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C-more operator touch panels offer:

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CONNECT TO CONTROLLERS WITH DRIVERS FOR: C-more touch panels in 6" to 15" sizes are a practical way to give plant personnel easy access to controls and data. Check out the powerful yet easy-to-use conguration software by downloading a demo version at: ALL C-MORE PANELS INCLUDE:
Analog resistive touch screen with unlimited touch areas One USB A-type and one USB B-type port Serial communications interface All AutomationDirect PLCs/PACs Allen-Bradley ControlLogix CompactLogix MicroLogix 1100/1400 Ethernet ENI Adapter for SLC Series FlexLogix SLC 5/05 Ethernet MicroLogix Modbus RTU and TCP/IP Ethernet GE SNPX Omron Host Link Adapter (C200/C500), FINS Serial and Ethernet Selected Mitsubishi FX Series, Q Series Siemens S7-200 PPI and S7-200/300 Ethernet (ISO over TCP/IP)


10/100Base-T Ethernet communications CompactFlash slot for data logging


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Ethernet C-more panel) 6-inch STN grayscale Go online or call to get complete information, request your free catalog, or place an order.

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CONTRLENG_0113_Layout 1 12/20/12 11:13 AM Page 1

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Vol. 60 Number 1



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Multiple stories consider the suitability of Ethernet for sensor networks, and how the right sensor level approach can avoid incompatibilities in Ethernet protocols.

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CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 60, No. 1, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2013 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Telephone: 630/571-4070 x2220. E-mail: Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $ 145/yr; Canada, $ 180/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); Mexico, $ 172/yr; International air delivery $318/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $20.00 US and $25.00 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.


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Allied Electronics, Inc 2013. Allied Electronics and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc. An Electrocomponents Company.

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Fluid Performance
Motor-driven pump systems represent 30% of all motors used in North America. Baldor Electric Company recognizes the and API 547 compliant designs are available. ABB brand IEC metric motors are offered in standard or ATEX configurations for export or replacement on imported equipment through 100,000 Hp. OEM pump manufacturers and pump assemblers will find a wide range of BaldorReliance stock and custom motor configurations to meet your specific application requirements. For OEMs that manufacture their own submersible pumps, Baldor can supply stator-rotor sets in many different frame sizes and ratings for low and medium voltage use. All BaldorReliance motors are made in America and distributed through 32 stocking warehouses in North America, giving you the fastest stock motor delivery in the industry.

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In a motor-pump system, the life cycle cost of the motor is about 2% of the total expense with electricity consumption comprising over 97% of the motors total cost. By upgrading to a Super-E NEMA Premium efficiency motor, substantial energy can be saved immediately. Since most pump systems are oversized for worst case conditions and are operated well below that point, adding an adjustable speed drive to operate the motor at a lower speed (instead of using a valve) can, in most cases, save over 60% of the energy used.

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These applications can pay for the cost and installation of the drive in less than a year with rebates available from most utilities, while reducing energy consumption for many years afterwards. Both the U.S. Department of Energy and Natural Resources Canada accept Baldors Super-E motors as an energy-saving upgrade.

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Inside Process
Starts after p. 48. If not, see for January.


Dynamic simulation predicts steam consumption in unpredictable paper mill application

Langerbrugge used simulation analysis to make sure the boiler and steam system could remain stable even during the biggest disruption: a turbine trip.


Hydroelectric generating utility has to control with the ow

Located in an environmentally sensitive area, Box Canyon Dam has to deliver power while remaining invisible to the surrounding community. This means trying to control output around changes in water ow.


8 Think Again
Top articles for 2012

26 Yaskawa adds U.S. production; Mars Rover director to present at ARC Summit 28 Industrial computer company acquires system integrator

10 Product Exclusive
Data acquisition, test, and measurement software

14 IT & Engineering Insight

The next big thing is at hand PRODUCTS

16 Tech Update
Converging automation standards

18 Integrator Update
Remote access programming

60 Safety controller; ac drive; machine vision; circuit breakers; owmeters; HMI for CNC

22 International
High-speed memory sharing improves application reliability

25 Machine Safety
Risk level assessment priority: Possibility, severity, or frequency?

64 Back to Basics
Talking to process instrumentation


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New Products

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Find content from Control Engineering magazines from 1997 to the present.

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Point, Click, Watch

VIDEO: The winning system integrators in a roundtable discussion

Keep current with the latest information and news with electronic newsletters.

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Vance VanDoren talks to the 2013 winners, Sam Hoff, Jerry Smith, and Todd Williams, in an informal roundtable discussion. Find out more about vendor/integrator relationships and certi cations.

Consult our listing of more than 2,300 automation system integrators. You can nd a speci c company or run a seven-way multi-parameter search.

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Top Control Engineering articles for 2012
Control strategies, optimization, safety and security, and system integration were among top Control Engineering stories for 2012, based on online traffic. Ensure youve read these.
system integration services, each year Control Engineering judges evaluate applications and name the leading automation integrators. See advice since 2007, including videos. 6. Control Engineering salary survey, career advice Salary and career survey provides benchmarking and identifies leading trends among survey respondents. A write-in advice section addresses continuing education, workplace strategies, attitude, communication, and degree or specialties. 7. Optimizing strategy for boiler drum level control Optimize level sensing. Avoid trips and maximize steam output by reviewing control equipment, strategy, and tuning. 8. Direct-drive wind turbines flex muscles* New designs aim to increase power output, increase offshore reliability, and lower costs over the systems lifetime. 9. UML use cases, sequence diagrams: Unified modeling language (UML) can help define a system that can be easily understood by nonprogrammers. 10. Inside Machines: PC versus PLC: Comparing control options* To choose , compare operation, robustness, serviceability, hardware integration, security, safety, programming, and cost.

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Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2214, Peter Welander, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2213, Bob Vavra, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2212, Amara Rozgus, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2211, Amanda McLeman, Project Manager 630-571-4070, x2209, Chris Vavra, Content Specialist 630-571-4070, x2219, Brittany Merchut, Content Specialist 630-571-4070, x2220, Ben Taylor, Project Manager 630-571-4070 x2219,

eading Control Engineering articles in 2012 covered control strategies, programming, controllers, and humanmachine interfaces; best products and product selection; career advancement and recognition; safety and security; motors, drives, and motion control; industrial networks and communications; and system integration. Articles emphasize technologies and techniques to make those responsible for control engineering more useful and valuable within their organizations and to others. The 2013 Control Engineering salary survey and career advice research results emphasized the importance of continuing education, and the high-traffic articles here served that purpose. Starred items also were among 2011 top articles. 1. Control Engineering Engineers Choice Awards* Review the winners and honorable mentions from 2012; see the 2013 finalists. Winners are announced in February. Beyond seeing which products were voted as Engineers Choice winners, the collection of finalists provide some of the most-useful products to advance automation, control, and instrumentation productivity. 2. CFE Media Apps for Engineers This app of apps preselects more than 60 engineering-related applications. By category, theres a summary of each application with the ability to submit comments. Busy engineers appreciate help finding tools. 3. System Integrator Giants of 2012 Control Engineering Automation Integrator Guide firms responded to a survey, providing the 100 largest automation integrators based on revenue. The article covers issues critical to system integrators and their clients. 4. Video game or HMI? This article with video shows how technologies used in video games are being used to enhance humanmachine interface software used for automation and control applications. 5. System Integrator Hall of Fame To identify and recognize the best providers of

Contributing Content Specialists

Frank J. Bartos, P.E., Jeanine Katzel Vance VanDoren Ph.D., P.E., Suzanne Gill, European Editor Siergiej Guszczin, Control Engineering Russia Marek Kelman, Poland Editor-in-Chief Milan Katrusak, Czech Editor-in-Chief Andy Zhu, Control Engineering China

Publication Services
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media 630-571-4070, x2203; Steve Rourke, Co-Founder, CFE Media 630-571-4070, x2204, Trudy Kelly, Executive Assistant, 630-571-4070, x2205, Elena Moeller-Younger, Marketing Manager 630-571-4070, x2215; Michael Smith, Creative Director 630-779-8910, Paul Brouch, Web Production Manager 630-571-4070, x2208, Michael Rotz, Print Production Manager 717-766-0211 x4207, Fax: 717-506-7238 Karie Burt, Account Director, U.S. Sales 212-584-9374; Rick Ellis, Audience Management Director Phone: 303-246-1250; Letters to the editor Please e-mail us your opinions to or fax us at 630-214-4504. Letters should include name, company, and address, and may be edited for space and clarity. Information For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar, email Trudy Kelly at

Go Online
See more most-read articles for 2012, numbers 11-25, and one more on choosing the best programming language. Do you know anyone else who could value from a link to this article? Search Top articles 2012 at get the URL and e-mail that expanded online version with links to each article. Write a tutorial or application story in 2013:

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User-friendly data acquisition, test, and measurement software
High-performance Dataforth IPEmotion software is available with the Dataforth MAQ20 data acquisition and control system.

ataforth Corp. now offers IPEmotion software with its Dataforth MAQ20 data acquisition and control system. IPEmotion is an advanced, intuitive, user-friendly data acquisition, test, and measurement software designed for industrial and R&D applications. Rugged and reliable, this powerful new generation software provides synchronized data acquisition and is easily adaptable to all customer specific requirements, including device configuration, data acquisition measurement, visualization, and analysis. To meet these requirements, IPEmotion provides automatic recognition of connected devices, automatic configuration of all channels, automatic start of measuring, and instant visualization of all measurement values. With the addition of IPEmotion, the MAQ20 is now classed with the best data acquisition and control systems on the market, said Robert Smith, vice president of sales and marketing. Measurements include temperature, current and voltage, strain, pressure, frequencies, rotational speeds, logging, and diagnostic data. Features include live data display, recording, online and offline math and logic functions; one-click acquisition with direct hardware detection, data display, and recording; live adjustment to analyze and verify measurements during active data acquisition and graphic user interface (GUI) adaptation during active measurement and storage; data analysis; post-processing and report generation; easy drag-and-drop; high-speed recording; plug-in synchronization; import and export recorded data to standard file formats; scripting option; configurable gauges for wide-ranging applications; and extensive multilingual capabilities. ce


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IT & engineering

For manufacturing, the next big thing has arrived. Have you noticed? The operator assistant, based on the second generation of smartphones and the software capability to provide situational awareness, will be the always-on eyes and ears of operators, listening and looking for problems and patterns not normally visible to operators.

The next big thing is at hand

Dennis Brandl

apps will be the eyes and ears of operators, helping to see patterns and resolve problems, giving staff time to do value-added work.


Go Online
At, search on Apps for Engineers Smartphone Brandl book

his is the time of the year when IT departments are looking for The Next Big Thing (TNBT) so they can plan for purchases, system changes, and organizational restructuring. Manufacturing IT departments are also looking for TNBT because it often takes a long time to set up support for TNBT and companies do not want to make investments that will have to be ripped out within the next few years. It may come as a surprise, but you may have TNBT for manufacturing IT already in your hand. TNBT answers the problem of getting any information, at any place, and at any time. We have this today, provided the any place is in front of a computer screen. But, operational staff is always on the move, looking and listening to the process. The next big thing for manufacturing IT may be second generation smartphones. Todays smartphone replaces phones, cameras, GPS devices, and other dedicated devices too numerous to list. When combined with additional sensors, the smartphone becomes a tool for medical analysis, electronic signal analysis, and infrared sensing analysis, to name just a few applications. The current generation contains first generation chip sets and applications. Future smartphones will have more processing power. Intel recently announced a prototype 48-core chipset for smartphones. Advances in semiconductor technology will result in more storage capability with terabytes of local data. Imagine this computing power combined with voice recognition and context analysis of Apples Siri ( and the knowledge network of IBMs Watson (, in a handheld device. Software and hardware will create TNBT devices that provide situational awareness. Today many systems require an operator in the loop to detect and act on problems because

it is impossible to program the responses for all possible situations in classical control systems. TNBT devices will be able to recognize what is going on inside your area or site and determine when something is out of normal but not yet in alarm. The information for this awareness may come from traditional fixed sensors or even by listening for out-of-normal sounds in frequencies outside of human range. TNBT devices will have video capability, so they can look for abnormal conditions in visible, infrared, and ultraviolet. TNBT devices will become true operator assistants, always watching and always listening for out-of-normal conditions. There are steps to take to be ready for TNBT devices on your plant floor. These devices will be un-personalized like maintenance instruments or handheld radios. They will be assigned to people and run approved applications. You will need to ensure the facility has full Wi-Fi or 4G coverage. You will probably need to add additional process sensors and have larger historian databases with finer data resolution (less filtering). Plant blueprints may have to be augmented with location data, or alternately every location should be 2-D barcoded so that a TNBT device can bring up relevant information based on a persons location. The next big thing for manufacturing IT may well be the rise of the operator assistant, based on the upcoming second generation of smartphones. These will be always on, listening and looking for problems and patterns that are not normally visible to operators. They will help resolve problems, document the problems and resolutions, and leave operational staff free to perform value-added work. ce - Dennis Brandl is president of BR&L Consulting in Cary, N.C., His firm focuses on manufacturing IT. Contact him at


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Converging automation standards

Competing standards and protocols often cover the same ground but are not compatible, to the dismay of end users. Sometimes they can be brought together to benefit vendors and users.
Peter Welander

goal of such an effort is to structure the solution so that it has backward compatibility with equipment from either camp. This can often be a major technical undertaking.

