setup dialog box contains two tabs, General and Links. The General tab identifies the name, description, background sheet, visible status, paper size, and layout orientation, and it also lets you save the current settings as the default. The editable name and description also appear in the Layout Window Properties dialog box. You can select a background sheet from a list of the available background sheets for any given layout sheet, or you can select none. The layout sheets can be turned off in the layout window by turning off the visible status. You can choose the paper size from a list of the most common form sizes supported by printers and plotters. If there is no appropriate size, you can select Custom from the drop-down list and type the appropriate width, height, and units. This command supports units of centimeters, millimeters, and inches, and it supports either landscape or portrait layout orientation.

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The Save as Default option lets you configure the default settings used when adding or inserting a new layout sheet. This ensures that all new layouts are created using the same parameters. When you add a new layout sheet with Sheets > Insert Sheet, you must define a page setup to describe the layout. The parameters you use to define the page description of the new sheet are derived from one of two sources, the template file or the active layout sheet. The source used is determined by the current status of layout sheets resident in the layout window. If there are no layout sheets present, which is the case when you start the layout window for the first time in a new GeoWorkspace, the parameters are obtained from the delivered GeoMedia template file normal.glt. You can bring this file into the layout window with Import Layout and then modify it to reflect your default layout parameters. Thus, every time you create a new GeoWorkspace, the initial page layout description conforms to your specifications. If there are layout sheets present in the layout window, the parameters are obtained from the layout sheet that is active when you select Sheets > Insert Sheet. If you need to insert multiple sheets that have a page setup description different from the currently active sheet, changing the page setup description and then selecting Save as Default causes the layout window to use the currently saved parameters when inserting the new sheets. The Save as Default parameters are used for the current working session, but they are lost if you do not save the GeoWorkspace. Saving the GeoWorkspace saves the new parameters as the default page setup description. Note: The first sheet is created, based on page setup parameters defined for the layout sheet in normal.glt, as the default sheet upon starting this command. However, this is not automatically so for subsequent sheets. The page setup parameters for each new sheet are based on the active sheet when this command is started. Thus, if the first sheet is a C Size Sheet and is the active sheet when the command is started, then the next sheet created will also be a C Size Sheet. But if you then create a D Size Sheet, and it is active when you start the command, the next sheet created will be a D Size Sheet, not the initial default C Size Sheet.

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Links Tab
The Links tab lets you review a read-only list of the geographic links contained in the active layout sheet. This provides you with enough information to reconstruct a layout sheet should it become corrupt for some reason. The Links tab contains the following information:
TypeThere are four types of links: map, legend, north arrow, and

scale bar. The SmartFrames are grouped, so a number is placed after each map type listed to indicate the relationship of the marginalia with the map.
Description This field contains information to help you reconstruct the layout sheet. The description varies with the type of graphic placed as follows:

MapGeographic extent method used for placement, plus the map window name, plot scale, and whether the coordinate space of the map was projected or geographic at the time of placement. LegendMap window name used for placement. North arrowWhether the coordinate space of the map was projected or geographic at the time of placement Scale barPlot scale used for placement.

StaticThis field identifies whether the map and its associated marginalia were placed as Yes (static mode, updates disabled) or placed as No (dynamic mode, updates enabled).

To define layout window page setup:


1. Select Window > Layout Window, and open the appropriate layout sheet. 2. Select File > Page Setup.

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3. Optional: Edit the layout sheet name in the Name field. 4. Turn the Visible check box on or off. 5. Optional: Edit the description in the Description field. 6. Optional: Select an appropriate background sheet from the Background drop-down list. The background sheet is displayed under the layout sheet, and its features cannot be selected unless the background sheet is active. OR Select none, displayed as a blank field. 7. Select the appropriate Paper Size from the drop-down list. OR Select Custom from the Size drop-down list, type the appropriate Width and Height, and select the appropriate Units from the dropdown list. 8. Select the appropriate layout Orientation option. 9. Optional: Click Save as Default. The current settings are saved as the default plot layout page setup. 10. Click OK.

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To reconstruct a layout sheet:


1. Select Window > Layout Window, and open the appropriate layout sheet. 2. Select File > Page Setup. 3. Select the Links tab.

4. Review the information on the active layout sheet. 5. Reconstruct the layout sheet based on the displayed information.

Viewing Layout Window Properties


Layout Windows Properties lets you manage the display of multiple layout sheets by changing the display status of a sheet in the layout window to either hide the layout sheet or to make it visible. Because all layout sheets can potentially be saved in the GeoWorkspace, a large number of sheets might become a management problem. To minimize the problem of having to sort through all the saved layout sheets stored in the layout window when it is opened, the visible property lets you reduce the number of exposed layout sheets. Only those sheets flagged as visible (Yes) appear in the layout window when it is opened. You can turn saved layout sheets on and off one at a time. Sheets must have their visible status set to Yes for you to be able to modify and/or to plot them.

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This command provides a list of all of the layout sheets currently stored in the layout window, sequentially listing the visible sheets followed by the invisible sheets. The information available for each layout sheet includes the name, logical number, description, and visible status, most of which are defined on the General tab of the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box. The logical number is automatically assigned as new layout sheets are added to the layout window. You can use the logical number to define print ranges in the Print Layout Window dialog box. You can only change the visible status with Layout Windows Properties. However, double clicking on a listed layout sheet row opens the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box, which lets you change the sheet name and/or description for the layout sheet identified in the active row.

To view layout window properties:


1. With an active layout window displayed, select Window > Layout Window Properties.

2. Review the information for the listed layout sheets. 3. Change the Visible settings as appropriate by toggling the value to Yes (visible) or No (hidden). Note: A minimum of one layout sheet must be visible at all times. 4. Optional: Double click on a row to open the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box, and then change the page setup on the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box.

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Designing Map Layout


Design Map Layout lets you design a map layout by placing SmartFrames for the required map and optional marginalia items into the layout sheet. SmartFrames are containers that define the location you want in the map layout for the map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar. The SmartFrames placed for a set of map graphics are automatically associated with one another and are placed as a group so that any further processing required on the map graphics can be done by selecting any one of the SmartFrames within the group. Multiple maps and their corresponding marginalia items may be placed in a map layout, with each map having its own associated marginalia. This command lets you create templates and other plot layouts requiring map graphics to be placed in fixed locations on the layout sheet.

You would typically use this command when you are starting from scratch and designing a map layout, for example, for presentation graphics with multiple maps within one layout sheet. You use Design Map Layout with Insert Map Graphics by using the former to define the placement location for the map graphics with SmartFrames and then by using the latter to populate the SmartFrames with the actual map graphics. A map layout consists of two types of graphics, map graphics and additional layout graphics. Map graphics are those graphics that originate in the map window, such as the map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar. Layout graphics are the remainder of the graphics that typically accompany a plotted map. Examples of layout graphics include title blocks, SmartFrames, borders, and logos. These graphics may be imported as a template or drawn in the layout window. When designing a map layout, it is important to consider the relationship between the map graphic being placed using the Insert Map Graphics command and the corresponding SmartFrame drawn using the Design Map Layout command. For the map being placed in the map SmartFrame, there are two options during placement. The map can be cropped and/or flooded to fit the SmartFrame, or the SmartFrame can be resized to fit the geographic extent of the map. The legend, north arrow, and the scale bar are all a fixed size based on the parameters defined in their respective Properties dialog box in the map window. Placement of SmartFrames should approximate the appropriate location of the map graphics. The SmartFrames themselves will likely be resized to accommodate the properties and parameters selected during the insert process.

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See the PinPoint topic in the GeoMedia Professional Online Help for complete information on using this command.

Design Map Layout lets you specify what types of marginalia you want to accompany the map in the map layout. The marginalia are associated with the map, so you place each of the items selected after you have drawn the map. You cannot place marginalia without a map. As prompted, you draw a SmartFrame for the location of the map and then additional SmartFrames for the selected marginalia. You can optionally type a precision size for each of the frames by using the PinPoint ribbon bar. If you later decide to add or to remove marginalia items, you can do so with Map Graphics Properties.

To design the map layout:


1. Optional: Select PinPoint on the Standard toolbar if you want to use precision keyins.

2. Select Layout > Design Map Layout.

Note: When the dialog box is displayed, you can exit the command by pressing ESC. When the dialog box is not displayed, you can exit the command by pressing the right mouse button twice. Also, at the prompt for the second point of a SmartFrame, you can undo the selected first point and move back to the prompt for the first point by pressing the right mouse button. 3. Select the appropriate marginalia check boxes. 4. Click Apply. 14-27

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You are prompted to place the first point to indicate the extent of the map. 5. Move the cursor to the location where you want to place the map SmartFrame (a dynamic rectangle appears anchored at the placed point); place the second point diagonal to the first to place a SmartFrame for the map; then click the left mouse button.

OR Type the appropriate values on the PinPoint ribbon bar, and follow the prompts. If you selected marginalia in Step 3, you are prompted to place points to indicate the extent of each marginalia item selected. 6. Repeat the procedure of Step 5 until you have placed all the marginalia.

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7. Repeat Steps 3 6 to place another group. OR Click Close to exit the command.

Inserting Map Graphics into Layout Sheets


Insert Map Graphics inserts maps and selected marginalia into the location you want on a layout sheet in the layout window. You can insert these map graphics through two workflows. In the first, you insert map graphics into an empty layout sheet. In the second, you insert map graphics into existing SmartFrames, which were previously placed in the layout sheet with the Design Map Layout command.

A map is a subset of a map window that is placed into the layout sheet; it is defined in terms of the originating map window, geographic extent, and plot scale. Layout sheets can contain multiple maps, each having unique parameters such as geographic extent and plot scale.

Map Window
The map window definition identifies the content of the map to be portrayed in the layout window by using the legend settings of the map window to define feature symbology and display priority. The default map window is the last one used with Insert Map Graphics, or it is the first map window in the alphabetical drop-down list if it is the first time this command is used or if the last used map window no longer exits. 14-29

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Geographic Extent The geographic extent defines the geographic footprint, or coverage, of the map to be portrayed in the layout window. In many cases, the geographic extent you want is a subset of the map window, which can be defined in a variety of ways. You can select the method for defining the geographic extent for the map from the following methods, and provide any additional parameters necessary:
Existing ShapeUses an existing, user-defined area geometry type

or compound geometry type (containing an area definition) in the map window to identify the geographic extent. When a compound feature is selected that contains multiple polygons, the largest polygon is used to define the existing shape. The area between the outside of the area feature and the SmartFrame limits is cropped.
Geographic FrameRequires a user-defined entry of the upper-left

and lower-right corners of the quadrangle, defined using geographic coordinates (for example, d:m:s) to identify the geographic extent. This option is valid for projected or geographic coordinate systems defined in the GeoWorkspace coordinate system settings. The area between the outside of the quadrangle and the SmartFrame limits is cropped.
Map Window (the default method)Uses the area currently displayed in the selected map window defined in the Map Window field to identify the geographic extent.

Note: If you maximize a map window and use Insert Map Graphics to place graphics with Map Window as the geographic extent method, the software uses the unmaximized frame of the window, which is less that what you see on the screen.
Paper SizeRequires a user-specified paper size. The units for the height and width values are based on the units defined by the Layout Window Page Setup command. The geographic extent varies based

on the plot scale selected.


PolygonRequires user-defined digitizing of a polygon to define the

geographic extent. The area between the outside of the polygon and the SmartFrame limits is cropped.

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Projected FrameRequires a user-defined diagonal entry of the upper-left and lower-right corners of the frame or rectangle, defined using projected coordinates to identify the geographic extent. This option is valid for projected coordinate or geographic systems defined in the GeoWorkspace coordinate system settings. RectangleRequires a user-defined, two-point rectangle definition in the map window to define the geographic extent. Spatial FilterRequires an existing, user-selected spatial filter to

define the geographic extent. The area between the outside of the spatial filter and the SmartFrame limits is cropped. Plot Scale The plot scale of the map defines the relationship between ground units and the paper units used when portraying the geographic extent. You can use one of two methods to define the plot scale, User defined or Fit to frame.
See Defining Map Window Display Properties in the Working with Map Windows chapter for more information.

When you start the Insert Map Graphics command, the default plot scale is equal to the display scale defined in the map window on the Display Properties dialog box. The plot scale options available depend on whether or not you have selected a SmartFrame before starting this command. Plot scale combined with the geographic extent definition determines the size of the map when it is portrayed on paper. When designing a map layout there are two basic methods available to determine the size of the map relative to the size of the paper layout. You can either make the map fit the paper or make the paper fit the map. The three possible behaviors in this scenario are the following: 1. No SmartFrame selected before starting this command, and geographic extent and User-defined plot scale selectedThe size of the resulting map is predetermined based on the combination of the geographic coverage selected and the plot scale defined. It may or may not fit within the paper size selected, possibly requiring adjustments to the page setup to accommodate the size of the map. Note: If the size of the map placed exceeds the size of the paper (defined on the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box), you must do one of two things. You can either increase the size of the paper on the Layout Window Page Setup dialog box, or you can crop the map placed so that it fits the paper. 14-31

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2. A SmartFrame selected before starting this command, and geographic extent and User-defined plot scale selectedIn this situation, there are two additional options available, Crop / flood map to fit frame and Resize frame to geographic extent. Both options maintain the user-defined plot scale, but they produce a different visual result either by altering the selected geographic extent to fit the current SmartFrame or by altering the size of SmartFrame to fit the selected geographic extent. Both options position the map so the center of the geographic extent is coincident with the center of the SmartFrame. When the map has been flooded (expanded) and/or cropped (reduced) to fit the SmartFrame, you are assured that the map fits within the limits of the current layout design. However, if the SmartFrame is resized, it produces the same result as the previous scenario, and it may require adjustments to the page setup to accommodate the size of the map. 3. A SmartFrame selected before starting this command, and geographic extent and Fit to frame plot scale selectedIn this situation, the plot scale is automatically calculated to perform a best-fit of the geographic extent into the existing SmartFrame. If the best-fit is determined to fall along the horizontal axis, the remaining available area along the vertical axis is flooded until the graphics reach the extent of the SmartFrame. This scenario produces a result similar to the second scenario when the Crop / flood map to fit frame option is selected. The main difference between the two is that cropping never occurs in this scenario, and the plot scale is always calculated based on the best-fit. This scenario also ensures that the map fits within the limits of the current layout design. Static and Dynamic Modes You can also define whether the map graphics (map and associated marginalia) can be updated after placement with the Static and Dynamic options. A Static (disables updates) mode captures a snapshot in time, that is, what the data looked like when it was placed into the layout sheet. You cannot update map graphics placed in static mode; you can only remove existing marginalia from the map with the Map Graphics Properties command. A Dynamic (enables updates) mode permits automatic updates. Certain types of modifications made in the map window are automatically reflected in the layout window, such as the addition or removal of feature classes, symbology changes, or modifications made to the scale bar or north arrow properties.

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However, modifications requiring geometry modifications to the map, such as changes in map projection or view rotation and legend modifications, require the use of the Update Map Graphics command to redraw the graphics. When map graphics have been placed in the dynamic mode, marginalia items can be added or removed, and the mode can be changed to static using the Map Graphics Properties command.

Associated Marginalia
When map graphics are placed in a layout sheet, they are placed as a group, composed of a required map and its associated marginalia. The marginalia are intelligent, knowing what map they are associated with. Marginalia items available for placement include a legend, north arrow, and scale bar. When selected, these items are automatically placed along with the selected map. Display parameters used for rendering the marginalia in the layout sheet are based on their respective properties defined in the map window. The legend size is determined using the text parameters defined on the General tab of the Legend Properties dialog box in the map window. If there is a SmartFrame to fit the legend into, the upper left corner is used as the origin for placement. The north arrow and scale bar always use the parameters defined in their corresponding Properties dialog box defined in the map window. If there is a SmartFrame to fit them into, the origin for their placement is the center of the SmartFrame.

Workflows for Inserting Map Graphics


Insert Map Graphics has two basic workflows, placing map graphics into

a blank layout sheet and placing map graphics into existing SmartFrames. The behavior of this command varies based on which workflow you are using. All map graphics (map, legend, north arrow, and scale bar) placed in a layout sheet are contained within SmartFrames. The difference in command behavior results from the presence or absence of available SmartFrames in the layout sheet and whether or not you select them before starting this command. If you are starting with a blank layout sheet with no SmartFrames, you identify the location for placement of the map and each of the marginalia items selected. The size of each of the items is calculated automatically based on the geographic extent, plot scale, and marginalia properties settings. As you drag your cursor across the layout sheet, an empty rectangle appears to identify the physical extent of the map graphic being placed.

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If you are placing map graphics into existing SmartFrames, you select the appropriate SmartFrame group before starting the Insert Map Graphics command. SmartFrames are intelligent, knowing the type of map graphic item intended for the design. The SmartFrames are also associated with one another within the group. For example, a north arrow SmartFrame knows what map SmartFrame it is associated with. Thus, it is not necessary for you to determine which SmartFrame is intended to contain the map before starting this command. You can select any SmartFrame in the associated group, and the command knows where to place each of the items selected. However, if you have used the Bottom Up command from the Select Tool Ribbon bar to select individual items in a group, you must use the Top Down command to re-create the associated group to be able to select all the items as a group. The physical size of the map graphics (and their corresponding SmartFrame) varies based on parameters used when defining the map and the marginalia properties defined in the map window. The size of the map is fixed after placement in the map window and cannot be scaled or rotated after placement. The maximum size of the map is determined by the geographic extent and plot scale selections. After placement, you can crop the map by adjusting the handles on the sides of the SmartFrame. This does not change the plot scale but does reduce the geographic extent. You can move maps, but you cannot scale or rotate them after placement. In addition, you cannot scale the scale bars or rotate the north arrows. Note: Map graphics are composed of a map and its associated marginalia. They are stored in the layout window as a group element type, even if the map graphics consist of only a map with no marginalia. When selecting a group element, you will notice that the full set of handles is not available. When trying to edit or to manipulate any of the individual items in the group, you must first use PickQuick to select an item to process. This enables you to select the item to edit, upon which all of the handles appear and can then be used to adjust or to crop the map SmartFrame. All marginalia are automatically sized based on the properties defined in the map window settings. The scale bar is a fixed size based on the plot scale selected during placement, but the legend and north arrow can be enlarged or reduced to fit the SmartFrames.

See To select a hidden or overlapped feature in the Working with Features chapter for information on using PickQuick.

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There is no relationship between the size of the marginalia and the size of their corresponding SmartFrames. The marginalia SmartFrames are used as overall guides for placement, matching the center of the marginalia item with the center of the SmartFrame.

To insert map graphics into a blank layout sheet:


1. Verify that there is an active map window with map graphics for the insert and that the marginalia to be inserted have been defined. (If the selected geographic extent method is Spatial Filter, the required filter must also exist.) 2. Select Layout > Insert Map Graphics.

3. Select the appropriate map window from the Map window drop-down list. 4. Select the appropriate Geographic extent method, and select and/or type any corresponding required parameters. 5. Optional: Select the appropriate Associated marginalia check boxes. 6. Select the appropriate Plot scale method, and select and/or type any corresponding required parameters. 7. Select the Static or Dynamic mode. 8. Click OK.

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Note: You should not place a map frame that exceeds the layout sheet size. If it exceeds the layout sheet size, you should reduce the plot scale and/or geographic extent or increase the paper size through Layout Window Page Setup. 9. If the geographic extent method selected is Map Window, Spatial Filter, Geographic Frame, or Projected Frame, go to Step 10 because there is no need for interaction in the map window with these methods. OR If the geographic extent method selected is not one of these four, continue with this step as follows, according to the selected method: For the Rectangle method, identify the first point of the rectangle in the map window; move the cursor and attached rubber-banding rectangle to the opposing diagonal corner; then place a second point to define the extent of the rectangle. For the Polygon method, identify the first point of the polygon in the map window; move the cursor and attached rubber-banding polygon to another location; then select a second point. Continue selecting points until you have defined the polygon; then double click to end. For the Paper Size method, move the cursor and attached fixed rectangle in the map window to the desired location; then place a point to identify the origin of the extent. For the Existing Shape method, select a shape in the map window to identify the extent that you want.

You are prompted to place the origin of the map in the layout window.

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Note: When the dialog box is displayed, you can exit the command by pressing ESC. When the dialog box is not displayed, you can exit the command by pressing the right mouse button twice. Also, at the prompt for the second point of a SmartFrame, you can undo the selected first point and move back to the prompt for the first point by pressing the right mouse button. 10. Move the cursor and attached rectangle to the location where you want to place the map; then click the left mouse button. The rectangle defines the maximum extent of the SmartFrame before clipping occurs. After the SmartFrame has been placed, it is populated with the graphics of the map, and clipping is performed if necessary.

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11. If you selected marginalia in Step 7, you are prompted to place the origin of the marginalia item in the layout window for each item selected. Move the cursor and attached rectangle to the location where you want to place the marginalia item; then click the left mouse button. 12. Repeat the procedure of Step 11 until you have placed all the marginalia.

13. Repeat Steps 3 - 12 to place another set of map graphics. 14-38

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OR Click Close to exit the command. 14. Optional: Use the assortment of drawing commands available in the layout window for placing title blocks, additional text, company logos, and so forth to embellish the map. Note: For ease of use, complete documentation of all the drawing commands (Layout Window Graphics Commands) is accessible in context-sensitive online Help.

To insert map graphics into existing SmartFrames:


1. Verify that there is an active map window for the insert, that the marginalia properties have been properly defined, and that the SmartFrames have been placed using the Design Map Layout command. (If the selected geographic extent method is Spatial Filter, the required filter must also exist.) 2. Select the appropriate SmartFrame group in the layout window into which you want to insert the new map graphics. Note: You can replace existing map graphics by selecting a group that already contains map graphics.

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4. Select the appropriate map window from the Map window drop-down list. 5. Select the appropriate Geographic extent method, and select and/or type any corresponding required parameters. 6. Optional: Set the appropriate Associated marginalia check boxes. 7. Select the appropriate Plot scale method, and select and/or type any corresponding required parameters. 8. Select the Static or Dynamic option. 9. Click OK. You are prompted to click in the map window to begin defining points to indicate the extent of the map to place into the SmartFrame. Note: You should not place a map frame that exceeds the layout sheet size. If it exceeds the layout sheet size, you should reduce the plot scale and/or geographic extent or increase the paper size through Layout Window Page Setup. 10. If the geographic extent method selected is Map Window, Spatial Filter, Geographic Frame, or Projected Frame, go to Step 11 because there is no need for interaction in the map window. OR If the geographic extent method selected is not one of these four, continue with this step as follows, according to the selected method: For the Rectangle method, identify the first point of the rectangle in the map window; move the cursor and attached rubber-banding rectangle to the opposing diagonal corner; then place a second point to define the extent of the rectangle. For the Polygon method, identify the first point of the polygon in the map window; move the cursor and attached rubber-banding polygon to another location; then select a second point. Continue selecting points until the polygon has been defined; then double click to end. For the Paper Size method, move the cursor and attached fixed rectangle in the map window to the desired location; then place a point to identify the origin of the extent. For the Existing Shape method, select a shape in the map window to identify the extent that you want.

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Note: When the dialog box is displayed, you can exit the command by pressing ESC. When the dialog box is not displayed, you can exit the command by pressing the right mouse button twice. Also at the prompt for the second point of a SmartFrame, you can undo the selected first point and move back to the prompt for the first point by pressing the right mouse button. The map and any selected marginalia are automatically placed into their appropriate SmartFrames. Note: In the event that a marginalia item is selected for placement and does not have a corresponding SmartFrame in the group, you are prompted for the location of the marginalia item. 11. Move the cursor and attached rectangle to the location where you want to place the marginalia item; then click the left mouse button. 12. Repeat the procedure of Step 11 until you have placed all of the marginalia. 13. Optional: Use the assortment of drawing commands available in the layout window for placing title blocks, additional text, company logos, and so forth to embellish the map. Note: For ease of use, complete documentation of all the drawing commands (Layout Window Graphics Commands) is accessible in context-sensitive online Help.

Reviewing and Editing Map Graphics in Layout Sheets


Map Graphics Properties lets you review and edit existing map graphics placed with Insert Map Graphics. You can review the existing map

definitions, switch the static/dynamic mode of SmartFrame groups, and add or remove marginalia items associated with a map definition in a layout sheet.

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The dialog box of this command is similar to that of the Insert Map Graphics command, but its function is fundamentally quite different. With the Insert Map Graphics command you create new map graphics, whereas with the Map Graphics Properties command you edit existing map graphics. You would use the Map Graphics Properties command primarily to review the parameters used for creating the map and for adding or removing marginalia items. If you want to modify the plot scale or geographic extent of an existing map, you should use the Insert Map Graphics command, selecting the populated SmartFrame group. The map definition on the Map Graphics Properties dialog box consists of the same items that are on the Insert Map Graphics dialog box: originating map window, geographic extent, plot scale, and the static or dynamic mode. The marginalia options are also the same: legend, north arrow, and scale bar. Before starting this command, you may have placed the map graphics as either static or dynamic, which dictates the properties you can edit. For map graphics placed as dynamic, you can switch the mode from dynamic to static and can add or remove marginalia items. For map graphics placed as static, you are limited to only removing existing marginalia items. This limitation is due to potential problems in maintaining the association between the map graphics in the layout window and the originating map graphics in the map window. Difficulties may occur when modifications are made in the originating map window after the static map graphics have been placed. Problematic modifications include the removal of the originating map window and changes in warehouse connections.

Map Graphics Properties Workflows


There are two basic workflows for using this command, one with the original map graphics having been placed as dynamic and the other with the graphics having been placed as static.

To change from dynamic to static mode and to add and/or remove marginalia (original map graphics are dynamic):
1. Verify that the map graphics were placed as dynamic in the active layout sheet. 2. Select the SmartFrame group you want to change. 3. Select Layout > Map Graphics Properties.

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The dialog box is populated based on the parameters used to construct the original set of map graphics. 4. Select the appropriate Associated marginalia check boxes to add or remove items. 5. Select the Static mode. 6. Click OK. The map graphics are updated in their respective SmartFrames based on changes made. Note: In the event that a marginalia item is selected for placement and does not have a corresponding SmartFrame in the group, you are prompted for the location of the marginalia item 7. Move the cursor and attached rectangle to the location where you want to place the marginalia; then click the left mouse button. 8. Repeat the procedure of Step 7 until you have placed all the new marginalia.

To remove marginalia (original map graphics are static):


1. Verify that the map graphics were placed as static in the active layout window. 2. Select the SmartFrame group you want to change. 14-43

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3. Select Layout > Map Graphics Properties. 4. Select the appropriate Associated marginalia check boxes to turn them off. 5. Click OK. The map marginalia items are removed based on selections made.

Updating Map Graphics in Layout Sheets


Update Map Graphics is designed to let you update the map graphics

placed with a dynamic mode in a selected SmartFrame within a layout sheet, based on the current contents and display in the related map window. The dynamic mode of the map graphics provides a real-time update capability in the layout window for certain types of modifications made in the map window, such as symbology changes or the addition and/or removal of features. These on-the-fly updates are possible because the underlying map geometry remains intact. However, geometric modifications incurred by changes in the map projection or subsequent view rotations in the map window require that the map be completely redrawn in the layout window. This command lets you update the map graphics in the layout window when these types of modifications have been made in the map window. Additionally, changes made in the legend composition, such as turning on or off legend entries in the legend of the map window, also require the use of this command to reflect the new settings. In general, any changes made in the map window that alter the underlying geometry of the map or legend are not updated automatically (by means of the dynamic mode) in the layout window because of the potential impact on the composition of the layout. These types of updates are not performed until you want them reflected in the layout window and you select this command. When you start Update Map Graphics, it redraws the content in the active SmartFrame to reflect changes made in the associated map window and updates the associated marginalia. The legend is redrawn to incorporate any compositional changes made. The north arrow is redrawn to reflect the new azimuth, and the scale bar is redrawn to reflect any plot scale changes. This command requires both an active SmartFrame group in the layout sheet and the originating map window, and it is intended to update map graphics that have been placed with the dynamic mode.

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When you perform an update, the size of the SmartFrame always remains the same. The placement of the geographic extent defined in the map window is such that the center of the map being placed in the SmartFrame is coincident with the center of the SmartFrame that was originally placed, flooding the map data outward to meet the SmartFrame. It is important to note that you may have changed the size of the SmartFrame (containing the map graphics) after it was placed in the layout window. While the SmartFrame cannot be scaled or enlarged, it can be reduced in size by cropping the original SmartFrame. The final update displays SmartFrame changes that may have occurred after the original placement. In terms of the map definition specified in the Insert Map Graphics command, the following conditions are applied during the update: The originating map window selection is maintained. The originating coordinates used to perform the map extraction defined by means of the geographic extent method are maintained for all methods except Map Window. If the Map Window method was used, a new set of coordinates is determined based on the current map window settings. This lets you pan within the map view and have the new display reflected in the layout window. The originating user-defined plot scale setting is maintained. Regardless of whether the original setting was Crop / flood map to fit frame or Resize frame to geographic extent, the updated map always crops or floods the map to fit the existing frame. The originating Fit to frame plot scale setting, which was calculated during placement, is maintained for all geographic extent methods, except Map Window. If the originating plot scale setting is Fit to frame and the geographic extent method is Map Window, the update recalculates the plot scale for the current map window setting. This lets you zoom in and out in the map window and have the new display reflected in the layout window.

In terms of the marginalia items specified in Insert Map Graphics or Map Graphics Properties, the following conditions are applied during the update: A new legend is always redrawn. A new north arrow is redrawn to coincide with any changes made in the map projection or view rotation. A new scale bar is redrawn to coincide with any plot scale changes (as noted above). 14-45

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Note: While the Update Map Graphics command is intended for updating dynamic map graphics, it can also be used to update map graphics placed in static mode. When static map graphics are encountered, you have the option to temporarily switch the map graphics to a dynamic mode. If the originating map window still exists, the map graphics will be updated and then switched back to the static mode.

To update map graphics:


1. Verify that the following conditions exist: A selected SmartFrame group with the map graphics to be updated exits in the layout sheet. The selected map has the dynamic mode turned on. The map window that was used for the original placement of the map graphics exists.

2. Select Layout > Update Map Graphics. The map graphics are updated in the selected SmartFrame, and the command is exited.

Printing Layout Sheets


Printing layout sheets follows standard Windows printing procedures and interfaces; however, it is somewhat different from printing map windows and data windows. Print Layout Window options include defining the printer, print range, number of copies, and additional properties and settings. For the print range, you can choose the active layout sheet, all visible layout sheets, or selected visible layout sheets by using the logical numbers identified on the Layout Window Properties dialog box. The parameters available in the Document Properties dialog box are determined by the printer driver used when creating the printer. Once you have chosen the appropriate options and parameters, you can print the layout sheet to a printer, a plotter, or a file. The Settings options let you edit scale and origin information, including margins and print magnification. The Print magnification pertains to all graphics on the layout sheets included in the print and is defined in terms of percentage. The default is 100% for full-size, 1:1 plots. You can make reductions and enlargements by changing the print magnification. A value of 50% produces a half-size drawing, and a value of 200% produces a double-size drawing. The Origin offset lets you specify additional margins and displays a preview of how the layout sheet fits on the paper form selected. 14-46

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Note: Print magnifications have no cartographic intelligence. They are equivalent to enlargements or reductions performed by a photocopy machine. When print magnification is other than 100%, the scale bar is invalidated if it includes a fractional equivalent or ratio (for example, 1:24,000) or a description (for example, 1 inch = 1 mile). This situation can produce erroneous scale information in which the text no longer matches the scale bar. Consequently, if you use a print magnification other than 100%, the scale bars should omit any reference to fractional equivalents or descriptions. You can print a subset of a layout sheet by selecting the Print area option on the Print Layout Window dialog box. If you select this option, you are prompted to identify a rectangular area on the active layout sheet, and then the Print Area dialog box opens for input of relevant parameters. Both the Settings dialog box and the Print Area dialog box contain a color-coded preview area. This useful feature lets you easily view the relationship between the document print range, printer paper size, and actual printing area on the final plot before you actually print it.

To print a layout sheet:


1. Select the appropriate layout window as the active window. 2. Select File > Print.

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3. Select the appropriate Printer, Print Range, Copies, and Options parameters. Note: Selecting the Print area option disables the Settings button. 4. Optional: Click Settings to edit scale and origin information.

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5. Type the appropriate Print magnification. 6. Select the Center check box to position the print area center to the center of the printer paper. Otherwise, the paper is positioned according to the X,Y settings, whose default is 0,0 (the lower left being the default origin). OR Type the appropriate X value to set a shift in the X direction from the origin and/or the Y value to set a shift in the Y direction from the origin. 7. After you have set all the parameters on the Print Layout Window dialog box, click OK. If you are printing to a printer or plotter, the selected layout sheet or sheets are printed, and the command is exited. OR If you optionally selected Print area in Step 3, a set of crosshairs is displayed. Go to Step 9. OR If you are printing to a file, the Print to File dialog box is displayed. Continue with Step 8. 8. Set the appropriate file parameters; then click Save. 14-49

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The selected layout window is printed to the specified file, and the command is exited. 9. Identify the print area with a fence.

