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Sequestering agent :

Metal ion

4 important factors for select sequestering agent :

Sequestering power.

Ability for removal or the neutralizing of harmful metal ions (water hardening substances, heavy metal ions) from the water. Equilibrium constant of COMPLEX : FREE LIGAND. Ability to distributed the solid particle in liquid. Maintain the pH of solution as narrow or constant.

Complex stability constant.


Buffer capacity.

Typical of sequestering agent

Aminopolycarboxylate and hydroxy derivative. Inorganic phosphate Organic phosphonate Hydroxycarboxylate Polyacrylic acid and copolymer.

Aminopolycarboxylate :

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) Diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)

Hydroxy derivative of aminopolycarboxylate

N-(hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) N,N-bis(hydroxyethyl) glycine (DEG)

Aminopolycarboxylate :


high selectivity for heavy metal ions, therefore well-suited as a regulator for hydrogen peroxide bleach. good stability at increased temperatures good alkali resistance. only resistant to oxidizing agents to a limited extent in hot and strong alkali media no detergency efficiency and soil carrying capacity; at high alkali concentrations, diminishing complexing power; only effective in the stoichiometric region, therefore large quantities are required. Alteration of shade and fastness on metal containing dyes


Metal ion control charge

Inorganic phosphate :

Inorganic phosphate :


to increase detergency efficiency and soil carrying capacity of surfactants; complexing power for calcium, magnesium and heavy metal ions.


in hot, strong alkali liquors due to their low stability at temperatures of > 80oC and pH > 11 and in strong acid media. In these areas, it is possible that insoluble deposits will form. No selectivity for heavy metal ions when calcium and magnesium ions are present.

Organic phosphonate :

Ethylenediaminetetra methylphosphonic acid (EDTMP) Diethylenetriaminepe ntamethylphosphonic acid (DETMP) Nitrilotrimethyl phosphonic acid (ATMP)

Organic phosphonate :


high calcium, magnesium and iron binding capacity high stability in cold and warm alkali baths and in strong alkali, oxidizing liquors very selective effect on polyvalent heavy metal ions effective in the lower stoichiometric region. only average detergent and dispersing action may result in alterations in shade and dyestuff being dissolved out of the fabric due to the formation of hard complexes with the central atoms of dyestuffs containing metals.


Hydroxycarboxylate :

Hydroxycarboxylate :


sequestering power at limited acid/alkaline concentration. is very dependent on pH.


Polyacrylic acid and copolymer :

Polyacrylic acid

Other comonomer

Polyacrylic acid and copolymer :

Oligomers with a molecular mass of 12008000 give optimum sequestering power.

Polyacrylic acid and copolymer :


excellent dispersing properties: solid soil, deposits, husks, etc. are removed from the fabric and stabilised in the liquor. high calcium, magnesium and heavy metal binding capacity lower stoichiometric region (threshold effect) and therefore effective even when only small quantities are used Have the effect of delaying crystallization, do not form hard complexes and therefore do not tend to corrode the central atoms of dyestuffs containing metals by varying the monomer components used and the degree of polymerization, products with specific property profiles can be synthesized. resistance and efficiency in strong alkali and strong electrolytic liquors are limited.


Thickener and Migration inhibitor

Relationships between viscosity and shear stress of thickener types

Starch and its derivatives

Giving high colour yields. Poor levelness High amylose content, not stable

British gum

Produce from heat the dry starch at 135-190oC, 10-24 h Good stability to alkali and for printing vat dyes. Suitable for resist printing (high S.C.)

Starch and cellulose ethers :

Suit for high-speed printing on engraved-roller machine.




Locust bean gum and Guar gum:

Consist of D-galactomannoglycan. Resistance wide pH range 3-11. Locust bean gum must disperse in minimum 45oC water, but Guar gum in cold water. Complexes are formed with borates, produce gel.

Alginates :

Very important for print paste thickener because their ready solubility, even after hightemperature fixation treatments. They are especially important for reactive dyes because the extent of interaction is very small. Stability is good between pH 4-10

Synthetic-polymer thickeners.

Poly (acrylic acid)-co-divinylbenzene

Sensitivity to electrolyte Electrolyte sensitivity can be reduced by copolymerising with acrylamide. Suitable for pigment printing but not for substantive dyes printing.

Emulsion thickeners :
O/W emulsion is prefered. Can be used combine with synthetic thickener. Viscosity is not change with shear rate. Suitable with pigment and non-ionic dyes.

Hydrotropic agent

Hydrotropic agent :N type

Hydrotropic agent : O and some S type

Disadvantage of urea
> 135oC

Alternatives to urea in thermosol dyeing and thermofixation

Fixing agent :

Fixing agent for acid dyes on Protein and Nylon

Natural tanning agent

potassium antimonyl tartrate (tartar emetic)

Tannic acid

Synthetic tanning agent (Syntan)

Mechanism of action : Fixation

Nylon or Protein

Mechanism of action : Blocking

Repell and then Block

Nylon or Protein

Fixing agent for Direct and Reactive dyes on Cellulose.

Typical reactant-fixable direct dye

Classes of cationic agents for fixation of dyed cellulosic fibres

Classes of cationic agents for fixation of dyed cellulosic fibres.

Indosol :
Bifunctional, trifunctional and tetrafunctional fixing agents

Developed for use with a selected range of coppercomplex (Indosol) dyes. The bifunctional type, which reacts only with the dye, was applied in a fresh bath at about 60oC and gave fastness to washing at 50oC through the formation of an extensive dyeagent complex within the fibre. The trifunctional type additionally forms covalent bonds with cellulose and is applied at 40oC for about 15 minutes, followed by addition of alkali to bring about reaction; this confers a higher degree of fastness to washing at 60 C even with deep shades

Indosol :
Bifunctional, trifunctional and tetrafunctional fixing agents

Tetrafunctional reactant resins confer the highest fastness, even to washing at the boil. Applied with an N-methylol reactant such as DMDHEU and an acid-liberating catalyst e.g. magnesium chloride to give a commercial product sold as a cationic reactant resin. Applied to the dyeing by padding, and cure at 175 180oC, result in covalent reaction between the cationic agent and the N-methylol groups as well as crosslinking of cellulose chains by the N-methylol reactant, Not only excellent wet fastness but also improved crease resistance and good dimensional stability.

Conclusion: Non surfactant auxiliaries

Non surfactant is the agents is not the surfactant which improve facility and efficiency of wet processing. A lot of members of this class is difficult to distinguish. Synergistic mixing auxiliary should be used together for highest efficiency.

Summary :
Textile auxiliaries have a lot of members and to be difficult to classify. Surfactant and non surfactant can use together, but avoid the ionicity and stability at extreme condition. Textile wet processing is impossible if use only dyes, water without textile auxiliary.