The ultimate

Go Online
Read this story at for links to: The case for wireless standards convergence EDDL team reorganizes for FDI FDI Cooperation, LLC: A new company to support FDI technology is founded

ven a casual observer of our industries will soon realize that there are many standards and protocols covering various aspects of hardware, software, and work practices. They cover safety, communication, form factors, and all sorts of related elements. Its hard to imagine life without them as such standards ensure interoperability in ways we take for granted. The dark side of this discussion emerges when two competing standards cover the same area but are incompatible. The textbook example was VHS and Beta tape formats for video recorders. These were developed in the 1970s by JVC and Sony, respectively, and did, essentially, exactly the same thing. If you wanted to buy a VCR back then, you had to choose one or the other. Sellers had to have both available. Tape rental stores stocked the same titles in both. Ultimately, natural selection pushed Beta out of the market. This story has been repeated many times in industrial circles. A number of products and protocols have been relegated to the dustbin of history along with Beta tapes. At the same time, a handful of efforts have emerged in various areas to smooth over differences between competing standards and create something new that accommodates both. These are often driven by groups of users and even vendors interested in reducing pointless redundancy. The ultimate goal of such an effort is to structure the solution so that it has backward compatibility with equipment from either camp. This can often be a major technical undertaking. The most recent positive example is the development of FDI in an effort to bridge the gap between FDT/DTM and EDDL as device integration platforms. In spite of the technical differences between these two approaches, the group was able to create a new approach that is able to work with both. As vendors implement the new standard, users will not have to choose one or the other, or worse, duplicate efforts and support both. Another area where some consensus would go a long way is wireless field device communication. In a 2010 Control Engineering article, Herman Storey, a process industry consultant and

co-chair of the ISA100 committee, argued on behalf of users: Proprietary technologies limit users abilities to select the best system, the best field equipment for an application, and the best integration of system and field equipment with reasonable engineering cost. Proprietary technologies may offer attractive features when working in a single vendor environment, but the downside of these features is their lack of general applicability and permanence. Users want interoperable standards-based products and systems. Interoperability needs a significant amount of support, but the payoff is improved risk management for vendors and users. Users are now demanding interoperable solutions (the ability to freely mix vendors) for industrial wireless technologies. Sadly, sometimes these bridging efforts are not effective. In December, the ISA100 committee disbanded its ISA100.12 subcommittee to create a convergence of ISA100.11a and WirelessHART standards aimed at wireless process instruments. While the two platforms are similar, no ideal technical solution that could work with both had emerged. The group also suffered from contentious differences between vendor representatives. Disbanding this group does not mean such efforts have ceased. Another organization called the Heathrow Wireless Convergence Team continues as an open interest group dedicated to creating a single communication standard for wireless field device networks in process industries. Technical developments go on under this banner and now include WIA-PA from China in addition to the original two. A critical mass of users, vendors, and academic institutions is now behind the effort, providing the best hope for wide support. Writing standards is inherently a slow process which has to move on to the vendors for adoption. A 10-year time span is typical to move from formation to having products available for users. With some unified effort and a little technical luck, maybe this one will gain some lost ground. ce Peter Welander is a content manager for Control Engineering.


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Remote access programming

Internet promises of better remote access, monitoring, and tweaking of automation systems have been slowed by malware and other security issues; options are available for secure remote access programming.
Frank Hurtte

Proprietary processes, formulas for new products, and e-mail correspondence can be targets for hackers, creating a barrier for those who had hoped to use the Internet to monitor machinery.

Key concepts
Remote access to machinery decreases downtime External access needs to be secure Tools can reduce remote access risk

he concept of remotely accessing, monitoring, and tweaking automation systems has been around since the late 1980s, and the Internet seemed to be the Promised Land, just around the corner. Just about the time we were ready to perform a happy dance atop the Internet bandwagon, malware and security issues reared their ugly heads and ruined the party. The year 1988 was about the time the major PLC manufacturers first made noise about remote access. It was a good idea, but then the only option was a dial-up modem. This required a lot of tinkering and faced three obstacles. First, the connections were really slow, and even after 20 years, they didnt get much better. According to Leslie Adams of Chicagos MAAC Machinery (in 2012), I remember the frustration associated with trying to monitor machines when it took a long time for information to make its way back via the modem connection. In one instance, we were working with a machine in Australia and the delay ran up to 15 seconds. With speeds like that, any thoughts of actively making changes on the fly are pretty much shot. The coups de grace was when the search began for a telephone line on the plant floor. There are issues with getting an analog line down to a machine. When dozens of machines were scattered throughout a manufacturing facility, it was nearly impossible. Even today, phone lines can be iffy. James Alongi, MAACs president, noted, Those of us in the U.S. and Canada take solid phone infrastructure for granted. This is not true in other parts of the globe. Developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and even some first-world nations regularly suffer from spotty phone service. So modems were applied on some missioncritical systems, ones that could shut down a whole plant. Things like the main ammonia chiller inside a food processing plant might justify having a line, but the rest of the applications went begging, and engineers continued to go on expensive unplanned trips.
Let there be Internet

ernet devices. In a couple of years, it was Ethernet everything. And in 2001 when companies like Rockwell Automation began introducing Ethernet-enabled programmable controllers (and then drives, operator interface devices, and other components), it looked like remote connectivity problems were over. Using plant wide networks hooked to the Internet, it became possible to sit in a comfortable office and fine-tune processors wherever they may be. Expensive and physically exhausting last-minute trips to customer sites would be a thing of the past.
Paradise lost, devils in malware

The late 1990s brought an Internet explosion followed by a logarithmic proliferation of Eth-

In the early days of the Internet, most of us had no way to imagine the evils of spyware, malware, and code capable of bringing whole companies to their knees. As businesses became networked, one bit of this nasty stuff could shut down million-dollar operations. A hell-bent hacker worming into a plant-wide network could conceivably access sensitive information, such as private human-resource information, trade secrets, and more. Proprietary processes, formulas for new products, and sensitive e-mail correspondence are choice targets. U.S. IT departments switched from utility providers to private detectives. Were still basking in the red light warning of a new heightened state of security. Security can create a barrier for those who had hoped to use the Internet to monitor machinery. Currently, the virtual private network (VPN) is the most common method for allowing employees remote access to a company or plant network. If you can access company e-mail or other files (that arent cloud-based) from home or a motel room, it is likely via a VPN. When you joined your organization, someone from the IT department created an encrypted certificate for you that provides secure network access. VPN is defined as a network that uses public infrastructure (like the Internet) to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to a private company network. It aims to avoid an expensive array of private or leased lines that can only be used by one company at a time. VPNs encapsulate data transfers between two or more networked devices that are not on the same private network. This keeps the transferred date secure


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An eWON industrial VPN router is connected to an automation system. The device combines a modem, an IP router, drivers for serial and Ethernet PLC protocols, and a processor for autonomous management of communication tasks. It offers additional services for PLC parameters. Courtesy: River Heights Consulting

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from devices on one or more intervening local or wide area networks. VPN also is used for remote access to factory machines to allow the machine builder to work remotely. There are four main problems: A PC must be installed near the machine with the necessary software to connect to a remote desktop. The machine builder must be given a username and password to reach the PC. Depending on architecture, this outsider also may have the ability to access the rest of the factory network, which makes most companies very nervous. There is a lack of traceability. Without appropriate software, it is impossible to verify who has been on the system and when and where they made changes. Simply stated, access through the network and VPN is (or should be) highly guarded. Once a user is on the VPN, he may have access to the whole network. And thats the problem. Corporate IT groups spend enormous resources setting up new users and regulating access to the VPN. Nearly every company has a procedure that automatically informs the IT group if someone quits or is terminated, and they close off network access immediately. In most company environments the VPN will be open to automation providers for only a couple of days before or after they work. While this minimizes risk to the customers network, it eliminates chances of taking a proactive look at the customers system. Worse for the engineer involved, once on the customers network, the engineer must remember a long string of IP address numbers to find the right PLC. The 30-plus-year war of

wills between control engineers and corporate IT departments can add difficulties.
See the future from here

Promising technologies are pushing into the remote access arena. Many come on the verge of Stuxnet and an inherent escalation of the computer-securities war. One such new technology comes from Belgium-based eWon (a systems integration company turned manufacturer). It uses hardware, cloud computing, and VPN router technologies (LAN, PSTN, GPRS, 2G, 3G) in an industrial case. The product establishes a secure Internet connection between the user and the machine with minimal effort using the factory LAN. The eWon Talk2M (talk to machine) is a smart Web-based remote access method integrating IT security standards by enabling Internet tunneling between the user and the remote machine without requiring changes to IT network security settings at either end. This allows easy deployment and hides the complexity of the IT network infrastructure. Since cloud connections are outbound, firewalls remain intact to protect the network against malware and viruses, like Stuxnet. A California-based systems integrator specializing in water treatment systems is among early adopters of the eWon technology. Darian Slywka of American Water Technology said, VPN network connections used to be a major hassle. As you might imagine, there are significant issues with security relating to utility infrastructure. Opening ports in a firewall creates concerns for both the customer and our own systems. American Water Technology uses eWon Talk2M and related services to


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assign engineers and programmers based on workload, project dynamics, and business requirements. They monitor equipment access and log the time they spend working remotely. They can monitor, debug, and later troubleshoot literally any device with an Ethernet connection; things like PLCs, drives, instrumentation, and other devices can be connected as easily as if they were within arms reach. The eWon device automatically grabs an IP address, saving the time and effort of assigning one. Talk2M Pro service manages control access between users and the machine. The software only allows communication with eWon devices, resolving security issues.
Economic impact, remote connections

money we save our customers when we eliminate a field trip is just icing on the cake (no pun intended). When we drop everything and rush out to a field emergency, our costs skyrocket. Engineering elegance meets economic impact at the gates of Nirvana. ce - Frank Hurtte is founding partner of River Heights Consulting.

Go Online for the Safety and Security channel

A Cut Above

Remote connectivity is a good economic decision. With last-minute airfare and a hotel room pushing the thousanddollar mark, travel costs justify a remote access strategy. When the lost productivity from being out of the office is factored in, costs skyrocket. MAAC Machinerys Leslie Adams said eWon use eliminates 50%-70% of our support costs, in addition to significantly reducing hours of machine downtime normally associated with waiting for a service technician. Travel time wasted on field trips equates to a lot of money. Sitting in airports and driving out to customer installations means a whole lot of unproductive timetime we prefer our programmers spend working on new machines or fine-tuning existing systems. When these guys are gone, they simply arent working on the important stuff. Other companies share similar justification. Joe Reilly, VP of technology at Comtec Industries, a manufacturer working with commercial bakeries, said, In the baking business, downtime is expensive. With the Model 2900 operating at 3,600 crusts per hour, downtime could easily reach upwards of $7,000 per hour in lost revenue. With numbers like this, its safe to say we will save hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost production over the life of these machines. And, the

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High-speed memory sharing improves application reliability

Data transmission based on the Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms provides a unique industrial real-time network technology that can boost reliability for many industrial control applications, according to a CE China article.
Jin Yan

Key concepts
Real-time backup and fail-over of control for manufacturing information can augment reliability. Applications include flight simulators, telecommunication, rolling mills, aluminum factories, and high-speed test and measurement systems. High-speed data transmission, real time, and determinism are key attributes, for up to 256 nodes in a ring topology.

n the industrial automation application area of cold rolling and hot rolling, the requirement for pressure and rotating speed is strict and demanding. Data must be transmitted to the next node within a very short time to achieve real-time parameter coordination. A very short delay could cause errors and huge waste. Currently, fieldbus and Ethernet cannot satisfy the requirements of high determinacy and timing. Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms targets demanding simulation, process control, and data collection to make up for this insufficiency and fulfills strict real-time requirements with determinacy, low latency, and highspeed memory sharing.

Diagram shows how Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms reduces the latency of nodes. Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms

Low latency, high speed

Go Online At search Control Engineering China for other articles.