10. Type the appropriate Print magnification. 11. Select the Center check box to position the print area center to the center of the printer paper. Otherwise, the paper is positioned according to the X,Y settings, whose default is 0,0 (the lower left is the default origin). OR 14-50

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Type the appropriates X value to set a shift in the X direction from the origin and/or the Y value to set a shift in the Y direction from the origin. 12. Optional: Click XY Range to clear the previously defined print area; then define a new area to print by placing two data points. 13. Click OK. If you are printing to a printer or plotter, the selected layout sheet or sheets are printed, and the command is exited. OR If you are printing to a file, the Print to File dialog box is displayed. Perform Step 8.

Using Additional Plotting Workflow Commands


As mentioned in the layout window overview, the plotting workflow assumes that you perform all map design work with regard to symbology settings in the map window before transferring the data to the layout window. With this workflow in mind, the software provides some additional tools to help you visualize what the map data looks like (in the map window) when plotted at a given nominal map scale.

Defining Map Window Display Properties for Plotting


See Defining Map Window Display Properties in the Working with Map Windows chapter for more information on this command.

The Display Properties command lets you define the following properties that affect the way in which the map graphics are displayed: display scale, nominal map scale, rotation angle, angular units, and legend entry display. You access this command in an active map window by selecting View > Display Properties.

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Data display and presentation requirements are generally quite different for analysis than for output. In analysis, the display scale is constantly changing as you zoom in and out. Feature symbology settings are generally defined so they produce legible results at multiple display scales. In some cases, the data may be viewed in its raw geometric form as nonsymbolized point, line, and area data. In output, the data presentation is typically defined to support a particular plot scale. The symbology settings are defined so they produce the optimal results when they are applied at a fixed scale. The data is usually fully symbolized for cartographic display. Support for these two scenarios can be seen in several areas of the interface beginning with the Style Definition dialog box, which provides the ability to specify how the feature is displayed. The Size remains constant as display scale changes setting specifies that the symbology remains fixed, regardless of the display scale a suitable option for analysis. When this setting is turned off, it specifies that the symbology is rendered at a specific scale. As you zoom in and out, the symbology of the feature increases or decreases relative to the change in the display scale a suitable option for output. The feature symbology settings on the Style Definition dialog box may contain a mixture of display settings. The Size remains constant as display scale changes option may be turned on for some features, and turned off for others. This scenario may provide a suitable working environment for analysis as display scales constantly change when you zoom in and out. However, this approach may produce undesirable results because the symbology may not be appropriate for the output plot scale. It may be beneficial to create a map window that is devoted entirely to plotting, where unique legend settings can be applied independently of the settings used for analysis. When defining the symbology settings for output, the size of point, text, and patterned area fill features and the weight for the line and area boundary features should all be defined with the output plot scale in mind. Scale ranges are enforced as the data is transferred from the map window to the layout window, so it may be advisable to disable any scale range settings and only display the features that you want on the plotted map. This minimizes any surprises in the final output. Once this is done, achieving a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get ) display can easily be accomplished using the Display Properties command.

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For WYSIWYG displays, you set the Display scale and Nominal map scale to the intended plot scale. When these two settings are the same, there is consistency between the symbology rendering regardless of what the individual settings are on the Style Definition dialog box for the Size remains constant as display scale changes option. Once this is done, you would select the Size changes as display scale changes (true at nominal map scale) option on the Display Properties dialog box. This ensures that all feature symbology definitions are rendered at the specified nominal map scale (which should be the same as your plot scale in this example). You then click Apply and close the Display Properties dialog box. If you are not satisfied with the display characteristics of a particular feature class, you can go back to the Style Definition dialog box to modify the symbology settings. Once you are satisfied with the results, you can use the Pan command to move about the map window to preview what the map will look like. When you are satisfied, you can then zoom out to the necessary scale that enables you to define the Geographic Extent used by the Insert Map Graphics command. Note: In general, the nominal map scale should not exceed the plot scale because if it does, it impacts the accuracy and reliability of the data plotted.

Zooming to Nominal Map Scale


See Defining Map Window Display Properties in the Working with Map Windows chapter for more information.

Once you have defined the display properties (as defined in the Display Properties dialog box), you can easily obtain a WYSIWYG preview of your map data in the map window by using the View > Zoom > to Nominal Map Scale command. This command adjusts the map view by zooming in or out to the defined nominal map scale, maintaining the view center of the window. The legend, north arrow, and scale bar are also adjusted if they are displayed. The map scale is set on the Display Properties dialog box (View > Display Properties).

To zoom to nominal map scale:


1. From the map window, select View > Display Properties; then set the map scale for the GeoWorkspace. 2. Click Apply; then click Close. 3. Select the appropriate map window.

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4. Optional: Set the appropriate view-dependent style sizes for each legend entry in the Style Definition dialog box. 5. Select View > Zoom > to Nominal Map Scale.

Zooming to Actual Size


Similarly, the layout window has a zoom command that lets you preview the plotted area at the paper size on the screen. View > Zoom > to Actual Size lets you rescale the view in the active layout sheet to the actual size as if it were printed on paper, thus functioning similarly to the Print Preview command in Word . Obviously most plots exceed the size of the monitor, so you need to use the Pan command or horizontal and vertical scroll bars to move about the layout window.
Zoom to Actual Size is useful in the plotting workflow to let you see the layout at actual size before printing, that is, it lets you have a WYSIWYG view or plot preview of your layout window. This command affects the entire active sheet; the center of the sheet view is maintained, but the graphic contents are scaled. Zoom to Actual Size assumes that you have defined the logical dimensions for the layout sheet in the Page Setup and that the appropriate extent of the data is displaying properly in the layout sheet. If graphics are falling outside the sheet limits, you should increase the size of the layout sheet.

Note: This command gives a 1:1 representation. However, this may not necessarily be completely accurate in the final output. Printers usually give the resolution in dots-per-inch (DPI), so it is easy to convert pixels to real inches. In contrast, video displays give the resolution only in pixels. Video displays are a certain number of pixels wide but without any information about the real display-area dimensions. It is impossible for a program to determine the real output dimensions because there is no way for it to determine the real dimensions of the viewable area on a video display. When output is destined for a printer, an application can determine dots per real inch; however, for a video display, these numbers define a logical inch, which is almost never equal to a real inch.

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Setting Up Marginalia in the Map Window


Marginalia in the layout window consist of the legend, north arrow, and scale bar. The symbology for the marginalia being transferred from the map window to the layout window is based on the current settings for each of the marginalia items. Whatever the active parameters are for these marginalia items in the map window, the same parameters are used to render these items in the layout window. LegendThe legend produced for the layout window uses the properties defined on the General tab on the Legend Properties dialog box. The text size used for legends in the map window may be too small for plotted maps. To increase the size of the legend, you can increase the title font size on the General tab. North ArrowThere is a large assortment of predefined north arrows and compass roses available for use in the map window. By default, they are delivered in the ..\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Program folder. You can refer to the file arrows.doc in this folder for a graphic portrayal of the arrows and compass roses. As with the rest of the marginalia, the north arrow placed in the layout window is based on settings defined in the layout window. The size of the north arrow typically found in the map window is generally too small for a plotted map. It is likely that you will need to increase the size of the north arrow for plotting. To display the north arrow in the map window, you select View > North Arrow. On the shortcut menu (right mouse click) of the north arrow, you next select Properties. You can then define the size of the arrow by selecting a point size from the drop-down menu or by typing the appropriate size. The drop-down list only goes to 96 points, but you can type larger values, such as 288 points (4 inches). The maximum size allowed is 32767 points.
See Displaying the Scale Bar in the Working with Map Windows chapter.

See Displaying the North Arrow in the Working with Map Windows chapter.

Scale BarThe default scale bar display in the map window portrays a scale bar whose size is twenty percent of the horizontal width of the map window. This setting generally produces unpredictable results in the plotted map. Instead of using this option, it may be preferable to set interval values, specifying the appropriate number of intervals and the length of each interval that is appropriate for the map scale that you are plotting. To display the scale bar in the map window, you select View > Scale Bar. On the shortcut menu (right mouse click) of the scale bar, you then select Properties and make the appropriate changes. 14-55

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Setting Layout Window Options


The Layout tab and the Map Display tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) let you set various controls for the appearance of the layout window and the behavior of some of the graphics commands.

Layout Tab
The Layout tab lets you set controls for the layout window graphics commands relating to grids, symbols, and length readout. This tab is disabled until the layout window has been opened in the GeoWorkspace.

The Grid selection area lets you set options for using the Grid Display and Grid Snap capabilities as follows:
Grid displayDisplays a grid for precision element placement. The

grid lines themselves are not considered part of the document and do not print.
Grid snapAligns elements with the grid, which is an invisible set of lines in the document that helps you align elements. When you select this option, elements always align with the grid lines or the nearest intersection of the grid lines.

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Grid spacingSets the spacing of the grid lines. You can choose

inches, centimeters, or millimeters as the unit for the grid spacing.


Grid indexDetermines the number of index grid lines. The size of each grid cell is determined by the Grid spacing. The Grid index determines the number of minor grid lines to display between the major grid lines. If the grid spacing is set to 0.25 inches and the grid index is set to four, then the minor grid lines display as dashed gray lines at 0.25 inch intervals, and the major grid lines display as solid gray lines at 1.0 inch intervals, per the following formula:

major grid line interval = grid spacing X grid index The Symbol browser selection area lets you define the default directory used by the Symbol Browser when it is displayed in the layout window. The Symbol Browser command is located on the Standard toolbar. The Length readout selection area lets you set up the units of measure and precision readout for the length values in the layout sheet. The precision readout sets the number of significant figures to display the accuracy of the unit readout value. The precision setting does not alter the numbers that you type into the fields, only the display of the numbers in the field. Values ending in 5 are rounded up. For example, if the precision readout is .123 and you draw a line that is 2.1056 inches long, the line value length is rounded. The length value appears as 2.106 inches long. If you are using millimeters as your drawing sheet units, you can have the values display in the fields as 3.5 mm or 3.50 mm.

Note: When you set options on the Layout tab for the units in a document, the settings do not affect the dimensional values for the document.

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Map Display Tab


The Map Display tab controls options for map window displays and colors. In the Colors selection area, you can set the Select, Handles , Highlight, and Background colors. The color settings defined here are used by the map window and by the layout window, with one exception; the Background color only applies to the map window.

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Exporting Data to Other Systems


GeoMedia Professional provides commands for exporting data to other GIS or CAD systems. You can export the following: Feature data into shapefile (.shp) format. Feature geometry and attribute linkage into MicroStation design file (.dgn) format. Feature data into MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif /.mid). Feature data into an ASCII format that can be loaded into an Oracle Object Model database. Feature data into an ASCII format that can be loaded into an MS SQL Server database.

Exporting to Shapefile
Use the Export to Shapefile command to export feature data (geometry and attributes) from any read/write or read-only warehouse connection into shapefile format. You can create a new shapefile or append to an existing one. When appending to an existing shapefile, the feature-class definition of the features being exported and the shapefile to which you are exporting data must be identical because a shapefile can contain only a single feature class. Text feature classes cannot be exported because the shapefile format does not support them.
Export to Shapefile supports Null Geometry and Arcs (converted to

polylines). You can export only one geometry type per file. If you are exporting from a compound feature class, you must select the geometry type (point, line, or area) to export. Arcs and CompositePolylines will be converted to polylines. CompositePolygons will be converted to polygons. This command also lets you export the rotation angle when you are exporting a feature class with oriented point geometry.
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter.

The coordinate system of the exported shapefile is determined by the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Therefore, to export the shapefile into a different coordinate system, you must use the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System command to change the GeoWorkspace coordinate system.

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To export data to shapefile format:


1. Connect to the existing warehouse from which you want to export data. 2. Select Warehouse > Export to > Shapefile.

3. In the Features to export drop-down list, select the feature class or query to export. You can export only one feature class at a time. 4. In the Export to field, select or type a filename. This file will contain the exported data. 5. Click Apply to begin exporting. If the filename already exists, you will be prompted to append, replace, or cancel. 6. If the feature class to be exported is compound, the Export dialog box appears and requires you to specify one of the three geometry types (point, line, or area) to export.

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7. Select the geometry type to export, and click OK.

The selected feature class is exported. 8. Click OK to dismiss the GeoMedia Professional dialog box. 9. Continue the export process until complete; then click Close to dismiss the Export to Shapefile dialog box.

Exporting to MapInfo Interchange Format


Use the Export to MapInfo Interchange Format to export feature data (geometry and attributes) from any read/write or read-only warehouse connection into MapInfo export (.mif) format. You can create a new MapInfo file, but you cannot append to (or edit) an existing one. The selected feature class will be written to the .mif (graphics) and .mid (database) files in the specified directory. Simple arcs are exported as arcs. However, arc geometry will be stroked when present in compound features and exported. The following list describes characteristics of MapInfo that impact the exported files:

MapInfo does not support point-collection geometries (a single feature consisting of multiple-point geometry), so each point is exported as an individual feature. The attributes of the entire collection will be replicated for each exported point of the collection. The MapInfo file format does not support gdbmemo field types. Export to MapInfo Interchange Format exports these fields as normal character type, and they are truncated to 255 characters. Hypertext is treated as normal character type and is truncated to 255 characters. Data is exported into the MapInfo default coordinate system (Latitude/Longitude).

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The following table defines the MapInfo geometry generated from each of the GeoMedia Professional geometry types:

GeoMedia Professional Geometry Type Point Line Arc Polyline Polygon Composite Polyline

MapInfo Geometry Point Line Arc Polyline Polygon Multipolyline

Description Point Line Arc Polyline Polygon A collection of linear features (polylines only). Arcs in composite polylines are stroked during export. Arcs in GeoMedia are stroked before export. Region object contains collection of polygons with or without corresponding holes. Graphic Text MapInfo does not support collection of points. Previously defined. See Composite Polyline. Previously defined. See Boundary Geometry. MapInfo does not support collection of heterogeneous type.

Composite Polygon Boundary Geometry

Polygon Region/Multipolygon

Text Geometry Point Collection Linear Feature Collection Areal Feature Collection Heterogeneous collection (point, line, and/or area together)

Text Geometry Individual Points Multipolyline Region/Multipolygon As individual features

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To export data to MapInfo Interchange Format:


1. Connect to the existing warehouse from which you want to export data. 2. Select Warehouse > Export to > MapInfo Interchange Format.

3. Select the feature class or query to be exported using the Features to export drop-down list. You can export only one feature class at a time. 4. In the Export to field, select or type a filename to contain the exported data. 5. Click Apply to begin exporting. If the filename already exists, you will be prompted to replace. If a new filename was entered, a new MapInfo file is created. 6. Different feature classes and queries can be exported by selecting the feature class or query and clicking Apply in a single session. 7. Click Close to dismiss the Export dialog box.

Exporting to Design File


Use Export to Design File to export feature geometry and attributelinkage data from any read/write or read-only warehouse connection into design file (.dgn) format. Exporting attribute-linkage data can be useful in many ways. For example, a design file can be exported to be used with a database in MicroStation or with an application built on top of MicroStation. Applications can read the linkages on the design file elements and associate a record in the database with the element in the design file.

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Note: The maximum size of a design file that can be created by Export to Design File is 16 MB. Once opened, the Export to Design File dialog box remains open, as does the design file, to allow consecutive imports. Feature classes or queries exported during the same instance of the command can be appended to the design file. The design file remains open and can be appended to until the command is exited or a new output design file name is entered. If you reopen an existing file at a later date, the file will be overwritten. To append to an existing file, you must select the existing file as the seed file and also as the output design file. In this case, all the information in the design file is copied into the new file. The following table defines the IGDS element types generated from each of the GeoMedia Professional geometry types:

GeoMedia Professional Geometry Type Point Text Line Linear Area Compound Symbol Text Line

IGDS Element 17 17 3

Type Number

Linestring or complex line string Shape or complex shape One or more of the previously defined types based on the content of the collection. The elements are assigned the same graphic group number in order to maintain their group identification.

4 or 12, 4, 4, 6 or 14, 4, 4, 3, 4, 6, 12, 14 and/or 17

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To export to a design file:


1. Connect to the existing warehouse from which you want to export data. 2. Select Warehouse > Export to > Design File.

3. In the Graphic seed file name field, select or type the name of the seed file to be used in the creation of the output design files. This requires the complete path to the IGDS design file that you want to use as the starting point. Note: See the section titled Notes on seed files at the end of this chapter for information on seed files, including those delivered with the product.

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4. If you are exporting text symbols or point features, select the appropriate MicroStation font resources file in the Resource file name field. 5. In the Output file name field, select or type the filename to which you want to export. If you type a new filename, a design file is created using the seed file specified. 6. From the Features to export drop-down list, select the feature class or query to export. 7. Set the fields under Graphics properties, such as line weight, color, and so forth, for the features to be exported. 8. Optional: If you want to export attribute linkages, click Attributes. If not, go to step 14.

9. On the Attributes dialog box, select Add Linkage. 10. In the Entity Number filed, type the number of the table to which you want to link the output design file elements. The entity number in the attribute linkage corresponds to the table in the database to which the element is linked. Any numeric value is accepted 11. In the Linkage Type drop-down list, select a format that is supported by your MicroStation application. The default linkage type is DMRS. 12. In the Linkage Source drop-down list, select a column in the feature class that you are outputting that contains values that can be used as mslink values in the MicroStation application. The mslink value in the attribute linkage corresponds to the specific record in the table to which the element is linked. Any numeric value may also be entered. 13. Click OK after you have entered all of the linkage information. 14. Click Apply on the Export to Design File dialog box to start the export process. 15-8

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The message Selected feature class exported. appears. 15. Continue to append data to the design file, or click Close.

Notes on seed files

The first time you run Export to Design File, the default seed file will be seedgeo.dgn. This seed file is a 2-D geographic file that uses the WGS84 geodetic datum, which is delivered with the product along with three other seed files. If a coordinate system (type-56 element) has not been defined for the seed file used, the output design file will be created in the same coordinate system as the current GeoWorkspace. In this case, GeoWorkspace double-precision geometry coordinates will be copied (after rounding off) to the integer UORs of the resultant design file graphic elements. Therefore, it is important to set the GeoWorkspace Storage Space resolution (select View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System, on the Storage Space tab under Advanced Parameters) so that no great loss of precision in the data will occur. For example, if a seed file with no type-56 element is used, and if the GeoWorkspace horizontal resolution is set to one meter, then the resultant design file graphic elements could have no finer precision than one meter. If this is unacceptable, you could select a horizontal resolution of one centimeter. If you select a 3-D seed file, then the output will be 3-D. If you select a 2-D seed file, then the output will be 2-D. Four seed files are delivered with the product in the <drive>\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Templates\ExportToDGN directory. These files each contain a type-56 element that defines the coordinate system information (projection, geodetic datum, and so forth) for that seed file. Seedgeo.dgn is defined as a 2-D geographic coordinate system with a WGS84 geodetic datum (which matches the default GeoWorkspace coordinate system). Seedzgeo.dgn is a 3-D version of the seedgeo.dgn file. Seedprj.dgn is defined as a 2-D projected (Cylindrical Equirectangular) coordinate system with a WGS84 geodetic datum. Seedzprj.dgn is a 3-D version of the seedprj.dgn file.

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Exporting to Oracle Object Model


Use the Export to Oracle Object Model command to export data from any GeoMedia-supported data warehouse to an Oracle Object Model database for use with the GeoMedia product suite. This command is intended as a populating tool for loading large amounts of data into a database by generating ASCII files that can be used by Oracles SQL *Loader to populate the database. It is not intended to be used as an update tool; you should use the Import from Warehouse command to update existing records. You can select the data to be exported from a list of all feature classes for a selected connection or from a list of all queries in the GeoWorkspace. You can only export from a single connection at a time or from the list of queries in the GeoWorkspace. You cannot export from both feature classes and queries in a single export. In addition, you have the option of exporting 3-D coordinate information, which is required for workflows involving exporting data for use in non-GeoMedia based applications. If you do not choose this option, the height information for each coordinate is not written to the output .dat files. Exporting to Oracle Object Model creates the following files based on the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace: Metadata.sqlCreates the GDOSYS schema and ten metadata tables. Client: GFeatures, FieldLookup, AttributeProperties, and GeometryProperties. GDO: GAliasTable, GCoordSystem, ModifiedTables, and ModificationLog. Oracle Server: GFieldMapping and GParameters.

For each feature class or query exported the following files are created: FeatureClassName.preCreates the table using defaults. You can also create the table or edit the delivered script file for more control. FeatureClassName.ctlControl file for loading data. FeatureClassName.datData file. FeatureClassName.posPopulates the Oracle metadata table and all GeoMedia tables. Import.batScript file with all of the above files, which uses common defaults and can be edited for handling specific options.

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Export.logLog file that contains either the cause of failures if error conditions arise or the number of features successfully exported per selected feature class during the export process. Note: Error conditions are not reported to you while the Export to Oracle Object Model command is being run. This is to improve performance and to ensure uninterrupted exports of large sets of data. Please review the export.log file at the completion of the export to determine if any errors occurred during the export process.

To export data to Oracle Object Model:


1. Connect to the existing warehouse from which you want to export data. 2. Select Warehouse > Export to > Oracle Object Model.

The dialog box by default opens with a list of connections and feature classes displayed. 3. Select the connection(s) and/or feature classes/queries you want to export.

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The graphic above shows the dialog box when queries have been selected. Note: Holding the cursor over a Feature Classes/Queries entry displays a tooltip with the geometry type of the entry. 4. Select the appropriate Export folder. 5. Optional: Select the Export 3D Coordinates check box. 6. Click OK to export the data. 7. Examine the output ASCII files, and modify them if necessary. 8. Run the output script file. 9. Use Oracle Administrator tools to create a spatial index on the tables.

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Exporting to MS SQL Server


Use the Export to MS SQL Server command to export data from a legacy data store to an MS SQL Server spatial database for use with the GeoMedia product suite. This command is intended as a populating tool for loading large amounts of data into a database by generating ASCII files that can be used by SQL Servers Bulk Loader application to populate the database. It is not intended to be used as an update tool; you should use the Import from Warehouse command to update existing records. You can select the data to be exported from a list of all feature classes for a selected connection or from a list of all queries in the GeoWorkspace. You can only export from a single connection at a time or from the list of queries in the GeoWorkspace. You cannot export from both feature classes and queries in a single export. Exporting to MS SQL Server creates the following files based on the coordinate system of the GeoWorkspace: Metadata.sqlcreates ten metadata tables. Client: GFeatures, FieldLookup, AttributeProperties, and GeometryProperties. GDO: GAliasTable, GCoordSystem, ModifiedTables, and ModificationLog. SQL Server data server: GADOFieldMapping and GParameters.

FeatureClassName.pre (one for each feature class or query exported)creates the table using defaults. You can also create the table or edit the delivered script file for more control. FeatureClassName.bcp (one for each feature class or query exported)data file for loading data. FeatureClassName.pos (one for each feature class or query exported)populates the SQL Server metadata table and all GeoMedia metadata tables. Import.batscript file with all of the above files, which uses common defaults and can be edited for handling specific options. Export.logLog file that contains either the cause of failures if error conditions arise or the number of features successfully exported per selected feature class during the export process. 15-13

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Note: Error conditions are not reported to you while the Export to MS SQL Server command is being run. This is to improve performance and to ensure uninterrupted exports of large sets of data. Please review the export.log file at the completion of the export to determine if any errors occurred during the export process.

To export data to MS SQL Server:


1. Connect to the existing warehouse from which you want to export data. 2. Select Warehouse > Export to > MS SQL Server.

The dialog box by default opens with a list of connections and feature classes displayed. 3. Select the connection(s) and/or feature classes/queries you want to export.

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The graphic above shows the dialog box when queries have been selected. Note: Holding the cursor over a Feature Classes/Queries entry displays a tooltip with the geometry type of the entry. 4. Select the appropriate Export folder. 5. Click OK to export the data. 6. Examine the output ASCII files, and modify them if necessary. 7. Run the output script file. 8. Use Bulk Loader to create an MS SQL Server tables and to load the geometry and attributes to the MS SQL Server database.

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How to Reach Intergraph


Electronic Self-Help Support
Intergraph provides several electronic self-help support tools to answer your support questions 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Among the electronic services available to you are the Intergraph Information Server, which you can access through the World Wide Web, FTP, and electronic mail.

Intergraph World Wide Web Information Server


Using any Web browser, you can access Intergraph on the World Wide Web at http://www.intergraph.com, and follow the links from Services and Support > Software Support. The Intergraph Web site also contains: Intergraph product information and direction, including brochures and interactive demonstration software. Lists and descriptions of training classes and technical documents. Intergraph user-group updatesactivities, meeting dates, and schedulesand international home pages. Free software and computer artscreen savers and award-winning images (new every month). Contact points for the Intergraph worldwide dealer network.

Intergraph FTP Information Server


If you have Internet access and FTP capabilities, you can connect to ftp.intergraph.com using anonymous or ftp as the username, and your e-mail address as the password.

Intergraph E-Mail Server


The Intergraph E-Mail Server contains an automated response system that acts on commands in the body of an electronic-mail message. For information about using the mail server, send a message to info@intergraph.com with HELP in the message body (the subject line is ignored). A series of reports will be sent to you by return e-mail. Among the reports is a list of server commands. A-1

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Logging Customer-Support Worksheets


Intergraph customer-support representatives are available to answer your questions about technical issues related to the software. To log a worksheet with a customer-support representative, call 1-800-633-7248 from anywhere within the United States. Outside the United States, call your Intergraph representative. If you have a software maintenance contract, you can also propose software enhancements. For information about software maintenance contracts, call 1-800-414-8991, or follow the customer-services-andsupport links to Software Support Programs on the World Wide Web at http://www.intergraph.com.

Information You Need When Requesting Support


In addition to a brief description of the problem, you may be asked to provide the following information: About You Your name and the name of your company. Your site ID, LAN ID, or service number. The site ID and LAN ID numbers are on the packing slip shipped with the software. If you cannot find the packing slip, call the Intergraph sales office or dealer from whom you purchased the software. The number of a voice phone near the system with the problem.

About Your Intergraph Software Product name or acronym: GeoMedia Professional. Software version number. This is in the Readme file and in the About box available from the Help menu.

About Your Computer System A-2 Brand and model Processor (Pentium or Pentium II, for example) RAM Memory CPU speed Operating system (Windows NT 4.0, for example) Networking software and version (PC/TCP or PC-NFS, for example)

How to Reach Intergraph

If We Need Your Data to Reproduce a Problem


Often database query and feature display problems can only be reproduced using your data, and Intergraph support analysts may need a copy of certain files. These files can be transferred over the Internet; or you can send files on tape, diskette, or CD-ROM to Intergraph. Transferring Files Over the Internet If you have an Internet address and a non-proprietary database, Intergraph support analysts can retrieve files by making a RIS connection to your database if you give them a login or FTP account on your database system. Or you can send files to ftp.intergraph.com. Inform the support analyst of the names of the files you are sending. This is the procedure for sending files: ftp ftp.intergraph.com
login: ftp password: <your e-mail address> ftp> cd /incoming ftp> bin (if files are binary files) ftp> send <filename> ftp> bye

Telephone Numbers
Note: Outside the United States, call your Intergraph representative. Intergraph Corporate Education Services For information about training: In Madison or Huntsville, Alabama730-6700 From anywhere else within the United States1-800-240-3000 Intergraph Customer Response Center To log a worksheet: 1-800-633-7248 Intergraph Customer Services For the number of your Intergraph representative or Business Partner, or for information about Intergraph services: 1-800-791-3357 A-3

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Intergraph Customer Care Center To order additional documents or software: 1-888-779-3824 Intergraph Product Registration 1-800-766-7701 Note: You can also register Intergraph products on the Web at http://www.intergraph.com/register. Intergraph Software Support Programs For information about software maintenance contracts: 1-800-414-8991

North American Service Plans


The following service plans are available:

Complimentary Service
During the first 30 or 90 days of product ownership, Intergraph provides a complimentary level of support that corresponds to Advantage Service. The Complementary Service period begins at the time of shipment from Intergraph or an Intergraph-authorized reseller. Intergraph offers support coverage Monday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Central Time. The toll free number is 1-800-633-7248.

Premium Service
Full support for all Intergraph-developed product software
Intergraph provides total support for all Intergraph-developed product software. Our Premium Service plan features Software upgrades Software updates and fixes Help Desk technical support Incident logging via WWW Incident logging via electronic mail Intergraph Online (World Wide Web, Knowledge Base, USENET access)

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How to Reach Intergraph

Product Reissue (transferring licenses to new platforms) Customer site visits

The Premium Service plan is the best value for software maintenance.

Advantage Service
Our Advantage Service Plan features Help Desk technical support Incident logging via WWW Incident logging via electronic mail Intergraph Online (World Wide Web, Knowledge Base, USENET access) Software updates and fixes

Access Service
Our Access Service Plan consists of free self-help services for customers who require minimal access to software support. Access Service features: Intergraph Online (World Wide Web, top-level Knowledge Base*, USENET access)

For more information or the number of a sales representative or Solution Center near you, call 1-800-345-4856. * Top-level access to the knowledge base with Access Service means you can enter the knowledge base without logging in (Just click the login button on the entry form.). You can then browse through any of the general information sections that are available.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

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Using the Oracle Relational Spatial Model


GeoMedia Professional has the capability to access data in a number of different warehouse formats. One of the most significant is the warehouse-based format on the Oracle enterprise database. You can connect GeoMedia Professional to an Oracle warehouse in a read-only status. It is also possible to create an Oracle warehouse from GeoMedia and to import data into GeoMedia Professional. With the release of version 7.3, Oracle added the capability to store and to manage spatial data. Version 8.0 has expanded this capability with the Oracle Spatial Data Option (SDO, Oracle Version 7.x) or Spatial Cartridge (SC, Oracle version 8). The two are essentially identical, only the name has changed. The Spatial Cartridge (SC) is not required for GeoMedia Professional to use Oracle. SC merely provides the tools to make spatial operations on the warehouse faster and more efficient. The same data structure is created in the warehouse whether SC is there or not. GeoMedia connects to Oracle SC warehouses created by GeoMedia Professional. GeoMedia can also connect to SC warehouses that have been created and populated outside of GeoMedia Professional. To make access to Oracle SC easier, GeoMedia Professional can use either a read-only or a read/write data server. These two data servers are part of the GeoMedia Data Objects for Oracle (GDOO) command set.

GDOO Connections and Metadata


When GDOO is initiated through a connection from GeoMedia Professional to a new (empty) Oracle spatial warehouse, GDOO creates all the required GDO-server metadata tables, sequences, and triggers. Because it is writing to the tablespace user, the user that is used to make the connection for GDOO must have both connect and resource privileges. Once the required tables have been created, read-only (connect) access is sufficient. However, if you plan on using connection filters, the query layers (or QW Layers) that are created to store the geometry of the query window will also require the user to have resource privileges. Making connections to spatial datasets created outside of GeoMedia is covered later in this appendix. B-1

Working with GeoMedia Professional

IMPORTANT: By default, Oracle uses all UPPERCASE for both table and column names. The GeoMedia Professional metadata tables are mixed case and are, therefore, hidden to the user. To see mixed-case tables, the table and column name must be placed in double quotes. The metadata required by GeoMedia Professional is created in two ways, On Connection and As Needed.

On Connection: When connecting to a new spatial warehouse, the following metadata tables are created but not populated:

ColumnMetadataContains specific information about each of the spatial layers, their geometry type, and their projection. This table is specific to just Oracle. ModificationLogTracks all inserts and updates if modification tracking is enabled. The modifications are tracked by using triggers. ModifiedTablesStores the tables that trigger updates to the ModificationLog table. GCoordSystemStores the coordinate system(s) used by the spatial data. GAliasTablAlias' specific table names to names expected by GeoMedia Professional. The following sequences are also generated:
GEOMEDIA_SEQMaster sequence number, used whenever a unique number is needed. Used primarily when setting index and key column values such as GDO_GID. GDOO_MODLOGSEQUENCESequence generator for the ModificationLog Table. GEOMEDIAQW_SEQSequence generator for the query window tables (connection filter indexes).

As Needed: Various functions within GeoMedia Professional also require specific metadata to exist in the database. These are not specific to GDOO and are created as needed by processes that write information to the spatial warehouse. They are not required for readonly connections.

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However, once they exist, they become required (unless all are deleted). Feature Class Definition and Import Warehouse are two of the commands that create these. This client metadata is made up of the following tables: GFeaturesContains features (or layers) defined through the Feature Class Definition command. Only features that are contained in GFeatures are visible in GeoMedia Professional once this table has been defined. AttributeProperties Contains the display characteristics for all nongraphic database columns. This includes information such as Hypertext. FieldLookupContains the indexing methods for both the AttributeProperties and the GeometryProperties tables. GeometryPropertiesContains the display characteristics for all graphic database columns.

The ColumnMetadata Table


Column Attributes ColumnName ColumnSubType Description Contains user-defined properties. GDOO stores only gdbAutoIncrField (16) in this field. The name of the column that appears in the fields collection defined in GDO. The subtype of the geometry. gdbAnySpatial 3 gdbCoverage 4 gdbGraphicsText 5 gdbPoint 10 gdbLinear 1 gdbAreal 2 The type of data that is stored. GdbSpatial 32 gdbGraphic 33 gdbByte 2 gdbBoolean 1 gdbCurrency 5 gdbInteger 3 gdbSingle 6 gdbGuid 15 Data Type NUMBER(38) VARCHAR2 NUMBER(38) 30 Max

ColumnType

NUMBER(38)

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Column CoordSystemIndex GeometryFormat TableName

Description Contains the GUID string defined in the GCoordSystem table. For the SC data model, this value is 3. The name of the underlying table.

Data Type VARCHAR2 NUMBER(38) VARCHAR2

Max 39

30

Importing Data into SC


You can import data through GDOO even if SC is not present on the Oracle server. The same relational spatial model is used even if SC is not loaded. The benefit that SC brings is its ability to spatially index the relational geometry data. SC also contains a variety of native spatial query operators that can be used to quickly analyze the spatial data. If SC is not present, no spatial indexing will occur, and the spatial operators cannot be utilized. While the Import from Warehouse command is not useful for bulk loading large datasets, you can use it to load small amounts of data. If you have a large dataset to import, you might try importing one feature or one layer at a time. The import process creates all the tables necessary for the individual layers when you import data from other GDO servers. It also creates all the metadata tables that are required by both GDOO and the GeoMedia Professional client. This includes the Oracle Sequences and Triggers that are also used by GDOO. IMPORTANT: You cannot import tables containing duplicate index names or index names that already exist in the destination database.

Specifying Upper and Lower SC Values


Before importing data, you must specify the correct SC upper X, upper Y, lower X, and lower Y values defined in the source warehouse for the geometries you are importing. The default values span a large range and are suitable for most purposes. These values are defined for GeoMedia Professional in the system registry.

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If you know the upper and lower values before you import, you can update the registry with more accurate values. Otherwise, it is suggested that you update these values and generate the spatial index after the features have been imported.

Default Registry Values


The various parameters that control the behavior of the Oracle data server are stored in the system registry under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. The parameters listed in the following table are part of the HKLM\SOFTWARE\GDO\Oracle Relational Read-Write\1.0\ key:
Key Name DatabaseClass Data OracleRRW.GDatabase Description Database object that will get initiated during connection. Found during the registry lookup under HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT. Points to the CLSID of the DLL that will get loaded. Used by the connection object to determine what file extensions to display during a browse through the Connection-Wizard Open dialog box. Not used for an Oracle connection. Descriptive text about the data server. This key is filled in with the word Oracle as a placeholder for the connection (Do not change.). Required by the connection object. Used for other data servers that require a directory name to read a particular file for connection information. Not used for the Oracle connection. Required by the connection object. Used for other data servers that require a file name to read a particular file for connection information. Not used for the Oracle connection. Determines at connection the mode of the data server. For read-only, this will be a value of 0; for read/write, this will be a value of 1.

DefaultExtension

LongName NameDescription NameIsDirectory

GDO Server Version 2.0 Database name ("Oracle") 0

NameIsFile

ReadWrite

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Key Name

Data TRUE TRUE

Description Include Z (height) values in Geometry table if TRUE. Used in creating new feature class tables in an SC environment to determine if the server will issue the POPULATE_INDEX or POPULATE_INDEX_FIXED API call for SC. The same is true for the UPDATE_INDEX call. Used in a new feature class table in an SC environment to populate the SDO_LB column of the <feature>_SDODIM table for the DIMNUM = 1 row. Used in creating a new feature class table in an SC environment to populate the SDO_LB column of the <feature>_SDODIM table for the DIMNUM = 2 row. Used in creating new feature class tables in an SC environment to populate the tile_size argument to POPULATE_INDEX_FIXED and/or the UPDATE_INDEX_FIXED API call when GDOO tessellates the new feature class. Used only when the SDO FIXED_INDEX registry value is TRUE. If layer table creation is done through GDOO, an additional column, SDO_LEVEL, is added to the <featureclass>_SDOLAYER table. Not a required column, but is used before the SDO Max Levels value is used. Used when adding features to a feature class table. This value will populate the tile_size argument to POPULATE_INDEX and/or the UPDATE_INDEX_FIXED API call when GDOO tessellates the new feature class. Used only when the SDO FIXED_INDEX registry value is FALSE. Used in creating new feature class tables in an SDO environment to populate the SDO_ORDCNT column of the <feature>_SDOLAYER table and in determining the number of ordinate columns to create on the <feature>_SDOGEOM table (16 ordinates = 8 points). Used in creating new feature class tables through GDOO to populate the SDO_TOLERANCE column of the <featureclass>_SDODIM table.

SDO Create Z Column


SDOFixed Index

SDOLower X

-2147483648

SDOLower Y

-2147483648

SDO Max Levels

SDO Max Tiles

32

SDO Point Count

16

SDO Tolerance

.000006

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Key Name SDO Upper X

Data

Description Used in creating a new feature class table in an SDO environment to populate the SDO_UB column of the <feature>_SDODIM table for the DIMNUM = 1 row. Used in creating a new feature class table in an SDO environment to populate the SDO_UB column of the <feature>_SDODIM table for the DIMNUM = 2 row. Used by the connection object. Descriptive text. Used by the connection object. Tells the Connection Wizard to display the Host String dialog box when connecting to Oracle. Used by the connection object. Stores the connection password in the GeoWorkspace. Set to 0 for added security and to be prompted to enter the password for each connection.

2147483647

SDO Upper Y

2147483647

ShortName SourceStringDescription

Oracle Host string

SourceStringUsed Store Password

0 1

Spatial Data Tables - Spatial Layers


A GeoMedia Professional feature class in an Oracle warehouse is referred to by the Oracle documentation as a layer. A layer is composed of two very essential database tables: <layer> : The value of <layer> would be the name of the GM feature class, for example, soils. This table stores the attribute information for the feature. <layer>_SDOGEOM: This holds the spatial geometries (graphics) associated with the feature class. Layer geometries can be point, line, or area features.

When you connect to an Oracle warehouse, GeoMedia Professional looks for these two tables and displays the layer name (for example, soils) as the feature class that they represent. If you have other tables in the warehouse, they will be listed in GeoMedia Professional as general attribute tablesbut not as a layer. You can join these other Oracle tables to the feature class if they have common join-key fields (for example, soil polygon id number). Three other tables are also necessary for the layer in an Oracle spatial warehouse, but they operate at the database level and are essentially ignored by GeoMedia Professional. B-7

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<layer>_SDODIM: This table contains information on the upper and lower bounds of the data contained in the layer (also know as the minimum bounding rectangle). This is required for both tessellation and for indexing. If _SDODIM is not populated correctly, or the geometry values in _SDOGEOM do not fall within the boundaries specified in _SDODIM, then the layer cannot be tessellated or indexed. The user or database administrator is responsible for populating this _SDODIM table; GeoMedia Professional does not populate this table. <layer>_SDOLAYER: This table holds information on the levels (depth) of the quadtree tessellation. <layer>_SDOINDEX: This table contains the spatial data indexing for the layer.

Note: For information on the relational spatial schema used by Oracle, see the Oracle* Spatial Cartridge Release 8.0.4. May 1998, Oracle Spatial Cartridge Training Guide Copyright Oracle Corporation, 1998.

Adding a Primary Key and Unique Index


The SC data model requires a number column called SDO_GID to join the <feature>_SDOGEOM table, the <feature>_SDOINDEX table, and possibly the table with nongraphic attributes. Therefore, the GDOO server requires a GDO_GID column in the attribute table to make the join possible. For dynaset operations in GeoMedia Professional, the underlying table must contain a unique key. In addition, for map- and data-view correspondence, the primary key property is required in a column. The primary key name and the unique index name must be the same. Oracle recommends the following when creating primary keys: Choose a column whose data values are unique. The purpose of a table's primary key is to uniquely identify each row of the table. Choose a column whose data values are never changed. A primary key value is only used to identify a row in the table; primary key values should never contain any data that is used for any other purpose. Choose a column that does not contain any nulls. A PRIMARY KEY constraint, by definition, does not allow the input of any row with a null in any column that is part of the primary key.

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Choose a column that is short and numeric. Short primary keys are easy to type. You can use sequence numbers to easily generate numeric primary keys. Avoid choosing composite primary keys. Although composite primary keys are allowed in Oracle, they do not satisfy the previous recommendations and are not supported in GeoMedia Professional.

When you create tables in Oracle, include an integer-type column called GDO_GID, and set the primary key constraint on this column. This constraint automatically creates a unique index of the same name. If you are importing data into an Oracle database, GDOO will automatically perform these steps for you.

Additional Columns in the <layer>_SDOGEOM Table


In addition to the columns in the <layer>_SDOGEOM table required by Oracle, GeoMedia Professional adds specific columns that it requires. These columns are as follows:
Column GDO_ATTRIBUTES Description Defined as a long integer in the database but is actually used as a structure of two short integers. The upper word is used to point to the parent (SDO_ESEQ) of this element. The lower word is used to give the GDO subtype for the element. This is necessary when there is a GDO subtype that is not allowed for in SDO (Arc, CompositePolyline, and so forth). If the column is missing or NULL, the GDO subtype is determined from the SDO_ETYPE. Used for reconstruction of arcs. Used for reconstruction of arcs. Contains the rotation angle for oriented points. If the column is missing or NULL, GDOO builds the point blob header with a rotation angle of 0 so that GeoMedia Professional geometries from vanilla SDO site implementations can be used.

GDO_NORMAL GDO_RADIUS SDO_ORIENTATION

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Column SDO_ZI SDO_Zn

Description If the user has chosen to include Z (height) values, a new column, SDO_Zn, is added to each SDO_Xn, SDO_Yn pair. If no other Z value is specified, the value will be 0. An entry in the registry determines whether this column will be created. Oracle SC ignores this column in all spatial indexing.

Spatial Data Indexing


An important aspect of the way in which Oracle organizes spatial data is how it is indexed. Indexing provides a way for very large amounts of data to be rapidly accessed in a database. Spatial data has always been difficult to index because of the two- (or three-) dimensional nature of the data. Each coordinate has both X and Y dimensions. This problem has been solved in the Oracle SC environment through the use of quadtree indexing. In its simplest structure, the entire area of a layer is divided and subdivided into a series of four nested squares. The entire area is assigned to one of four squares: 0, 1, 2, or 3. Each of these squares is subdivided into four smaller squares. The area of square 1 becomes 10, 11, 12, and 13. Each of these is further subdivided, and the subdivisions of square 11 would be assigned index values of 110, 111, 112, and 113. As a result, any location in the map can be referred by a single index number. In Oracle, when a data layer is created or added to, the map layer is overlain with this structure, and each element in the map is assigned an index number. As a result, when you want to find all the roads in a certain area, the software converts the extent of the area to the appropriate quadtree index values and quickly accesses the roads data elements that have these index keys assigned.

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The basic structure of a quadtree index is as follows:

The dividing of the entire area into these squares (or any shape for that matter) is called a tessellation and each square is called a tile. One of the operations that the Oracle SC software performs is a quadtree indexing of the data in the warehouse. If you are creating a GeoMedia Professional warehouse on an Oracle database that does not have SC, you will not have access to the quadtree index. The availability of the index means that GeoMedia Professional spatial filters will run much faster. Essentially, the software compares the extent of the spatial-filter area to the appropriate quad tiles and only retrieves those geometries that fall within them. This can dramatically reduce the number of records transferred from the Oracle warehouse to the GeoMedia Professional session.

Using Views with GDOO


The Oracle data server operates nominally with views. You should avoid making views on individual feature classes in an Oracle spatial warehouse; instead, you should use the tables as they are. However, if you must use views, follow these guidelines: For the command used to create the view, use the same case used in the data dictionary. Do not use quotes around column and table names or allow them to default to uppercase. This will cause a mismatch between the viewcreation text that Oracle keeps and the actual names in the dictionary. B-11

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All columns with at least one unique index on the view's source table must be present in the dynaset creation statement. For views from multi-table joins, the source table is the first table encountered in the from list. Indexes in the source table whose columns are not among the columns selected for the dynaset will not be copied to the index collection of the table definition. As with regular dynasets, the first unique index encountered in the source table becomes the master index. The statement used to create the view cannot contain any aliases for columns. Table aliases are allowed. The data type of each column that will make up the master (primary) index for the view must exactly match the type of its source field in the source table. Create the views explicitly in UPPERCASE. GeoMedia Professional processes views as defined and requires them to be in UPPERCASE syntax.

Using Synonyms with GDOO


It is a typical situation for an Oracle shop to have a schema, which owns the data and allows access to the data to other schemas. Other schemas may have select, update, delete, or insert privilege against the data. They may also be allowed to alter or to drop the tables. It is up to the schema that owns the data to decide what privileges other users have. One method that allows schemas to know about tables in other schemas is through the use of a synonym. A synonym provides a way to globally name a database object. When selecting against a public synonym, you do not have to specify the owner of the synonym. Note: See Example 4: Setting Up Synonyms at the end of this appendix. There are two types of synonyms, private and public: PrivateA private synonym is owned by the user who created it (or for whom it was created) and will not show up in other schemas when selecting against tab. PublicA public synonym is accessible by anyone and will show up when selecting against tab. Even though a public synonym is accessible to anyone, the privileges of the underlying table are still upheld.

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GDOOs use of synonyms is limited in the following ways: GeoMedia Professional will only recognize synonyms that are based on tables. Synonyms based on views, procedures, other synonyms, are not supported It is the users responsibility for all necessary table information to be available either as local tables or synonyms. The ColumnMetadata table describes the columns in the tables of a particular dataset. This table stores the Geometry Column information as well as the Coordinate System ID for the Geometry columns. There are other predefined tables that GeoMedia Professional expects for metadata (GFeatures, GAliasTable, GCoordSystem, and so forth.). If the appropriate information regarding the synonym is not added to these tables, GeoMedia Professional may not be able to use the synonym. Names will be paired down until they are unique. GeoMedia Professional will not support a table and a synonym with the same name. Local table names will be honored first. Second will be local/private synonyms that do not have a name matching a local table. The last to be honored will be the public synonyms. The Query Window (QW) tables are dynamic and cannot be configured using synonyms. These must be created as needed in each user's tablespace.

Date and Time Data in GDOO


The GDOO server handles dates by converting text to a from dates using the Oracle TO_CHAR and TO_DATE functions. The actual format is determined by the client machines regional settings. In general, this is a string specifying the date and (optionally) the time of day. The date separator may be a slash (/), hyphen (-) or dot (.). The time separator must be a colon (:).

Filtered Queries with SC


A filtered query is a query that has an area of interest defined by using the Define Connection Filter command. During this process, QW (Query Window) tables are created. For Oracle to perform area-of-interest queries, the area of interest must be in its own Spatial Cartridge layer. For instance, if a user is doing a filtered query for ROADS, we will create a QWROADS table (if one does not already exist) to store the area of interest geometry. A query then will be given to Oracle to compare the ROADS table with the entry in the QWROADS table. B-13

Working with GeoMedia Professional

The data in the QW layers is STRICTLY temporary data. This is, not data that the user has entered for the features. It is ONLY the defined filter geometry. GeoMedia Professional 3.0 currently does not remove any of the entries from the QW layer. This means that records accumulate in the <layer>_SDOGEOM and the <layer>_SDOINDEX tables. Because of tablespace limitations in the database, the tablespace may run out of space and cause the query (or other inserts, updates, and so forth) to fail. There are plans for a future release to remove entries from these tables as soon as the records are no longer needed, but until then, the database administrator is responsible for cleaning out these records.

Spatial Queries with SC


See Working with Native Queries in the Working with Queries chapter for information on using the native query compatible with SC.

The Oracle data server uses the first pass filter in Spatial Cartridge to return the primary-geometry candidate set when overlap, inside, or rangeoverlap operators have been specified in a spatial filter that is applied to a GDOO connection. A second-pass final filter is performed on the candidate set to determine if the geometries overlap or are inside. For a range-overlap operator, the Oracle data server does no final-pass geometric comparisons against the filter geometry, but simply returns the rough result from the first-pass filter in Spatial Cartridge.

Using an Existing Oracle SC Database


Many organizations already have existing Oracle SC-based spatial warehouses. For GeoMedia Professional to understand this data, a number of changes and additions are necessary. The resulting warehouse will be accessible through normal Oracle operations and by GeoMedia Professional. The tools necessary to convert an existing Oracle warehouse for GeoMedia Professional are provided with GeoMedia Professional, but you will need to use Oracle system tools, too. Several things have to happen to connect to existing spatial data. Since GeoMedia Professional requires a coordinate system for all data it displays, the GCoordSystem table needs to be added to the spatial warehouse. GeoMedia Professional also requires specific metadata to exist in the spatial warehouse before it will even connect.

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The specific GDOO server tables that are required are: ColumnMetadata ModificationLog ModifiedTables

The GEOMDIA_SEQ is also generated at this time. IMPORTANT: By default, Oracle uses all UPPERCASE for both table and column names. The GeoMedia Professional metadata tables are mixed case and are, therefore, hidden to the user. To see mixed-case tables, the table and column name must be placed in double quotes. GeoMedia Professional also needs to add columns and information to the tables that make up the existing spatial layers. Four new columns must be added to each of the <layer>_SDOGEOM tables. If the attribution table <layer> does not exist, one will be created for each layer in the database and will contain the column GDO_GID. If the <layer> tables exist, the GDO_GID column will be added and populated with unique values. A similar column, SDO_GID, is added to the <layer>_SDOINDEX tables. Both of these columns are of type NUMBER(38), and the database administrator must create a unique constraint on both of them. The SDO_GID and the GDO_GID columns are joined.

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The relationship between these columns is as follows:

The following columns are added to <layer>_SDOGEOM: GDO_ATTRIBUTESDefined as a long integer in the database but is actually used as if it were two short integers. The first is used to point to the parent of this element. The second is used to give the GDOO subtype for the element used when there is a GDOO subtype that is not allowed for in SC (for example, Arc, CompositePolyline); if the column is missing or NULL, the GDO subtype is determined from the SDO_ETYPE. GDO_NORMALUsed for the reconstruction of arcs. GDO_RADIUSUsed for the reconstruction of arcs. SDO_ORIENTATIONContains the rotation angle for oriented points. If the column is missing or NULL, GDOO assumes a rotation angle of 0.

To aid in the creation of the metadata tables, the layer modifications, and the indexing of the tables, GeoMedia Professional provides a GDOO.pkg file. This package contains a set of PL/SQL procedures that simplify the creation of the metadata tables required by the Oracle (GDOO) data server.

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Using the Oracle Relational Spatial Model

IMPORTANT: The GDOO.pkg file does not create the GCoordSystem table, which is required prior to running the procedures in GDOO.pkg. Methods to create this table are given at the end of this Appendix.

GDOO Package
The GDOO Package is a set of PLSQL commands that automate some of the administrative tasks necessary to use GeoMedia Professional in a spatial warehouse environment. This functionality is supplied as two files, the plain text file GDOO.pkg and the binary file GDOO.plb. The first file is the package header and contains the public declarations. The second file contains the compiled implementations for the procedures in the header. These two files must reside in the same directory. Installation is done from an SQL prompt using the @ syntax. Typically, you would type the following:
SQL> @c:\program files\GeoMedia professional\program\GDOO.pkg

Note: If the path contains spaces, the double quotes are necessary. The functionality provided by the GDOO Package is subdivided into three main categories: MetadataCreates the required GDOO server metadata tables and allows the display of generic spatial data by GeoMedia Professional. The required client-side metadata tables are not created from the GDOO.pkg and will be discussed at the end of this Appendix. Spatial TuningAutomatically populates the _SDOINDEX and _SDODIM tables with values appropriate for spatial querying. TriggersCreates triggers for modification tracking and GeoMedia Professional notification.

The SDO_TUNE package must be present on the server, or the GDOO Package will not install correctly. The SDO_TUNE package is automatically supplied with Oracle 7.3.4 and versions subsequent to 8.0. For 7.3.3 installations, Intergraph will supply the necessary SDO_TUNE package on request. Compiling the GDOO.pkg will drop any existing modification triggers, as these triggers may reference obsolete database objects. You should regenerate the triggers using the utilities provided in the package. B-17

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Compiling the GDOO Package


To compile the GDOO.pkg package, you (if you have been granted the proper privileges) or your database administrator would initiate the local Oracle net client and compile the GDOO.pkg from the SQLPLUS (or SQL Worksheet) command line. To compile this package, the following privileges are necessary:
SQL>GRANT CREATE TABLE TO <user> SQL>GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO <user> SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY PROCEDURE TO <user> SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY TRIGGER TO <user>

These must be granted by the database administrator to the specific users and cannot be assigned through roles. Once the import operation is completed, the database administrator can remove these. To install the package, you must be logged in to Oracle as the database user containing the spatial data. To initiate the installation, type the following command at the sqlplus or sqlworksheet command prompt:
SQL> @c:\program files\geomedia professional\program\gdoo.pkg

All procedures in the GDOO Package log their processing information to the GDOOPKG_LOG table. This table has two columns, SEQ and INFO. SEQ is populated with the current value of a sequence named GDOOPKG_SEQ. If the sequence does not exist, then the package creates it. If the GDOOPKG_LOG table does not exist, then the package creates it also. The other field in GDOOPKG_LOG is a LONG field that contains text strings describing the processing that is occurring. When running procedures in the GDOO Package, it is a good idea to do a SET LONG 100000 to see the full text strings that are in the table. If you have SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000, then the information will also be sent to the SQL window. To view the GDOOPKG_LOG, type: SQL> SELECT * FROM GDOOPKG_LOG ORDER BY SEQ You can delete the GDOOPKG_LOG table at any time with no detrimental effects on any user. However, it will be recreated when any GDOO package procedure is invoked.

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Procedure Descriptions
The following is a description of the procedures intended as public interfaces. There are other procedures and functions in the GDOO package intended to support these functions, but these are not intended for general use and are hidden from you.

Metadata
There is a single public interface for GeoMedia Professional metadata operations:
Create_GDOMetadata

This procedure will create the necessary metadata information for connecting to generic Oracle spatial data from GeoMedia Professional. If any of the server metadata already exists, this command will fail. Arguments: None Syntax: Execute GDOO.Create_GDOMetadata; Considerations: The GeoMedia Professional Oracle (GDOO) data server assumes that the attribute data is stored in an attribute table with a column called GDO_GID as the join column to the SDO_GID column in the _SDOGEOM table. The GDO_GID column must be of type NUMBER(38). The name of the attribute table is assumed to be the same as the SDO layer name. For example, if the geometry data is stored in ROADS_SDOGEOM, then the attribute table name must be ROADS and contain column GDO_GID.

Caveats:
Create_GDOMetadata will create the attribute (or spatial layer) table

if it does not exist. This table will have a single column GDO_GID containing the distinct SDO_GIDs from the _SDOGEOM table. If the attribute table already exists, then it is assumed that the information it contains is correct and consistent with that in the corresponding _SDOGEOM table.

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Create_GDOMetadata will create the ColumnMetadata ,

ModificationLog and ModifiedTables tables if they do not exist. The ColumnMetadata table will contain two ColumnName rows for each spatial feature (attribute tables that correspond to the SDOGEOM tables): The first row contains the GDO GEOMETRY, which describes the geometry for that feature and its associated coordinate system (from GCoordSystem). The second row contains the GDO GID, which is the unique index column used to join the attribute table to the _SDOGEOM table.

If the ColumnMetadata table already contains information about a layer, then Create_GDOMetadata will assume that information is correct and will not overwrite, update, nor append to these entries. IMPORTANT: If there is a GCoordSystem table in the schema, then Create_GDOMetadata will populate the CoordSystemIndex column in the ColumnMetadata table for each spatial layer with the GcoordSystem.CSGUID value. If you add the GCoordSystem table after running the Create_GDOMetadata procedure, the CoordSystemIndex column will be null and will have to be populated manually through the use of Oracle SQL update statements similar to the following example:
SQL> update "ColumnMetadata set "CoordSystemIndex" = (select "CSGUID" from "GCoordSystem" where "CSGUIDTYPE"=2) where "ColumnName" = 'GDO_GEOMETRY' and "CoordSystemIndex" is null; SQL> commit;

SC Tuning
The performance of an Oracle SC database (or any enterprise-class database) can usually be improved by tuning. This is the process of making various modifications to the database structure so that retrievals and processes are performed more efficiently. A key area that can affect the speed of spatial retrievals is in the depth and structure of the quadtree tiles.

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The GDOO package has two public procedures, TuneAllTables and TuneTable. These procedures determine the parameters for efficient spatial indexing. The first runs on all GeoMedia feature classes, while the second runs on a specified feature class. In both cases, you will need to provide the procedure with a maximum number of tiles. Oracle suggests using 10000 as a good starting point. Both commands will automatically estimate the tiling level required for each layer, determine the extents, create the indexes, and update the appropriate tables. To determine in advance the estimated tiling level used by these commands, run the following SQL code, where <layer> is the feature class name and <number> is the number of tiles that you would like to have: set serveroutput on
declare tiling_level integer; begin tiling_level:= mdsys.sdo_tune.estimate_tiling_level('<LAYER_NAME>', 10000, 'ALL_GID_EXTENT'); dbms_output.put_line('VALUE is' ,|| tiling_level); end;

TuneAllTables (Owner, Numtiles)

This procedure estimates the SC parameters for efficient spatial indexing and populates the tables with the necessary values. During execution of this procedure, all the _SDOGEOM tables are scanned to determine the upper and lower bound X and Y values, which are then used to populate the SDO_UB and SDO_LB fields in the SDODIM tables. The tiling level for each layer is estimated and used to populate SDO_LEVEL in the _SDOLAYER table. Finally, the new indexes and tile values are calculated and inserted into the _SDOINDEX tables. Arguments: Owner: VARCHAR2 SC tablespace user

NumTiles: INTEGER Maximum number of tiles

Syntax: Execute GDOO.TuneAllTables ('OWNER', NumTiles);

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Considerations: Owner argument should be in single quotes and uppercase. NumTiles is the maximum number of generated tiles. Oracle recommends starting this value at 10000. The _SDOLAYER table must contain the number of ordinates stored in each row of the _SDOGEOM table. The upper and lower limits in the _SDODIM tables are calculated on the basis of all the geometries in all the layers, and thus all layers will contain the same values. For large layers, processing can take a long time.

TuneTable (Owner, TableName, Numtiles)

Same as TuneAllTables, except that it operates on the specified layer only. Arguments: Owner: VARCHAR2 SC tablespace user Specific layer table name

Tablename: VARCHAR2

NumTiles: INTEGER Maximum number of tiles

Syntax: Execute GDOO.TuneTable ('OWNER','TABLENAME',


NumTiles);

Considerations: Owner argument should be in single quotes and uppercase. NumTiles is the maximum number of generated tiles. Oracle recommends starting this value at 10000. The _SDOLAYER table must contain the number of ordinates stored in each row of the _SDOGEOM table. The upper and lower limits in the _SDODIM tables are calculated on the basis of all the geometries in all the layers, and thus all layers will contain the same values. For large layers, processing can take a long time.

Arguments: LayerName: Name of the layer to be dropped.

Syntax: Execute GDOO.DropLayer(LAYERNAME); B-22

Using the Oracle Relational Spatial Model

Triggers
Note: When running the trigger-creation routines, always make sure that you have server output ON, and check the output for errors. Error information does not always get displayed to the screen, due to the way errors are propagated within the routines. There are six public interfaces for creating GeoMedia triggers:
CreateGDOTriggers

This procedure creates triggers for all SC tables in the current schema. Arguments: None Syntax: Execute GDOO.CreateGDOTriggers; Consideration: A primary key constraint must exist for the table.

CreateAttributeTrigger (tablename)

This procedure creates an AFTER trigger on the specified table such that any insert, update, or delete will cause a modification record to be inserted into the ModificationLog. Arguments: tablename VARCHAR2 Name of the triggering table

Syntax: Execute GDOO.CreateAttributeTrigger(tablename); Creates the optional triggers for modification tracking on a specific attribute table. Consideration: A primary key constraint must exist for the table.

Caveats: See discussion below.


CreateGeometryTrigger (tablename)

This procedure creates an AFTER trigger on the SDOGEOM table associated with the specified table such that any insert, update, or delete on that SDOGEOM table will cause a modification record to be inserted into the ModificationLog. B-23

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Arguments: Tablename VARCHAR2 Name of the triggering table

Syntax: Execute GDOO.CreateGeometryTrigger(tablename); Consideration: A primary key constraint must exist for the table.

Caveats: See discussion below.

EnableModTracking (TrueFalse)

This procedure is used to control whether or not database triggers are used for modification tracking for the current session. Arguments: TrueFalse Boolean

Syntax: Execute GDOO.EnableModTracking(TrueFalse); TRUE to allow modification tracking, FALSE otherwise. Consideration: Default value is TRUE.

Caveats: See discussion below.

GetModTracking (TrueFalse)

This procedure returns TRUE if modification tracking is enabled, FALSE otherwise. Arguments: TrueFalse Boolean

Syntax: Execute GDOO.GetModTracking (TrueFalse); TRUE to allow modification tracking, FALSE otherwise.

ShowModTracking

This procedure displays TRUE if modification tracking is enabled, FALSE otherwise. Arguments: None Syntax: Execute GDOO.ShowModTracking; B-24

Using the Oracle Relational Spatial Model

Triggers and Modification Tracking


When you open the database connection with modification tracking set to TRUE, every change that you make to the features is recorded in the ModificationLog table. These records are created automatically and are transparent to you. There are two mechanisms in GDOO that implement the functionality to create entries in the ModificationLog. The first mechanism is through function calls made from within GDOO during the modification process. The second mechanism is through database triggers. It is not strictly necessary to use triggers for modification logging. There is built-in functionality within GeoMedia Professional to perform this function. However, use of triggers is highly recommended because: They allow the capturing of modifications made outside of GeoMedia Professional so the software can be made aware of such changes. The modifications can be logged much faster because the triggers reside on the server.

Creating Triggers through Automation


The functionality for creating triggers is provided by the GDOO Package. This package must be installed on the server machine before triggers can be created or used. There are two ways to create triggers on a feature class. The first way is to specify a primary key through automation. When this happens, functionality is automatically invoked that creates two triggers (assuming this is a spatial feature). These triggers have names [layer]AMT and [layer]GMT, where [layer] is the feature class name. The AMT trigger fires whenever you insert, update, or delete a row in the attribute table for the feature class. The GMT trigger fires whenever you insert, update, or delete rows from the _SDOGEOM table associated with the feature. This separation allows GDOO to capture updates made outside of the automation interface, for example, from an SQL prompt. The second way of creating triggers is through SQL using the GDOO Package functions directly. This is discussed later. For triggers to perform their operations successfully, the following must be true: The GDOO package must be installed. The triggering table must have an entry in the ModifiedTables table. B-25

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The ModificationLog table must exist and must match the description given in GeoMedia Professional documentation. In addition, it must contain the fields SESSIONID (int) and MODIFIEDDATE (date). When updating the _SDOGEOM table for a particular SC_GID, there must be a corresponding GDO_GID row in the attribute table, or the geometry trigger will fail. Any additional triggers on the attribute table must take care not to cause updates on the corresponding _SDOGEOM table, as the geometry trigger queries back to the attribute table, thus causing a mutating tables situation. Consult the Oracle documentation for methods of avoiding this.

The AMT trigger writes the modification type as Insert, Update, or Delete. The GMT trigger always writes the modification type as an Update to the attribute table because a change to the geometry of a feature is always regarded as an update to the actual feature as it resides in the attribute table. If the database is opened through automation with Modification Logging set to TRUE, then the following rules govern whether or not triggers are used for modification tracking: If a feature class has both AMT and GMT triggers present and BOTH are in the ENABLED state, then the triggers will be used to capture modifications. If a feature class has no associated geometry and has only an AMT trigger and it is in the ENABLED state, then the trigger will be used to capture modifications. If a feature class has associated geometry, and if either or both triggers on the feature class exist but are disabled, then triggers will not be used, and modifications will be captured by functionality inside GDOO.

Caveats
The trigger state for a given feature class is read in once during a GDOO session, at the time of the first modification to the table. This has the following implications:

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If, at the beginning of a GDOO session, triggers are disabled (through ALTER TRIGGER) but are subsequently enabled during the session (through ALTER TRIGGER), then the ModificationLog will contain duplication of entries. In general, this results in an insignificant performance impact, but there are no notification problems encountered. If, at the beginning of a GDOO session, triggers are enabled but are subsequently disabled during the session (through ALTER TRIGGER), then the notification will not be handled correctly, as manifested by screen updates not taking place when expected, and so forth. Re-enabling the triggers will, however, result in notifications being done correctly from that point forward.