Reflective memory is a high-speed network with a 2.12 G transmission rate; its transmission speed can be as high as 174 Mbytes/s. Shao Jianfeng, an embedded system application engineer for GE Intelligent Platforms, said that in the reflective memory optical fiber ring, high-speed synchronization would transmit data to the next node in the network and get ready to insert data at any node any time data was written to a local reflective memory device. Each node receives data from its previous node, decodes the data packet, checks the errors, writes this new data to local backup, and sends it to its next node. When data returns to the starting node, it is deleted from the network. Every computer holds the latest local backup of the share memory collection with no software latency and negligible hardware latency. All computers can receive the data written to reflective memory within 2.1s (diagram). Low latency is vital for building real-time systems (such as simulators, PLC controllers, testing platforms, and high-availability systems). All CPUs writing to shared memory in the system will be duplicated to all nodes, up to 256 computers within the network. All subsystems have sufficient and unlimited access authorities. Beside a ring structure, star topology of reflective memory network is another option,

which enables higher synchronization. Optical fiber hub can bypass any nodes that terminate the operation even if the node interruption is turned off. Every computer holds the latest backup of share memory collection within the network. Backup node can seamlessly take up the operation using the failed node, reducing the negative impact on the productivity, profitability, and performance caused by unexpected shutdown. GE Reflective Memory provides a ringstructured network for data insertion using optical fiber with 2.12 G transmission rate. The range between nodes can be up to 10 km (single mode)/300 meters (multiple mode). Compared with Gigabit Ethernet, reflective memory has a higher real-time performance. The latency between two nodes is no more than 750 nanoseconds, while Ethernet and fieldbus cannot achieve this, as the speed of Gigabit Ethernet (including UDP) is only 100 MB/s, Jianfeng said. (See table.) It is difficult to achieve similar latency using Ethernet as well as other network technologies, due to constraints, such as IP protocol cost, addressing, and time to write to memory. Then, can 10 Gigabit Ethernet replace a Reflective Memory network? Jianfeng said that most industrial fieldbuses are still using 10/100 Mbit/s, and currently Gigabit network and 10


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ment of real time is not demanding, it is fine to use a traditional network, considering cost. That is to say, Reflective Memory is especially suitable to the environment where high-speed data transmission, real time, and determinacy are top priority. Up to 256 nodes can be connected to the ring, and that is enough for industrial environment and simulation applications.
Real-time, accurately controlled production

Gigabit application are mainly used at server levels. It is possible that a 10 Gigabit network will be used widely in industrial field applications, but that will take a long time. GE also is developing 10 G optical fiber to fulfill environmental needs for more demanding real-time performance. Reflective Memory doesnt rely on network protocol, avoiding additional load limit or terminal rules. Hardware can be used in VME (versa module eurocard), PCI/PCI-X, PMC (PCI mezzanine card), PCI Express, and others, which allow the separate reflective memory network to connect to a different bus. [PCI is peripheral component interface.] Design and implementation need not care much about the system compatibility and can build adaptive systems to ease the field systems building and expanding, Jianfeng said. Protocol means CPU overhead, and thus data could be lost during the transmission. A Reflective Memory network transmits raw data with extreme latency, which means higher determinacy of data transmission and lower CPU overhead. It monitors and duplicates data transparently and shares data without software overhead (more cost effective, eliminating additional development effort, testing, maintenance, documentation, and CPU requirements of traditional communication).
Application scope: VME versus PLC

Could this be applied to all industrial environments? The answer is no. Reflective Memory, a unique GE real-time network technology, can be integrated with other GE embedded systems to build real-time systems to achieve remote data transmission. It can be used in all environments where computers or programmable logic controllers are connected using Ethernet, optical fiber channels, or other serial networks, such as flight simulators, telecommunication, high-speed progress control (rolling mills and aluminum factories), and high-speed testing and measurement systems. It is not for all environments. Reflective Memory is more suitable to systems where real-time communication is top priority. Although the price of Reflective Memory is higher than that of hardware whose performance is low, it is rewarding considering its high functionality and usability, Jianfeng said. Of course, he further pointed out that for those industrial environments where the require-

Thanks to low latency and high determinacy, Reflective Memory is best applied to applications in metallurgy, steel, and communications environments, where real-time requirements are strict. For example, it can be used to improve the PLC performance to control the aluminum or steel rolling process. For an aluminum mill with 3500 ft/min speed, 2-3 feet of aluminum can pass through within the response time of the executor when using the usual PLC controller. The executer can apply or release pressure to roll out aluminum with various thickness. With Reflective Memory, data related to the mill can be input into the PLC, which writes the data to Reflective Memory. Thus data is sent to independent VME computers to transmit the complicated control logic algorithm. The system uses Reflective Memory commands to transmit the output control data back to the PLC. Data transmission and computer speed are so high, there is no delay in the PLC operation control loop. If there is any delay, Jianfeng said, the thickness of steel cannot follow the specifications, and some of the material will be wasted. Reflective Memory based on a VME advanced control system ensures real-time and accurate control to reduce the response time to as short as 4 in. [in this application] and thus improve product quality. Compared with a PLC, Reflective Memory has better real-time performance, achieving highspeed system response with higher cost. Reflective memory is a good supplement to the traditional PLC control, and you can decide which solution to take. If there is some system redundancy, you can use Reflective Memory to back up the data in the time-out machine within a few microseconds, which is common in PLC control. ce - Sunny Jin (Jin Yan) is senior editor with Control Engineering China. This article appeared in an earlier edition of CEC and was edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, for use in Control Engineering,

Table: Reflective Memory network versus Ethernet

Feature Transmission speed Data transmission speed Byte order data transformation Software transparency Network data transmission/ Confirmation to receive? Network transmission scheme Memory mapping access shared data? Reflective Memory network (5565/5565PIORC/5565RC) 2.12 Gbit/s 174 MB/s Yes Yes Yes Data insertion Yes 10/100 Ethernet 10/100 Mbit/s 1.25/12.5/125 MB/s No No No Carrier sense multiple access/ Collision detection No, must create message application Gigabit Ethernet 1000 Mbit/s 1.25/12.5/125 MB/s No No No Token passing No, must create message application

Table compares various attributes of Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms, 10/100 Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms


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Risk level assessment priority: Possibility, severity, or frequency?

Which factor has the highest priority for assessing hazard risk levels: possibility, severity, or frequency? The ANSI B11.0 2010 standard may help.

J.B. Titus, CFSE

Performance levels from ISO 13849-1: 2006

PLr P1 F1 S1 F2 1 F1 S2 F2 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 e d c b a

re the three factors of possibility, severity, and frequency of equal importance in determining the risk levels for machine safety hazards? Industry safety standards seem to treat them as equal because they dont address any relative importance. However, whats your experience? Doesnt it seem that international and domestic standards present these three required factors for assessing risk as independent variables? Although theyre independent, they are also related because when theyre combined they help to determine risk levels of hazards and their related remediation performance requirements. This is shown in the risk reduction graph from ANSI B11.0 2010. In this case the qualitative process is determining the Performance Level (PL) for the given hazard. Using this assessment approach, if you decided that severity (of injury) required a higher priority, would the derived outcome in the risk level be any different? Similarly, would giving the possibility or frequency factors greater priority or lesser priority change the answer? In my opinion, I dont see it! Yet when I talk with users about this issue, they frequently present this example. If severity of harm for a given hazard is death, they always give that factor a higher priority (S2) and a higher risk level, which drives the highest circuit performance for machine guarding. The highest circuit performance is PLe, which requires the average probability of dangerous failures per hour of 108 to 107. PLe means control reliable circuits with redundant components and 24/7 monitoring. So, heres the dilemma as I see it: If severity is S2 and frequency and possibility are F1 and P1, respectively, your derived risk level is PLc by ISO 13849-1: 2006 standard requirements. After deciding on S2 and depending on your answers for F1 or F2 and P1 or P2, you could arrive at either PLc, Pld, or PLe, per the graph

Amount of risk reduction required

1 Starting point for evaluation of safety functions contribution to risk reduction L Low contribution to risk reduction H High contribution to risk reduction PLr Required performance level

Risk parameters
S S1 S2 F F1 F2 P P1 P2 Severity of injury Slight (normally reversible injury) Serious (normally irreversible injury or death) Frequency and/or exposure to hazard Seldom-to-less-often and/or exposure time is short Frequent-to-continuous and/or exposure time is long Possibly of avoiding hazard or limiting harm Possible under specific conditions Scarcely possible

Figure D-2: Performance Levels from ISO 13849-1:2006. Reprinted with Permission: ANSI B11.0 2010, B11 Standards Inc.

above. Specifically arriving at PLe by prioritizing severity (S2) is not straightforward. If using the category system, you could likewise arrive at either Cat 1, 2, 3, or 4 by deciding on S2. Perhaps you can prioritize severity by eliminating frequency and possibility and simply defaulting to PLe or Cat 4. But, by eliminating frequency and possibility in your risk analysis, are you in compliance with the standards? Therefore, arent all three factors equal in priority? Does anyone have an answer for this dilemma? Your comments or suggestions are always welcome, so please let us know your thoughts. Submit your ideas, experiences, and challenges on this subject in the comments section (online). ce - J.B. Titus, Certified Functional Safety Expert (CFSE), writes the Control Engineering Machine Safety Blog. Reach him at

Go Online Browse www.controleng. com/blogs Search www.controleng. com for Quantitative circuit design versus qualitative risk assessment Updating ISO 13849-1 compliance for robots


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Yaskawa commemorates first U.S.-manufactured MV1000 medium-voltage drives

Yaskawa Electric Corp. and Yaskawa America Inc. celebrated the start of U.S. manufacturing for the Yaskawa MV1000 in a ceremony at the Yaskawa America Oak Creek, Wis., plant on Nov. 30. Yaskawa offered the medium-voltage drive (for motors up to 5000 hp) earlier this year, but ordering and shipping from Japan takes about 6 months. Thats expected to be reduced to 8 weeks or less after more than $3 million is invested by 2014 for new manufacturing and testing areas in the 30,000-sq-ft plant. By late 2013, models serving up to 5,000 hp are expected to be available, including UL and CSA listings. Yaskawa MV1000 is said to be the smallest 1000 hp drive available, with 30%-60% smaller volume compared to the last generation of Yaskawa product. It also has the longest mean time between failures (MTBF) at 200,000 hours, a number expected to increase, said those involved. Yaskawa Smart Harmonics Technology reduces input harmonics, meeting IEEE519-1992 and eliminating the need for other filters. Total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 2.8%. Energy savings for customers derive from 97% or better power
Controls for this Yaskawa MV1000 medium voltage drive are in a slide-out drawer on the right, separate from higher-power areas, reducing requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) for controls-only access. Configuration options are many.

Executives from Yaskawa America, Inc. and Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan) open casks at the Kagami Biraki sake ceremony to commemorate the first Yaskawa medium-voltage drive produced and shipped in the U.S. CFE Media photos by Mark T. Hoske

John Merrison, Yaskawa senior product marketing manager, said the Yaskawa MV1000 medium-voltage drive protects the connected motor and main from harmonics, which extends motor life and avoids electric utility penalty charges, and it saves energy, he said.

conversion efficiency at rated load and by motor speed control, particularly on variable torque loads such as fans, blowers, and pumps. Employees, customers, and guests were invited to the plant for a KagamiBiraki sake ceremony commemorating the new beginning. They celebrated next to the first MV1000 units made there, two of which were ready to ship to a pipe manufacturing customer in Ohio. Another will remain at the Oak Creek plant for demonstration, display, and continued testing. Yaskawa Oak Creek now employs

115 and will augment engineering, application support, manufacturing, and testing as needed, the company said. The MV1000 drive uses open-loop vector control, meaning it is highly resistant to load fluctuations, enabling stable continuous operation without using an encoder. High-performance vector control can be used with synchronous motors as well as induction motors. The available user interface is the same used with Yaskawa 1000-Series low-voltage drives, for easy setting and operation. The Yaskawa DriveWizard Plus MV helps with setup, maintenance, and troubleshooting. A USB copy device aids with the transfer of parameters from drive to drive. ce

Go Online
CFE Media video demonstrates energy savings with variable frequency drives Yaskawa tops 1 million inverters manufactured


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Automation, control, and instrumentation events, conferences, and training in 2013 include: ProMat, Jan. 20-24, Chicago Automate 2013, Jan. 21-24, Chicago ARC World Forum, Feb. 11-14, Orlando

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Engineering document control, numbering, transmittals: Build a flexible solution

Microsoft SharePoint is commonly used for document storage, intranets, and extranets but falls short for sophisticated document control, numbering, and transmittals capabilities. A number of engineering companies have overcome these challenges without custom code. SharePoint can be a great platform for engineering project management. Useful functionality includes document classification, version control, search, calendars, tasks lists, alerts, creation of project sites from templates, and others. Many engineering companies find SharePoint lacking for: Document control, including multi-stage approvals and permission management Document numbering, for example composite numbering formats including document type, revision, incremental number, etc. Transmittalsmaking available sets of documents to partners or clients and tracking which documents have been transmitted. Engineering organizations can: Develop custom software Purchase one or more specialist off-the-shelf products Enhance Microsoft SharePoint with a third-party tool that enables rapid delivery of the required functionality through configuration rather than code. Custom development can be slow, risky, and expensive, and can complicate future SharePoint upgrades, since customizations need to be upgraded. When business processes and requirements change, it can be a lengthy process to re-engage software developers to update the software. Specialist off-the-shelf products can be good if they meet precise project requirements, but locking in to one vendor can add risk, as future needs may not be met. Off-the-shelf products can be expensive to purchase, maintain, and support. Enhancing Microsoft SharePoint with a third-party tool has worked for several engineering companies. Such software can enhance SharePoint by allowing visual construction and configuration of sophisticated workflows for: Automatic generation of document numbers according to existing document numbering policy Complex multi-stage, serial, and parallel document approval Transmittals management, including approval, document tracking, pub-

Robotics Industry Forum, AIA Business Conference, Feb. 20-22, Orlando ABB Automation & Power World, March 25-28, Orlando Hannover Messe, April 8-12, Hannover, Germany ESC Design West, April 22-25, San Jose, Calif. Interphex, April 23-25, New York CSIA Executive Conference, May 1-4, St. Petersburg, Fla. Also see

lishing of documents to an extranet, and automated generation of e-mails containing links to transmitted documents. Engineers can quickly learn and maintain many workflows at a low cost. Because it is delivered through configuration, not code, changes may be implemented by a nonspecialist in-house staff person in hours. ce - Ian Woodgate is managing director of SharePoint business applications specialist PointBeyond Ltd.

NASA Mars rover director to keynote ARC Forum in February

Director of the Mars Rover project for NASA will keynote the annual ARC World Industry Forum, [http://www.arcweb. com/events/arc-orlando-forum/pages/default.aspx] Feb. 11-14, 2013, in Orlando. The four-day conference and event features manufacturing and engineering-related speakers highlighting new processes and technologies, including Doug McCuiston, director of the Mars Exploration Program at NASA. McCuiston will discuss the engineering and logistics needed to bring the Curiosity rover to the surface of Mars. In his presentation, McCuiston will discuss this eightyear journey with a behind-the-scenes story of building Curiosity, getting it to the surface of Mars, its early discoveries, and what lies ahead for the Mars exploration program. ARC analysts and a roster of some of the worlds top manufacturers also will share knowledge at the annual event. Included in the event are four days of educational sessions, displays from some of the top manufacturers, and a series of networking events to bring top manufacturing executives from around the world to exchange ideas. The theme of the 2013 ARC Advisory Group event is, Achieving Breakthrough Performance With New Processes and Technologies. ARC officials will discuss how to meet the goal of improved performance by identifying key improvement targets, implementing the correct process improvement tools, and generating fresh and unique offerings to meet evolving customer needs. For information on the 2013 ARC World Industry Forum conference program, go to ce - Edited by Bob Vavra, content manager CFE Media, Control Engineering and Plant Engineering,

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puting systems and platforms, digital signage, panel computers, industrial connectivity (switches and protocol converters), and related support. Attempting to be a standard product company in a world that is demanding integration services targeting the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), designing complex products based around COTS building blocks, the Axiomtek statement said. Over the recent years, the industrial computer industry has done a nice job producing standards-based systems for the embedded developer, said Dave Starrett, VP of sales for Axiomtek USA. However, the final piece to the ultimate solution is being able to offer the intangible services that truly enable the customer to focus on their core competency. Now we have it. Kevin Tiner, ECS director of operations, said, Axiomtek has been a supplier to ECS for over 10 years. We know their products, their capabilities, and their people. We look forward to taking advantage of the synergy that this partnership has created. Lincoln International represented Suntron Corp. in the sale of the ECS business unit. ce

Industrial computer company acquires system integrator

Axiomtek USA expands North American operations with acquisition of the Suntron Embedded Computing Solutions (ECS) business unit. Axiomtek, a global provider of industrial computers, announced that its North American subsidiary, Axiomtek USA, has signed a definitive agreement to acquire the Methuen, Mass.-based Embedded Computing Solutions (ECS) business unit of Suntron Corp. ECS provides modified commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) based end-to-end outsourcing services, such as embedded designs, systems integration, and extended lifecycle management. Terms of the agreement were not disclosed. Axiomtek, with more than 700 employees worldwide and operations in five countries, has expanded service to the embedded systems marketplace with the acquisition of ECS, according to a Dec. 21 statement from Axiomtek USA, based in City of Industry, Calif. ECS operations will be renamed Axiomtek Systems and will remain in its current ISO9001-certified Methuen facility. Current Axiomtek product offerings include single-board computers, industrial com-

Outsourcing services allow embedded computing and industrial computing customers to focus on core competencies.
nonstandard solutions can present a tremendous challenge to any manufacturer, stated YT Yang, Axiomtek CEO and president. With the added experience and skill set of ECS, Yang said, we are now poised to provide our customers with a portfolio of robust industrial computing products along with outsourcing services anchored by operational excellence. It is a perfect match. ECS, established in the early 1990s, provided some of the industrys first

Feedback: RTUs have been used since at least the 1960s

Sea gas platforms. The BP gas platforms were equipped Dr. Fang Yuanbais RTU article (Control Engineering, with solid-state RTUs; microprocessors were just being December 2012, p. 12: Control Engineering International: developed at that time. This BP North Sea SCADA system RTU use expands, must make full use of advantages) said was commissioned in 1967. A similar SCADA system for RTUs [remote terminal units] started to be used by the U.S. Shell North Sea was commissioned in 1968. oil and gas industries in the 1980s. Thirty years later I had occasion to meet the maintenance Due to my direct personal experience I am aware of personnel for these platforms and inquired why these RTUs RTU/SCADA [supervisory control and data acquisition] had not been upgraded. Their response was that the RTUs applications on the Alaska crude oil pipeline. Each of the worked so well that they did not need replacing. 12 pump stations had RTUs installed communicating over Serck Controls had at that time installed many SCADA microwave radio and backed-up satellite communications. systems on a global basis including the Zakum oil fields in Each pump station RTU acted like a sub-master station to Abu Dhabi. In conclusion, there is significant historical data control remote gate valves located between pump stations. to verify that the term remote terminal units had been in Each of the remote gate valves was equipped with much common use since the early 1960s and maybe earlier, since smaller RTUs, which were scanned on an hourly basis but I have had occasion to replace relay-based SCADA systems. reported alarms immediately, report by exception. The pipeI am the author of the Handbook of SCADA Systems for the line SCADA system was supplied by Harris Control Corp., Oil/Gas Industry. ce Melbourne, Fla., and was installed in 1977 and commissioned in 1978. - Robert I Williams, PE, Department Manager Go Online Much prior to that I was directly involved Instrumentation & Control Systems, BrinderAt, with the Serck Controls UK SCADA system son, Costa Mesa, Calif., search RTU use expands. that monitored and controlled the first North

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Eaton dedicates new innovation, engineering center near Milwaukee

Electrical reliability, efficiency, and safety were key points of emphasis at a ribbon cutting, tour, time capsule opening, and lunch for Eaton employees, media, and other selected guests at the new Eaton Menomonee Falls, Wis., facility on Jan. 9. The 104,000-sq-ft sales, marketing, engineering, research and development, and training facility is a showcase for thousands of Eaton products. The two-story structure has 184 employees and room for more. An applidiverse and capable global company thats not going to forget its history and is excited about the future. We expect big things from this site, Cutler noted. Change is a matter of course for Eaton lately. It had a facility flood in 2010, 100th anniversary in 2011, and on Nov. 30, 2012, its $13 billion Cooper Industries acquisition was final. While Eatons Cooper engineers also have toured the new facility, joint product development isnt yet underway for the $21.5 billion combined company (2011 revenue), now with 100,000 employees. Integration is expected to take 24-36 months. To accommodate research and test labs, the new building has 16 million volt-ampere (16 MVA) service, sufficient for approximately 4 million sq ft

Manufacturing IT book expands on Control Engineering advice from Dennis Brandl

Information technology is an important element of plant floor operations, and Dennis Brandls monthly column on Manufacturing IT in Control Engineering magazine covers IT aspects that are critical to modern manufacturing. A new book, Plant IT: Integrating Information Technology into Automated Manufacturing by Momentum Press,

Plant IT: Integrating Information Technology into Automated Manufacturing, a 152-page book by Momentum Press by Dennis L. Brandl and Donald E. Brandl. Courtesy: Momentum Press
expands on the information presented in the Engineering and IT Insight column. The book describes the wide range of information technologies that manufacturing professionals need to understand to effectively operate in the corporate IT environment. Each section of the book discusses an IT issue important for manufacturers, including practical programming, real-world design considerations, databases and master data management, knowledge management, tools and programming languages, cyber security, managing resource information, and regulations, Brandl said. These topics will allow manufacturing professionals to intelligently discuss IT elements with their IT partners, so that IT can be effectively applied in plant floor operations without impacting production productivity or product quality, he said. Software engineering is a foundation for all IT elements, yet many manufacturing engineers are tasked with software development, when software development is not their area of training. Therefore, this book also covers important aspects of software engineering and software project management for non-software engineers that must manage or participate in IT projects, Brandl said. It also provides a strong background for using IT to advance and improve plant floor operations. ce

At the new Menomonee Falls facility, Eaton employees and other guest enjoy lunch at the Jan. 9 dedication.
cation for U.S. Green Building Council LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Silver certification is pending. The new facility replaces an older, less-efficient, seven-story building on 27th St. in Milwaukee. This facility is a recruiting tool for us to help attract and retain talent. We have a lot of excited people who love this kind of work, explained Brian Carlson, engineering director, Eaton Industrial Control Division. Alexander (Sandy) M. Cutler, chairman and CEO, as part of the ribboncutting comments before lunch, said the design reflects Eatons efforts to emphasize electrical reliability, energy efficiency, and safety, as it provides innovative products and services to its markets. We provide safe, productive, energy-efficient innovation. Were large,

Sun faces a rooftop solar array (not show) over the new Eaton Menomonee Falls, Wis., facility.

Sampling of Eaton products include a pushbutton near each group, to show what industries they serve. CFE Media photos by Mark T. Hoske
of typical office space. Energy-saving features include regeneration capability to capture energy from large motors under test, a solar array, and advanced lighting and building controls, all relying on advanced Eaton technologies. It has an EMC facility, an industrialization lab, product integrity center, model shop, 3D printer, tool room, and labs for reliability, shock and vibration, dyne, highly accelerated lifecycle testing, and solar, with more than 120 miles of wire. ce - Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering,

Go Online Search Eaton dedicates at www.controleng. com to see a video clip from Carlson, more photos, history, other details.

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At, search for Momentum Press to get the link to order. Best system integration advice for engineering, controls, and IT

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Introduction to PID Control

Lee Payne | CEO, Dataforth

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are used in most automatic process control applications in industry today. They can regulate flow, temperature, pressure, level, and many other industrial process variables. This Application Note reviews the design of PID controllers and explains the P, I, and D control modes used in them. In essence, the PID controller is the workhorse of modern process control systems as it automates regulation tasks that otherwise would be done manually.

reacts differently to error and each fulfills a unique function. Proportional and integral control modes are essential for most control loops; the derivative mode is excellent for Download this paper now at: motion control. pdf/an122.pdf Temperature control is a typical application that uses all three control modes. PID control algorithms come in different designs, and the MAQ20 system supports both the most common noninteractive algorithm and the parallel algorithm. This versatility makes the MAQ20 extremely powerful and adaptable for wide ranging process control applications, including test and measurement, factory and process automation, machine automation, military and aerospace, power and energy, oil and gas, and environmental monitoring. Dataforth was established in 1984 and is the world leader in data acquisition and control, signal conditioning, and data communication products for industrial applications. Worldwide, our products provide rugged signal and data integrity and wide spectrum accuracy. All Dataforth products are manufactured in the USA and have been RoHS Compliant since 2006. The Dataforth Quality Management System is ISO9001:2008 registered.

The Parallel PID Controller Algorithm

Using temperature as an example, the Application Note describes the tedious process of manual control and then explains how a PID controller works. First, the operator sets the PID controllers set point to the desired temperature; next, the controllers output sets the position of the control valve; then, the temperature measurement (the process variable) is transmitted to the PID controller, which compares it to the set point and calculates the difference (or error) between the two signals; finally, the controller calculates the appropriate controller output to set the control valve at the correct position to keep the temperature at the set point. While the proportional control mode is the main driving force in a controller, each of the three control modes


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12/5/2012 2:55:21 PM 1/11/2013 4:06:52 PM

The Integrated HMI-PLC

Rich Harwell | Advanced Solutions Manager at Eaton Corporation plc

The heart of a lean automation solution Lean manufacturing is a proven, powerful tool that boosts efficiencies in production processes. Similar concepts and practices that eliminate wasteunnecessary equipment and process stepscan be applied to the design, construction, and support of automation systems. Lean automation solutions enable increased productivity and reliability, and propel best-in-class solutions yielding a real competitive advantage. A combination HMI-PLC plays a pivotal role in the design of a truly lean automation solution, providing a host of benefits throughout the life cycle of machine automation. Combining visualization and control means:

Control system basics To better understand the trends driving HMI and PLC technology, it is useful to first examine the basic architecture of a control system and how the control system itself is Download this paper at: evolving. Fundamental changes in control system architecture are making HMI-PLC technology a compelling altenativestreamlining functionality, reducing equipment (and costs), and propelling the next generation of machine control. To read more, visit

Faster machine design by providing an integrated development environment Reduced machine construction costs by eliminating components and wiring Reduced machine support cost and improved operation by centralizing remote access and administration
The Eaton XV and XP Series HMI-PLCs offer a complete solution to any HMI application and communicate with virtually any network, web client, and database.