For these reasons, the enabling and disabling of triggers should only be done by the database administrator, with an awareness of the effects that such an operation may have on users connected to the system. If it is necessary to edit a feature from SQL without modification logging, then the operator should execute the GDOO.EnableModTracking function that is provided in the GDOO Package. For example: SQL> exec GDOO.EnableModTracking(FALSE) SQL> exec GDOO.ShowModTracking; Modification tracking is OFF < NOTE: SERVEROUTPUT must be ON> will turn off modification tracking for the current SQL session for all tables without disrupting other users who may be connected concurrently.

Creating Triggers through GDOO Package


Within automation, triggers only get created when a primary key is defined. This is because GeoMedia Professional notification mandates that each feature class have a primary key. Thus, it is only when a primary key is present that the triggers can be successfully generated. Triggers can also be created from SQL through the functionality provided by the GDOO Package, using the procedures described earlier. The procedure that creates triggers writes processing information into the GDOOPKG_LOG table. Thus, if errors are encountered when creating a trigger, this table should provide information to help identify any problems.

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If for some reason a trigger fails to execute, the reason for failure will either be written into the errors collection (when running under automation), or be sent to the SQL window through DBMS_OUTPUT (for SQL operations). The triggers trap various types of exceptions, and an examination of the exception information lets you determine the nature of the problem. The triggers do not write information to GDOOPKG_LOG. This is because such an action would necessitate a COMMIT, which is illegal during a trigger. Debugging trigger problems can be a difficult task. For problems that are not completely obvious, the best procedure is probably as follows: 1. Isolate the particular INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE SQL statement that causes the error. This can be found in the file c:\temp\oserver.log. 2. Bring up an SQL connection, and SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000. 3. Run the SQL statement from the prompt and see what happens. IMPORTANT: Installing the GDOO.PKG deletes any existing modification tracking triggers. Thus, if you install a newer version of the package or reinstall an existing package, you must regenerate the triggers using the functionality described above. Also, note that dropping the GDOO package does not automatically drop the triggers. In such an event, the existing triggers become invalid and you see errors when they try to fire.

Enabling/Disabling Triggers
Triggers can be enabled or disabled for all sessions through the command
ALTER TRIGGER <trigger> ENABLE (or DISABLE)

As mentioned above, the GDOO.EnableModTracking function turns on or off modification tracking for an SQL session for all tables. This procedure does not alter the triggers themselves, so other sessions will be unaffected.

GDOO.pkg and the Data Dictionary


Essentially, the metadata tables required by GeoMedia Professional can be broken down into two classes, server and client, depending on who requires them and when they are created.

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Server metadata tables: ColumnMetadata ModificationLog ModifiedTables

Client metadata tables: GCoordSystem GAliasTable GFeatures GeometryProperties AttributeProperties FieldLookup

On connection to a warehouse, the GCoordSystem and GAliasTable are created. If the spatial warehouse is empty, the GCoordSystem table is created and populated automatically. If the warehouse already contains data, the GCoordSystem table needs to be created and populated manually. The processes that create the other metadata tables and objects are shown below: The Create_GDOMetadata procedure will create the following objects in your schema, if they do not already exist: ColumnMetadata - table ModificationLog - table ModifiedTables - table GEOMEDIA_SEQ - Master sequence

The CreateAttributeTrigger procedure will create the following objects: ModificationLog - table ModifiedTables - table GDOO_MODLOGSEQUENCE - sequence <layer>ATP - trigger package <layer>AMT - attribute modification trigger

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The CreateGeometryTrigger procedure will create the following objects, if they do not already exist: ModificationLog - table ModifiedTables - table GDOO_MODLOGSEQUENCE - sequence <layer>GTP - trigger package <layer>GMT - geometry modification trigger

The TuneTable and TuneAllTables procedures do not create any data objects. However, they will drop existing query window tables associated with the layer being tessellated. These tables are prefixed with QW. On the client side, the Warehouse > New Connection process creates the following objects: GAliasTable - table GCoordSystem - table

And the Feature Class Definition command creates and populates the following: GFeatures - table GeometryProperties - table AttributeProperties - table FieldLookup - table

Example 1: Connecting to an Existing Oracle Spatial Warehouse


In this example, let us assume you have an existing spatial warehouse containing Highway (linework) coordinate information and the tablespace owner is ADOT. Step 1: Add a coordinate system to your spatial warehouse. GeoMedia Professional requires a coordinate system to be specified for all data that is to be displayed. The coordinate system is specified in the GCoordSystem table. If you are starting with an empty Oracle spatial warehouse, you can easily assign a coordinate system from within GeoMedia Professional using the Warehouse Coordinate System command. If the spatial warehouse already contains data, GeoMedia Professional will not allow you to assign a coordinate system. The easiest way to create this table is the following:

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1. Have your database administrator create a new Oracle tablespace user account (SCRATCH1) with resource and connect privileges. This account can be deleted later. 2. Connect to this new account (SCRATCH1) from within GeoMedia Professional using the read/write Oracle data server. 3. Use the Warehouse Coordinate System command to write the GCoordSystem table to this new spatial warehouse. Make sure you fill out the Warehouse Coordinate System dialog box with the exact coordinate system associated with your existing spatial data. 4. Have your database administrator export the GCoordinateSystem table (using Oracle export) from this new account (SCRATCH1), and then import it (using Oracle import) into the spatial warehouse containing your data. In this example, it is ADOT. 5. Verify that the GCoordSystem now exists in your spatial warehouse. It should contain one row of data. Step 2: The database administrator must supply all the required privileges to your spatial warehouse to compile the GDOO.pkg. Remember, these privileges must be granted explicitly; they cannot be granted by means of a role. In this example, the privileges must be granted to ADOT.
SQL>CONNECT SYSTEM/MANAGER; SQL>GRANT CREATE TABLE TO ADOT; SQL>GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO ADOT; SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY PROCEDURE TO ADOT; SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY TRIGGER TO ADOT;

Step 3: Connect to the existing SC User.


SQL>connect ADOT/ADOT; SQL>select tname from tab; TABLE_NAME -----------------------------GCoordSystem HIGHWAY_SDODIM HIGHWAY_SDOGEOM HIGHWAY_SDOINDEX HIGHWAY_SDOLAYER

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Step 4: Compile the GDOO.pkg. This must be done in the actual user account, not in system/manager.
SQL>@"c:\program files\GeoMedia professional\program\GDOO.pkg";

Step 5: Create the metadata tables for GeoMedia Professional.


SQL>Execute GDOO.Create_GDOMetadata;

Step 6: Verify that the new tables were added.


SQL>select tname from tab; TABLE_NAME

-----------------------------ColumnMetadata ModificationLog ModifiedTables

GCoordSystem
GDOOPKG_LOG HIGHWAY HIGHWAY_SDODIM HIGHWAY_SDOGEOM HIGHWAY_SDOINDEX HIGHWAY_SDOLAYER

Step 7: Perform the tuning of the layer. In this case, you could use either TuneTable or TuneAllTables:
SQL>Execute GDOO.TuneAllTables(ADOT, 10000);

Step 8: In GeoMedia Professional, use the New Connection command to connect to your Oracle spatial warehouse. The features (layers) contained in the spatial warehouse should now be displayable in GeoMedia Professional using the Add Feature Class command, and any coordinate system transformations that are required will take place correctly.

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Example 2: Tuning an Existing GeoMedia Professional Spatial Warehouse


You can also use the Tune commands to tessellate and to index an existing GeoMedia Professional spatial warehouse in Oracle. This is usually required if the _SDODIM table contains values that do not actually apply to the feature data, or if new features are added that are outside of the specified dimensions. The default values used in _SDODIM will not be optimum for your data, and it is best to regularly tune your spatial warehouse particularly if you are adding more data. In this example, let us assume that you have imported an ArcView dataset, called USStates, into your spatial warehouse and want to re-tessellate the database. USStates is made up of Highways, Lakes, and Rivers. Use the following steps to correct this problem: Step 1: The database administrator must supply all the required privileges to USStates for USStates to compile the GDOO.pkg.
SQL>CONNECT SYSTEM/MANAGER; SQL>GRANT CREATE TABLE TO USStates; SQL>GRANT CREATE SEQUENCE TO USStates; SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY PROCEDURE TO USStates; SQL>GRANT CREATE ANY TRIGGER TO USStates;

Step 2: Connect to the existing SC User.


SQL>connect USStates/USStates;

Step 3: Compile the GDOO.pkg.


SQL>@"c:\program files\geomedia professional\program\gdoo.pkg";

Step 4: Perform the tuning of the layer. In this case, you need to use the TuneAllTables command so that all the layers are updated.
SQL>Execute GDOO.TuneAllTables('USSTATES', 10000);

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Example 3: Repairing a GeoMedia Professional Spatial Warehouse


Once the spatial warehouse is configured for use, GeoMedia Professional will automatically update the metadata tables as needed. This will occur as long as all changes are made through the GeoMedia Professional environment. If you add new tables, views, or other database objects outside of this environment, GeoMedia Professional will probably not recognize those new objects. In this case, you would need to update the metadata tables manually, or have them re-created. In this example, we will assume the spatial user is ADOT. If you have added attribute tables and views from Oracle, you will need to re-create the client metadata tables. Step 1: Delete the existing client metadata. In SQLPLUS:
SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> CONNECT ADOT/ADOT; drop TABLE "GAliasTable"; drop TABLE "GFeatures"; drop TABLE "AttributeProperties"; drop TABLE "GeometryProperties"; drop TABLE "FieldLookup";

Step 2: Re-create the client metadata. During re-creation, your spatial warehouse is scanned, and all existing tables and views are inserted into the new metadata tables. 1. In GeoMedia Professional, establish a read/write connection to your warehouse (in this case ADOT). 2. Use Feature Class Definition to create a dummy feature class. It can be called FeatureClass1. At this point, the client metadata has been created and populated. Any new objects in your database will now be visible by GeoMedia Professional. For a radical cleanup, delete all the GeoMedia Professional metadata tables, with the exception of GCoordSystem, and follow the steps outlined in Example 1. All GeoMedia Professional metadata tables will appear in the Oracle relational spatial model as mixed case.

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Example 4: Setting Up Synonyms


In this example, you have a master account in Oracle (UserA) that contains all of your spatial data. You have another user (UserB) that wants to have access to the main account but with read-only privileges. To do this, you need to set up synonyms on the master account and grant the user the right to select these synonyms. The easiest way to set up the necessary SQL to create all the synonyms and privileges that are needed is to use special SQL statements that actually generate the necessary statements for the entire database. The following SQL will generate all the statements needed to create the synonyms: Select 'create synonym "<USER>"."'||tname||'" for "<SYN_USER>"."'||tname||'";' from tab; The following SQL will generate the required statements for read-only access: Select 'grant select on "<USER>"."'||tname||'" to <SYN_USER>;' from tab; The following steps will take you through this example. Using SQLPlus: sql> connect UserA/password@service sql> set heading off squ> set pagesize 200 sql> set feedback off sql> spool create.sql sql> select 'create synonym "UserA"."'||tname||'" for "UserB"."'||tname||'";' from tab; sql> spool off sql> set feedback on sql> start create.sql B-35

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The select statement generates all of the create synonym statements for your user and writes them to create.sql, which is then executed. Generating the grant statements, is done the same way, as follows: sql> connect UserA/password@service sql> set heading off sql> set pagesize 200 sql> set feedback off sql> spool grant.sql sql> select 'grant select on "UserA"."'||tname||'" to UserB;' from tab; sql> spool off sql> set feedback on sql> start grant.sql

Note: After running these examples, remember to commit your changes.

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Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server


The Oracle Object Model Data Server provides a GDO interface on top of Oracle simple data types and Oracle 8i spatial object data types. With Oracle 8i, Oracle now allows two different models/formats for storing spatial data, relational and object. In the previous release of GeoMedia Professional, the Oracle Data Server handled only the relational format. This Oracle Data Server has been renamed the Oracle Relational Model Data Server. The Oracle Object Model Data Server will handle only the object geometry format defined by Oracle with the 8i release. The Oracle Object Model Data Server will be delivered in two variations as a read-only data server and as a read/write data server. This appendix covers both variations. The two are totally distinct, but they will co-exist.

Delivery and Connection


Prerequisites
To install and to use the Oracle Object Model Data Server, Oracle client software must be installed on the computer on which the data server will reside. On the Oracle server, the Oracle Spatial Cartridge must be installed. As long as you follow the guidelines set down in the Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Oracle Spatial Reference documentation, you should not have to prepare your data in any way for the Oracle Object Model Data Server to connect and to query your schema. This means that there is no requirement for the following: Data-server-specific metadata tables GFIELDMAPPING GPARAMETERS

GDO metadata tables GALIASTABLE GCOORDSYSTEM MODIFIEDTABLES C-1

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MODIFICATIONLOG GFEATURES GFIELDLOOKUP GEOMETRYPROPERTIES ATTRIBUTEPROPERTIES

GeoMedia metadata tables

Without these tables there will be limits on what GeoMedia can interpret, but the metadata itself is not a requirement for display.

Read-Only Connections
To connect using the read-only server, you must provide a valid Oracle connection string, which usually consists of an Oracle username, password, and host name. This requires you to have the Oracle Client software and to have configured a host using Net8. By default, read-only connections rely completely on the Native Data Model. No metadata is required, although it would be useful if there were a coordinate system assigned to the schema. If no coordinate system is assigned, the GeoWorkspace must contain a coordinate system that matches the data in the Oracle schema.

Read/Write Connections
To connect using the read/write server, you must provide a valid Oracle connection string, which usually consists of an Oracle username, password, and host name. As with the read-only connection, this requires you to have the Oracle Client software and to have configured a host using Net8. Read/write connections require a metadata schema to be present in Oracle. The user for this schema must be called GDOSYS. The metadata tables in GDOSYS store information used by all the schemas that GeoMedia Professional will write to. The GDOSYS schema is also where you would store coordinate system information for the read-only server. Once a GDOSYS schema exists, it will be used for all native spatial object schemas in the database. This includes those schemas that are read-only. By default, you cannot mix metadata and non-metadata schemas in the same Oracle instance. If you want to do this, you must take care in how you assign access to the GDOSYS schema.

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Password Persistence
By default, GeoMedia stores the connection password in the GeoWorkspace. This is meant as a convenience and allows users to open existing GeoWorkspaces containing Oracle connections without having to re-enter connection passwords. However, this is a drawback to those users wanting higher levels of security. The option to turn off password persistence is now in the registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\GDO\Oracle Object Read-Only\1.0\Store Password HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\GDO\Oracle Object Read-Write\1.0\Store Password

The default setting is 1, so connection passwords will be stored. To force the user to enter a password for each Oracle connection, you would change the (default) setting to 0.

Differences in Object Model and Relational Model Data Servers


The Oracle object model is substantially different from the Oracle relational model, and, subsequently, there are differences between the Oracle Relational Model Data Server and the Oracle Object Model Data Server. These differences are as follows: In the Oracle Relational Model Data Server, the information necessary to create spatial indexes is gathered from the registry, where the user had to enter the values beforehand or accept the installed defaults. In the Oracle Object Model Data Server, the information necessary to create spatial fields and spatial indexes on those fields is gathered from a server-specific metadata table. The data server will not create this table, so it must be created by a DBA before spatial fields and indexes can be created on the local schema. This table is identified in GALIASTABLE by the tabletype of GParameters and, by default, is called GDOSYS.GPARAMETERS. Each layer in the object model now consists of a single table, so the GDO_GID column used by the relational model is no longer needed. Geometry is now stored in a single column in the layer. This means that multiple geometry columns are allowed per feature. Storing geometry in a single column requires the Oracle Object Model Data Server to do less parsing of SQL. This means greater support for pass-through queries and views. QW (Query Window) tables are no longer needed. C-3

For more information on the format and contents of this table, see the GPARAMETERS section of this appendix.

Working with GeoMedia Professional

The Oracle Object Model Data Server allows all spatial filtering to be performed by the Oracle server. In the Oracle Relational Model Data Server, Oracle only performs a first pass filter; the data server does the second pass. Mixed-case table and column names for metadata are no longer used. All values representing table or column names in the metadata must be in uppercase. The Oracle Object Model Data Server does not require the use of the ColumnMetadata table that was needed by the Oracle Relational Model Data Server. Instead, there is an automatic mapping from Oracle field and geometry types to GDO field and geometry types. If a new optional server-specific table is present, the Oracle Object Model Data Server will use it to refine that mapping. This table is identified in GALIASTABLE by the table type of GFieldMapping and, by default, is called GDOSYS.GFIELDMAPPING. The Oracle Object Model Data Server will have multi-schema support. This means that table names will include the name of the schema from which the table came, for example, INGR.USA. The Oracle Object Model Data Server does not support synonyms of any kind. The Oracle Object Model Data Server supports a different sequence for each AutoNumber field, rather than a single sequence for all AutoNumber fields. The Oracle Object Model Data Server will use ROWID for key set generation, rather than requiring a primary key on the table.

See the Native-to-GDO Field Type Mapping and the Native-to-GDO Geometry Type Mapping sections of this appendix.

Native Data Model


Geometry Storage
For more detailed, upto-date information, see the Oracle Spatial Users Guide and Reference, Release 8.1.6.

Oracle 8i uses a new SDO object type to store spatial data. The new object type is defined in the database as MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY. The basic components of this data type are described as follows:
GEOM_COLUMN (SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT (X,Y,Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO(OFFSET,ETYPE,INTERPRETATION), SDO_ORDINATES(X,Y,Z)

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SDO_GTYPEIndicates the type of the geometry. SDO_SRIDNull by default. Reserved for future use.

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

SDO_POINTFor storing a single point in X, Y, Z. If the SDO_ELEM_INFO and SDO_ORDINATES arrays are both null and the SDO_POINT attribute is non-null, the X and Y values are considered to be the coordinates for point geometry; otherwise, the SDO_POINT attribute is ignored by spatial. You should store point geometries in the SDO_POINT attribute for optimal storage and if you have only point geometries in a layer. If there are multiple points, or the geometry is of a different type from point, the SDO_ELEM_INFO and SDO_ORDINATES arrays must be used. SDO_ELEM_INFODefined using a varying length array of numbers. The values that make up this array are composed of triplets that describe how the ordinates are stored in the SDO_ORDINATES array. Each triplet is interpreted as follows: SDO_STARTING_OFFSETIndicates the offset within the SDO_ORDINATES array where the first ordinate for this element is stored. SDO_ETYPEIndicates the type of the element. SDO_INTERPRETATIONDetermines how the SDO_ETYPE value is interpreted.

SDO_ORDINATESDefined using a varying length array of type NUMBER that stores the coordinate values that make up a spatial object. This array is always used in conjunction with the SDO_ELEM_INFO. The values in the array are ordered by dimension. For example, a polygon whose boundary has four twodimensional points is stored as {X1, Y1, X2, Y2, X3, Y3, X4, Y4, X1, Y1}. If the points are three-dimensional, then they are stored as {X1, Y1, Z1, X2, Y2, Z2, X3, Y3, Z3, X4, Y4, Z4, X1, Y1, Z1}.

The Oracle Object Model Data Server maps GeoMedia's GDO geometry types into the SDO_GEOMETRY types, and vice versa.

Native-to-GDO Field Type Matching


The following table identifies the mapping used when converting from Oracle field types to GDO field types: Oracle Field Type CHAR VARCHAR GDO Field Type gdbText (<= 255) gdbMemo (> 255) gdbText (<= 255) gdbMemo (> 255) C-5

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Oracle Field Type VARCHAR2 NCHAR NVARCHAR DATE NUMBER LONG RAW LONG RAW BLOB CLOB NCLOB MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MLSLABEL User Defined Types BFILE

GDO Field Type gdbText (<= 255) gdbMemo (> 255) Unsupported Unsupported gdbDate gdbLong (scale = 0) gdbDouble (scale != 0) Unsupported gdbLongBinary Unsupported gdbLongBinary gdbMemo gdbMemo gdbSpatial Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported

These are the default mappings that occur if GeoMedia client metadata tables are absent from the schema. If GeoMedia client metadata tables are present, GDO field types may be mapped differently according to the specifications in those metadata tables. Any table with a single field of an unsupported type will be omitted from the GTableDefs collection.

GDO-to-Native Field Type Matching


The following table identifies the mapping used when converting from GDO field types to Oracle field types (applies only to metadata changes through the read/write data server). GDO Field Type / Subtype gdbBoolean gdbByte gdbInteger gdbLong gdbSingle C-6 Oracle Field Type NUMBER (1,0) NUMBER (3,0) NUMBER (5,0) NUMBER (10,0) NUMBER (126, null)

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

GDO Field Type / Subtype gdbDouble gdbCurrency gdbDate gdbText gdbLongBinary GdbMemo GdbGuid gdbSpatial / Point gdbSpatial / Linear gdbSpatial / Areal gdbSpatial / AnySpatial gdbSpatial / Coverage gdbGraphic / Point gdbGraphic / Linear gdbGraphic / Areal gdbGraphic / AnySpatial gdbGraphic / Coverage gdbGraphic / GraphicsText

Oracle Field Type NUMBER (126, null) NUMBER (126, null) DATE VARCHAR2 BLOB CLOB VARCHAR2 MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY RAW MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY RAW BLOB

Native-to-GDO Geometry Type Mapping


The following table identifies the mapping used when converting from Oracle geometry types to GDO geometry types. The symbol d indicates the dimension, d=2 for 2-D data and d=3 for 3-D data. Oracle Gtype d001 d002 d002 Oracle Etype 1 2 2 Oracle Interpretation 1 1 2 Oracle Meaning Point GDO Geometry Type Oriented Point

Linear straight line Polyline segments only Linear arcs only (Oracle arcs are always circular arcs, like those of GeoMedia.) Arc (if only one) Composite Polyline all arcs (if more than one)

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Oracle Gtype d002 d003 d003 d003 d003 d003 d004 d005 d006 d007

Oracle Etype 4 3 3 3 3 4

Oracle Interpretation

Oracle Meaning

GDO Geometry Type

Linear straight line Composite Polyline segments and arcs lines and arcs 1 2 3 4 Areal straight line segments only Areal arcs only Areal rectangle Areal circle Areal straight line segments and arcs Heterogeneous Collection Point Collection Linear Collection Polygon Collection Polygon Composite Polygon all arcs Polygon Composite Polygon two semicircular arcs Composite Polygon lines and arcs Collection Collection Collection Collection

GDO-to-Native Geometry Type Mapping


The following table identifies the mapping used when converting from GDO geometry types to Oracle geometry types (applies only to data changes through the read/write data server): Note: For oriented points, each standard Oracle point geometry instance will be preceded by a GeoMedia-specific descriptor with Etype=0 and Interpretation=6000. The corresponding entry in the ordinates array will contain the orientation of the point.

GDO Geometry Type Point Oriented Point Line C-8

Oracle Gtype d001 d001 d002

Oracle Etype 1 1 2

Oracle Interpretation 1 1 1 Point Point

Oracle Meaning

Polyline

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

GDO Geometry Type Polyline Arc Composite Polyline Rectangle Polygon Boundary Composite Polygon Text Point Raster Collection (AnySpatial field) Collection (Point field) Collection (Linear field) Collection (Area field)

Oracle Gtype d002 d002 d002 d003 d003 d003 d003 d001 d003 d004 d005 d006 d007

Oracle Etype 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 1 3

Oracle Interpretation 1 2

Oracle Meaning Polyline Linear arcs only Linear straight line segments and arcs

1 1 1 multiple entries

Areal straight line segments only Areal straight line segments only Areal straight line segments only Areal straight line segments and arcs

1 1

Binary data in BLOB field Binary data in RAW field Heterogeneous collection Point collection Linear collection Area collection

Native Geometry Metadata


The geometry metadata describing the dimensions, lower and upper bounds, and tolerances in each dimension is stored in a global table owned by MDSYS. Each spatial user has the following views available in the schema associated with that user: USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATAContains metadata information for all spatial tables owned by the user (schema). This is the only view that you can update, and it is the one in which spatial users must insert metadata related to spatial tables. ALL_SDO_GEOM_METADATAContains metadata information for all spatial tables on which the user has select permission.

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DBA_SDO_GEOM_METADATAContains metadata information for all spatial tables on which the user has select permission if the user has the DBA role.

These metadata views are available in the schema of each user having tables with a column, or columns, of type SDO_GEOMETRY. The GeoMedia Professional commands Import from Warehouse, Feature Class Definition, and Export to Oracle Object Model will populate the views for you using values stored in the GDOSYS.GPARAMETERS table. Otherwise, spatial users are responsible for populating these views. For each spatial column, you must insert an appropriate row into the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view. The other two views are updated automatically. If you use the Import from Warehouse command or the Export to Oracle Object Model command, this view is populated automatically. An example SQL statement for updating the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view is as follows:
INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES (TABLE_NAME','GEOMETRY_COLUMN', MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ARRAY ( MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('X',2147483648,2147483647,0.000005), MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Y',-2147483648,2147483647,0.000005)), NULL);

Geometry Indexing
As with the relational format, the extents of the data need to be known before the geometry can be indexed. In the Spatial Relational Model, the <layer>_SDODIM table stores the extents for that feature class (layer). In the object format, the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view contains the extents of all the layers in that schema. This view also stores the number of dimensions that a geometry column has. Oracle allows up to four dimensions, even though it only spatially indexes on the first two. The GeoMedia Object Model Data Server supports both 2-D and 3-D data for read/write operations, but read-only operations on 4D data. All data is served to the client as 3-D. In the case of 2-D Oracle data, the third dimension is assigned a value of zero when reading, and any value for the third dimension is ignored when writing. In the case of 4-D Oracle data, the fourth dimension is ignored when reading and writing. The Oracle Spatial Object Model provides two methods for spatial indexing, fixed and hybrid. Fixed indexing is recommended, but hybrid indexing is useful in some situations. C-10

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

Because the geometry is a single column in the object model, Oracle Spatial has created an indexing scheme that automatically indexes geometry values as they are manipulated. Creating a spatial index is very similar in syntax to creating an index on a column of a simple data type. One could type, for example, the following from an SQLPlus prompt:
CREATE INDEX TABLENAME_FIXED ON TABLENAME(GEOMETRY_COLUMN) INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX PARAMETERS('SDO_LEVEL = 3);

The value for SDO_LEVEL determines the level of tessellation to perform on the layer. This value can be estimated using the spatial object function SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL. Oracle provides three methods to estimate the tiling level: LAYER_EXTENTUse the rectangle defined by your coordinate system. ALL_GID_EXTENTUse the minimum-bounding rectangle that encompasses all the geometric objects in the column. This estimate is recommended for most applications. AVG_GID_EXTENTUse a rectangle representing the average size of the individual geometric objects within the column. This option is the default and performs the most analysis of the three types, but it takes the longest time to complete.

ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL returns an integer representing the level to use when creating a spatial index for the specified layer. The function returns NULL if the data is inconsistent. An SQL example for estimating each of the tiling levels is shown as follows:
SELECT SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL ('TABLE_NAME,'GEOMETRY_COLUMN',10000,'LAYER_EXTENT')FROM DUAL; SELECT SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL ('TABLE_NAME,'GEOMETRY_COLUMN',10000,'ALL_GID_EXTENT')FROM DUAL; SELECT SDO_TUNE.ESTIMATE_TILING_LEVEL ('TABLE_NAME,'GEOMETRY_COLUMN',10000,'AVG_GID_EXTENT')FROM DUAL;

Always estimate the tiling level prior to indexing. For performance reasons, Oracle recommends running the following SQL on every index table name in the schema:
ANALYZE TABLE <indextablename> COMPUTE STATISTICS;

This needs to be done every time a new index is created. It is not done automatically. C-11

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Spatial Filtering
In the Oracle Relational Model Data Server, Oracle did the first pass spatial filtering, and the GeoMedia data server did the second pass. In the Oracle Object Model Data Server, Oracle performs both passes. For this reason, indexing is required for spatial filters to work. Attempting to do a spatial filter without having the required indexes will result in the following error:
Recordset is invalid. MORE: ORA-13226: Interface not supported without a spatial index.

The spatial filter operators in GeoMedia Professional are mapped to the Oracle spatial filters in the following way: GeoMedia Professional Inside Overlap Oracle 8.1.6 INSIDE INSIDE + COVEREDBY + TOUCH + OVERLAPBOUNDARIESDISJOINT + OVERLAPBOUNDARIESINTERSECT ANYINTERACT

Coarse Overlap

For geometry fields of subtype Coverage and GraphicsText, which are not supported by Oracles spatial indexing system, spatial filtering will be executed within the data server itself. This means that for text and raster data, spatial filtering is done in the application rather than in the database.

Table and View Identifiers


Names of tables and views are always expressed as OWNER.TABLE. This includes references to these tables in GALIASTABLE, MODIFIEDTABLES, GFEATURES, and FIELDLOOKUP. Names of tables, views, indexes, and fields are always expressed in uppercase. Table, view, index, and column values in mixed or lowercase will cause errors.

Text and Label Features


The Oracle 8.1.6 Object Model does not support text. To get around this, GeoMedia Professional uses its own format for storing text in Oracle. This is similar to how GeoMedia stores text in Access and in MS SQL. In its simplest form, a feature containing text consists of an ID column and a BLOB column, where the text information is stored. C-12

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

To load text into the Oracle Object Model, you must use the tools within GeoMedia Professional. The exception is the Export to Oracle Object Model command, which will not load text features.

GeoMedia Professional Metadata The Default GDOSYS Schema


For read-only connections, a GDOSYS schema is not required, but it is recommended (for coordinate systems). For read/write connections, the GDOSYS user must exist in the current Oracle SID and must contain a set of metadata tables that are required for read/write operations. The metadata tables used in the GDOSYS table include the following (these can be tables or views): ATTRIBUTEPROPERTIES FIELDLOOKUP GALIASTABLE GCOORDSYSTEM GEOMETRYPROPERTIES GFEATURES GFIELDMAPPING GPARAMETERS MODIFIEDTABLES MODIFICATIONLOG The following sequences are required: GMODLOG GAUTONUMBERSEQUENCE FIELDLOOKUPINDEXID1 The following trigger is required: DELETEMETADATAGMT GeoMedia uses the GALIASTABLE to determine if the GDOSYS schema is to be used. If a given Oracle user has access to the GALIASTABLE, this table will need to have the required entries in the GDOSYS schema. There are two ways to create the GDOSYS schema:
See the Database Utilities section of this appendix.

Use a script called METADATA.sql generated by the Export to Oracle Object Model command. Use the Database Utilities.

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ATTRIBUTEPROPERTIES
The ATTRIBUTEPROPERTIES metadata table describes the attribute types for the fields in the FIELDLOOKUP table.

FIELDLOOKUP
The FIELDLOOKUP metadata table provides a unique identifier for the GeoMedia metadata system for each attribute in each user table (feature class). The attribute names for all user tables (feature classes) are stored in the format OWNER.TABLE. It also stores all the column names that are in the associated feature. The table names are also stored in table GFEATURESBASE, and access to any given user is provided by the GFEATURES view.

GALIASTABLE
The GALIASTABLE metadata table determines the names of other standard tables, as well as the GeoMedia client tables. It determines whether metadata is required. If a given user sees the GDOSYS.GALIATABLE, that user will require metadata. This table must be located in the GDOSYS schema, and it must have the specific name GALIASTABLE. The table names given in the table must likewise be in the format OWNER.TABLE. One mechanism for allowing different users to have different GALIASTABLES (and therefore different metadata systems) is to have GALIASTABLE actually be a parameterized view of another table, with the view definition based on the user name so that each user sees different contents in the view.

GCOORDSYSTEM
GCOORDSYSTEM stores coordinate system definitions. If this table is not present, no coordinate system transformation will occur, and the GeoWorkspace coordinate system will be used. Coordinate systems are defined on a per feature class basis. Each feature class can have its own coordinate system. The easiest way to assign a coordinate system to a feature class is by using the Database Utilities, which are available in the GeoMedia Professional program group. If you have incorrectly assigned a coordinate system to a feature class, you also use the Database Utilities to correct the assigned coordinate system.

See the Database Utilities section of this appendix.