More than at any other time, there is a range of trends in both control system architecture and manufacturing that are coming together to support an integrated HMI-PLC. For OEMs and control engineers alike, this means that it is easier to build smaller, smarter machines fasterfreeing both OEMs and engineers from using controllers and equipment just because of a familiarity and in spite of a prohibitive cost to change.

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12/20/2012 5:06:31 PM 1/11/2013 4:06:33 PM

Calculating and Comparing Differential Pressure Transmitter Accuracy

Ted Dimm | Marketing Mgr., Field Instrumentation, Honeywell Process Solutions

Differential pressure transmitters are extremely versatile devices, suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as flow, level, density and filter-quality measurement, and leak-detection. These applications have different parameters for pressure-measuring spans, static pressures, and temperatures that will impact device performance. Understanding these process parameters and how they can affect differential pressure transmitter performance should influence your transmitter selection, as well as expectations regarding overall product performance in your particular application.

At the root of all pressure-measuring product designs is the basic pressuremeasuring sensor. Considering only reference conditions, many sensors will Go to smartline and click on the appear to provide Resources tab to download this similar performance. white paper. For industrial applications, where temperatures can be extreme and, in the case of differential pressure measurement, where static pressures can be elevated or even fluctuating, it is necessary to compensate the basic sensor to maintain accuracy. As one example, high-performance piezoresistive sensors offer some unique compensation capabilities. These sensors can integrate static pressure and temperature measurements on the same sensor chip, thus allowing the designer to incorporate circuits that automatically correct the sensors performance for varying static pressure and temperature conditions. When implemented as an integrated solution, the result is better accuracy over a wider range of customerapplication conditions. Devices using sensors without such compensation usually do not perform as well over varying conditions.

Honeywell SmartLine pressure transmitters offer leading accuracy along with features that lower the total cost of ownership.

Basic accuracy statements are published by manufacturers and are often used as a basis for comparing devices. These statements typically quote Reference Accuracy. When considering an actual application, Reference Accuracy (RA) is an important factor regarding performance, but it does not provide the entire picture. For comparison purposes, always look at total probable error to ensure optimum performance.

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12/21/2012 11:19:45 AM 1/11/2013 4:08:04 PM

The Future of Machines: Self-Aware Control Systems

Christian Fritz | Product Manager, National Instruments
Machine builders have made advances in developing technology that can complete repetitive tasks with great speed. See how you can integrate the next generation of machines into your control systems. When examining machine-industry trends, you often encounter new controller technologies that increase the performance and throughput of high-end machines, motor technologies, or energy-efficient algorithms, or you learn about tools that help lower the cost of machine design. Over the last few decades, machine builders have made considerable advances in developing machines that can complete repetitive tasks with ever-increasing speed. There are other trends and technologies; however, that might have an even more significant influence on the next generation of machines and the way those machines are integrated in your work process. After spending decades optimizing machinery equipment speed, the industry is running into new limiting boundaries. High speeds and operating machines running at maximum load are increasing the wear and tear of mechanical components and tools. This increases the importance of maintenance and systems that ensure uptime. Additionally, many tasks in the industry are not purely repetitive. Solutions to application problems such as picking randomly shaped parts out of a bin are far from realization. Last, but not least, several manufacturing processes still involve a significant amount of work by humans. The machine industry needs to address safety concerns that arise when humans work alongside machines and robotic systems. The availability of data and information about the environment, processes, and machine parameters is crucial to addressing these new machine industry challenges. herefore. sensors and measurement technology that can acquire this information are playing a significant role for the next generation of machines. The sensor market was very static for decades, but the last few years have brought substantial innovation. Sensor technology advancements have been adopted into many electronic devices, from smart phones to home automation systems, and prices have dropped to all-time lows. You can use sensors to create systems that are aware of their environment, perform real-time process monitoring, and know every detail about their mechanical component health. However, sensors alone are worth no more than the control systems of the past. The key to solving new challenges is creating control systems that can integrate sensor data, gather information in real time, and use information from multiple sensors within high-speed control loops. High-performance embedded systems with industrialgrade ruggedness, such as NI CompactRIO programmable automation controllers (PACs), provide direct sensor connectivity through modular I/O devices. You can use the reconfigurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to preprocess sensor data even before the information is transferred to the real-time processor, which executes custom control or monitoring tasks programmed in the NI LabVIEW graphical development environment.
Register to download this paper at:

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12/28/2012 4:12:34 PM 1/11/2013 4:10:25 PM

cover story

Make your I/O smarter

Improvements in I/O systems for field devices can make your process control system installations and upgrades quicker and more cost effective.
Peter Welander

Key concepts
Smart and flexible I/O for field devices overcomes hardware limitations. New systems only work with their corresponding control system, but extend field connectivity. Various manufacturers have tailored their own strategy for operational details. Arguments for adoption may not drive a larger migration project, but they could influence vendor selection.

or years, and even decades, connecting field devices to process control systems has used essentially the same technology. Sure, there have been advances in fieldbus and even wireless networks, but for plain old wired devices, you connect a cable to a matching slot on an I/O (input/output) board at your controller. This works as long as the device matches the slot: a 4-20 mA with HART flowmeter requires a corresponding input. You dont connect it to a terminal designed for a thermocouple. Most of the time this sort of thing is tolerated, but it can cause problems. Lets say you have a level switch mounted on a tank to trigger when the liquid goes past a specific point. That comes into the system via a digital input. What if your boss wants that changed to a magnetostrictive level sensor providing a continuous reading? You cant put that in on the same input channel because it has a different signal type. That means changing the board or adding a new one. But maybe there isnt room on your I/O rack. A small project can get complicated. Control system providers hear customers ask things like, Why cant I assign the I/O at will to accommodate any kind of field device? Well, given some product developments over the last few years, often the answer now is, you can. A growing number of manufacturers are now offer-

ing more flexible, or smarter, I/O systems that allow for greater flexibility. How do these work, and what can they do for you? Depending on which control platform you use, smart I/O uses a combination of hardware and software to talk to field devices. All systems currently available require replacement of at least some components and possibly some wiring.
Two different concepts

There isnt a one-size-fits-all approach for I/O, at least not yet. While its true that Foundation fieldbus, Profibus PA, or other similar approaches are platform agnostic, they require field devices that work with those specific protocols. These new smart I/O systems work with any field devices (within reason), but you need to buy a system that works with your controller. If you are using DeltaV, you need to get a system from Emerson. There are two conceptual approaches currently at work to fill this space: Emersons hardware approach vs. a more software-centered idea from others like Honeywell and Invensys Foxboro division. The latter is more modest in its scope. Both Honeywells Universal Process I/O (available early 2013) and Foxboros FBM247 (available now) use the same I/O device form factor and go into the same cabinets as their current offerings



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for Experion series C and I/A series 200, respectively. Both are designed such that any channel on any module can be configured through the control system to interact with multiple types of devices: Analog in/out plus HART Digital in/out, or Pulse. Foxboro sees it as a small but strategic product improvement. Thad Frost, director of product management for control and I/O for Foxboro, explains, Its not an entirely new product line; its a subset of an existing family. We did that because its a proven technology. Our 200 series I/O has been out a long time, so its another module in the family, but its a really special module in that it can support a wide variety of signal types. We can take an existing controller and add this module, and theres no real difference in the functionality. The appeal is apparent where a new system is being constructed or there is an extensive upgrade that may require new or more field devices. The installer does not have to match the signal type to a given input device. You can use any channel on the module to serve as any I/O type, and it is all software configurable using the existing control builder tools, says Joe Bastone, solution manager for Experion control and I/O at Honeywell Process Solutions. No configuration has to be done in the field to make that happen. You could land all the field wiring on your Universal Process I/O module, close the box, walk away, and never have to open that box again. Everything else is done from the engineering station. This concept replaces conventional I/O where the card or module is fixed to communicate with only a single type of device. One obvious advantage of this approach is that any module can work in any situation so that only one item is necessary for a backup. Moreover, the configuration information is resident in the host system, such that if a module needs to be replaced, one can be taken from the box and plugged in place with no preconfiguration. The host system does that automatically. Both companies want to carry that concept one major step farther, offering complete cabinets that can be dropped in place on the plant floor ready to go. The only variable that matters is the number of channels. The universal cabinet that is under development allows a user to have a set deliverable, Bastone says. Its a remotely mounted cabinet that can hold some number of Universal Process I/O modules, perhaps 64, 96, or 128 I/O. It will be equipped with the modules, mounting hardware, power supply, and fiber optic converters to take the I/O link back to the control room.

A different direction

Emerson, on the other hand, has created a different approach for its DeltaV architecture. Here every field device communicates via a single small characterization module or Charm. Each field device needs its own Charm that matches its signal type. A cabinet is, for all practical purposes, a 96-channel I/O card. Keith Bellville, DeltaV SIS product marketing manager for Emerson Process Management, explains, You dont have the limits of conventional I/O where you had to bring all your field wiring in, land your multi-core cable on a marshalling strip, and then Solvays PVC polymerization plant at Tavaux, France, pick out the 4-20 mA ana- (photo left) has deployed Emersons Charms with log inputs to take eight of DeltaV version 11. Courtesy: Emerson them over to an individual card. Weve replaced that marshalling with the actual multi-core coming in, and we characterize the signal there with the Charms I/O card. Each one of those is an individual channel. It is DeltaV I/O, so its designed to work with DeltaV controllers. The output from each module is Ethernet, so a single fiber optic cable can carry all the data from the cabinet back to the controller. The practical result is a small cloud within the control network that allows a user to send the information from a given field device to as many as four controllers. Functionally, this is the largest difference with the other systems already mentioned. Typically when you lay out your I/O in the field, its grouped by location, not functionality, Bellville adds. So in a given junction box, you might have cables from some transmitters that are part of your reactor area, but inside that Emersons approach same junction box, you might have transmitters requires a specific that are really dedicated to the utilities area. With module to match the conventional marshalling and conventional I/O, I/O type, but these can when you bring those in, you have to say, I have be changed as needed. to bring these eight channels over to my reac- Courtesy: Emerson tor area control cards, and these other 12, I have to bring over to my utilities controller I/O card. Go Online With electronic marshalling, you bring them all Visit the companies menin on one charms I/O card and send them to the reactor controller or the utilities electronically tioned in this article: in how you target the device to which control- ler. You dont have to physically wire it up to the actual I/O card on that controller.


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cover story

Putting the concept to work

Foxboros solution is designed to work with its I/A series 200 platform. Courtesy: Invensys

Honeywells Universal I/O will work with Experion series C. Courtesy: Honeywell Process Solutions

link keeps anything that could happen at that sinThese new approaches offer some functional gle fabric layer from getting between the controlbenefits: ler doing its job and the I/O performing for that First, users dont have to be concerned with controller. Bad things can happen that disconnect the communication method for a given device. the I/O from its integral partner in the control If circumstances change and you need to use a operation. Thats why we picked this particular different type of field device, you can adjust that architecture. either via a software change or, at worst, a single Foxboros Frost echoes that sentiment: We Charm change. call it unbounded I/O when an I/O point is not Second, these platforms can facilitate bound to a particular controller. Our I/O is typiupgrades and migrations, whether that means cally bound. To move a specific point to a difupgrades of field devices, wiring infrastructure, ferent controller would take some effort. Its or the control system something were lookitself. However, there is ing at for the future, but the basic limitation that right now we dont have Adding these each platform is tied spethat ability. capabilities is probably cifically to its respective control system, so this not compelling enough Could this make you change? element could be a sigto make you undertake While these new I/O nificant point in the vensystems offer additiondor evaluation process. a migration, but it might al functionality and can Third, these platforms save both hardware and can apply to safety devicinfluence the vendor es as well as conventionchoice if a migration is engineering costs, they are each connected to al I/O. Unlike the others, a specific control sysHoneywells first prodalready planned. tem platform and only uct in this area relatthat platform. If you are ed to safety devices and the company is now readying the standard con- already using Foxboro I/A series 200 or one of the trol system I/O version as a follow-up. Given the others, the change is very simple. If not, theyre more complicated nature of safety-related equip- of no help, but it is reasonable to expect that other ment with its associated testing and certification, manufacturers will follow suit one way or another. The other choice is to change your control it decided to approach this first. Emerson has conventional, intrinsically safe, and SIS Charms. Fox- system provider. Adding these capabilities alone is probably not compelling enough to make you boro has safety modules in its product pipeline. Fourth, hardware flexibility makes for small- undertake a migration, but it might influence a er stocks of replacement parts. The ability to use choice of manufacturer if a migration is already one device for multiple applications has obvious planned. In some respects the most interesting attracadvantages. tion may be what doesnt exist yet. The modularWhat talks to what? ity of these systems makes them easy to modify As mentioned earlier, one aspect that Emer- as circumstances demand. By contrast, one of the son discusses extensively is its ability to send things that has impeded adoption of protocols data from any given field device to any one of up like HART in support of larger asset manageto four controllers. Foxboro and Honeywell have ment programs has been the difficulty of upgradkept the same level of communication function- ing older hardwired device-level networks. ality as comes with their standard I/O, so add- Operators of those old platforms find it effecing these new modules doesnt affect that ability. tively impossible to add such capability because There are methods to send information from con- the hardware wont allow it. That type of limitatroller to controller on a peer-to-peer basis, but tion doesnt have to exist going forward. Adding these methods are relatively complicated. a new communication method or protocol may The intimate connection between the I/O require nothing more than switching the appromodule and controller is something that our more priate modules. It may even be changeable via sophisticated customers see as beneficial, mainly software. ce due to the ever-increasing security concerns that Peter Welander is a content manager for Conexist today, says Bob Bristow, product manager for series C I/O at Honeywell Process Solu- trol Engineering. Reach him at pwelander@cfetions. This intimate relationship through the I/O


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Sensor networks

Ethernet for sensor networks? Why it makes sense today

Active (smart) enclosure-less I/O blocks for industrial Ethernet can be installed close to the sensors to eliminate wiring complexities and enable 2-way communications with I/O blocks and PLCs or RTUs.
Mike Miclot

ensors are like the scouts of the manufacturing world; they collect vital information that keeps a manufacturing plant running effectively, efficiently, and with minimum waste, and they report it to the control system, preferably in time to take corrective action when things are trending awry. Today, thanks to Ethernet, sensors can provide their input on the superhighway of the plant floor, providing an effective two-way communication stream that can improve efficiency and profitability. Sensors traditionally fed their information

through wires back to a central location where the signals were decoded and acted upon. A plethora of fieldbus networks evolved that expanded the amounts and kinds of data sensors could communicate, such as complex measurements including pressure, level of a substance in a container or closed area, motion detection, and identification of specific patterns. The Key downside to this, of concepts course, was the job Active (or smart) of managing, mainenclosure-less I/O blocks taining, and training support industrial Ethfor multiple commuernet nication protocols. Eliminate running wire Now industrial back to a central control Ethernet is becompanel for each sensor ing the de facto comCommunicate from I/O munications protocol block to PLCs and RTUs. for plant applica-

Consider a sensor network to ease connections

Do industrial networks meet expectations? Bypass increasing Ethernet and other network incompatibilities at the I/O, sensor, and safety level by using a widely accepted sensor network.
Helge Hornis, PhD

Key concepts
A sensor network can ease connection complexities Avoid Ethernet and other network incompatibilities at the I/O, sensor, and safety level AS-interface is supported by about 300 manufacturers

sing a sensor network can save time, money, and steer clear of increasing Ethernet protocol and other network incompatibilities at the I/O, sensor, and safety device level. During the late 1990s nearly every PLC manufacturer decided to develop a networking technology suitable for industrial applications. Modbus, Profibus, CC-Link, DeviceNet, and many others were born in short order, each promising to address the fundamental requirements controls professionals had at the time: reliability, simplicity, and deterministic real-time behavior at a price that was competitive with conventional hardwiring. This led to confusion mainly because all approaches were not interoperable. Customers preferring a particular brand of PLC were essentially forced to use the networking

technology developed by that manufacturer. If this situation was not bad enough, the whole story was repeated a few years later when each of those PLC manufacturers decided it was time to promote new networks. This time the underlying wire was Ethernet. I will not claim that one such solution is superior to another, but instead ask readers if having all these options (or should I say edicts) was such a good idea. From the point of view of device manufacturers (RFID systems, drives, HMIs, etc.), it was not.

Wasted resources
Instead of focusing on a small number of communication interfaces for RFID systems, device manufacturers had to develop a plethora of solutions, such as DeviceNet, Modbus TCP, Profinet,


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tions. The argument for separate fieldbus protocols was always that Ethernet did not fully meet the needs of the factory floor. However, with the advent of deterministic Ethernet protocols and zero failover redundancy protocols, the need for a separate fieldbus for relaying sensor data has diminished dramatically. It is possible and desirable to deploy an integrated industrial Ethernet infrastructure that extends from the control center to the very edge of the networkthe sensors. Enclosure-less I/O blocks (also called distribution blocks) are the vehicle that supports running Ethernet all the way to the sensor. Enclosure-less I/O blocks can be installed close to the sensors, thus eliminating the logistics complexities of running a wire back to a central control panel for each sensor. Active (or smart) enclosure-less I/O blocks, supporting industrial Ethernet, enable two-way communications among the I/O block and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or remote terminal units (RTUs). An industrial Ethernet infrastructure facilitated by enclosure-less I/O blocks has the potential to provide significant manufacturing efficiencies and cost savings. Not only can it support control and safety functionality, but also data acquisition that can be used

for tracking and traceability, asset management, historical records, and other operations and production needs. In addition, running industrial Ethernet all the way out to the sensors allows plants to be operated under one Enclosure-less I/O blocks, installed close to sencommunications protocol, sors, remove the need for an additional wire resulting in less hardware from each sensor to control and active (or smart) (and operational) complex- enclosure-less I/O blocks enable two-way commuity. By connecting sensors nications among the I/O block and PLCs or RTUs. to industrial Ethernet via Shown is a Belden Profibus-DP - I/O Module. enclosure-less I/O blocks, Courtesy: Belden the opportunities for reducing deployment and maintenance costs while increasing overall performance and reliability increase dramatically. ce - Mike Miclot is the vice president of marGo Online keting, industrial solutions division, at Belden Americas Group.

Consider this...
If an Ethernet superhighway runs along the manufacturing plant floor, can sensors connected via IO blocks improve efficiency and profitability?

Networking articles: www. Networking products:

EtherNet/IP, Profibus, CC-Link, and the list goes on. The same was necessary for encoders, camera systems, and many other components needed to automate a complex machine. And to make matters worse, going forward, even those protocols that share Ethernet at the physical layer will need dedicated (that is, incompatible) hardware. Initially, the situation was not all that bad. For instance, until recently we could manufacture an RFID controller that could host four noncompatible communication protocols (Modbus TCP, TCP/ IP, Profinet, and EtherNet/IP) simultaneously on the same hardware device. Customers could buy one unit, and, without making adjustments or modifications, connect it to any of the four Ethernet-based networking technologies, and control it from a PLC. In this case fewer options translates into streamlined stocking, better availability, reduced ordering errors, and enhanced familiarity when it comes to installation. In the near future, due to certain protocol changes (promoted as advancements), this will no longer be possible. The same Profinet unit will require dedicated hardware as will the system using EtherCAT. For the time being, EtherNet/ IP and Modbus/TCP can coexist on the same hardware. At this point, one may ask if it offers any advantage that those networks are based on

Ethernet. In a world where engineering resources are free and deadlines do not exist, this would not be an issue. But in reality, duplicate engineering drives up costs at all levels. Is this really necessary?

Low-end compatibility
At the sensor and machine safety level a solution is accepted and supported by most PLC manufacturers. While the solution is not suitable to interface devices that interchange larger amounts of data (RFID systems, drives, HMIs, etc.), it is an ideal method for bringing binary devices and safety components (like e-stops, door safety switches, and light curtains) to the PLC and give the PLC a way to control simple binary outputs (including valves, horns, and indicators). In contrast to Ethernet solutions, this system is the result of a joint development effort among 11 industrial automation companies that was open from the beginning. After the basic technology was published and released, others joined this group. Involved companies are known for their PLCs, sensors, valves, and/or safety components. Introduced in 1994, AS-Interface is now the worlds most successful low-level networking technology, based on information from AS-International, the governing organization. With nearly

This 4-input and 4-output I/O module is clamped onto the AS-Interface network cable. It takes one center-mount screw to establish the data and power connection. ASInterface devices tend to be designed for enclosure-mount applications (IP20) or as field-mount stations (IP65 or better). This module offers protection to IP68 and IP69k. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs


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Sensor networks

At the I/O connection and safety level, users have a choice that is highly interoperable and compatible with most PLCs.

This is the latest safety controller for AS-Interface and allows the connection of up to 35 independent safety devices. This controller has two built-in electronic safe outputs and is easily capable of controlling eight independent safety zones. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs

20 million installed field devices, it is the closest thing to a universal networking technology in the automation space. Approximately 300 vendors offer: Binary I/O modules These modules allow the switch state of any conventional sensor to be brought to the PLC. AS-interface is a real-time and deterministic technology with a worst-case sensor update time of 10 ms. (Worst-case means that 248 input states are communicated. Fewer I/O connections means faster updates.) Analog I/O modules Most industrial control systems have roughly twice as many digital inputs as outputs plus a small number of analog signals. These types of analog signals tend to be slow compared to binary data. AS-Interface allows such signals to be transmitted alongside the binary data with update times of 35 ms or less. Indicators and buttons Indicators and buttons are another type of I/O signal. Timing is not the main concern, but installation simplicity is. For instance, a four-element stack light is connected in seconds using just two AS-Interface leads. Functional safety For more than 10 years, networking functional safety devices has been the killer app of AS-Interface because it addresses the cost issue (it is much cheaper than a safety PLC) and the simplicity issue (it exploits AS-Interface installation advantages). In most cases, about 90% of the wires needed when constructing a hardwired safety system can be eliminated. Suddenly, designing a safety system is a simple, two-step process. First, the hardware is connected to AS-Interface, and then it connects to required logic using drag-and-drop operations.

AS-Interface products are available from a large number of suppliers. Due to their simplicity and unparalleled interoperability, it is not uncommon to have hardware from multiple manufacturers on the same network. A small field-mount I/O module, a valve assembly, and an enclosuremounted I/O module from three manufacturers will work flawlessly on the same network. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs
of the guiding principles of the governing organizations member companies. For instance, if a module on 19-year-old network fails, it takes, on average, less than one minute to replace it with a new design. And it is not even necessary to use a product from the original manufacturer. The old system may not be able to use the latest features of the new module, but it will work just as well as the old part did. Similarly, if a decadeold system that feeds into DeviceNet controlled by an older PLC now must operate as part of EtherNet/IP on a new PLC, only the gateway has to be replaced. It can hardly get any easier. And isnt technology supposed to make automation simpler, better, and less costly? The industrial Ethernet experiment has not failed, but it unfortunately has not lived up to its potential and customers expectations. At least at the I/O connection and safety level, users have a choice that is universally accepted, highly interoperable, and compatible with most PLCs on the market. ce - Helge Hornis, PhD, is manager, intelligent systems group, Pepperl+Fuchs. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering,

Machine builder advantages

Machine builders appreciate other benefits. Because AS-Interface can be connected to a large number of PLC backplanes and an equally large number of industrial networks, an I/O and safety system designed for a machine controlled by a PLC from manufacturer A can easily (and without modification) be reused if a PLC from manufacturer B is used the next time. This feature makes navigating the maze of competing and incompatible upper-level Ethernet solutions easy. Only one gateway between the PLC and AS-Interface needs to be swapped out. End users have enjoyed forward and backward compatibility of the network, which is one

Go Online Networking articles: www. Networking products: www.

Consider this...
Can flattening a multi-tier hierarchy of networks simplify industrial communications?


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10/1/2012 6:49:12 PM 1/11/2013 4:15:04 PM

operator interface

Creating an HMI that doesnt get used

When that new equipment skid or machine comes in, it probably has its own HMI, but that equipment will be controlled from a larger system. What should you want that redundant HMI to do?
David McCarthy

Key concepts
Even though an HMI is remote, it can be useful With a little forethought, you can optimize such a system in light of larger needs in your plant

uch has been written on how to design intuitive and functional HMIs (human machine interfaces) across a variety of technical and process platforms. But have you ever thought about how to design an HMI that rarely gets used? It happens more often than you might think. You can find these devices tucked away in all sorts of process areas on your plant floor where operators rarely seem to go. Want to know more about design best practices in this specialty area? Here are some things that can help you specify and use those industrial orphans.