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Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

In the default configuration of GDOSYS, the GCOORDSYSTEM table stores all of the coordinate systems assigned to features that exist in all of your object model schemas. Using this configuration allows any user with the proper privileges to access and to display object model data from any other user. While this is useful in a viewing environment like GeoMedia, it can pose a problem for those who are using GeoMedia Professional to insert data into their object model schemas. All operations that write to the object warehouse will use the first coordinate system found in the GCOORDSYSTEM table. This may or may not be the coordinate system you intend to use. This is only an issue if you use multiple coordinate systems for the features and/or the schemas in your Oracle database instance. When digitizing in GeoMedia Professional, you must ensure that the GeoWorkspace coordinate system matches the coordinate system of the feature class into which you are digitizing. Failure to do so can result in data that will not display correctly. To avoid this situation, you need to assign a single coordinate system to a schema and force GeoMedia Professional to only utilize that coordinate system. One way to solve this issue is to create a parameterized view on the coordinate system table. A SQL script called GCOORD.SQL has been included on the CD that will configure this for you. Run this script in the GDOSYS schema. This script will create a table called GCOORDBASE that will store all the coordinate systems used and will create a view called GCOORDSYSTEM that limits access to the coordinate systems based on the schema owner. It also includes a trigger that ensures that the ownership of a coordinate system is established when the Warehouse Coordinate System command is used on a new Oracle Object warehouse. The script deletes all the entries in the existing coordinate system table before removing it from the GDOSYS schema. Once this script is run, a coordinate system will need to be reassigned to each of the feature classes that already have metadata in the GDOSYS schema. You can do this using Database Utilities, but you must login as the user who actually owns the schema. One drawback to using this method is that users who are granted access to your object model schema will not see the associated coordinate system and may display your data incorrectly (the GeoWorkspace coordinate system will be used). If you plan on running in a multi-user/multicoordinate system database, you will need to make further modifications to the GDOSYS schema. There are many different ways you can configure the GDOSYS metadata to suit your needs. Consult your Oracle DBA or Intergraph Consulting Services on the methods that best suit your workflows. C-15

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GEOMETRYPROPERTIES
The GEOMETRYROPERTIES metadata table stores the coordinate system GUID used by the geometry fields of the feature and the other characteristics for the geometry fields. This table determines the coordinate system that is assigned to each feature.

GFEATURES
The GFEATURES metadata table stores the table names of all user tables (feature classes). By manipulating the tables listed here, you can make feature classes visible or invisible in GeoMedia. When created by the Database Utilities or the Export to Oracle Object Model command, GFEATURES is a parameterized view over a table called GFEATURESBASE, which ensures that users see only the features that they have access to. The definition of the view created is as follows:
CREATE VIEW GDOSYS.GFEATURES AS SELECT * FROM GDOSYS.GFEATURESBASE WHERE FEATURENAME IN (SELECT OWNER||'.'||OBJECT_NAME FROM ALL_OBJECTS);

You can set up the GFEATURES view as you see fit; however, it must have the same definition as the GFEATURES table.

GFIELDMAPPING
For a list of mappings used by GeoMedia, see the GDO-to-Native Field Type Matching section in this appendix.

The GFIELDMAPPING metadata table is specific to the Oracle Object Model Data Servers, and it is not used directly by GeoMedia. The values in this table are used to override various aspects of field definitions, such as field types and subtypes.

GPARAMETERS
The GPARAMETERS metadata table contains parameter/value pairs. GPARAMETERS is used by the data server (never directly by GeoMedia) when a geometry field is created. The values in this table are used to set various parameters in Oracle as the geometry field is created and indexed. It consists of two columns, GPARAMETER and GVALUE.

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Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

The default GPARAMETER values for the Oracle Object Model Data Servers are the following: GParameter SpatialIndexLevel NumberOfTiles MaxLevel X_LowerBound X_UpperBound X_Tolerance Y_LowerBound Y_UpperBound Y_Tolerance Z_LowerBound Z_UpperBound Z_Tolerance Type Long Long Long Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Default GValue 1 1 1 -2147483648 2147483647 .000005 -2147483648 2147483647 .000005 -2147483648 2147483647 .000005 Comments Tessellation (Index) Level Maximum Number of Tiles Maximum Level (for Hybrid) X Minimum of MBR X Maximum of MBR X1=X2 if |X1-X2| < X_Tolerance Y Minimum of MBR Y Maximum of MBR Y1=Y2 if |Y1-Y2| < Y_Tolerance Z Minimum of MBR Z Maximum of MBR Z1=Z2 if |Z1-Z2| < Z_Tolerance

Although GVALUE values are strings, the type listed above is what the string is converted to during processing. If this table does not exist or does not have an entry in GALIASTABLE, the data server cannot create geometry fields. If the table exists, has an entry in GALIASTABLE, and is populated with at least every parameter except for the Z entries, then the geometry fields can be created and indexed. If Z parameters are absent, 2-D geometries are created. If Z parameters are present, 3-D geometries are created.

MODIFIEDTABLES
The MODIFIEDTABLES metadata table lists the tables that are tracked in the MODIFICATIONLOG. If it is not present and modification tracking is enabled, the OpenDatabase method will fail. Note: GeoMedia Professional always enables modification tracking.

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MODIFICATIONLOG
The MODIFICATIONLOG metadata table tracks modifications to the data. This table is required and will track all inserts, updates, and changes made to the tables listed in MODIFIEDTABLES. This table can grow very large and should be periodically truncated. This can be done using the Database Utilities or using the following SQLPlus:
SQL> TRUNCATE TABLE GDOSYS.MODIFICATIONLOG

As with the Relational data server, modification logging can be performed with triggers as an alternative to the automatic logging done by the data server itself.

Sequences
Sequences are used to populate AutoNumber fields. The GDOSYS schema contains the following sequences: GMODLOGSequence for the AutoNumber (MODIFICATIONNUMBER) field in the MODIFICATIONLOG table. GAUTONUMBERSEQUENCESequence used to generate a unique identifier for generating other sequences. FIELDLOOKUPINDEXID1Sequence for the AutoNumber field (INDEXID) in the FIELDLOOKUP table.

Triggers
The only trigger required by GeoMedia Professional is: DELETEMETADATAGMTThis trigger updates the appropriate metadata in GDOSYS whenever a table or column is deleted anywhere in the Oracle database.

Table Relationships
The metadata tables in the GDOSYS schema are related to each other in specific ways. Direct relationships are listed as follows: GCOORDSYSTEM.CSGUID = GFIELDMAPPING.CSGUID = GEOMETRYPROPERTIES.GCOORDSYSTEMGUID

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Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

GEOMETRYPROPERTIES.INDEXID = ATTRIBUTEPROPERTIES.INDEXID = FIELDLOOKUP.INDEXID FIELDLOOKUP.FEATURENAME = GFEATURES.FEATURENAME OWNER/TABLE_NAME in the GFIELDMAPPING table corresponds to the FEATURENAME column in the client metadata tables (FIELDLOOKUP and GFEATURES). COLUMN_NAME in the GFIELDMAPPING table corresponds to the FIELDNAME column in the client metadata tables.

The following are indirect and implied relationships:

Using an Existing Oracle Spatial Object Schema


If you plan on connecting to an existing Oracle Spatial Object Model schema, the requirements depend on whether you are connecting as readonly or read/write. For read-only connections, you will need to ensure that: The Oracle Client software has been loaded, and a host has been configured using Net8. The database schema is in Oracle 8.1.6 format or later. The GeoWorkspace coordinate system used to view the data is in the same coordinate system as the data.

For read/write connections, you will need to ensure that: The Oracle Client software has been loaded, and a host has been configured using Net8. The database schema is in Oracle 8.1.6 format or later. The metadata schema, GDOSYS, is present and populated with the correct information. The metadata tables in GDOSYS store information used by all the schemas that GeoMedia Professional will write to. The user has access to the GDOSYS.GALIASTABLE. All tables in the schema that are to be used in GeoMedia have entries in the GDOSYS metadata. Adding the appropriate entries, and the associated coordinate systems, is done using the Database Utilities.

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All the tables in the schema that contain a column whose data type is MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY will show up as a feature in GeoMedia. Without metadata, the feature will be a compound data type. Nongraphic tables will be served up as attributeonly tables and will only be available for joins, queries, and data window displays.

Creating a New Oracle Spatial Object Database


Creating a new Oracle Spatial Object database requires DBA access to your Oracle database server. The DBA needs to create a user account in Oracle that will hold the spatial object tables. Once a user account exists, there are four ways to build and to populate the spatial data: Use Oracle statements to construct the table definitions and to insert the required data. Once the schema is defined and loaded, you will need to populate the Oracle metadata USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA and then use the Database Utilities to populate the required metadata in the GDOSYS schema (for read/write access). Use the GeoMedia Professional Import from Warehouse command to import table definitions and data from other data warehouses, for example, ArcView and MGE. In this case, both Oracle metadata and the GDOSYS metadata are populated for you. Use the GeoMedia Professional Export to Oracle Object Model command to output a set of SQL Loader files that will construct the database tables and bulk load the data. In this case, both Oracle metadata and the GDOSYS metadata are populated for you. Create new feature classes using the GeoMedia Professional Feature Class Definition command, and populate the data by digitizing new elements in the map window.

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Database Utilities
See the Database Utilities Online Help for complete information on these utilities.

The Database Utilities consist of several utilities for managing and updating Access, Oracle 8i Object, and MS SQL Server databases for use with GeoMedia products. These utilities are delivered with GeoMedia Professional and GeoMedia Web Map. You can access these utilities from Start > Programs > <application name> > Database Utilities.

When using the Database Utilities with the Oracle Spatial Object Model, you will need to login to Oracle as a database administrator (DBA) or system/manager to create and to populate the necessary metadata. Note: The exception to this is the Assign Coordinate System command. If you have set up GCOORDSYSTEM as a view, you will need to login as the owner of the schema containing the features you want to assign a coordinate system to. The GDOSYS schema is required for all database read/write operation using GeoMedia Professional. It is not required for read-only operations. If the GDOSYS schema does not exist in your Oracle database, you will be prompted whether you want to create it. The existence of the GDOSYS schema is required in order to proceed. Once the GDOSYS schema is created, you will not be prompted to create it again. By default, the GDOSYS schema is added to the System tablespace in your Oracle server. C-21

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Database Utilities includes five separate database tools. The operations

performed by each tool differ depending on the state of the database and the database type. When using the Oracle Object Model, the Database Utilities and their functions are as follows:
Clear Modification LogClears all of the entries in the

MODIFIEDTABLES table and the MODIFICATIONLOG table. MODIFIEDTABLES stores the name of the table that has been modified, and MODIFICATIONLOG stores all insert, delete, and update events that have taken place on this table. Over time, these tables (particularly MODIFICATIAONLOG) can become large enough to degrade performance. Thus, run this tool periodically in order to ensure optimal performance. This operation, in essence, performs a truncate table command in Oracle SQL. It is not undoable.
Insert Feature Class MetadataCreates all necessary metadata for one

or more feature classes so that they are accessible in GeoMedia. This tool supports two main workflows: Creating metadata for a native database that contains features not created using GeoMedia. All tables and views that are to be visible in GeoMedia must be added to the metadata. This includes both graphic and nongraphic tables/views. Only tables/views that currently have no associated metadata will show up for the selected schema. Use this tool to assign the feature type (point, line, area compound, and nongraphic), the visible columns, the primary geometry column, and the coordinate system for the selected graphic tables (feature classes). Re-creating metadata that was deleted with the Delete Feature Class Metadata utility because the metadata was corrupted in some way.

Delete Feature Class MetadataDeletes all appropriate metadata

information for the selected feature class table(s).


Assign Coordinate SystemChanges the coordinate system for the selected table(s). This utility corrects the following two conditions:

The GCOORDSYSTEM table exists but has no records for a specific feature class. The GCOORDSYSTEM table has an incorrect entry for a specific feature class.

This tool also lets you review existing coordinate systems, create new coordinate systems, and assign a coordinate system to one or more selected feature class geometries. Care must be exercised when changing or altering coordinate systems. If a coordinate system is assigned incorrectly, the data will be displayed in an incorrect spatial location. C-22

Using the Oracle Object Model Data Server

Create Modification Log Triggers (only for Oracle Object Model) Checks for the existence of the trigger for modification logging. If the trigger does not exist, it creates the modification log triggers on the selected feature class(es). These modification log triggers allow for the tracking of changes made to a specific feature table outside of GeoMedia Professional. The tables affected are stored in MODIFIEDTABLES, and the changes are tracked in the MODIFICATONLOG table.

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Coordinate System Information


Projection Algorithms
Albers Equal Area Azimuthal Equidistant Bipolar Oblique Conic Conformal Bonne British National Grid Cassini-Soldner Cylindrical Equirectangular Eckert IV Equidistant Conic (Simple Conic) Gauss-Kruger Gnomonic Indonesian Polyhedric Krovak Laborde Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Lambert Conformal Conic Mercator Miller Cylindrical Modified Polyconic (IMW Series) Mollweide New Zealand Map Grid North Polar Stereographic Orthographic Polyconic Rectified Skew Orthomorphic Robinson Simple Cylindrical (Plate Carree) Sinusoidal South Polar Stereographic State Plane Coordinate System 1927 State Plane Coordinate System 1983 Three-Step Stereographic Transverse Mercator Undefined (Rectangular Grid) Universal Polar Stereographic Universal Transverse Mercator Van der Grinten

Datum Transformation Models


Bursa-Wolf Canadian National Transformation (2.0) Complex Polynomial Molodensky (standard) Multiple Regression NADCON North American Datum 1927 to North American Datum 1983 (NGS Version 2.10) NADCON North American Datum 1983 to High Accuracy Reference Network (NGS Version 2.10) Second Degree Conformal Polynomial Second Degree (General) Polynomial

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Notes for the Canadian National Transformation 2.0 Datum Transformation Model
The Canadian National Transformation is a datum transformation model for the conversion of geographic points from the NAD27 datum to the NAD83 datum, or vice versa, to match points obtained from the Canadian National Transformation PC program INTGRID version 2.0. This model was obtained from the Geodetic Survey Division, Geomatics Canada, and has been implemented in GeoMedia Professional. To use the Canadian National Transformation, you must obtain the grid file ntv2_0.gsb and place it in the \Program Files\GeoMedia Professional\Program\cssruntm\cfg\canada folder. You can obtain this grid file from: Geodetic Survey Division, Geomatics Canada Natural Resources Canada 615 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A0E9 CANADA
Disclaimer by the Minister of Natural Resources (NRCan) for the Canadian National Transformation version 2.0 (NTv2) software: The NTv2, or any part thereof, is licensed on an "as is" basis and NRCan makes no guarantees, representations, or warranties respecting the NTv2, either expressed or implied, arising by law or otherwise, including but not limited to, effectiveness, completeness, accuracy or fitness for a particular purpose. NRCan shall not be liable in respect of any claim, demand, or action, irrespective of the nature of the cause of the claim, demand, or action alleging any loss, injury or damages, direct or indirect, which may result from Intergraph's, or Intergraphs clients, use or possession of the NTv2, or any part thereof. NRCan shall not be liable in any way for loss of profits or revenue, or any other consequential loss of any kind resulting from the Intergraph's, or Intergraphs clients, use or possession of the NTv2 or any part thereof.

When the Canadian National Transformation model interpolates a given point, it checks a configurable text file, \cssruntm\cfg\canada\area.par, for the name of the grid file to use. Only the first valid grid file found will be used during point conversions. The file extension .gsb should be left off the entry in the area.par file.

Notes for the NADCON NAD27 to NAD83 (NGS Version 2.10) Model
NADCON is a datum transformation model for the conversion of point coordinates from the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27) to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), and vice versa, and from the NAD83 datum to the state High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN), and vice versa. The NADCON model (NGS version 2.10) is public-domain software from the National Geodetic Survey. This program transforms latitude and longitude coordinates between NAD27 and NAD83, and vice versa, and between the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN), and vice versa. This model can also transform data originally expressed in old island datums, such as exist in Alaska and Hawaii, into data referenced to NAD83. Data for the following areas is provided in GeoMedia Professional. Grid files for going between NAD27 and NAD83: Area Alaska Alaska: St. George Island Alaska: St. Lawrence Island Alaska: St. Paul Island CONUS Hawaiian Islands Puerto Rico and V.I. Description Alaska, including Aleutian Islands Old island datum within Alaska Old island datum within Alaska Old island datum within Alaska Conterminous U.S. (lower 48 states) Old Hawaiian datum Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands File Name alaska stgeorge stlrnc stpaul conus hawaii prvi

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Coordinate System Information

Data used in the above files for NADCON datum transformations is selected on an area-by-area basis. For example, if you are performing a datum transformation within the U.S., data contained in the conus file is used in the transformation. However, the island datums of Alaska (St. Lawrence, St. George, and St. Paul) fall within the larger Alaska datum. When a point being transformed from NAD27 to NAD83 falls within multiple datums, the datum corresponding to the first file found in the list of file names in the \cssruntm\cfg\nadcon\area.par file is used. This is the default file list in area.par: conus, prvi, stlrnc, stgeorge, stpaul, alaska, hawaii. To perform datum transformations for the three Alaska island datums using the Alaska datum instead of the island datums, the alaska entry must come before the island datum entries stlrnc, stgeorge, and stpaul. IMPORTANT: St. George Is. and St. Paul Is. are part of the Pribilof Islands. Two separate datums, one for each island, that were available before NAD83 are significantly different from NAD27. Be sure that the input data is consistent with the identified transformation data sets. The transformation of misidentified data can result in very large errors on the order of hundreds of meters.

Grid files for going between NAD83 and HARN: Area Alabama Arizona California Colorado Eastern portion of Idaho - Montana Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland - Delaware Mississippi New England New Mexico Oklahoma Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Tennessee Virginia Washington - Oregon Western portion of Idaho Montana Wisconsin File Name alhpgn azhpgn cahpgn cohpgn emhpgn flhpgn kyhpgn lahpgn mehpgn mdhpgn mshpgn nehpgn nmhpgn okhpgn pvhpgn tnhpgn vahpgn wohpgn wmhpgn wihpgn

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

The area.par file for NAD83 to HARN datum transformations is \cssruntm\cfg\harn\area.par. This is the default file list in area.par: alhpgn, azhpgn, cahpgn, cohpgn, emhpgn, flhpgn, kyhpgn, lahpgn, mdhpgn, mehpgn, mshpgn, nehpgn, nmhpgn, okhpgn, pvhpgn, tnhpgn, vahpgn, wihpgn, wmhpgn, wohpgn. The accuracy of the transformations should be viewed with some caution. At the 67-percent confidence level, this method introduces approximately 0.15 meter uncertainty within the conterminous United States, 0.50 meter uncertainty within Alaska, 0.20 meter uncertainty within Hawaii, and 0.05 meter uncertainty within Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. In areas of sparse geodetic data coverage, NADCON may yield less accurate results, but seldom in excess of 1.0 meter. Transformations between NAD83 and States/Regions with High Accuracy Reference Networks (HARNs) introduce approximately 0.05 meter uncertainty. Transformations between old datums (NAD27, Old Hawaiian, Puerto Rico, and so forth) and HARN could combine uncertainties (for example, NAD27 to HARN equals 0.15m + 0.05m = 0.2m). In near offshore regions, results will be less accurate, but seldom in excess of 5.0 meters. Farther offshore NAD27 was undefined. Therefore, the NADCON computed transformations are extrapolations and no accuracy can be stated. NADCON cannot improve the accuracy of data. Stations that are originally third-order will not become firstorder stations. NADCON is merely a tool for transforming coordinate values between datums. This program is based exclusively upon data within the official National Geodetic Reference System (NGRS). Data originating from stations not part of this official reference may not be compatible. Be sure that the data to be transformed is actually referenced to the NGRS.

Disclaimer published by the National Geodetic Survey in the public domain software package: The attendant software and any associated data were developed for use by the National Ocean Service under controlled conditions of software maintenance, input quality, processing configurations, and output data utilization. Any use of this software by other than the National Ocean Service would be under conditions not necessarily subject to such control. Therefore, the National Ocean Service makes no warranties, expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability for any particular purpose of the information and data contained in or generated by this software or furnished in connection therewith. Furthermore, the National Ocean Service assumes no liability associated with the use of such software, information, and data, and assumes no responsibility to maintain them in any manner or means. Any exceptions to these conditions of release must be formally established through negotiated agreements with the National Ocean Service. Since this software and associated information and data were developed and compiled with U.S. Government funding, no proprietary rights may be attached to them, nor may they be sold to the U.S. Government as part of any procurement of ADP products or services.

D-4

Coordinate System Information

Geodetic Datums
The definitions of these datums come primarily from two sources: NIMA Technical Report 8350.2, Third Edition (July 1997), and the EPSG Geodesy Parameters database, version 4.0 (March 1998). Where conflicts between these two sources exist, both definitions are provided, and the names indicate the source. Adindan AFG (Afgooye) Agadez Ain el Abd 1970 American Samoa Datum 1962 Amersfoort Ancienne Triangulation Francaise (ATF) Anna 1 Astro 1965 Antigua Island Astro 1943 Aratu Arc 1950 (EPSG Definition) Arc 1950 (NIMA Definition) Arc 1960 Ascension Island 1958 Astro Beacon "E" 1945 Astro DOS 71/4 Astro Tern Island (FRIG) 1961 Astronomical Station 1952 Australian Geodetic 1966 Australian Geodetic 1984 Average Terrestrial System 1977 (ATS77) Ayabelle Lighthouse Barbados Batavia Beduaram Beijing 1954 Bellevue (IGN) Bermuda 1957 Bern 1898 Bern 1938 Bissau Bogota Observatory Bukit Rimpah Campcupa Camp Area Astro Campo Inchauspe Canton Astro 1966 Cape Cape (EPSG Definition) Cape (NIMA Definition) Cape Canaveral Carthage Carthage (EPSG Definition) Carthage (NIMA Definition) Chatham Island Astro 1971 Chua Astro Conakry 1905 Co-Ordiante System 1937 of Estonia Corrego Alegre Cote dlvoire Dabola Datum 73 Dealu Piscului 1933 Dealu Piscului 1970 Deception Island (Antarctica) Deir ez Zor Deutsche Hauptdreiecksnetz (DHDN) Djakarta (Batavia) DOS 1968 Douala Easter Island 1967 European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 European 1950 European 1979 European 1987 Fahud Fort Thomas 1955 Gan 1970 Garoua Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94) Geodetic Datum 1949 Graciosa Base SW 1948 Greek Greek Geodetic Reference System 1987 Guam 1963 Gunung Segara GUX 1 Astro Guyane Francaise Hartebeesthoek 94 Herat North Hermannskogel Hito XVIII 1983 Hjorsey 1955 Hong Kong 1963 Hungarian Datum 1972 (HD72) Hu-Tzu-Shan Indian Indian 1954 Indian 1960 Indian 1975 Indian (India and Nepal) Indian (Pakistan) Indonesian 1974 Ireland 1965 ISTS 061 Astro 1968 ISTS 073 Astro 1969 Jamaica 1875 Jamaica 1969 Johnston Island 1961 Kalianpur D-5

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Kandawala Kartastokoordinaattijarjestelma Kerguelen Island 1949 Kertau 1948 Kusaie Astro 1951 Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) Kuwait Utility (KUDAMS) L. C. 5 Astro 1961 La Canoa Lake Leigon Liberia 1964 Lisbon Lithuania 1994 (ETRS89) , a densification from ETRS89 Loma Quintana Lome Luzon M'Poraloko (EPSG Definition) M'Poraloko (NIMA Definition) Mahe 1971 Makassar Malongo 1987 Manoca Massawa Merchich Merchich (EPSG Definition) Merchich (NIMA Definition) MGICS (equivalent to SJTSK) Mhast Midway Astro 1961 Militar-Geographische Institut (MGI) Minna Monte Mario Montserrat Island Astro 1958 Nahrwan Naparima, BWI National Geodetic Network (NGN) NGO 1948 Nord de Guerre D-6

North American 1927 North American 1983 North American 1983 HARN Upgrade North Sahara 1958 (EPSG Definition) North Sahara 1959 (NIMA Definition) Nouvelle Triangulation Francaise (NTF) NSWC 9Z-2 Observatorio Meteorologico 1939 Old Egyptian 1907 Old Hawaiian Oman Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936 OS (SN) 1980 OSGB 1970 (SN) Padang 1884 Palestine 1923 Pico de las Nieves Pitcairn Astro 1967 Point 58 Pointe Noire 1948 (EPSG Definition) Pointe Noire 1948 (NIMA Definition) Porto Santo 1936 Potsdam Provisional South Chilean 1963 Puerto Rico Pulkovo 1942 Pulkovo 1995 Qatar 1948 Qatar National Qornoq Reseau Geodesique Francais 1993 *RGF93) Reseau National Belge 1950 (Belge 1950)

Reseau National Belge 1972 (Belge 1972) Reunion Rikets koordinstsystem 1990 (RT90) Rome 1940 S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) S-JTSK (equivalent to MGICS) Samboja Santo (DOS) 1965 Sao Braz Sapper Hill 1943 Schwarzeck Segora Selvagem Grande 1938 Serindung Sierra Leone 1960 South American 1956 South American 1969 South Asia Stockholm 1938 (RT38) Sudan Tananarive Observatory 1925 Timbalai 1948 TM65 TM75 Tokyo Trinidad 1903 Tristan Astro 1968 Trucial Coast 1948 United States Standard User-defined (non-standard) Viti Levu 1916 Voirol 1874 (NIMA Definition) Voirol 1875 (EPSG Definition) Voirol 1960 (EPSG Definition) Voirol 1960 (NIMA Definition) Wake Island Astro 1952 Wake-Eniwetok 1960 WGS60 WGS66 WGS72

Coordinate System Information

WGS 72 Transit Broadcast Ephemeris (WGS 72BE)

WGS84 Yacare

Yoff Zanderij

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Ellipsoids
Ellipsoid Airy 1830 Australian National/South American 1969 Average Terrestrial System 1977 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 (Namibia) Clarke 1858 (EPSG Definition) Clarke 1866 Clarke 1880 (Arc) Clarke 1880 (Benoit) Clarke 1880 (EPSG Definition) Clarke 1880 (IGN) Clarke 1880 (NIMA Definition) Clarke 1880 (SGA 1922) Danish Everest (Brunei and East Malaysia) also referenced as Everest 1830 (1967 Definition) Everest (India 1830) - also referenced as Everest 1830 (1937 Adjustment) Everest (India 1956) Everest (Pakistan) Everest (West Malaysia 1969) Everest 1830 (1975 Definition) Fischer 1960 (Mercury) Fischer 1968 GEM 10C GRS 1967 GRS80 Helmert 1906 Hough Indonesian National 1974 Earth Radius 6377563.396 m. 6378160 m. 6378135 m 6377397.155 m. 6377483.865 m. 6378293.639246834 m 6378206.4 m. 6378249.145m 6378300.79 m 6378249.138846127 m 6378249.2 m. 6378249.145 m. 6378249.2 m 6377104.43 m. 6377298.556 m. Earth-Flattening Denominator 299.3249646 298.25 298.257 299.1528128 299.1528128 294.2606763692611 294.9786982139058 293.4663077 293.4662345705142 293.4663076556299 293.4660212936294 293.465 293.46598 300 300.8017

6377276.345 m. 6377301.243 m. 6377309.613 m. 6377295.664 m. 6377301.243 m. 6378166 m. 6378150 m. 6378137 m 6378160 m 6378137 m. 6378200 m. 6378270 m. 6378160 m.

300.8017 300.8017 300.8017 300.8017 300.8017373415948 298.3 298.3 298.2572236 298.247167427 298.257222101 298.3 297 298.247 D-8

Coordinate System Information

Ellipsoid International 1924 Krassovsky 1940 Modified Airy - also referenced as Airy Modified 1849 Modified Bessel Modified Everest - also referenced as Everest - West Malaysia and Singapore 1948 and Everest 1830 Modified Modified Fischer 1960 (South Asia) NWL 10D NWL9D OSU86F OSU91A Plessis 1817 Struve Struve 1860 Unit Sphere User-defined (non-standard) War Office WGS60 WGS66 WGS72 WGS84

Earth Radius 6378388 m. 6378245 m. 6377340.189 m. 6377492.018 m 6377304.063 m.

Earth-Flattening Denominator 297 298.3 299.3249646 299.1528128 300.8017

6378155 m. 6378135 m 6378145 m 6378136.2 m 6378136.3 m 6376523 m 6378298.3 m. 6378297 m 1 m. 6378300.583 m 6378165 m. 6378145 m. 6378135 m. 6378137 m.

298.3 298.26 298.25 298.2572236 298.2572236 308.64 294.73 294.73 0 296 298.3 298.25 298.26 298.257223563

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Units of Measure (UOM)


Linear Units
Alias chain cm ft furlong hundredth in kft km link m mi mm nm nmi pole pt rod sf si sk svy_ft svy_in svy_kft tenth thousandth yd UOM feet inches chain centimeters feet furlong hundredth inches kilofeet kilometers link meters miles millimeters nanometer nautical miles pole point rod survey feet survey inches survey kilofeet survey feet survey inches survey kilofeet tenth thousandth yard Conversion Factor 0.3048 (m/ft) 0.0254 (m/in) 20.1168 (m/chain) 0.01 (m/cm) 0.3048 (m/ft) 201.168 (m/furlong) 0.000254 (m/100th) 0.0254 (m/in) 304.80 (m/kft) 1000.0 (m/km) 0.201168 (m/link) 1.0 1609.344 (m/mi) 0.001 (m/mm) 0.000000001 (m/nm) 1852.0 (m/nmi) 5.0292 (m/pole) 0.000352777777777778 (m/pt) 5.0292 (m/rod) 0.304800609601219 (m/sf) 0.025400050800102 (m/si) 304.800609601219 (m/sk) 0.304800609601219 (m/sf) 0.025400050800102 (m/si) 304.800609601219 (m/svy_kft) 0.00254 (m/tenth) 0.0000254 (m/1000th) 0.9144 (m/yd)

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Coordinate System Information

Angular Units
Alias dd.mmss deg d:m:s gr min rad rev sec UOM minutes seconds degrees degrees minutes seconds degrees degrees:minutes:seconds grads minutes radians revolutions seconds Conversion Factor 0.000290888208665722 (rad/min) 0.00000484813681109536 (rad/sec) 0.0174532925199433 (rad/deg) See individual units. 0.0174532925199433 (rad/deg) See individual units. 0.0157079632679490 (rad/gr) 0.000290888208665722 (rad/min) 1.0 6.28318530717959 (rad/rev) 0.00000484813681109536 (rad/sec)

Area Units
Alias ac ares centare chain^2 cm^2 deciare ft^2 hectare in^2 km^2 link^2 m^2 mi^2 mm^2 perch rod^2 yd^2 UOM acres ares centares square chains square centimeters deciares square feet hectares square inches square kilometers square links square meters square miles square millimeters perches square rods square yards Conversion Factor 4046.8564224 (m^2/ac) 100.0 (m^2/are) 1.0 (m^2/centare) 404.68564224 (m^2/chain^2) 0.0001 (m^2/cm^2) 10.0 (m^2/deciare) 0.09290304 (m^2/ft^2) 10000.0 (m^2/hectare) 0.00064516 (m^2/in^2) 1000000.0 (m^2/km^2) 0.040468564224 (m^2/link^2) 1.0 2589988.110336 (m^2/mi^2) 0.000001 (m^2/mm^2) 25.29285264 (m^2/perch) 25.29285264 (m^2/rod^2) 0.83612736 (m^2/yd^2)

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State Plane Zone CodesNAD27 Datum


Zone Alabama (E,W) Alaska 1 Alaska (2-9) Alaska 10 Arizona (E,C,W) Arkansas (N,S) California (I-VII) Colorado (N,C,S) Connecticut Delaware Florida (E,W) Florida North Georgia (E,W) Hawaii (I-V) Idaho (E,C,W) Illinois (E,W) Indiana (E,W) Iowa (N,S) Kansas (N,S) Kentucky (N,S) Louisiana (N,S) Louisiana Offshore Maine (E,W) Maryland Mass. (Main, Isle) Mich. (old) (E,C,W) Mich. (N,C,S) Minnesota (N,C,S) Mississippi (E,W) Missouri (E,C,W) Code 101, 102 5001 5002-5009 5010 201-203 301-302 401-407 501-503 600 700 901, 902 903 1001, 1002 5101-5105 1101-1103 1201, 1202 1301, 1302 1401, 1402 1501, 1502 1601, 1602 1701, 1702 1703 1801, 1802 1900 2001, 2002 2101-2103 2111-2113 2201-2203 2301, 2302 2401-2403 Projection Transverse Mercator Oblique Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator

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Coordinate System Information

State Plane Zone CodesNAD27 Datum (Continued)


Zone Montana (N,C,S) Nebraska (N,S) Nevada (E,C,W) New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico (E,C,W) New York (E,C,W) N.Y. Long Island North Carolina North Dakota (N,S) Ohio (N,S) Oklahoma (N,S) Oregon (N,S) Pennsylvania (N,S) Puerto Rico, Virg.I. 1 Puerto Rico, Virg.I. 2 Rhode Island Samoa South Carolina (N,S) South Dakota (N,S) Tennessee Texas (N,NC,C,SC,S) Utah (N,C,S) Vermont Virginia (N,S) Washington (N,S) West Virginia (N,S) Wisconsin (N,C,S) Wyoming (E,EC,WC,W) Code 2501-2503 2601, 2602 2701-2703 2800 2900 3001-3003 3101-3103 3104 3200 3301, 3302 3401, 3402 3501, 3502 3601, 3602 3701, 3702 5201 5202 3800 5300 3901, 3902 4001, 4002 4100 4201-4205 4301-4303 4400 4501, 4502 4601, 4602 4701, 4702 4801-4803 4901-4904 Projection Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator

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State Plane Zone CodesNAD83 Datum


Zone Alabama (E,W) Alaska 1 Alaska (2-9) Alaska 10 Arizona (E,C,W) Arkansas (N,S) California (I-VI) Colorado (N,C,S) Connecticut Delaware Florida (E,W) Florida North Georgia (E,W) Hawaii (I-V) Idaho (E,C,W) Illinois (E,W) Indiana (E,W) Iowa (N,S) Kansas (N,S) Kentucky (N,S) Louisiana (N,S) Louisiana Offshore Maine (E,W) Maryland Mass, (Main, Isle) Michigan (N,C,S) Minnesota (N,C,S) Mississippi (E,W) Missouri (E,C,W) Code 101, 102 5001 5002-5009 5010 201-203 301, 302 401-406 501-503 600 700 901, 902 903 1001, 1002 5101-5105 1101-1103 1201, 1202 1301, 1302 1401, 1402 1501, 1502 1601, 1602 1701, 1702 1703 1801, 1802 1900 2001, 2002 2111-2113 2201-2203 2301, 2302 2401-2403 Projection Transverse Mercator Oblique Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator

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Coordinate System Information

State Plane Zone CodesNAD83 Datum (Continued)


Zone Montana Nebraska Nevada (E,C,W) New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico (E,C,W) New York (E,C,W) N.Y. Long Island North Carolina North Dakota (N,S) Ohio (N,S) Oklahoma (N,S) Oregon (N,S) Pennsylvania (N,S) Puerto Rico, Virg.I. Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota (N,S) Tennessee Texas (N,NC,C,SC,S) Utah (N,C,S) Vermont Virginia (N,S) Washington (N,S) West Virginia (N,S) Wisconsin (N,C,S) Wyoming (E,EC,WC,W) Code 2500 2600 2701-2703 2800 2900 3001-3003 3101-3103 3104 3200 3301, 3302 3401, 3402 3501, 3502 3601, 3602 3701, 3702 5200 3800 3900 4001, 4002 4100 4201-4205 4301-4303 4400 4501, 4502 4601 4602 4701, 4702 4801-4803 4901-4904 Projection Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator Lambert Lambert Lambert Lambert Transverse Mercator

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Working with GeoMedia

UTM Zones
Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Meridian 177W 171W 165W 159W 153W 147W 141W 135W 129W 123W 117W 111W 105W 99W 93W 87W 81W 75W 69W 63W 57W 51W 45W 39W 33W 27W 21W 15W 9W 3W 3E Longitude Range 180W-174W 174W-168W 168W-162W 162W-156W 156W-150W 150W-144W 144W-138W 138W-132W 132W-126W 126W-120W 120W-114W 114W-108W 108W-102W 102W-96W 96W-90W 90W-84W 84W-78W 78W-72W 72W-66W 66W-60W 60W-54W 54W-48W 48W-42W 42W-36W 36W-30W 30W-24W 24W-18W 18W-12W 12W-6W 6W-0 0-6E Zone 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Meridian 9E 15E 21E 27E 33E 39E 45E 51E 57E 63E 69E 75E 81E 87E 93E 99E 105E 111E 117E 123E 129E 135E 141E 147E 153E 159E 165E 171E 177E Longitude Range 6E-12E 12E-18E 18E-24E 24E-30E 30E-36E 36E-42E 42E-48E 48E-54E 54E-60E 60E-66E 66E-72E 72E-78E 78E-84E 84E-90E 90E-96E 96E-102E 102E-108E 108E-114E 114E-120E 120E-126E 126E-132E 132E-138E 138E-144E 144E-150E 150E-156E 156E-162E 162E-168E 168E-174E 174E-180E

All values are expressed in full degrees east (E) or west (W) of Greenwich (0). , Central Meridians, and Longitude Ranges

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Coordinate System Information

GeoTIFF Capabilities
Output to GeoTIFF - Projection Systems
The GeoMedia Professional Output to GeoTIFF functionality supports a limited number of predefined projection coordinate systems. These predefined projection systems are combinations of projection algorithms with predefined parameters (typically they are zones within zoned projections such as UTM) and preset datums. Additionally, the GeoTIFF specification assumes that these predefined systems are defined with specific model (resolution) units and are centered at (0,0) (they have no storage origin offset defined in the GeoMedia coordinate system). The projected type coordinate systems supported for the GeoMedia Professional Output to
GeoTIFF functionality are as follows:

Note: The UTM entries are sorted alphabetically by geodetic datum name. Projection Definition British National Grid Gauss-Kruger (Germany system) zones 1-5 Laborde Grid (Default Madagascar parameters) New Zealand Map Grid State Plane Coordinate System 1927 (all zones) State Plane Coordinate System 1983 (all zones) Universal Polar Stereographic, both Northern and Southern Hemisphere cases UTM zones 37-38, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 38-39, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 37-39, Northern Hemisphere Geodetic Datum Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936 Deutsche Hauptdreiecksnetz Tananarive Observatory 1925 Geodetic Datum 1949 NAD 27 NAD 83 WGS 84 Horizontal Resolution 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 Survey Foot 1 meter 1 meter

Adindan AFG (Afgooye) Ain el Abd 1970

1 meter 1 meter 1 meter

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Projection Definition UTM zones 22-24, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 35-37, both Northern and Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 48-58, Southern Hemisphere (Australian Map Grid) UTM zones 48-58, Southern Hemisphere (Australian Map Grid) UTM zones 48-50, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 17-18, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 32-33, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 34-36, Southern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 23-24, Southern Hemisphere UTM zone 29, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 28-38, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 28-38, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 39-40, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 33, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 48-58, Southern Hemisphere (Map Grid of Australia 1994) UTM zones 47-48, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 47-48, Northern Hemisphere D-18

Geodetic Datum Aratu Arc 1960 Australian Geodetic 1966 Australian Geodetic 1984 Batavia Bogota Observatory Camacupa Cape (EPSG Definition) Carthage (EPSG Definition) Corrego Alegre Datum 73 Douala EUREF89 (ETRS89) European 1950 Fahud Garoua Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94)

Horizontal Resolution 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter

Indian 1954 Indian 1975

1 meter 1 meter

Coordinate System Information

Projection Definition UTM zones 46-54, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 46-53, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 47-48, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 20-21, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 31, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, Southern Hemisphere UTM zone 37, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 31-32, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, both Northern and Southern Hemispheres UTM zones 3-22, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 3-23, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 38-40, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 20, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 38-39, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 29-32, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 32, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 20-21, Southern Hemisphere UTM zone 33, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 17-20, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 18-21, Northern Hemisphere

Geodetic Datum Indonesian 1974 Indonesian 1974 Kertau 1948 La Canoa Lome Malongo 1987 Massawa Mhast Minna MPoraloko (EPSG Definition) NAD27 NAD83 Nahrwan Naparima, BWI National Geodetic Network North Sahara 1959 (EPSG Definition) Pointe Noire 1948 (EPSG Definition) Sapper Hill 1943 Schwarzeck South American 1956 South American 1956

Horizontal Resolution 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter

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Projection Definition UTM zones 17-25, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 18-22, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 35-36, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 38-39, Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 49-50, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 39-40, Northern Hemisphere UTM zones 1-60, both Northern and Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 1-60, both Northern and Southern Hemisphere UTM zones 1-60, both Northern and Southern Hemisphere UTM zone 28, Northern Hemisphere UTM zone 21, Northern Hemisphere

Geodetic Datum South American 1969 South American 1969 Sudan Tananarive Observatory 1925 Timbalai 1948 Trucial Coast 1948 WGS 72 WGS 72 Transit Broadcast Ephemeris WGS 84 Yoff Zanderij

Horizontal Resolution 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter

D-20

Coordinate System Information

Geographic Systems
The GeoMedia Professional Output to GeoTIFF functionality also supports writing geographic coordinate systems on certain available datums. The GeoTIFF specification assumes that these predefined systems are defined with specific model (resolution) units and are centered at (0,0) (they have no storage origin offset defined in the GeoMedia coordinate system). The geographic type coordinate systems supported for the GeoMedia Professional Output to GeoTIFF functionality are as follows: Geodetic Datum Adindan AFG (Afgooye) Agadez Ain el Abd 1970 Amersfoort Ancienne Triangulation Francaise Aratu Arc 1950 (EPSG Definition) Arc 1960 Australian Geodetic 1966 Australian Geodetic 1984 Barbados Batavia Beduaram Beijing 1954 Bermuda 1957 Bern 1898 Bern 1938 Bogota Observatory Bukit Rimpah Camacupa Campo Inchauspe Cape (EPSG Definition) Carthage (EPSG Definition) Chua Astro Horizontal Resolution 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 grad 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree

D-21

Working with GeoMedia

Geodetic Datum Conakry 1905 Corrego Alegre Cote dIvoire Datum 73 Dealul Piscului 1933 Dealul Piscului 1970 Deir ez Zor Deutsche Hauptdreiecksnetz Douala EUREF89 (ETRS89) European 1950 European 1987 Fahud Gan 1970 Garoua Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94) Geodetic Datum 1949 Greek Greek GRS 1987 Guyane Francaise Herat North Hito XVIII 1963 Hungarian Datum 1972 Hu-Tzu-Shan Indian 1954 Indian 1975 Indonesian 1974 Jamaica 1875 Jamaica 1969 Kalianpur Kandawala Kartastokoordinaattijarjestelma (KKJ) Kertau 1948 D-22

Horizontal Resolution 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree

Coordinate System Information

Geodetic Datum Kuwait Oil Company Kuwait Utility La Canoa Lake Leigon Liberia 1964 Lisbon Lithuania 1994 (ETRS89) Loma Quintana Lome Luzon Mahe 1971 Makassar Malongo 1987 Manoca Massawa Merchich (EPSG Definition) Mhast Militar-Geographische Institut Minna Monte Mario MPoraloko (EPSG Definition) NAD 27 NAD 83 Nahrwan Naparima, BWI National Geodetic Network NGO 1948 Nord de Guerre North Sahara 1959 (EPSG Definition) Nouvelle Triangulation Francaise NSWC 9Z-2 Old Egyptian 1907

Horizontal Resolution 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 grad 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree D-23

Working with GeoMedia

Geodetic Datum Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936 OS (SN) 1980 OSGB 1970 (SN) Padang 1884 Palestine 1923 Pointe Noire 1948 (EPSG Definition) Pulkovo 1942 Pulkovo 1995 Qatar 1948 Qatar National Qornoq Reseau National Belge 1950 Reseau National Belge 1972 Riketskoordinatsystem 1990 (RT90) Samboja Sapper Hill 1943 Schwarzeck Segora Serindung South American 1956 South American 1969 Stockholm 1938 Sudan Tananarive Observatory 1925 Timbalai 1948 TM65 TM75 Tokyo Trinidad 1903 Trucial Coast 1948 Voirol 1875 (EPSG Definition) Voirol 1960 (EPSG Definition) WGS 72 D-24

Horizontal Resolution 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree

Coordinate System Information

Geodetic Datum WGS 72 Transit Broadcast Ephemeris WGS 84 Yacare Yoff Zanderij

Horizontal Resolution 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree 1 degree

Read from GeoTIFF (Image Placement)


GeoMedia and GeoMedia Professional read GeoTIFF information and use it to georeference images when the coordinate system described by the GeoTIFF tags meets certain criteria. Generally, the coordinate system must be one that is defined by the GeoTIFF specification and also is defined within the GeoMedia Coordinate Systems Services Automation model. The specific coordinate systems read from GeoTIFF by GeoMedia include the following: 1. All coordinate systems described above in the Output to GeoTIFF functionality, both Projection and Geographic systems. 2. Customized geographic systems that define their datum and resolution separately. Such cases are allowed to use a user-defined datum and ellipsoid and may define a resolution different from the predefined geographic systems found in the Output to GeoTIFF functionality. 3. Zoned projection systems based upon any of the available geodetic datums found in the Output to GeoTIFF functionality, using 1-meter resolution. These include Universal Transverse Mercator, Universal Polar Stereographic, and the German Gauss-Kruger system. Note that the geodetic datums may include any found in the above Output to GeoTIFF capability lists for geographic as well as projection systems. The geodetic datum may also be defined using a user-defined datum and ellipsoid. 4. Projection systems with customized parameters, resolution, and datum. Datum possibilities include any of the above-mentioned predefined datums plus user-defined datums. The list of projection algorithms includes the following: Albers Equal Area Azimuthal Equidistant Cassini Soldner Cylindrical Equirectangular Equidistant Conic Gnomonic D-25

Working with GeoMedia

Laborde Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Lambert Conformal Conic Mercator Miller Cylindrical Orthographic Polyconic Robinson Sinusoidal Transverse Mercator Undefined (Rectangular Grid) Van der Grinten

D-26

Raster Information
Raster Formats Supported in GeoMedia Professional
Place: G = Georeferenced (if georeferencing information is available) W = Georeferenced through World File support (*.tfw, *.sdw, *.jgw) H = By header (requires .csf or .dgn file) I = Interactively

Format/Type Bitmap 1 Bitmap 2 Bitmap 9 Bitmap 28 Bitmap 29 CALS 24 (1A) CALS 24 (1B) CALS 24 (2B) GeoTIFF GIF Hitachi 1 Hitachi 2 Hitachi 9 Hitachi 27 Hitachi 28 Hitachi 29 IGS 9 IGS 29 Intergraph 2* Intergraph 9

Ext. .bmp .bmp .bmp .bmp .bmp .cal .cal .cal .tif .gif .hrf .hrf .hrf .hrf .hrf .hrf .rlc .igs .cot .rle

Comp. RLE RLE, PB CCITTG4 CCITTG4 CCITTG4 LZW RLE RLE RLE, PB RLE RLE RLE

Tiles No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No

Bits 1 8 1 24 8 1 1 1 8 1 8 1 24 24 8 1 8 8 1

Main Use/Notes B/W Grayscale B/W RGB color Grayscale B/W high-res line drawings B/W high-res line drawings B/W high-res line drawings Georeferenced TIFF Palette color B/W AutoCAD applications Grayscale AutoCAD applications B/W AutoCAD applications Color AutoCAD applications Color AutoCAD applications Grayscale AutoCAD applications B/W advanced CAD applications Grayscale advanced CAD applications Grayscale B/W

Place I I I I I I I I G, I I I I I I I I I I G, H, I G, H, I

E-1

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Raster Formats Supported in GeoMedia Professional (continued)


Format/Type Intergraph 24* Intergraph 27* Intergraph 28* Intergraph 29* Intergraph 30* Intergraph 31* JFIF PCX 9 PCX 27 PCX 29 TIFF 1 TIFF 2 TIFF 9 TIFF 24 TIFF 27 TIFF 28 TIFF 29 USGS DOQ MrSID ESRI ESRI .jpg .pcx .pcx .pcx .tif .tif .tif .tif .tif .tif .tif .doq .sid .bip .bil Ext. .cit .rgb .rgb .rgb Comp. CCITTG4 RLE RLE, PB JPEG JPEG JPEG RLE RLE RLE, PB LZW, PB CCITTG4 LZW, PB LZW, PB None Wavelet None None Tiles Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Bits 1 24 24 8 8 24 8 1 8 8 1 8 1 1 24 24 8 8 8 8 Main Use/Notes B/W facsimile images RGB color RGB color Grayscale Grayscale RGB color Palette color B/W Palette color Grayscale B/W Grayscale B/W B/W facsimile images RGB color RGB color Grayscale OrthoQuads Satellite data Satellite data Place G, H, I G, H, I G, H, I G, H, I G, H, I G, H, I W, I I I I W, I W, I W, I W, I W, I W, I W, I G, I W, I W, I W, I

8/24 Grayscale/RGB

* With or without geo-tie application packets

E-2

Raster Information

Compression Techniques
Format CCITTG4 Description Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph Group 4 format is standard for transmission and storage of bilevel facsimile images. Joint Photographic Experts Group format uses a block-by-block conversion to frequency space and stores a discrete cosine series representation of the frequency space. Hardware dependent: Requires Intergraph JPEG compression board (CLIX) or Intergraph Video Engine board (Intel). Lempel-Ziv & Welch algorithm compresses binary, grayscale, or color data. Packbits algorithm compresses binary, grayscale, or color data. Packbits and Intergraph Type 29 are good for general-purpose raster data, continuous-tone imagery, and RLE data. For certain types of images, such as map images, significantly better disk compression is achieved with a different RLE format, such as Intergraph Type 9. Run-Length Encoded. A run length is a unit that describes a series of contiguous pixels in a raster line that all have the same value. Run lengths are used to achieve data compression in binary scanned data and color run-length data. Long sequences of 0s, 1s, or identical color indexes are identified and recorded using less data than would otherwise be required to list the individual values of the series of pixels. Lizard Tech algorithm for grayscale and color data.

JPEG

LZW PB

RLE

Wavelet

E-3

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Tiling
Format Tiling Description When raster data becomes large, it may be necessary to subdivide it into smaller sections that can be loaded into memory and manipulated individually. These sections are called tiles. A tiled raster file consists of the standard raster-file header, immediately followed by additional data specifying the tile information. Tiling does not make the raster file smaller, so it is not a compression technique. Rather, it breaks a raster file into manageable parts that the system can use more easily. Tiling a file often speeds up interactive display and editing operations. But tiling a run-lengthencoded file can make the file much larger on the disk.

Data Types
Data Type Binary Description Consists of pixels that are either on or off to represent the foreground and background data. Uncompressed binary data requires one bit to store each pixel. Contains coded intensity values usually ranging from 0 to 255. Generally uses one byte (8 bits) of data to represent each pixel. Uses a color table in the file header to identify the color of each pixel. As with grayscale data, each uncompressed pixel is represented by one byte of data. This byte of data points to a color-table entry containing a 24-bit color definition. There may be up to 256 slots in a color table, although all of the slots may not necessarily be used. Requires three bytes of data to represent the color of each pixel. Each byte represents the intensity of a color: one byte for red, one byte for green, and one byte for blue. The different intensities of all three colors combine to create all other possible colors. For example, a lemon-yellow pixel might be stored with an intensity value of 255 red, 219 green, and 109 blue.

Grayscale or continuous tone 8-Bit Color

24-Bit Color

E-4

Troubleshooting Connection Problems


Because of the differing requirements of the data types the software lets you work with, connecting to warehouses is the trickiest operation in the software. Understanding the data model for your warehouse is important because the problem is often caused by data that is not clean or properly defined. The messages in this appendix are listed by data type (MGE, MGSM, and Oracle) with their probable causes and solutions.

Troubleshooting MGE Connections


Problem/Error Message:
An error was encountered while loading data for 'featureclass_name' legend entry. Possible causes of the error include network problems or modifications to the feature class definition. Do you want to continue loading remaining legend entries?

Cause/Solution: The feature class has an unrecognized coordinate transformation, or there are corrupt features within the project design files. Add the following to the MGE [project].ini file: IGNORE INVALID TRANSFORM:TRUE. If this does not solve the problem, use the MicroStation EDG utility to validate and to repair the design files.

Problem or Error Message:


Attempt to scroll past end or beginning of data occurs when connecting to MGE Project.

Cause/Solution: The following configuration is being used to connect from GeoMedia Professional to an MGE project based on a Microsoft SQL Server 6.5 database on a Windows NTW, Version 4.0 (Service Pack 3) based TD: GeoMedia Professional 2.0.31.10 (includes Hot Fix for GeoMedia Professional, Version 2) ODBC Driver 3.50.0305 for SQL Server from Microsoft Corporation

When trying to connect to the warehouse, the following error is encountered: GODBCLib caught CDBexception:Attempt to scroll past end or beginning of data cannot create mem tables F-1

Working with GeoMedia Professional

An MGE [project].ini file is being used, and it contains the following lines: TABLE QUALIFIER:[schema name] USE CURSOR LIBRARY:FALSE Where the [schema name] is the RIS schema used to connect to the MGE project. Please note there are no problems in connecting to this database if the system administrator (sa) login and password are provided as input to the data source. It is only when another SQL Server username (with a complete set of privileges for creating and modifying all the tables) is specified that this problem occurs. We have also tried adding the TABLE OWNER entry in the MGE [project].ini file but the same error message is received. Also, if the TABLE QUALIFIER entry is taken out of the MGE [project].ini file, the following error message is displayed: ODBC cannot determine table owner and/or qualifier cannot open RDB. SOLUTION: This problem occurs when the database user is not the owner of the tables. ANSI databases require that SQL queries qualify the table name with the actual table owner, as follows:
SELECT * FROM [owner].[table]

instead of:
SELECT * FROM [table]

The USE ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER option, if TRUE, directs the MGE server to use the ANSI qualifier. Try these .ini file settings: TABLE QUALIFIER:[schema name] USE CURSOR LIBRARY:FALSE USE ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER:TRUE

Problem or Error Message:


Coordinate System Errors Occur when Connecting to a MGE project.

Cause/Solution: The following message occurs when trying to connect to an MGE project: Error getting coordinate system from map data cache. Cannot initialize output coordinate system. SOLUTION: The software cannot find a valid coordinate system for one of the design files. Set up through each bullet below until a connection can be made.

If the design files are not in the MGE <project>\dgn folder, add the following to MGE [project].ini file: DGN PATH:<folder1>,<folder2>,

F-2

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Note: Make sure that commas (,) are used instead of semicolons (;).

Add one of the following to the MGE [project].ini file: COORDINATE SYSTEM:<design file or coordinate file> COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ALL MAPS: <design file or coordinate file>

Note: You cannot specify the full path name in the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword.

Add the following to the MGE [project].ini file: MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE

Problem or Error Message:


Error 'Cannot init Meta-data' occurs when connecting to an MGE project

Cause/Solution: Cannot init metadata error occurs when trying to connect to an MGE project. SOLUTION: The first .dgn file in the MAPS table must be in the \dgn folder or in the folder path for .dgn files specified in the .ini file. GeoMedia Professional reads the first .dgn file for the type56 element. This determines the coordinate system information. If the .dgn file is not present, an error will occur. This same error message is displayed when the feature table has duplicate mslink, fname, or fcode values.

Problem or Error Message:


Error connecting to MGE project on Access database

Cause/Solution: When trying to connect to an MGE project built on an Access database, the user gets the following error: ODBC cannot determine table owner and/or qualifier cannot open RDB. SOLUTION: Create an MGE [project].ini file with the TABLE OWNER entry. The table owner should be specified as the full path to the Access database. For example: TABLE OWNER:d:\mgeproj\mgedatabase.mdb

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Problem or Error Message:


Error connecting to MGE project that uses Oracle.

Cause/Solution: The following error occurs when trying to connect to an MGE project on Oracle: ODBC cannot bind to columns, cannot open system table SOLUTION: This error is usually only seen with SQL Server databases. If the database is Oracle, it could indicate an ODBC problem. Remove all ODBC DLLs from \winnt\system32 and load Microsoft's MDAC from: http://www.microsoft.com/data If you have done this and it still does not work, try deleting and re-creating the Data Source Name through the 32-bit ODBC administrator. Only one user account has access to the MGE tables locally. All other users have access to the MGE tables through public synonyms. By giving access to the MGE tables as private synonyms, GeoMedia Professional was then able to bind to the tables. To handle this situation, you will need to edit the ini file of the project, and add the following entries: USE ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER:TRUE and TABLE OWNER:<owner> Problem or Error Message:
Error Regarding Insufficient Privileges when Connecting to an Oracle Database.

Cause/Solution: User is trying to connect to Oracle through GeoMedia Professional using two different Oracle databases. One contains the MGE project data and the other does not. When trying to connect to the one containing the MGE data, the following error occurs: Table or View does not exist. Error occurred in underlying database. Oracle:942 On the other connection, the error message insufficient privileges is returned. SOLUTION: This is an Oracle privilege problem and has nothing to do with GeoMedia Professional. Check to make sure that the Oracle User has both Connect and Resource Privileges.

Problem or Error Message:


Failed to get attributes from the database.

Cause/Solution: The temporary database in MS SQL Server is full. Increase the size of the temporary space.

F-4

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Problem or Error Message:


No features were found by QUERYNAME.

Cause/Solution: You tried to query a feature class that has no attribute values populated or for which the graphics cannot be found. See Checking MGE Data in this appendix.

Problem or Error Message:


No geometries found.

Cause/Solution: Although you may have used Add Feature Class or Query to load features, no features were actually loaded. Verify this by turning on the legend Show Statistics option. See Checking MGE Data in this appendix.

Problem or Error Message:


ODBC cannot bind to columns; cannot open system table.

Cause/Solution: You are trying to connect to an MGE project using an MS SQL Server database, but do not have the USE CURSOR LIBRARY:FALSE entry in the MGE .ini file. This entry is required for all connections to MGE projects built on an MS SQL Server. This same error message is displayed when the wrong MDAC version is being used. This same error message is displayed when the feature table has duplicate mslink, fname, or fcode values.

Problem or Error Message:


ODBC Connection Error - TNS Authentication Service Failed to Initialize.

The following error occurs when trying to connect through ODBC: [INTERSOLV][ODBC Oracle driver][Oracle]ORA-12641: TNS:authentication service failed to initialize Cause/Solution: This error indicates that several different things may be wrong. The first is a general incompatibility between your ODBC administrator and the ODBC drivers you are using. Make sure you are using the latest ODBC administrator (Version 3.0 or 3.5) from Microsoft.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

This error can also indicate the Oracle Client Alias is not correctly configured. This is especially true if you are running Oracle locally. When running Oracle locally on your machine, you need to go into SQL Net Easy Config or Net 8 Easy Config and set the following:

Alias : "Machine name" Protocol: Bequeath Computer name: local host Database: "SID Name"

Then in the ODBC configuration set:


Source data name: "database user name" Connect string: "alias from above"

In your MGE project file, ensure that the schema name matches the source data name from above. Remotely, make sure your address for the server is correct.

Problem or Error Message:


Text from an MGE project appears as points in GeoMedia

Cause/Solution: The user is trying to get some text from an MGE project to appear in GeoMedia Professional. All they are getting is points. The text has been feature tagged in the design file, has an associated point feature, and the .ini file contains the correct entries. SOLUTION: There are three things to check here: 1. Make sure the View as display scale independent check box on the legend Style Definition dialog box is set to scale independent. The text may just be extremely small given the scale of the display. 2. Make sure you delete and re-create the legend entry after you added the enable text entry to the .ini file. Do not forget to close and reopen the connection for any changes made to the .ini file to take effect. If you are just closing and reopening the GeoWorkspace with the same legend entries, the gdo_text entry will not get added to the legend, so you will not see the text. 3. The text may not be a label feature, but a centroids or point feature. In this case, add the following to MGE <project>.ini file: ENABLE TEXT:<fname,fcode>

F-6

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Problem or Error Message:


The Error 'No geometries found' Occurs when Using The Fit All Command

Cause/Solution: This error occurs when attempting to perform a Fit All command in a GeoWorkspace containing no features. This message will occur in a new GeoWorkspace for which no feature classes have been added. The message is more commonly reported when Add Feature Class or Query has been used to load features, but 0 features are actually loaded as indicated by the Legend Show Statistics option. The reasons that 0 features are loaded can include the following: The feature(s) being loaded do not have attribute linkages in the MGE project. The feature being loaded has attribute linkages, but the attribute table 'MAPID' column value points to an incorrect or nonexistent design file (that is, there is no corresponding MSLINK value for the design file containing the feature in the MAPS table). The design file(s) containing the requested feature cannot be found. This is often the case if the project design files are not located in the default project \dgn folder. There are no categories defined for any of the design files in the project. There are no features of the requested feature class present in the MGE project.

SOLUTION: If the feature being loaded has no attribute linkages defined, the solution is to add an entry to an MGE [project].ini file as follows: UNLINKED IS VALID:TRUE If the feature being loaded has attribute linkages, but the MAPID value is incorrect, the solution is to add an entry to an MGE [project].ini file as follows: MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE If the project design files are not located in the default \dgn folder, the solution is to add the following entry to an MGE [project].ini file: DGN PATH:[directory location of project design files] Use the MGNUC Map Manager command to verify the existence of categories for the design files in the project. If the categories for the design files are NULL, use either the Map Manager command or the Map Loader command to assign a category to the maps. To ensure that all features that exist in the MGE project are recognized by GeoMedia Professional and loaded when requested, the simplest solution is to set both UNLINKED IS VALID:TRUE and MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE in an MGE [project].ini file. In this manner, you can be assured that any features that do exist in the MGE project are found (provided that the project design files are in the default project \dgn folder or that the DGN PATH variable points to the true location of the design files).

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Problem or Error Message:


The Error 'Unable to connect to the database: a table is empty' occurs when using the MGE Data Server

Cause/Solution: There are two error messages that pose a similar problem. Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your Warehouse Connection parameters are correct and try again. More... a table is empty error getting coord sys from map data cache cannot initialize output coordinate system or you may see the following error: Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your Warehouse Connection parameters are correct and try again. More... a table is empty cannot open system table SOLUTION: This same error message is displayed when the MGE project is missing one of the following system table: feature, maps, mscatalog, view_catalog, or view_content. This same error message is displayed when the feature table has duplicate mslink, fname, or fcode values. This occurs when attempting to connect to an MGE project when: None of the design files listed in the MAPS table can be found in the project \dgn folder or the folder where DGN PATH is defined. None of the design files listed in the MAPS table of the MGE project exist. None of the design files listed in the MAPS table have a category assigned to them (that is, category field is NULL for all maps).

To solve the problem: Set the DGN PATH: variable in the MGE DATA SERVER .ini file to point to the folder where the design files are stored for the project (in the instance where they are not in the default project folder). If the DGN PATH: variable is already in use, ensure that it is entered correctly with no extra spaces or other typographical errors. Also ensure that the DGN PATH variable points to all of the folder paths that contain design files, including the default project \dgn folder if is in use.

F-8

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

(Once the DGN PATH variable is defined, the software will only look for design files within the listed folder paths.) Correct the MAPS table by using the MGE Basic Nucleus Map Loader command to populate the MAPS table with valid entries. Ensure that at least one of the design files in the MAPS table has the category populated. The MGE Basic Nucleus Map Manager command can be used to populate the category for design files listed in the MAPS table. Additional Information: When none of the design files listed in the MAPS table has a valid type-56 element (that is, coordinate system), a default coordinate system is assigned on the fly by GeoMedia Professional. This would occur for instance when a design file existed in the MAPS table (with a valid category) and could be found in the \dgn folder, but it did not have a coordinate system (type-56) defined.

Problem or Error Message:


The project directory does not exist. Error accessing project file.

Cause/Solution: The PROJECT FOLDER path in the .mge file does not exist. Correct the PROJECT FOLDER path in the <project>.mge file.

Problem or Error Message:


The recordset is empty.

Cause/Solution: You tried to open a new data window to display a feature class that has no attribute values or for which the graphics cannot be found. See Checking MGE Data in this appendix.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to an Access database. Permission Problems.

Cause/Solution: GeoMedia Professional is displaying the following error message when trying to connect to MGE data that is on an Access database: Cannot determine Table owner/qualifier. Can not open RDB SOLUTION: This occurs when the name of the *.mdb (the Access database file) is same as any other folder on the same level as the *.mdb. F-9

Working with GeoMedia Professional

For example: You have a folder called D:\projects. Within this folder is your MGE project file, Chicago.mge, which points to the Chicago project folder D:\projects\chicago. You will encounter the above error if the access database is the following: D:\projects\Chicago.mdb. Move the MDB file to a different folder. The best place is in the associated project folder. In this case, moving Chicago.mdb into the project folder D:\projects\chicago solves the problem. Problem or Error Message:
Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. GODBCLib caught CDBException Data source name not found and no default driver specified |:State:|M002.Native:0,Origin: [Microsoft][ODBC Driver Manager]|: cannot open RDB

Cause/Solution: The ODBC data-source name must match the schema name for the MGE project database. If you selected an .mge file with no corresponding ODBC source name for the MGE project database, use the 32-bit ODBC Administrator on the Control Panel to add a data source name for the database associated with the MGE project. If the RIS schema file name (the SCHEMA: entry in the <project>.mge file) does not match the ODBC data-source name defined for the MGE project database, use the 32-bit ODBC Administrator to re-create the data-source name so that it matches the schema name for the MGE project database. Problem or Error Message:
Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. ODBC cannot determine table owner and/or qualifier cannot open RDB.

Cause/Solution: The username you are using to connect to an MGE project is not the owner of the tables in the database. If you are using an Informix database (or other database that requires the ANSI standard of prefacing the table name with the table owner when accessing tables), use the ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER:<owner name> entry in the MGE .ini file. Otherwise, you may either log in using the table owner or specify the TABLE OWNER:<table owner> keyword in the MGE .ini file.