Come out, come out, wherever you are

The most common place to find a low-use HMI is in dedicated process equipment subsystems that are integrated into larger plant-wide systems. These are referred to as skidded systems and can be found in many diverse applications such as bioreactors, chemical injection systems, clean-in-place systems, chromatography skids, media/buffer prep systems, waste neutralization systems, pasteurizers, vitamin/ mineral injection systems, and much more. The day-to-day functionality of this equipment is usually controlled elsewhere, as part of a larger DCS or HMI/SCADA system. Given that, why put a local HMI at all in such places? There are lots of reasons, ranging from how these subsystems were constructed and validated, to routine maintenance, and even emergency operation. Lets take a closer look at each of these use cases to get better insight into the best design criteria.
Use it or lose it

tory test at the skid manufacturers facility. A similar site test is performed when the skid is installed on the plant floor. Depending on the industry and process, these validations might be quite extensive. A local HMI can facilitate this validation and testing in a variety of ways. During the factory test, it provides a window into the process equipment that might otherwise be difficult to see without the host system. This includes visibility of all instrumentation and equipment status. Usually the first test ensures everything is operating mechanically and electrically as expected. A local HMI can force on or off (with proper security) controlled equipment to confirm everything is working as anticipated. Once installed and running on the plant floor, these same features can provide plant maintenance technicians with the ability to monitor and control the equipment on the local skid if needed. A local HMI can also facilitate testing of automated sequences and phases on the skid. Local monitoring can provide at-a-glance status of all sensors, control items, sequence, or phase status active on the skid. If desired, a local HMI can also initiate individual control phases and sequences. This provides testing capability without the host system connected, and provides emergency operational service once the skid is installed on the plant floor.
Platform considerations

Skidded systems are often assembled and validated independently of the larger system. Initial validation and testing is usually a fac42

Now that we have an idea of where we find these HMIs and how they are used, a key design element is to determine the best hardware/software platform to use. You could look to match the host system, or go with something less advanced. There are advantages with each approach. If matching the host system, the local HMI


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This ingredient-mixing skid built for a food processing plant uses the same HMI as the larger plant control system. As a result, it is more elaborate than would be necessary to provide only the most bare-bones functionality. While it cost more initially, it uses common parts, spares, and software that the plant already has. This can make for lower lifecycle costs. Courtesy: TriCore

can be maintained in the same software development platform, which simplifies archiving, version control, and routine maintenance of the system. This also eliminates procurement, maintenance, and training costs associated with multiple development platforms. Standardized hardware further reduces spare parts inventory and carrying costs. Network connection to the local HMI is the same as the rest of the workstations in the host system. If needed, it is generally easy to display host system screen and tag information in the local HMI. If the skid is designed for local maintenance and emergency operations, security is likely more robust with this approach. A less advanced HMI platform has its own set of advantages. This approach usually has lower upfront hardware and software costs. Programming costs may also be less expensive in this environment. These solutions often have smaller physical fingerprints with regard to control panel real estate. Network connections may match the host system, or employ a simpler direct connection to the skid programmable controller, savings network cabling costs.
Bringing it all together

n Is the budget really tight? On the other hand, if standardization is your thing: n Common software development platforms throughout the process n Similar graphic look and feel across all workstations n Common hardware platforms n Standardized network cabling, or n Security concerns keep you up at night. If these are important, think about matching the host system platform. For the less advanced option, consider programming these HMIs with simple text and numeric status limited to instrumentation, equipment, and functional status of the skid. If manual override control is required (this will likely be the case if the skid is not close to a host system workstation), secure this as much as the development platform allows, and program with native objects in the simplest manner possible. Ditto for any emergency control operations you may require. If your local HMI is on the same platform as the host system, consider presenting status and control information similar to the host system. You may simply want to insert screens or controls from the host system into the local HMI for these purposes. If you need information from other areas for effective emergency control, think about inserting host screens from those areas. Be sure that all manual and emergency operations are fully secured. Although these local HMIs may not be used frequently, they do serve important purposes. Follow these tips to find the right design criteria for your application. ce David McCarthy is president and chief executive officer of TriCore, Inc.

As we have discussed, local HMIs may be used only for testing, or they may play a longer-term role in the maintenance and emergency operation of their associated equipment. They can be on the same platform as the host system or on a less advanced platform. If you answer yes to any of these questions, you can probably manage with a less advanced and less expensive option: n Is the skid physically close to a host system workstation? n Is the local HMI only used for testing? n Is physical control panel space a concern?

The day-to-day functionality of this equipment is usually controlled elsewhere, so why put a local HMI at all in such places? There are lots of reasons, ranging from how these subsystems were constructed and validated, to routine maintenance, and even emergency operation.

Go Online
n Learn more about TriCore at n For more on HMI design, subscribe to our Information Control eNewsletter at www.


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Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, Pawe Waszczuk

automation future

Five ways to enable the next generation workforce

Technology advances challenge and enable industries worldwide, and five key factors influence the success of future and current engineers in this dynamically changing labor market.

Key concepts
Match education to needs of local industry Increase hands-on experiences in education and research University should help local alumni and promote continuing education

ynamically changing world markets expect constant growth of knowledge, skills, and competencies of future engineers, and partnerships among universities and manufacturing and technology companies can help. Market reports show that innovative technologiessuch as programmable logic controllers and programmable automation controllers (PLCs/PACs), digital servodrives, and industrial robotsare increasing market share in industrial applications. Therefore, modern higher education must upgrade its thinking about incorporating the latest industrial trends and technologies. The following five key factors critically influence the success of future engineers in this dynamically changing labor market.

STEP 2: Increase the number of practical courses in the education process.

STEP 1: Correlate educational offerings with demands of the local labor market.

Tomorrows engineers who want to find work in this dynamically changing world seek educational offerings that provide advantages for their future professions. An IT engineer, controls engineer, electrical engineer, and mechanical engineer will always be among needed specialists in the labor market. Well-prepared alumni in related occupations can expect good salaries and careers in progressive branches of industry. For these reasons, technical universities must communicate with local industry representatives to evaluate necessary knowledge and critical skills of their future employees. To achieve this goal, its helpful to establish a council of selected university educators and area industrial leaders to ensure course offerings are in line with regional needs of employers.

Besides lectures, the educational process must include laboratory classes and small practical projects to apply knowledge learned. Cooperating with companies that have similar operations profiles to the fields of study at area universities enables additional modern teaching techniques. These include workshops, hands-on labs, and certificated lectures prepared with training materials given by the companies. Moreover, students can perform their theses based on real-world problems provided by cooperating companies. To help develop and advance students practical skills, we must help them participate, with experienced engineers, in supervised engineering internships. External financing from cooperating partners, other institutions, and governments (in our case, EU grants) allows universities to choose the best students, via an application process, and provide a well-paid engineering internship for a minimum of three months. This kind of operational model can be successfully supported by exploiting modern Internet-based tools (such as the intranet system of the West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Faculty of Electrical Engineering). The system allows cooperating companies to get familiar with the current level of students knowledge and skills in selected fields of study. The platform also supports companies process of submitting thesis topics.
STEP 3: Allow students to participate in research work.

Constant cooperation between the research faculty and regional companies often results in


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Diagram: Resources flow during the educational processmodeling the pathways of industry-academia partnership.

mutually led R&D projects. This model, which supports participation of the most active students in research, significantly increases their experiences with high-technology control and measurement equipment, creating elite future alumni as part of the education process. These activities also augment the number and quality of PhD candidates.
STEP 4: Universities should support alumni entering the labor market.

To meet help meet student expectations, technical universities should organize meetings with future employers. Described in step 2, a Web-based information exchange platform allows companies to present jobs and internships for highly qualified engineers. The framework of a universitys organizational activities should include: cyclic job fairs, presentations of scientific clubs, and meetings organized in cooperation with companies. By obtaining external financing, universities also can support development of students socalled soft skills, such as presentation techniques, interpersonal skills, and coping with stress and time pressures.
STEP 5: Promote constant growth of the quality of alumni knowledge and skills.

tively working to publish articles in scientific journals provide additional engagement and learning. Monitoring the number of participating alumni and time they spent to get their first job is another possible university role and could provide future opportunities to react and adjust to the dynamically changing environment of the industrial labor market. Alumnus career paths of the development model described here and in the diagram are consistent with new legal considerations of higher education in Europe. They provide a basis for building close relations among technical universities and industry. Implementing this model for more than 10 years, the faculty of Electrical Engineering on West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin have educated many engineers working in Poland and Europe, who now successfully manage departments in leading automation companies. The model presented here has been implemented with 95% of the Electrical Engineering faculty at the university. ce - Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, DSc, is the director of two EU-funded grants ($3.7 million, almost 700 participating students, including control engineers, electrical engineers, ICT engineers, mechanical engineers, material engineers, and mechatronic engineers), increasing the value of education at the West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin. Pawe Waszczuk is a PhD student in electrical engineering there. Both are editors for Control Engineering Poland. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering,

Consider this...
Are you engaging local engineering universities, technical colleges, and high schools to help guide, cultivate, and take advantage of research and talent there? Send a link of this article to a local engineering professor to start or enhance cooperation. More advice on next page

A very important aspect of a universitys activity in the presented model is monitoring and validating the knowledge and skills of candidates and alumni who have entered the labor market. A survey can provide necessary information about the most important qualifications students require. This information helps to evaluate and improve the quality of teaching by lecturers. Teachers and students coopera-


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automation future

Next-generation control engineer advice

The next-generation workforce: Are young automation and control engineers hard to find? If so, what can be done? Views follow from the LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering Group, moderated by CFE Medias Control Engineering magazine.
sk an engineer about the future of engineering and you are sure to elicit an intense and lively response. Case in point: an ongoing discussion thread among the LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering Group for the past year. [At click on the in box on the home page.] A query about the supply of and demand for young engineers in automation and control engineering unleashed a flood of comments, generating hundreds of responses from around the globe. Most participants agreed a problem exists to one degree or another. Unquestionably, each had his or her own take on the topic. A taste of the discussion, ongoing, is presented here. Read more opinions online under this headline at lack the background to understand what they are automating. Young engineers should get operation experience, field experience before launching into this side of the business because they fancy writing programs. There wont be any good automation control design without the engineer touching the process he or she is trying to control, added Veronica Ramos, procurement coordinator at International Consulting Group, Miami. It doesnt matter how good you are with PLC programming. When I worked in the pharmaceutical industry, my mentor never considered having me get involved with the chemical engineering team or with other plant operators before starting the design. Educate the young generation of control engineers on the practice of going to the field first. Getting to know the basics of the process must be primordial for every company.

The control is important

Dean Ford, CAP, VP, automation and information solutions at Glenmount Global Solutions, Baltimore, said the real issue is that the profession does not exist as a profession. None of us on this thread have an automation degree because it doesnt exist, he said, and I would also bet that it is not what you entered the job market expecting to become. Another damaging component is that each industry sees itself as different from other industries. Although there are nuances to each, at our level it really does not matter what is in the pipes, it is the control that is important. From a recruiters point of view, a shortage of qualified controls and automation engineers entry level or seasonedcertainly exists, offered Michael Grillo, an engineering recruiter at City and National Employment, Waterloo, Iowa. Companies often use integrators to fulfill engineering needs, and that generally requires a great deal of travel by the controls and automation engineer. And travel is perhaps a reason many do not join the forces. Recruiting a controls and automation engineer for a company is often not too difficult until I tell them they may have to work at different facilities across the country, or around the globe, for that matter, Grillo said. Controls engineering is evolving with the times,

Few younger engineers

Brett Israelsen, a young process control engineer at Corning Inc., Oneonta, N.Y., with degrees in mechanical and chemical engineering, noticed there are not many others his age, especially degreed engineers, in this industry. Even though some companies are trending more to IT, many understand the true value of control engineering and knowledge of the process. This means that there is still a need for competent control engineers and will be in the future. I am glad to see this discussion, although I am not sure there is a clear solution. Engineering students need to be interested in control. That requires programs and teachers that show how critical control systems are to industry and pass on the passion. Although most felt that the shortage of automation and controls engineers is real, a few disagreed, at least in part. Will Wagoner, PE, president, Wagoner Consulting, process control engineer, Richmond, Va., said no, the problem is that we have too many automation engineers who

At our level it really does not matter what is in the pipes, it is the control that is important.