F-10

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. Schema not defined. Error accessing project file.

Cause/Solution: A RIS schema file (SCHEMA:) entry does not exist in the <project>.mge file. Use the MGE Set Project Properties dialog box to define a schema for the project. Or, if this is an off-line project (ODBC connection only), add the SCHEMA:<schema name> entry to the <project>.mge file. The software requires that the schema name and the data-source name match.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. A table is empty. Cannot open system table.

Cause/Solution: The MAPS table of the MGE project contains no entries. Use the MGE Basic Nucleus Map Loader command to populate the MAPS table with valid entries. Make certain that the CATEGORY field is defined for at least one of the design files as well.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. A table is empty. Error getting coord sys from map data cache. Cannot initialize output coordinate system.

Cause/Solution: If none of the design files listed in the MAPS table exist or can be found in the project, in the \dgn folder or in the folder where the DGN PATH is defined, or have a category assigned to them (that is, the CATEGORY field is NULL for all maps), set the DGN PATH variable in the MGE .ini file to point to the folder where the design files are stored for the project (if they are not in the default project folder). If the DGN PATH variable is correct, make certain it is entered correctly with no extra spaces or other typographical errors. Also make certain that the DGN PATH variable points to all of the folder paths that contain design files, including the default project \dgn folder if it is in use. Once the DGN PATH variable is defined, the software will look for design files only within the listed folder paths. F-11

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Populate the MAPS table with valid entries by using the MGE Basic Nucleus Map Loader command. Make certain that at least one of the design files in the MAPS table has the CATEGORY field populated. You can use the MGE Basic Nucleus Map Manager command to populate the CATEGORY field for design files in the MAPS table. When none of the design files listed in the MAPS table contain a valid type-56 element, GeoMedia Professional assigns a default coordinate system on the fly. This is what happens when a design file is listed in the MAPS table, has a valid entry in the CATEGORY field, and resides in the \dgn folder, but does not have a coordinate system defined. If you are connected to an MGE project on an Informix database through GeoMedia Professional, some tables in the database may be locked, thus preventing MGE users from making updates. If this occurs, add the MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL:FALSE entry to the MGE .ini file (this problem occurs only in the MGE environment, not in GeoMedia Professional).

F-12

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Checking Your MGE Data


If the features you tried to load do not have attribute linkages in the MGE project, add the following to the MGE .ini file: UNLINKED IS VALID:TRUE. If the features being loaded do have attribute linkages but the attribute-table MAPIDcolumn value is pointing to an incorrect or nonexistent design file (that is, there is no corresponding MSLINK value for the design file containing the feature in the MAPS table), add the following to the MGE .ini file: MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE. If the project design files are not located in the default project \dgn folder, add the following to the MGE .ini file: DGN PATH:<folder of project design files>. If features in the requested feature class are present in the MGE project but are not recognized by GeoMedia Professional, set both UNLINKED IS VALID:TRUE and MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE in the MGE .ini file.

Troubleshooting MGSM Connections


Problem or Error Message: After you make a successful connection to an MGSM data server, there are no features available for the connection. Cause/Solution: None of the tables listed in the .prm file are in the schema provided.

Problem or Error Message:


Error setting default schema. Error - OpenDatabase method on GMGSMDatabase object failed.

Cause/Solution: The schema file cannot be located. Use RIS Schema Locator to locate the file. The schema is passworded, and the password is either not provided or is wrong. If you intend to establish an ODBC connection, the specified schema name is not found in the ODBC DSNs. The solution is to make sure the schema name specified in the .mge file exists in the ODBC DSNs.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Problem or Error Message:


No geometries found.

Cause/Solution: The design file specified as the seed file on the Warehouse Connection Wizard is not a valid MGSM seed file for the project to which you are trying to connect. Specify a valid seed file.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. Error- Database already opened.

Cause/Solution: You are trying to connect to an MGSM project that already has a connection established to it. Use the previously established MGSM connection, or close the first connection before trying to open a new one.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct and try again. Error obtaining list of distributed attribute tables from parameter file. Error- OpenDatabase method on GMGSMDatabase object failed.

Cause/Solution: The parameter file specified on the Warehouse Connection Wizard is not a valid MGSM parameter file. Make sure that the parameter file specified is a valid MGSM parameter file and that it is populated.

Troubleshooting Oracle Connections


Problem or Error Message:
An Attribute Retrieval Error Message Occurs when Working with ORACLE SDO (SDC).

Cause/Solution: While working in the GeoMedia Framework, Version 2, the following error appears while using the New Query dialog box and clicking in the Filter command button after selecting an SDO feature class: The attributes associated with the feature class can not be retrieved It does not happen for all the feature classes, just for some. F-14

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

The MetadataService does not help a lot. The VerifyMetadata method fails in many cases with the message: "Invalid use of Null". However, it does not mention which table and property are not accepted as NULL. Text feature classes imported into SDO do have a NULL GFeatures.PrimaryGeometryFieldName. This does not allow you to program generic code. SOLUTION: The error is caused by inaccurate information in the metadata tables. Probably the ID field in the field lookup table or the Displayable field in AttributeProperties. The metadata system supports sparse metadata. That is, not every field needs to include a specification of its metadata for the system to function. When a field is missing metadata, default values will be assumed. The error from VerifyMetadata would indicate that unexpected values in the metadata tables were empty. The easiest approach to analyzing the problem is to delete the four metadata tables specified by the GAliasTable, and delete those entries from GAliasTable (GFeatures, FieldLookup, AttributeProperties, and GeometryProperties). Then run VerifyMetadata. The reason that GFeatures.PrimaryGeometryFieldName is NULL for text is that it is used as a flag to indicate that this is NOT a spatial feature and cannot be used in any spatial operations like spatial query or buffer zone.

Problem or Error Message:


An error was encountered while loading data for 'feature_name' legend entry. Possible causes of the error include network problems or modifications to the feature class definition. Do you want to continue loading remaining legend entries?

Cause/Solution: The feature class has an unrecognized coordinate transformation, or there are corrupt features within the _SDOGEOM table. Delete the connection using the Edit Connection command, and create a file in c:\temp called oserver.log. Then make another connection to the Oracle warehouse. A detailed log file will be generated and it should help you determine if the problem is in the database.

Problem or Error Message:


No geometries found.

Cause/Solution: Although you may have used Add Feature Class or Query to load features, no features were actually loaded. Verify this by turning on the Legend option Show Statistics. If a spatial filter was included in the query, ensure that there are spatial indexes in the _SDOINDEX table.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Typically, if there are records in the _SDOGEOM table with no corresponding SDO_GID in the _SDOINDEX table, the dimensions in the _SDODIM table are incorrect for the actual geometry coordinates in the _SDOGEOM table, and tessellation produces no tiles for the geometry.

Problem or Error Message:


Error getting value from the system registry.

Cause/Solution: Either modifications have been made to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/GDO/Oracle key that are incorrect (registry modifications are not required or suggested), or a name other than Oracle was supplied in the Database Name field of the Warehouse Connection Wizard dialog box.

Problem or Error Message:


Features added to Oracle SC seem to be disappearing.

Cause/Solution: Connect to the database using SQL Plus. Run SQL: Select table_name from user_tables. You can leave client metadata tables. If you decide to drop them, drop all of them. Look for server metadata tables. If you find any, drop all client metadata tables: GFeatures, FieldLookup, GeometryProperties, and AttributeProperties using the following SQL: drop table "GFeatures"; drop table "FieldLookup"; drop table "GeometryProperties"; drop table "AttributeProperties"; If you find any features that were not added properly, delete them. If they are added properly, you should have the feature name (for example, FeatureClass1 in mixed cases as specified by the user) as well as four other files, all in uppercase, with the following suffixes (that is, FEATURECLASS1_SDODIM, ...SDOGEOM, ...SDOINDEX, ...SDOLAYER). Leave these tables behind, and drop the others. Make sure to include "" for mixed-case table names. drop table "FeatureClass1"; Clean the ColumnMetadata table with the following SQL: Delete from "ColumnMetadata" where "TableName" not in (select table_name from user_tables); Commit;

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Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Clean the GAliasTable table with the following SQL: Delete from "GAliasTable" where "TableType" like 'INGR%'; Commit; You should be able to connect to this DB and see all of your tables. Next, do a New and you should still see all of your tables along with the new features. You will notice that the server metadata tables GAliasTable, ModificationLog, ModifiedTables, and GCoordSystem are missing (this is by design).

Problem or Error Message:


Oracle SDO/SC Issues - An error was encountered while loading data for 'feature_name' legend entry.

Cause/Solution: The following error occurs when loading a feature class: an error was encountered while loading data for <feature name> legend entry Possible causes of the error include: Network problems Modifications to the feature class definition Feature class has an unrecognized coordinate transformation, Corrupt features within the _SDOGEOM table

SOLUTION: Delete the connection using the Edit Connection command, and create a file in c:\temp called oserver.log. Then make another connection to the Oracle warehouse. A detailed log file will be generated and should help you determine if the problem is in the database. There are many different approaches depending on which of the above causes is the problem.

Problem or Error Message:


Oracle SDO/SC Issues - Error getting value from the system registry.

Cause/Solution: Either modifications have been made to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/GDO/Oracle key that are incorrect (registry modifications are not required or suggested), or a name other than Oracle was supplied in the Database Name field of the Warehouse Connection Wizard dialog box.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Problem or Error Message:


Queries return "cannot get attributes from database".

Cause/Solution: If you are using Oracle 8.0.5 client and an ODBC driver, the queries may be timing out causing GeoMedia Professional to generate this message cannot get attributes from the database Check and reconfigure the data source and toggle the Enable Query Timeout off. This, effectively, turns off query timeout mode for the Oracle ODBC driver.

Problem or Error Message:


SC Data is being displayed in a grid pattern when a connection filter is used.

Cause/Solution: Oracle SC data is not being displayed correctly when a connection filter is used. It appears in a grid-like pattern. The indexing was done correctly and the _SDODIM table has the correct entries in it. SOLUTION: The SDO_LEVEL column in the _SDOLAYER table does not have the correct entry in it. It picks up the default value rather than the value used in the TuneTables command. Connection filters use the value from the _SDOLAYER table. The SDO_LEVEL column must be updated manually to reflect the level of tessellation used in the TuneTables command.

Problem or Error Message:


Table or view does not exist Occurs when Querying GeoMedia tables in Oracle

Cause/Solution: There is a problem with GeoMedia Professional warehouses putting tables in Oracle as mixed case. This causes problems if SQL Plus is being used to query the tables. The following error message is displayed: ora-00942: table or view does not exist SOLUTION: You can get around this by putting double quotes around the table name. Mixed case, or lowercase table names will cause this problem .

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Troubleshooting Connection Problems

Problem or Error Message:


TNS: Could not resolve service name.

Cause/Solution: An incorrect alias (or service name) was supplied in the Host String field of the Warehouse Connection Wizard dialog box. Ensure that you have created an alias through SQL*Net Easy Config and that it was correctly entered in the Warehouse Connection Wizard.

Problem or Error Message:


TNS: Unable to connect to destination.

Cause/Solution: Ensure that the Oracle TNS listener process is running on the node where the Oracle Server is located. Start the service as indicated in the Oracle DBA documentation for the appropriate platform.

Problem or Error Message:


Unable to insert a feature when using Oracle SC. SC is returning an ORA-3113 error.

Cause/Solution: GeoMedia Professional triggers the SDO_ADMIN.UPDATE_FIXED_INDEX when creating a new feature. The ORA-3113 error appears if the upper and lower bounds in the SDODIM are not big enough to hold the feature. In other words, the newly added feature exceeds the range of the existing feature. This is vital for the spatial indexing to occur.

Problem or Error Message:


Unexpected Error in SOW function from Query Filter (Oracle Connection)

Cause/Solution:
With the release of GM 3.0SP1, GeoMedia Professional no longer had the capability of writing the necessary GeoMedia Professional metadata to an Oracle connection. Now when a user connects to an Oracle database containing just nongraphic attribute data, any attempt to query the database results in an error when the Filter button is clicked: Unexpected Error in SOW function This is caused by the fact that the client metadata tables are missing. GeoMedia used to detect that and write the metadata table even when the connection was read-only. Now it does not do that. The only way to get the metadata tables that are required is to connect with an Oracle read/write data server, and that is currently only delivered with GeoMedia Professional. The GDOO package is not a solution here because it only generates the server side metadata. F-19

Working with GeoMedia Professional

SOLUTION: The only way now to fix this for users is to give them the Oracle read/write data server or to give them a free Evaluation copy of GeoMedia Professional. There needs to either be a way for GeoMedia to create the necessary metadata (as it used to), or we need to deliver a tool to do it. Another solution would be to not require the metadata when connecting to databases containing nongraphic tables. Users connect to these types of databases often in order to do joins with graphic tables. There is currently no solution for this.

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Line Weight Conversions and Line Styles


Line Weight Conversions
The paper space dimension used for text and line thickness in GeoMedia Professional is defined in terms of points. Point sizes originated as a unit of measure for type setting, defining the height of a typeface. Looking at a lower-case character, the typeface can be broken down into several parts. The upper stroke, as in the letter b is referred to as the ascender and the downward stroke, as in the letter p is referred to as the descender. The major body of the character is referred to as the x-height. The short cross line at the end of the main strokes is referred to as the serif. The size of a character cannot be measured from the top of the ascender to the bottom of the descender due to variations in the style of typefaces. The face of any letter will rarely be the full point size, and exact size ratios vary from typeface to typeface. Therefore, the conversions listed below will be approximate for text sizes and more exact for line-thickness definitions. The following table provides line-weight conversions in inches and millimeters. You may use this table, for example, when determining the weight of a line, area boundary, or approximate text size for feature class or query definitions. You have the option to change the line weight, which is expressed in points on the Style Definition dialog box. The inch and millimeter sizes are based on the following calculations: 1.00 point = 0.0138 inches 1.00 point = 0.35052 millimeters Points 0.25 pt. 0.50 pt. 0.75 pt. 1.00 pt. 1.25 pt. 1.50 pt. 1.75 pt. Inches 0.0035 in. 0.007 in. 0.010 in. 0.014 in. 0.017 in. 0.020 in. 0.024 in. Millimeters 0.088 mm. 0.175 mm. 0.263 mm. 0.351 mm. 0.438 mm. 0.526 mm. 0.613 mm. G-1

Working with GeoMedia Professional

Points 2.00 pt. 2.25 pt. 2.50 pt. 2.75 pt. 3.00 pt. 3.50 pt. 4.00 pt. 4.50 pt. 5.00 pt. 5.50 pt. 6.00 pt. 6.50 pt. 7.00 pt. 8.00 pt. 9.00 pt. 10.00 pt. 11.00 pt. 12.00 pt. 13.00 pt. 14.00 pt. 15.00 pt. 16.00 pt. 18.00 pt. 20.00 pt. 22.00 pt. 24.00 pt. 26.00 pt. 28.00 pt. 36.00 pt. 48.00 pt. 72.00 pt. G-2

Inches 0.028 in. 0.031 in. 0.035 in. 0.038 in. 0.042 in. 0.049 in. 0.056 in. 0.063 in. 0.069 in. 0.077 in. 0.083 in. 0.090 in. 0.097 in. 0.110 in. 0.124 in. 0.138 in. 0.152 in. 0.166 in. 0.179 in. 0.193 in. 0.207 in. 0.221 in. 0.248 in. 0.276 in. 0.304 in. 0.331 in. 0.359 in. 0.386 in. 0.497 in. 0.662 in. 0.994 in.

Millimeters 0.701 mm. 0.789 mm. 0.876 mm. 0.964 mm. 1.052 mm. 1.227 mm. 1.402 mm. 1.577 mm. 1.753 mm. 1.928 mm. 2.103 mm. 2.278 mm. 2.454 mm. 2.804 mm. 3.155 mm. 3.505 mm. 3.856 mm. 4.206 mm. 4.557 mm. 4.907 mm. 5.258 mm. 5.608 mm. 6.309 mm. 7.010 mm. 7.711 mm. 8.412 mm. 9.114 mm. 9.815 mm. 12.619 mm. 16.825 mm. 25.237 mm.

Line Weight Conversions and Line Styles

Line Styles
The line styles available on the Style Definition dialog box are as follows:
Solid Dotted Short Dash Medium Dash Long Dash Med Dash Dot Med Dash Double Dot Long Dash Dot Long Dash Double Dot Long Dash Triple Dot Med Dash Short Dash Long Dash Short Dash Long Dash Med Dash Long Dash Double Med Dash

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

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Creating Data Server .INI Files


For ease of use, this appendix is also available online as a GeoMedia Professional Help topic.

Your ARC/INFO, ArcView, FRAMME, MapInfo, MGE, MGSM, and MGDM data may require that you create a .ini (initialization) file to perform certain tasks more efficiently or to customize the way GeoMedia Professional handles your data. An .ini file allows you to specify additional parameters that the data server may need in order to process your data. A .ini file is necessary in most cases when you are using the ARC/INFO, ArcView, FRAMME, MapInfo, MGE, MGSM, and MGDM data servers. The .ini file is an ASCII file that you can create with a text editor, such as Notepad. You can also use the GeoMedia INI Wizard to help you create a .ini file and set .ini file variables (keywords). Your product CD contains the GeoMedia INI Wizard as a free utility. The GeoMedia INI Wizard guides you through creating or validating a .ini file. The Wizard has self-documenting .ini variables to help you determine which entries or keywords are needed in the .ini file. Once installed, you start the GeoMedia INI Wizard by double clicking on <product directory>\Program\GeoINIwz.exe. (The default installation path is C:\Program files\GeoMedia Professional\Program\GeoINIwz.exe.) Follow the simple instructions on the dialog boxes for creating or validating .ini files. Unless you are only working with one project, you should place your .ini files in each of your project folders. This is the best way to ensure that GeoMedia Professional uses the correct .ini file for each project. For example, if the MGE project folder is C:\prj\test (as defined in the project_name.mge file), then the project_name.ini file would be located at C:\prj\test\project_name.ini. GeoMedia Professional first looks for .ini files in the \Warehouses folder. If GeoMedia Professional finds a .ini file in the \Warehouses folder, it uses that .ini file. If GeoMedia Professional does not find a .ini file in the \Warehouses folder, it then looks in the project folder. It is recommended that you place the .ini file in the project folder to avoid confusion about which .ini file GeoMedia Professional is using. Note: If a .ini file exists in both the GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder and in the project folder, the one in the project folder is ignored.

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

The ARC/INFO Data Server .INI File


For ARC/INFO data to align properly with other data in a GeoWorkspace (the GeoMedia Professional .gws file), the ARC/INFO data server must be able to locate a coordinate system. Coverages in an ARC/INFO workspace (the ARC/INFO project folder) can have different coordinate systems, or the entire ARC/INFO workspace can have a single coordinate system. Thus, it is necessary to address specifying the coordinate system for both cases.
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter for information about coordinate-system files.

You can specify a coordinate-system file for the ARC/INFO data by creating an <ARC/INFO workspace folder name>.ini file, where <ARC/INFO workspace name> is the name of the ARC/INFO workspace data folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place the <ARC/INFO workspace folder name>.ini file in the GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder that you specified during installation or in the ARC/INFO project folder.

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
The ARC/INFO data server can read a .csf file output from the Define Coordinate System File (DefCSF.exe) executable that is delivered with GeoMedia Professional. The data server looks initially at the <ARC/INFO workspace folder name>.ini file to determine the .csf file to be used for each ARC/INFO coverage or for the entire ARC/INFO workspace. The format of the .ini file for each case is as follows: Syntax: COORDINATE SYSTEM: <coverage1> = <full path and filename of the .csf file> <coverage2> = <full path and filename of the .csf file> OR COORDINATE SYSTEM: <ARC/INFO workspace name> = <full path and filename of the .csf file> If an <ARC/INFO workspace folder name>.ini file is not found, the ARC/INFO data server looks for a .csf file in each coverage folder. If a coverage folder contains more than one .csf file, the data server uses the first .csf file that it finds. H-2

Creating Data Server .INI Files

Example: COORDINATE SYSTEM: roads=C:\madison\roads\roads.csf

The ArcView Data Server .INI File


In order for ArcView data to align properly with other data, it must expose a coordinate system. Coverages of an ArcView workspace can have different coordinate systems, or the entire ArcView workspace can have a single coordinate system. Thus, it is necessary to address specifying the coordinate system for both these cases.

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
The ArcView data server can read a .csf file output from the Define Coordinate Systems executable delivered with GeoMedia Professional. The data server looks initially at the <ArcView workspace folder name>.ini file to determine the name of the .csf file to be used for each ArcView theme.

Syntax:
COORDINATE SYSTEM: <coverage1> = <full path and filename of the .csf file> <coverage2> = <full path and filename of the .csf file> (For separate coordinate systems for each coverage.)

OR
COORDINATE SYSTEM: <ArcView workspace name>=<full path and filename of the .csf file> (For one coordinate system for all coverages.) If an <ArcView workspace folder name>.ini file is not found, the ArcView data server will serve the data without any transformation. Example: COORDINATE SYSTEM: roads=C:\madison\roads\roads.csf

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Working with GeoMedia Professional

Note: The ArcView shapefile data server looks initially in the GeoMedia
Professional \Warehouses folder for the <ArcView workspace folder name>.ini file corresponding to the ArcView workspace folder specified in the connection. If this file is not found there, then it looks for the <ArcView workspace folder name>.ini file in the workspace folder. If an <ArcView workspace folder name>.ini file is not found, then the server will look for a <theme name>.csf file in the workspace folder. In the case of the workspace folder having multiple themes and some of the themes not having a .csf file, the server will populate coordinatesystem information only for the themes having a .csf file. If there are no .csf and .ini files, the server will not populate the coordinate-system information in the GCoordinateSystem table.

The CAD Data Server .INI File


See the Define CAD Server Schema File Online Help for additional information about the scanner .ini file.

The CAD data server allows you to use a .ini file to control the manner in which it processes your CAD data. Unlike the other data servers, the CAD data server refers to the .ini file as the scanner .ini file. You specify the name and location of the scanner .ini file using the Define CAD Server Schema File utility. The scanner .ini file allows you to specify that the CAD server is to use persistent caching, which can improve system performance. Persistent caching can increase the speed of feature display by eliminating the multiple scanning of map files. This is achieved by storing the scanned information in a cache file. The CAD server caches geometry locations in a temporary Access database file. By default, this database file is deleted when you close the CAD connection. However, you can use a scanner .ini file to specify that the CAD server is to keep this geometry cache file for subsequent use. If you want to conserve disk space, multiple users of the same data set can share the same cache file. If you do not specify a scanner .ini file, the software uses the normal temporary cache file.

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Creating Data Server .INI Files

General Keywords
The following are the keywords that you can use in the scanner .ini file:

CACHE FILE:
This keyword specifies the cache file name, with or without the path. The default cache folder is the folder containing the CAD server schema (.csd) file. The default file extension for the cache file is .csc. Syntax: CACHE FILE: <cache file name> Example: CACHE FILE: CADcache.csc

CACHE UPTODATE:
This keyword specifies whether the cache file is to be treated by the software as if it were always current. If set to TRUE, the software will not do date comparisons between the data in the cache file and the original design files. However, the software will continue to perform incremental cache updates for missing files as necessary. Setting this keyword to TRUE can improve performance for those situations in which the original data is static and not subject to change. The default value is FALSE, which means that the software will always do date comparisons and update the cache to reflect changes in the original design files. Syntax: CACHE UPTODATE: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F> Example: CACHE UPTODATE: TRUE

LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD:


This keyword specifies a timeout value for locks. The CAD data server uses a lock column to control multiple access to the cache file. The lock is set before the software performs date comparisons and updates, and then the lock is released when this process is completed. You can use the LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD: keyword to handle the case in which there is an abnormal termination of processing that results in locks being left uncleared. If the timeout value is exceeded, the software will issue an error message, and you will be able to either discard the current cache file or manually clear the locks that have been set in the mapinfo table. H-5

Working with GeoMedia Professional

You should set the LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD: to a reasonable value that is based on the size of the design files. The value should be long enough to allow for normal scanning and updates to the cache file, but short enough to notify you within a reasonable amount of time that a locking error has occurred. The default value is 60 seconds. Syntax: LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD: <timeout value in seconds> Example: LOCK TIMEOUT THRESHOLD: 90

IGDS Keywords
The following .ini keywords apply only to the IGDS scanner:

GRAPHICSTEXTSTRING DELIMITER:
In the IGDS scanner, the value of a CAD text string is exposed as an attribute in GeoMedia Professional. This attribute can then be used within GeoMedia, GeoMedia Professional, and GeoMedia Web Map for subsequent analytic and data integration purposes. To handle text nodes and collections of text and/or text nodes, the software concatenates all of the text strings with a special syntax to delimit them as in: <string 1>;<string 2>;.... The default delimiter is a semicolon (;), but you can override the delimiter in the .ini file for the scanner to ensure there is no conflict with the data. Syntax: GRAPHICSTEXTSTRING DELIMITER:# The pound sign (#) is the string to be used as the delimiter. Multiple characters may be used for the delimiter.

FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION:


There are cases in which the exact position of IGDS text cannot be accurately determined due to idiosyncrasies of its storage in design files and MicroStation font resource files. This is most common in instances in which there is center or right/top justified text.

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Creating Data Server .INI Files

The FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION: .ini keyword serves all IGDS text left-justified. It sets the alignment of each output TextPointGeometry to the designated setting, minimizing or limiting text positioning errors. By default, in absence of this .ini keyword, each IGDS text element is served with its actual justification. While use of this .ini keyword does not preserve the original justification of the IGDS text, it does correctly position the text, assuming selection of a TrueType font for display that maps well to the font used in MicroStation. Syntax: FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION: LOWERLEFT/CENTERLEFT/UPPERLEFT

AutoCAD Keywords
If a block is to be expanded and it includes both geometry and text, then both of the latter two options should be set. However, blocks that include just geometry, or just text, need not have the other geometry field present, unused, and populated with nulls. In your .csd file, you must have defined the appropriate geometry types for receiving the various block data. If you request the origin without providing a Point field, the geometry without providing an AnySpatial field, or the text without providing a GraphicsText field, then the .ini file variables are ignored. The following .ini keywords apply only to AutoCAD data:

SERVE BLOCK ORIGIN:


Do or do not serve the origin of the block as an oriented point geometry. The default value is FALSE. Syntax: SERVE BLOCK ORIGIN: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F>

SERVE BLOCK GEOMETRY:


Do or do not serve the spatial components of the block as a collection of geometry. The default value is TRUE. Syntax: SERVE BLOCK ORIGIN: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F> SERVE BLOCK GEOMETRY: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F> H-7

Working with GeoMedia Professional

SERVE BLOCK TEXT:


Do or do not serve the text components of the block as a collection of graphics text. The default value is TRUE. Syntax: SERVE BLOCK TEXT: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F>

The FRAMME Data Server .INI File


Certain data configurations may require you to create a <rulebase_name>.ini file for your FRAMME data server. Listed below are the possible entries for the <rulebase_name>.ini file. If it is necessary to create this file for your data configuration, you can place the file in one of three possible locations: The GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder that you specified during installation The folder where the gateway file (fsa.gtw) used to make the connection is located The rules folder of the FSA Administrator's login on the FRAMME server (for example, c:\users\egwadm\egw\rules)

If a .ini file is not found in either of the three locations, then no file is used.

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter for more information about coordinate-system files.

This section allows you to define the coordinate-system file used by the FRAMME data server. This file may be a design file (.dgn) containing a type-56 element created with MGE Basic Nucleus or MGE Projection Manager, or it may be a coordinate-system file (.csf) that was created with the Define Coordinate System File executable that is delivered with GeoMedia Professional. If you specify a full path for the coordinate-system file, the FRAMME data server uses the coordinate-system file specified by the path. If you specify only the filename, the data server looks for the file in the following places: The GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder that you specified during installation

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Creating Data Server .INI Files

The folder where the gateway file (fsa.gtw) used to make the connection is located The location as specified by the gralocs.txt file, which is located on the FRAMME graphics server (for example, c:\win32app\ingr\frs\vfg\gralocs.txt)

If you create a .csf file using the Define Coordinate System File executable and specify this file in the .ini file, the FRAMME data server uses this file for the originating coordinate system of the FRAMME data. If a .dgn file is used, the FRAMME data server uses a type-56 element to define the originating coordinate system of the data. If a type-56 element does not exist in the specified .dgn file, the working units and global origin as defined in the type-9 element are used to create a coordinate system. If you do not set this keyword, the specified file does not exist, or the specified file does not have permissions to access, the FRAMME data server uses the wrk_seed.dgn file from the FRAMME server for the coordinate system. Syntax: [CoordinateSystem] FILE=<Name of file used to define the coordinate system> Example: [CoordinateSystem] FILE=c:\dgn\poles.dgn

FEATURE NAME MAPPING:


This section allows you to define alternate feature names to be used by the FRAMME data server. If the rulebase was created using RuleBase Builder, the feature names may not be meaningful to the end user. Use this section of the .ini file to give features more meaningful names. The <FRAMMEFEATURENAME> refers to the feature name as defined in the rulebase. Syntax: [FeatureNameMapping] <FRAMMEFEATURENAME>=<MEANINGFULNAME> Example: [FeatureNameMapping] Feature001=Poles H-9

Working with GeoMedia Professional

FEATURE TABLE MAPPING:


This section allows you to define the table or view that is to be used for a particular feature. Only one table or view can be specified. If you do not specify a table or view, the table associated with the first nongraphic, nonreference component found in the feature definition is used by default. To reference multiple tables per feature, you must create a view. To do a translation of your codelist attributes, you must create a view that defines the attributes to be served up and join it with the appropriate codelist tables so that the codelist attributes can be served up. If an entry was defined in the Feature Name Mapping section for a particular feature, you use the meaningful name here. All views must contain the RB_PRMRY, RB_SCNDRY, RB_OCCURRENCE, and RB_FSC attributes from the originating table. The name of the view must conform to the table qualifying rules as defined in the rulebase. The same view must be created for each segment of a FRAMME data set. Use the unqualified view name in the .ini file entry. The <FEATURENAME> refers to the feature name as defined in the rulebase, and <MEANINGFULNAME> refers to the feature name you assigned to the feature in the Feature Name Mapping section. Syntax: [FeatureTableMapping] <FEATURENAME>=<Table Name or View Name> <MEANINGFULNAME>=<Table Name or View Name> Example: [FeatureTableMapping] DEFfeature=View1 Poles=Table1

GRAPHICS:
This section specifies whether to use FGRS directly to extract the feature elements or to download the graphic files to a specified path and to let the FRAMME GDO server extract the feature elements.

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Syntax: [GRAPHICS] ACCESS=<Access mode> PATH=<local path> EXPIRATION=<days> Where <Access mode> is either SERVER for letting FGRS extract the feature elements or DOWNLOAD for downloading the files and letting the GDO FRAMME Server extract the feature elements. The default is SERVER. <local path> is the path to the folder to which the files will be downloaded. This entry is ignored if you have specified ACCESS=SERVER. Subfolders will be created under <local path> for each segment to which you are connected, and the subfolders will have the same name as the segment. The default is the \temp folder. This path must exist. <days> is the number of days before downloading a file again. If the timestamp on a file is greater than <days> old, the file will be automatically downloaded again. The default is 5. Example: [GRAPHICS] ACCESS=DOWNLOAD PATH=C:\PROJECT\DOWNLOAD EXPIRATION=7

LOGGING:
This section specifies if logging is to be done. Logging should only be enabled for performing diagnostics on your system. Syntax: [LOGGING] LOG=<Log Value> LOGPATH=<Path of log file> Where <Log Value> is a number value indicating if logging should be done, and if so, what level of logging. 0 = No logging H-11

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1 = Log statistics for query 2 = Log design file statistics (also includes level 1) <Path of log file> is a path and name of the log file to be created. The default is the \temp folder. Example: [LOGGING] LOG=1 LOGPATH=c:\logfiles

RULEBASE:
This section specifies how the rulebase is to be accessed. The rulebase may be accessed through the FRAMME rulebase server or a local .mdb file. The name of the local .mdb file will be <rulebase name>.mdb. Syntax: [RULEBASE] ACCESS=<Access Mode> PATH=<Path to local mdb file> Where <Access Mode> is either SERVER or LOCAL. If SERVER is specified, rulebase access will be through the FRAMME rulebase server. If LOCAL is specified, rulebase access will be through a local .mdb file. The .mdb file will be generated automatically when LOCAL is specified, and the file cannot be located in the specified path, the GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder, the gateway file folder, or the rules folder on the FRAMME FSA Server. If you do not use a .ini file, the default access mode is LOCAL. If you do have a .ini file, but do not include an entry for RULEBASE, the default access mode is SERVER. <Path to local .mdb file> is a path that will be used to create/locate the local .mdb file. If specified the path will be used. First-time users of this option must be able to write to files and folders in this path. If the path is not specified, the FRAMME GDO Server will look in the following: H-12 GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder This is the default location to which the file will be written. The path where the gateway file is located. The rules folder on the FRAMME FSA server machine.

Creating Data Server .INI Files

Example: [RULEBASE] ACCESS=SERVER PATH=C:\DATABASE

TABULAR:
This section describes the values to be used for NULLs in tabular data. These .ini file entries allow for the definition of the values that represent NULLS in the FTRS buffer. (FTRS buffer is defined in the file oraftrs.num on the FSA server.) When values are specified for NULL in the .ini file, FTRS changes every field that is NULL in the database to the specified character/number. It is up to the client side of FTRS to change them to NULL values when a field with this specification is encountered. The values specified in the .ini file should match the entries in the oraftrs.num file on the FSA server. Syntax: [TABULAR] RBPNULLINT=<Whatever will represent null values for shorts, integer and double fields> RBPNULLCHAR=<Whatever will represent null values for strings> Example: [TABULAR] RBPNULLINT=-9 RBPNULLCHAR=A The corresponding oraftrs.num file located in the FSA server should have the following entries in it: RBPNULLINT -9 RBPNULLCHAR A

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The MapInfo Data Server .INI File


Certain data configurations may require that you create a .ini file for your MapInfo data. Listed below are the possible entries for the .ini file. If it is necessary to create a .ini for your data configuration, you can place the file in one of the following locations: The MapInfo Tables folder. This is the recommended location for the .ini file. Placing the .ini file in the MapInfo Tables folder is the best way to ensure that the correct .ini file is being used by the software. The GeoMedia Professional \Warehouses folder that you specified during installation.

If a .ini file is not found in either of these locations, then the software does not use an .ini file. The .ini file must have the same filename as the name of the MapInfo Tables folder but with the .ini file extension.

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
In order for MapInfo data to align properly with other data, it must expose a coordinate system. The MapInfo tables in a MapInfo Tables folder can have different coordinate systems, or the entire MapInfo Tables folder can have a single coordinate system. You can use a .csf file to define the coordinate system for your MapInfo data. Use the Define Coordinate System executable that is delivered with GeoMedia Professional to create the .csf file. When you are working with a MapInfo Tables folder that has multiple tables, you can use the .ini file to specify the .csf files for the tables that have different coordinate systems. You must name the .ini file using the same name as the MapInfo Tables folder you specified when you created the data server connection in the Connection Wizard. When you are working with a seamless table that contains tables in different coordinates systems, the .ini file should have the same name as that of the MapInfo Tables folder. The data server looks at the <MapInfo workspace name>.ini file to determine the name of the .csf file that it is to use for each MapInfo table.

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If the .ini file is not found in the workspace folder specified in the Connection Wizard, then the server checks for the existence of the .csf file in the folder containing the base table. Syntax: The syntax for the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword for the case where you have one coordinate system (and therefore one .csf file) for all MapInfo tables is as follows: COORDINATE SYSTEM: <MapInfo Tables Folder> = <full path and filename of .csf file> Example: city=d:\city\city.csf Syntax: The syntax for the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword for the case where you have a different coordinate system (and therefore a different .csf file) for each MapInfo table is as follows: COORDINATE SYSTEM: <MapInfoTable1> = <full path and filename of .csf file> <MapInfoTable2> = <full path and filename of .csf file> . . . Example: roads=d:\city\roads.csf rivers=d:\city\rivers.csf Syntax: The syntax for the case where you have seamless tables uses a concatenation of the seamless table name followed by an under bar and the base table name as the name of the coverage: COORDINATE SYSTEM: <SeamlessTableName1_BaseTableName1> = <full path and filename of .csf file>

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<SeamlessTableName1_BaseTableName2> = <full path and filename of .csf file> . . . Example: In the following example, it is assumed that you have a seamless table named Table1 and its corresponding base tables named base1 and base2: COORDINATE SYSTEM: Table1_base1=d:\coverage1\base1.csf Table1_base2=d:\coverage1\base2.csf Note: If you do not want to use a .ini file, you can specify the coordinate system by placing one or more .csf files in the folders containing your MapInfo data. Name the .csf file using the name of the MapInfo table but use the .csf extension. If you want to specify the same coordinate system for the entire MapInfo Tables folder, place a .csf file with the same name as your MapInfo Tables folder name in the folder containing your data. When you are working with seamless tables, place the .csf file in the folder containing the base table.

GEOMETRY TYPE:
MapInfo data can have point, linear, areal, and text data all in one map. The default behavior of the data server is to serve up all the geometry as the compound data type (gdbAnySpatial). The MapInfo data server allows you to use the optional GEOMETRY TYPE: keyword to change this default behavior and to serve up geometry from a particular coverage as a specific geometry type. If you have enough familiarity with your data to be able to determine what the geometry type of a feature class is, you can use the GEOMETRY TYPE: keyword to specify that a feature class is an areal, a linear, a point, or a text feature. If an entry in the .ini file does not exist for a particular feature class, it is treated as the gdbAnySpatial geometry type, and all the geometry for the feature is served up as this type. If an entry does exist indicating the geometry type, the data is served up as the indicated type, dropping out any data that does not match the type you specified. H-16

Creating Data Server .INI Files

The geometry type can be one of the following types: POINT LINEAR AREAL ANYSPATIAL GRAPHICSTEXT

Syntax: GEOMETRY TYPE: <MapInfoTable1>=<geometry type> <MapInfoTable2>=<geometry type> . . . Example: GEOMETRY TYPE: roads=LINEAR airports=POINT

TEXT:
The TEXT: keyword is required in the case in which a MapInfo coverage contains text geometry. This keyword is required even if the MapInfo Table contains only text or text in addition to other graphic data (for example, point, line, and/or area graphics). In this case, if you want to view the text geometry, you must use the TEXT: keyword to enable text geometry for each coverage. If you do not use the TEXT: keyword to enable text geometry, only graphic data is served up (point, line, and/or area geometry), and the text geometry is not served up. If a coverage contains only text, you can use the GEOMETRY: keyword to specify that text is the geometry type for that coverage. If you specify text as the geometry type, you do not need to use the TEXT: keyword to display the text geometry.

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Syntax: TEXT: <MapInfoTable1>=ENABLED <MapInfoTable2>=ENABLED . . . Example: TEXT: roads=ENABLED rivers=ENABLED

Note: If the data contains text features, there must be an entry in the .ini file (either TEXT: or GEOMETRY TYPE:) for the MapInfo data server to serve up the text features. If there is no entry in the .ini file, text features will not be served up.

The MGDM Data Server .INI File


The MGDM data server is similar to the MGE data server. It uses many of the same .ini file keywords. Listed below are the .ini file keywords that are used by the MGDM data server. For MGDM work projects that will also be accessed using the MGE data server, you can have only one .ini file containing keywords for both data servers. Read the descriptions of the following MGDM and MGE .ini file keyword entries to determine if your MGDM project requires this file. If so, you must create a file named <mgdm_project_name>.ini and add the appropriate entries to it.

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The following table shows some common database packages and which of the most frequently used .ini file keywords you may need to use. Access None required. FoxPro / Xbase None required. Informix Use TABLE OWNER: and/or TABLE QUALIFIER: as needed. Use MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL:. Oracle
TABLE OWNER:

SQL Server/Sybase Always use USE


CURSOR LIBRARY:False.

may be required. Do not use TABLE


QUALIFIER:.

Use TABLE OWNER: and/or TABLE QUALIFIER: as needed.

Note: You may need to use other keywords, and you may not need to use some of the keywords listed in this table. See the following sections to determine when to use these and other keywords.

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter for more information about coordinate-system files.

The MGDM data server uses the MGDM workshape zone seed.cft file as the default coordinate system. If the MGDM workshape zone seed.cft file does not contain the coordinate-system-defining element(s), the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword must be used for the MGDM warehouse connection. Syntax: COORDINATE SYSTEM:<coordinate system file> Example: COORDINATE SYSTEM:seed2.dgn

DGN PATH:
The MGDM data server uses this path only with the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword. If you specify a DGN path using the DGN PATH: keyword in your .ini file, the path specified by the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword must be a relative path with respect to the path specified by the DGN PATH: keyword. If both the DGN PATH: and the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keywords are specified, the MGDM data server concatenates the two values to determine the coordinate system file. Also, the DGN PATH: keyword has to be set before the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword in the .ini file. H-19

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Syntax: DGN PATH:<path1> Example: DGN PATH:C:\Maps

DISPLAY SPATIAL INDEX:


The DISPLAY SPATIAL INDEX: keyword specifies whether the MGDM data server serves up the GDM_SPATIAL_IDX columns with GeoMedia Professional features. The default value is FALSE, which means that the MGDM data server will not serve up the column. Example: DISPLAY SPATIAL INDEX:TRUE Do not use this keyword if you want the default behavior, which is not to serve up the GDM_SPATIAL_IDX columns.

ENABLE TEXT:
In the MGDM data server, text and text-node elements are permitted for the following MGDM feature types: label, unknown, point, and area centroid. Text and text-node elements are not permitted for MGDM linear and area boundary features. Based on the feature type alone, it is not possible to determine which features are actually represented as text or text nodes, so the ENABLE TEXT: keyword is required to specify which features are to be displayed with text. Because MGDM label features may only be represented by text or textnode elements, label features are always displayed with text (in other words, a gdbPoint column and a gdbGraphics column). For other features to be displayed with text, the feature name must be listed in the .ini file following the ENABLE TEXT: keyword. If you use views, you must add a view name after the feature name. Because MGDM linear and area boundary features may never be represented as text or text node elements, entries under the ENABLE TEXT: keyword for these feature types are ignored. The display of Text and Textnode text is controlled through the .ini file setting ENABLE TEXT:. The feature definition used for the ENABLE TEXT: variable must be the GeoMedia Professional feature class name, not the fname or fcode as defined in the MGDM feature table.

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When GeoMedia Professional displays the MGDM features list, it concatenates the fcode to the fname to make one feature class name and uses the underscore character in place of a blank space or other special character. For example, if the MGDM feature name is Text AC and the feature code is text ac, then the feature class name given by GeoMedia Professional will be Text_AC_text_ac. This feature class name must be used for the ENABLE TEXT: variable. Note: The feature class name(s) used for ENABLE TEXT:, as with all the .ini user input, is NOT case sensitive. Also, you must replace all spaces with under bars. Syntax: ENABLE TEXT:<fname_fcode1> <fname_fcode2> <fname_fcode3> OR ENABLE TEXT:<fname_fcode_vname1> <fname_fcode_vname2> <fname_fcode_vname3> Example: ENABLE TEXT:manhole_001 pole_light marker_navigation

FEATURE CLASS NAME:


By default, the MGDM data server generates names for the features it serves up using the following algorithm in order to guarantee that identifiers conform to SQL92 standards: Concatenate FEATURE.FNAME and FEATURE.FCODE with an underscore character to separate the values. If the feature represents an MGE view, append an underscore character followed by VIEW_CATALOG.VIEWNAME. Replace all invalid characters (allow only letters, digits, and underscore characters) with underscore characters. If the first character it not a letter, prepend an "F" to the name. H-21

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The FEATURE CLASS NAME: keyword allows you to configure the feature class name to be FEATURE.FNAME only, FEATURE.FCODE only, or the default combination (optionally followed by VIEW_CATALOG.VIEWNAME). Example: FEATURE CLASS NAME:FNAME Specifies fname is to be used to define the MGDM feature. FEATURE CLASS NAME:FCODE Specifies fcode is to be used to define the MGDM feature. Do not use this keyword if you want the default behavior.

FORCE DYNASET:
Snapshot recordsets improve the performance with most data servers. However, with the MGDM server, snapshot performance is generally not as good as dynaset performance. In many cases performance can be much worse when using snapshot recordsets. For the MGE data server the preferred method is to force all queries to be dynasets. If FORCE DYNASET: is set to TRUE, requests for snapshots will be ignored and dynasets will be created. The default value is TRUE. Example: FORCE DYNASET:FALSE

HYPERTEXT:
The HYPERTEXT: keyword identifies columns in the database that contain hypertext links, that is, the names of hypertext files. If a column is identified as hypertext, GeoMedia Professional allows you to open the file using the application that is registered on your system for that type of file. For example, a hypertext file named contract.txt might be viewed using the WordPad application, or a file named photo.bmp might be viewed using the Paintbrush application. Other file types and applications might be configured to handle other image types, other text or word-processor documents, a variety of audio or video formats, or Internet shortcuts. To designate a column in the database as a hypertext link, you must identify both the table and column names in the .ini file for the MGDM data servers using the HYPERTEXT: keyword. H-22

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You may identify several columns without repeating the keyword, but each table-column pair must appear on a separate line. For example, the Birds table might contain a hypertext column that links a record to a photograph of the species, one that references an audio clip of the birds call, and one that identifies a video clip of the bird in flight.
Syntax:

HYPERTEXT:<table name>,<column name> Example: HYPERTEXT:Birds,Photo Birds,Audio Birds,Video

INCLUDE RETIRED DATA:


This keyword is used to serve the retired data. The default behavior of the server is not to serve the retired data. In this case, the active data alone is served up by the MGDM data server. If this keyword is set to TRUE, all the retired data is served up along with the active data Syntax: INCLUDE RETIRED DATA: <TRUE|FALSE|T|F>

MAXIMUM GEOMETRY CACHE SIZE:


This keyword specifies the number of geometries cached per .cft file. For the datasets in which the .cft file size is bigger and when a larger number of records needs to be cached, this number can be varied for better performance. The default value of this keyword is 4000. Syntax: MAXIMUM GEOMETRY CACHE SIZE: <value>

MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL:


The MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL: keyword is used to control whether transaction isolation is minimized. If the transaction isolation level is not minimized, MGDM users may not be able to write to the MGDM project if a GeoMedia Professional user has an open ODBC connection to the same MGDM project. This usually occurs with Informix databases.

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The default value for this keyword is TRUE, which is the suggested state. You would only use this keyword if you do not want to minimize the transaction level. If you do not want to have the transaction level minimized, add the following line to your .ini file: Example: MINIMIZE TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL:FALSE

TABLE OWNER: and TABLE QUALIFIER:


Some relational databases, such as Oracle and Sybase, permit multiple schemas to reside in a single database instance. When this is the case, ODBC metadata queries provide information about all schemas unless the queries are qualified to identify a specific schema. Each relational database has a different method for using the ODBC table owner and table qualifier parameters to qualify metadata queries. The MGDM data server attempts to determine the proper values for these parameters automatically, but it may not be able to do so. If that is the case, you must provide values for these parameters using the TABLE OWNER: and TABLE QUALIFIER: keywords in the .ini file.
TABLE OWNER: is the username of the person whom the database system recognizes as the owner of the data tables you want the MGDM data server to process. You only use this keyword if you are connecting to the database with a different username than the owner of the tables. TABLE QUALIFIER: is the name that the database system associates with

the database or schema that you want the MGDM data server to process. In most cases, using TABLE QUALIFIER: alone is sufficient to identify the appropriate tables. Do not use TABLE QUALIFIER: with Oracle databases. In most cases, you do not need to use TABLE OWNER: or TABLE QUALIFIER:. With SQL Server, TABLE QUALIFIER: alone may be enough. You may not want to use TABLE OWNER: with Informix because it could lock you out of tables you did not create. You would need to use TABLE OWNER: with Oracle if the owner of the table is different from the login you use to connect. Syntax: TABLE OWNER:<table owner username> TABLE QUALIFIER:<database or schema name>

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Example: TABLE OWNER:joe TABLE QUALIFIER:schema9 Note: If you specify these keywords, GeoMedia Professional assumes that you specified them correctly. GeoMedia Professional does not do error checking on the validity of your entries and will not issue a warning if you have specified them incorrectly.

USE CFT FILE LOOKUP SPATIAL QUERY:


The USE CFT FILE LOOKUP SPATIAL QUERY: keyword controls what method the software uses to locate data for the recordset. If the USE CFT FILE LOOKUP SPATIAL QUERY: keyword is not defined, the MGDM data server will simply scan the MGDM CFT (graphics) files, perform some simple comparisons for each element, and create the recordset to be served up. For medium to large datasets, this method is used for performance reasons. There may be instances, however, when more rigorous data processing is needed to locate a recordset. By setting the keyword to FALSE, the MGDM data server will perform a spatial database query to more thoroughly locate data for the recordset. Some conditions may exist when using a spatial database query (that is, setting USE CFT FILE LOOKUP SPATIAL QUERY: to FALSE) may be beneficial: The CFT graphics files contain a large amount of orphan graphics. These invalid graphics may cause extra processing that may impact performance. Also, if there are a large number of orphan graphics, the potential for errors in the created recordset is increased. To reduce this possibility, a CFT redistribution using the MGDM application should be performed. The CFT graphics files contain elements from several different feature classes. This may increase the amount of processing needed to validate the elements and to create a recordset. Processing of CFT graphic elements is more efficient if there are fewer feature classes represented in the CFT files.

Example: USE CFT FILE LOOKUP SPATIAL QUERY:FALSE

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USE CURSOR LIBRARY:


The MGDM data server uses the static ODBC cursor model. Because most ODBC drivers require the services provided by the ODBC cursor library to support the static model, the MGDM data server by default opens connections using the cursor library (USE CURSOR LIBRARY:TRUE). Some ODBC drivers work better without, or do not work at all with, the cursor library. See the documentation for your ODBC driver to determine whether your driver requires the use of the cursor library to support the static ODBC cursor model. With Oracle, USE CURSOR LIBRARY: must be TRUE. You can achieve this result by not using this keyword in your .ini file, or by using USE CURSOR LIBRARY:TRUE. To initiate connections without the cursor library, you must add the USE CURSOR LIBRARY: keyword to the MGE .ini file and set it to FALSE. For example, you must use USE CURSOR LIBRARY:FALSE with SQL Server and Sybase. Example: USE CURSOR LIBRARY:FALSE

ZONES INTERSECTION THRESHOLD:


For small spatial filters, the MGDM data server uses spatial index, and the output recordset is created (if CFT lookup is disabled). For large spatial filters, however, making a database query that uses the MGDM spatial index slows down the creation of the recordset. ZONES INTERSECTION THRESHOLD: specifies (in %s from 0 - 100) what area of zones has to be covered by spatial filter in order not to use the MGDM spatial index when creating the recordsets. Thus, the MGDM spatial index is used only if the area covered by the spatial filter is smaller in percent than the threshold, The default value of the keyword is 20%. Syntax: ZONES INTERSECTION THRESHOLD: <value>

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The MGE Data Server .INI File


Most MGE data configurations require you to create a .ini file for your MGE data server. Listed below are the possible entries for the .ini file. Read the descriptions of these entries to determine if your MGE project requires this file. If so, you must create a file named <mge_project_name>.ini and add the appropriate entries to it. The following table shows some common database packages and which of the most frequently used .ini file keywords you may need to use. Access None required. FoxPro / XBase None required. Informix Use TABLE OWNER: and/or TABLE QUALIFIER: as needed. Use ANSI TABLE QUALIFIER:. Use MINIMIZE
TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL:.

Oracle
TABLE OWNER:

SQL Server/Sybase Always use USE


CURSOR LIBRARY:False.

may be required. Do not use TABLE


QUALIFIER:.

Use TABLE OWNER: and/or TABLE QUALIFIER: as needed.

Note: You may need to use other keywords, and you may not need to use some of the keywords listed in this table. See the following sections to determine when to use these and other keywords.

ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID:


The ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: keyword allows you to improve data server performance by specifying whether the software performs a SELECT DISTINCT(MAPID) from <attribute table> <usersupplied where clause> query. In most cases, performance is better when the data server does not perform this query. The data server only uses the query if you include a WHERE clause. For some project configurations, performance is better if the query is performed. The ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: keyword allows you to select between using this query or not using this query.

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By default, the query is performed when you supply a WHERE clause and there is no spatial filter. This query is performed in an attempt to improve performance by producing a shorter list of maps to scan. If neither an attribute filter nor a spatial filter is present, the software assumes that it must scan all of the maps in the category. If a spatial filter is present, the software assumes that the spatial filter will reduce the list of maps more than the attribute filter, so the query is not performed. These assumptions are usually valid if instances of the target feature class are present in every map (or most maps) in the category. This will usually be the case. If most feature classes in the project are limited to a significant subset of the maps in their respective category, then performance will be generally better if ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: is set to TRUE. If this is not the case, then ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: should retain the default value of FALSE. There are two reasons instances of a feature class might occur in a subset of the category's maps: 1. The feature class has a limited geographic extent, or 2. There is more than one tiling scheme for the category (that is, one for each feature class). The first reason is usually false because most feature classes extend to the geographic limits of the dataset. The second reason is usually false because it is contrary to the intent of the MGE data model (all features in a category share the same set of maps that represent a single tiling). The ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: keyword setting applies to all queries on all feature classes, so you should set it to TRUE only if most feature classes in the project (or the most heavily used ones) meet the specified criteria. The foregoing discussion is valid only if MAPID IS RELIABLE: is set to TRUE and UNLINKED IS VALID: is set to FALSE. If either of these options is set otherwise (or if either takes the default value) ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: is ignored. In this case, the query is pointless because all maps in the category (except those excluded by a spatial filter) must be scanned anyway. Setting the option to TRUE will improve performance primarily for projects in which feature classes in the same category share an attribute table but do not share design files. For example, Roads and Highways might both reside in the Transportation category and share the Transportation attribute table. H-28

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But the category could contain maps R1.DGN, R2.DGN (containing the roads features) and H1.DGN, H2.DGN (containing the Highway features). This is a rare case and ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: should usually be FALSE (which is the default value). If you set ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID: to TRUE, the SELECT DISTINCT(MAPID) FROM <attribute table> query will always be performed. The default value is FALSE. Example: ALWAYS SELECT DISTINCT MAPID:TRUE

COORDINATE SYSTEM:
See the Working with Coordinate Systems chapter for more information about coordinate-system files.

The MGE data server exposes a single output coordinate system for all geometry in a warehouse. By default, the MGE data server defines the output coordinate system to be the same as the coordinate system of the first valid map in the maps table that has valid coordinate-system definition (type-56 element). The software uses a single coordinate system for the entire project. You can specify a different output coordinate system by using the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword to designate a coordinate-system file (either a .dgn or a .csf file). Use the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword in cases where you want GeoMedia Professional to use a coordinate system other than the coordinate system from the first valid maps table entry. If you use this keyword to specify a coordinate-system file, the MGE data server uses the coordinate-system information contained in this file when processing your MGE data. If your MGE data is stored in more than one coordinate system, the coordinate-system file should match the coordinate system used to store the majority of the data. This will improve the performance of the MGE data server. The COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword takes a single coordinate-system filename as its value. Specify only the name and extension of a file that resides in the <project folder>\dgn folder. If you specify a DGN path using the DGN PATH: keyword in your .ini file, the coordinate file must reside in one of the folders defined by the DGN PATH: keyword. Syntax: COORDINATE SYSTEM:<coordinate system file> Example: COORDINATE SYSTEM:seed2.dgn

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Note: Because a coordinate system is already defined for most MGE data, it is unlikely that you would need to set up the COORDINATE SYSTEM: keyword for your MGE data. The best performance is obtained when the warehouse coordinate system is the same as the coordinate system in your MGE project.

COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ALL MAPS:


If all maps in your project use the same coordinate system, you can improve the performance of many queries to the MGE server by identifying a single coordinate-system definition for all maps. The specified coordinate system will also be used as the output coordinate system. The specified .dgn or .csf file must be present in the project \dgn subfolder or in one of the folders specified with the DGN PATH: keyword. If you use the COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ALL MAPS: keyword, the COORDINATE SYTEM: keyword will be ignored. Syntax: COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ALL MAPS:<.dgn or .csf file> Example: COORDINATE SYSTEM OF ALL MAPS:seed2.dgn

DGN PATH:
In most MGE projects, all the maps reside in the <project folder>\dgn folder, and the MGE data server looks for maps in this folder by default. If the maps for your project reside in other folders, you must identify them with the DGN PATH: keyword. If you do not specify a .dgn path, the default is the <project folder>\dgn folder. If you specify any .dgn folder, you must specify all folders (including subfolders). If there are any spaces in the path, you must enclose it in double quotes. All .ini file records are limited to 256 characters per line. If your path statement is longer than 256 characters, you can use continuation lines or multiple DGN PATH: statements. The format is the same as the HYPERTEXT PATH: keyword: Syntax: DGN PATH:<path1>[,<path2>]

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For long paths: DGN PATH:<path1>,path2,path3 <path4>,<path5>,<path6> OR DGN PATH:<path1>,<path2>,<path3> DGN PATH:<path4>,<path5>,<path6> Example: DGN PATH:C:\Maps,D:\Charts,\\SERVER\MAP

ENABLE TEXT:
In the MGE data server, text and text-node elements are permitted for the following MGE feature types: label, unknown, point, and area centroid. Text and text-node elements are not permitted for MGE linear and area boundary features. Based on the feature type alone, it is not possible to determine which features are actually represented as text or text nodes, so the ENABLE TEXT: keyword is required to specify which features are to be displayed with text. Because MGE label features may only be represented by text or text-node elements, label features are always displayed with text (in other words, a gdbPoint column and a gdbGraphics column). For other features to be displayed with text, the feature name must be listed in the .ini file following the ENABLE TEXT: keyword. If you use views, you must add a view name after the feature name. Because MGE linear and area boundary features may never be represented as text or text node elements, entries under the ENABLE TEXT: keyword for these feature types are ignored. The display of Text and Textnode text is controlled through the .ini file setting ENABLE TEXT:. The feature definition used for the ENABLE TEXT: variable must be the GeoMedia Professional feature class name, not the fname or fcode as defined in the MGE feature table. When GeoMedia Professional displays the MGE features list, it concatenates the fcode to the fname to make one feature class name and uses the underscore character in place of a blank space or other special character. For example, if the MGE feature name is Text AC and the feature code is text ac, then the feature class name given by GeoMedia Professional will be Text_AC_text_ac. This feature class name must be used for the ENABLE TEXT: variable.

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Note: The feature class name(s) used for ENABLE TEXT:, as with all the .ini user input, is NOT case sensitive. Also, you must replace all spaces with under bars. Syntax: ENABLE TEXT:<fname_fcode1> <fname_fcode2> <fname_fcode3> OR ENABLE TEXT:<fname_fcode_vname1> <fname_fcode_vname2> <fname_fcode_vname3> OR ENABLE TEXT: <fname1>,<fcode1>[,<vname1>] <fname2>,<fcode2>[,<vname2>] <fname3>,<fcode3>[,<vname3>] Example: ENABLE TEXT:manhole_001 pole_light marker_navigation

EXCLUDE FEATURE:
The EXCLUDE FEATURE: keyword allows you to exclude specific feature classes from being processed by the MGE data server. Syntax: EXCLUDE FEATURE: <fname>,<fcode>[,<vname>] where <fname> is the MGE feature name, <fcode> is the MGE feature code (as they appear in the MGE feature table), and <vname> is an optional MGE view name (as it appears in the MGE view catalog table).

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Example: EXCLUDE FEATURE: roads,01 trails,02,improved

FEATURE CLASS NAME:


By default, the MGE data server generates names for the features it serves up using the following algorithm in order to guarantee that identifiers conform to SQL92 standards: Concatenate FEATURE.FNAME and FEATURE.FCODE with an underscore character to separate the values. If the feature represents an MGE view, append an underscore character followed by VIEW_CATALOG.VIEWNAME. Replace all invalid characters (allow only letters, digits, and underscore characters) with underscore characters. If the first character it not a letter, prepend an "F" to the name.

The FEATURE CLASS NAME: keyword allows you to configure the feature class name to be FEATURE.FNAME only, FEATURE.FCODE only, or the default combination (optionally followed by VIEW_CATALOG.VIEWNAME). Example: FEATURE CLASS NAME:FNAME Specifies fname is to be used to define the MGE feature. FEATURE CLASS NAME:FCODE Specifies fcode is to be used to define the MGE feature. Do not use this keyword if you want the default behavior.

FORCE DYNASET:
Snapshot recordsets improve the performance with most data servers. However, with the MGE server, snapshot performance is generally not as good as dynaset performance. In many cases performance can be much worse when using snapshot recordsets. For the MGE data server the preferred method is to force all queries to be dynasets. If FORCE DYNASET: is set to TRUE, requests for snapshots will be ignored and dynasets will be created. The default value is TRUE. Example: FORCE DYNASET:FALSE H-33

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FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION:


The exact width and height of IGDS text cannot be accurately determined, so in many instances in which the user has center or right/top-justified text, the TextPointGeometry appears to be in the wrong location. The FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION: .ini keyword serves all IGDS text left justified. It sets the alignment of each output TextPointGeometry to the designated setting, minimizing or limiting text positioning errors. By default, in absence of this .ini keyword, each IGDS text element is served with its actual justification. While use of this .ini keyword does not preserve the original justification of the IGDS text, it does correctly position the text, assuming that the user chooses a TrueType font for the TextStyle that maps well to the font used in MicroStation. Syntax: FORCE TEXT JUSTIFICATION: LOWERLEFT/CENTERLEFT/UPPERLEFT

HYPERTEXT:
The HYPERTEXT: keyword identifies columns in the database that contain hypertext links, that is, the names of hypertext files. If a column is identified as hypertext, GeoMedia Professional allows you to open the file using the application that is registered on your system for that type of file. For example, a hypertext file named contract.txt might be viewed using the Wordpad application, or a file named photo.bmp might be viewed using the Paintbrush application. Other file types and applications might be configured to handle other image types, other text or word-processor documents, a variety of audio or video formats, or Internet shortcuts. To designate a column in the database as a hypertext link, you must identify both the table and column names in the .ini file for the MGE data servers using the HYPERTEXT: keyword. You may identify several columns without repeating the keyword, but each table-column pair must appear on a separate line. For example, the Birds table might contain a hypertext column that links a record to a photograph of the species, one that references an audio clip of the birds call, and one that identifies a video clip of the bird in flight.

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Syntax:

HYPERTEXT:<table name>,<column name> Example: HYPERTEXT:Birds,Photo Birds,Audio Birds,Video

HYPERTEXT PATH:
The MGE data servers look for hypertext files in the multimedia folder (<project folder>/multimed) of the project unless the HYPERTEXT PATH: keyword appears in the .ini file. Use this keyword to identify one or more folders in which to search for multimedia files. If more than one folder is specified, the folders are searched in the order specified. You may use either a comma (,) or a semicolon (;) to separate the path components. Path components may contain UNC-style folder names. Syntax: HYPERTEXT PATH:<path1>[,<path2>] Example: HYPERTEXT PATH:C:\image,D:\audio,\\SERVER\video

IGNORE INVALID TRANSFORM:


The IGNORE INVALID TRANSFORM: keyword is used for situations in which your MGE project contains one or more maps that have a coordinate system that cannot be transformed to the output coordinate system. If you set IGNORE INVALID TRANSFORM:TRUE, then any map that is set up with a coordinate system that cannot be transformed will still be processed, and the elements will be served to GeoMedia Professional without being transformed. The default value is FALSE. You would use this keyword only in the rare case that you have some maps that are in an unusual coordinate system that GeoMedia Professional cannot transform. This keyword will not allow you to process invalid elements. Example: IGNORE INVALID TRANSFORM:TRUE

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MAPID IS RELIABLE: and UNLINKED IS VALID:


There are two types of features in the MGE data model: graphics-only features and attributed features. Graphics-only features have no associated attribute table in the relational database of the project. Attributed features have an associated attribute table defining nongraphic attributes of the feature. If the MGE data server can make certain assumptions about how attributed features conform to the MGE data model, query performance can be improved. However, because of the number of existing datasets that do not conform, you must configure the server to make these assumptions. These assumptions do not apply to graphics-only features. The first assumption is that the MAP ID values in the attribute table are valid, that is, all design file elements that make up the geometry of the feature instances reside in the design file identified by the MAP ID. If this assumption is valid, then the data server can restrict its search for geometry to the designated file. Otherwise, the server must search all maps in the MGE category. The second assumption is that design file elements without attribute linkages are not valid for attributed features. If they are present in the project, they are anomalous and should not be exposed in the result set of the given feature. Again, if this assumption is not true, the data server must search all design files in the category to be sure all relevant design file elements are found. The MAPID IS RELIABLE: keyword controls whether the first assumption is valid; the UNLINKED IS VALID: keyword controls interpretation of the second one. Their default values are FALSE and TRUE, respectively. If either assumption is valid for your data set, the associated keyword should be present in the .ini file. Please note that overriding the default value for a dataset that is not in conformance causes the server to provide incorrect query results. Example: MAPID IS RELIABLE:TRUE UNLINKED IS VALID:FALSE

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IMPORTANT: The default values for these keywords changed with GeoMedia Professional version 3.0. Please be aware of the following implications: If your data does not comply with the MGE data model, the data that is not in compliance will not be displayed in GeoMedia Professional unless you set MAPID IS RELIABLE:FALSE and UNLINKED IS VALID:TRUE. You can accept the new default values to achieve this s