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said Dyana Rollason, project engineer at Emerson Network Power, Columbus, Ohio. Its not all relay logic to control processes anymore. Its not even all PLC programming. There are communication platforms to learn, operator interfaces to design, address mapping between the interface and the PLC programs, she noted. I didnt learn 80% of what I do in college. Controls engineering is not a defined field; there isnt a job description. Thats a big reason why there are few young engineers in this area. The current ones evolved into their current state, as I am doing now, Rollason said. lack of young engineers in automation and control engineering is a bit of an oxymoron. There is no such field as automation and control engineering, Stergiou said. Automation and control engineering is simply the execution or integration of any to all of the conventional engineering fields. It represents a synthesis of process knowledge (so that we can know what we are trying to control), hardware knowledge (so that we can know what tools are available to us to monitor those control points), and a sense of algorithm development (so that we can devise an architecture that is simple, robust, and repeatable with well-understood and controlled internal reaction times). All of this takes time and experience to cultivate. Just as graduates from the most prestigious culinary schools start out chopping lettuce and learning from established chefs before they can truly become one, systems engineers are grown over time. They cant come out of school that way, Stergiou said. The issue is obviously complex, added James Federlein, PE, an experienced industrial automation consultant and instructor in the Pittsburgh area and a member of ISAs Standards and Practices Board.There are fewer young engineers today, he said. Given that baby boomers are retiring in larger numbers than young engineers are graduating, there will be a lack of young engineers in all disciplines. Automation is not considered a unique discipline by most colleges and some companies, he continued. Young engineers dont graduate with a degree in automation. Even if they had some control courses in college, they may not be aware of automation as a field. The level of college education in automation is in no way commensurate with the importance of automations and industrys need. Read more comments from LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering Group forums online at LinkedIn members may view complete discussions or raise questions of their own. ce -Jeanine Katzel is a contributing editor to Control Engineering. Contact her at

Perfect blend
According to Scot Garner, PE, electrical and controls department manager at Industrial TurnAround Corp., Richmond, Va., the perfect controls engineer should possess a blend of process knowledge, electrical knowledge, logic theory, software development skills, and instrumentation and IT knowledge. Someone with all of those characteristics is extremely hard to find, said Garner. There is more to controls engineering than just analog process control. There is hardware design, sequential discrete logic, custom software development, motor control, safety circuits, and regulatory requirements. We dont execute projects in a vacuum. Controls engineers, mechanical engineers, process engineers, IT professionals, and project engineers must work as a team to get projects done. There is a lack of recruitment for our industry, Garner went on. Automation companies tend to be small and dont do a whole lot of recruiting from colleges. Fortune 500 manufacturing companies are downsizing and shipping jobs elsewhere, which is also contributing to the lack of young people in automation and control engineering. Doug Brock, manager, Chattanooga territory at Kendall Electric, Chattanooga, Tenn., admits that at the time he graduated from college in electrical engineering, he had never touched a PLC from an automation vendor. I was well versed in theory but had no industrial automation exposure. Fortunately, I found opportunities later and gained that experience. I think its harder for new graduates to find those opportunities now. Chattanooga has some neat partnerships between industry and area schools, but most of those are two-year programs. Until there is a concerted effort to team four-year programs with industrial leaders, factory automation manufacturers, associations, and end-users, it will be difficult to provide the quick assimilation that is required to pull young people into the industrial automation and process control fields, Brock said. In the view of Chris Stergiou, mechanical and manufacturing systems, Boston, to ask if there is a

Until there is a concerted effort to team fouryear programs with industrial leaders, factory automation manufacturers, associations, and end-users, it will be difficult to provide the quick assimilation that is required to pull young people into the industrial automation and process control fields.

LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering Group, moderated by CFE Medias Control Engineering [Click in via the in box, upper right, at www.controleng. com], provides an engineering social media platform for automation and controls engineers to share ideas, opinions, and solutions. CFE Medias Control Engineering manages and monitors this discussion platform, keeping its fingers on the pulse of participants as they air issues and offer opinions. We periodically summarize and present some of the groups observations and insights, with more posted online.

We need to take action to attract more young people to engineering and automation if we want to remain competitive in a global world.


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Connecting the Global Engineering Community

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1/11/2013 5:26:29 PM 9/19/2012 5:47:37 PM

inside process

Dynamic simulation predicts steam consumption in unpredictable paper mill application

Langerbrugge used simulation analysis to make sure the boiler and steam system could remain stable even during the biggest disruption: a turbine trip.

tora Ensos Langerbrugge (Belgium) paper mill decided to install a new CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boiler and a condensing turbine back in 2008. Pyry was chosen as the consultant for the project, and assigned the task of engineering a dynamic simulation of the steam network, which would be used in the process of designing the new installation. This was a particularly complex project in that the mill had previously purchased steam from an outside supplier and this was a major change to generating and controlling its own steam supply. The underlying idea of using dynamic simulation to assist with the design process is that control specialists take part in the entire engineering cycle, ensuring that once

the plant is started, the controls and process will be capable of handling all process disturbances anticipated, such as paper machine web breaks and turbine trips. This approach proved to be very successful in Langerbrugge, and this discussion explains how the process dynamics part of the engineering was carried out.
Dynamic vs. static simulations

Hans Boghaert, Jarno Nyman, Mikael Maasalo

Key concepts
Process simulators can characterize a new facility even before construction Simulation results can suggest specific configurations and equipment choices to ensure desired operating characteristics

In spite of the variety of design tools available today, it seems that much power plant design work is carried out using only static simulations, such as heat-balance calculations. While these are useful, static simulations typically assume that power-plant operating conditions, such as steam consumption, are completely stable at the given operation point.


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inside process

However, day-today power plant operation is filled with different kinds of disturbance situations. Since dynamic simulations have historically been very expensive to carry out, disturbances have not been tested during engineering. Even Figure 1. Langerbrugges old BFB plant and new CFB today, many eleplant comprise a somewhat complex steam network, ments of the conwith many different process components affecting each trol strategy are other via the net. Courtesy: Pyry pieced together only during the commissioning, through trial and error. Pyry developed a dynamic steam-net simulator, Modysim, 10 years ago. The most important feature of Modysim is that the models are simple enough to carry out cost-efficient simulations, but detailed enough to provide accurate results. So far Modysim has been used in over 40 projects, and it has proven to produce accurate results within just a few days once the modeling process has begun. Figure 2: Partial After Modysim had been used successfully Modysim model of the in separate steam-network optimization projLangerbrugge mill ects for several years, in 2007, Pyry decided to modernize its whole power-plant engineering process by adding Modysim simulation in all power-plant engineering phases. Stora Enso Langerbrugge was among the first ones to use this new approach in full. Dynamic simulation gives a lot of input to process dimensioning, but pays particular attention to power plant control configuration. In Pyrys approach, the control specialists who carry out the simulation tests also supervise turbine and boiler control configuration and give assistance during commissioning, ensuring that the controls work properly from the first moment when the equipment is started. Experience has shown that if the recommendations obtained from the simulation have been followed correctly, steam-network control commissioning is typically over in just a few weeks instead of months.

Dealing with turbine trips

Before the new boiler project, a significant part of the Langerbrugge mills process steam was purchased from a nearby utility. After the new boiler was installed, the steam pipe to the utility was completely cut off. Since the mills process steam pressure had been controlled with a valve at the point where the utility supply came into the mill, the whole steam network control concept had to be redesigned. Even while the new power-plant concept was still under development, it was obvious that a turbine trip would cause challenges for the operation. Therefore, Stora Enso was very keen on seeing how well Pyry and the Modysim simulation of the steam network could check the process dimensioning and control behavior during a turbine trip. The existing pressure control scheme was developed by Pyry in 2003, so the Langerbrugge staff was already familiar with Pyrys method of building an integrated control scheme and combining independent control systems. The purpose of the dynamic simulation was not only to check the process dimensioning, but also to connect the new and existing controls together (Figure 1).
Process dimensioning checks

Dynamic simulation provides a way of checking process dimensioning. Typically, valve capacities, actuator stroke times, and accumulator volume are checked by feeding process disturbances, such as paper machine web breaks, into the model. Naturally, in the Langerbrugge case, the existing power-plant process could not be altered. However, at the new CFB plant, a turbine trip provided a lot of challenge. Initially the bypass to the turbine condenser was to be connected from the HP (high-pressure) header, mainly due to the fact that, for cost reasons, the turbine bypass valve was initially dimensioned only for the minimum load of the new condensing turbine, not for the maximum load as might be expected. However, a more cost-efficient way would be to connect the bypass from the LP (low-pressure) header. The question was whether the steam network could handle a turbine trip in this way. The capacities and opening times of the turbine bypass, turbine condenser bypass, and CFB start valves were studied as critical elements of the process.
Dynamic simulation and results

When a dynamic simulation model is running, results come as precise dynamic curves where one can easily see if the selected capac-


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inside process

ities, actuator speeds, and Regardless of how function well with the existcomponent connections are ing power plant (Figure 3). good the simulation enough for the steam netSpecification for steam work to survive the selectresults are, they network controls ed situations. In this case are meaningless One interesting fact the selected situations were about steam network sima paper machine web break if the control ulations has emerged from and new condensing turbine a growing number of projtrip (Figure 2). configuration and ects. While the process itself The simulation results tuning parameters has an effect on the results, indicated several operational facts: developed during the experience suggests that at least half of the phenomena During normal operasimulations are not seen on the curves, especialtion, the new condensing ly disturbance magnitude and turbine was able to conimplemented. behavior, come from how the trol low pressure during the controls have been configworst disturbances, such as ured and tuned. Therefore, regardless of how web breaks. The bypass to the turbine condenser could good the simulation results are, they are meanbe connected to the low-pressure header instead ingless if the control configuration and tuning of the high-pressure network, resulting in a parameters developed during the simulations are not implemented. The most important delivmore cost-efficient solution. To make the erable from the dynamic simulations is therepower plant sur- fore a specification for a steam network control vive a turbine configuration where all modifications and decitrip, the turbine sions are explained in the form of a steam netand condenser work control strategy. This control strategy acts bypass valves had as a basis for all control configuration elements, to be opened very such as the turbine pressure control. The analysis suggested two very important quickly, and the start-up valve had requirements for the controls: First, all pressure controllers should use only to be equipped with a fast pneu- one pressure transmitter. This makes it possible to avoid measurement errors between different matic actuator. The tur- control loops, integrate functions of all pieces bine control sys- of equipment, and stabilize the steam network. Figure 3: Some turbine trip Modysim simulation curves, tem needed some Second, the turbine pressure control algowithout and with fast HP blow-out. modifications to rithms had to be modified. Turbine pressure controllers now use external pressure signals, and turbine valve interaction was changed. The mill decided to follow these recommendations from the simulation results, and the design was altered accordingly.


Figure 4: Implementation time schedule


Pyry assembled a team comprising engineers from the DCS supplier, the turbine and boiler builders, and mill personnel, which worked in close cooperation. Since there are many control systems that need to interact properly, it is important that everyone interprets the results and implements the specifications in the same and correct way. This can be achieved most easily by good communication between all parties involved. Figure 4 illustrates the implementation time schedule. After initial testing, the new loops were turned on and tuned one-by-one according to


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[architect] [designer] [implementer] [investigator] [configurator] [improver]


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Copyright 2012. All rights reserved. Invensys, the Invensys logo, Foxboro and Triconex are trademarks of Invensys plc, its subsidiaries or affiliates. All other brands and product names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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a predetermined procedure. Pyry also held training sessions for mill personnel to clarify the new steam network control concept. Initial parameters for the controllers were obtained from the simulator model, which sped up the fine-tuning process.

Figure 5: PM break: Modysim simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning

Start-up of the new equipment went smoothly. The predetermined implementation order was carried out, and step-by-step, the connection to the nearby utility was separated and the new equipment was turned on. After start-up and fine-tuning, the steam network behaved just as it did in the simulator. It was also clear that if the control strategy had not been modified according to the simulation results, any turbine trip would have also caused trips in the CFB and LP header. Figures 5 and 6 compare simulation results and actual trend curves. Stora Enso realized a number of practical benefits from the project: The worst types of disturbances that can take place during new power plant operation had already been tested at the beginning of the engineering phase, so they didnt have to be learned the hard way. Process and automation engineering needs were supported during the entire power plant control strategy design process. The modifications that were required for the DCS and in the turbine control system were specified at an early stage instead of fixing them by trial and error during commissioning. The steam network control system developed during the simulations worked just as predicted from initial start-up, providing very good pressure stability, maintaining 0.05 bar during normal operation and 0.1 bar during upsets. Steam network control commissioning was over in just a few weeks instead of several months. Back-pressure power generation from the turbines is maximized during operation, because pressure remains stable and as low as possible under all circumstances.ce Hans Boghaert is energy manager for Stora Enso. Jarno Nyman is a power plant controls advisor and Mikael Maasalo is a senior power plant controls advisor for Pyry Finland.

Go Online
Figure 6: TG trip: Modysim simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning

Find information about Stora Ensos forest products at Learn more about Pyry at

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Using wireless here and there is one thing. But using it across my entire operation? Theres no one I could trust to do that.

See more, do more and be more profitable with the most trusted partner in wireless Emerson. Emerson is your proven partner with Smart Wireless in more customer sites and with more operating hours than anyone else in the process industry. Smart Wireless has the widest range of technologies to expand your vision into more places across your operations. And its self-organizing mesh network delivers the highest reliability available. It is simply the most intelligent, secure and cost-effective operation-wide wireless option available. See how Smart Wireless can empower your bottom line at

The Emerson logo is a trademark and a service mark of Emerson Electric Co. 2012 Emerson Electric Co.

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inside process

Hydroelectric generating utility has to control with the flow

Located in an environmentally sensitive area, Box Canyon Dam has to deliver power while remaining invisible to the surrounding community. This means trying to control output around changes in water flow.
Jason Wright

Key concepts
Legacy generating facilities need updates, often spurred by regulatory requirements Current control systems can replace tedious and expensive manual reporting processes

ox Canyon Dam, north of Spokane, Wash., was turning river current into electrical current long before renewable energy became an environmental hot topic. Since 1956, Box Canyon Dam and its four hydroelectric turbinegenerator sets have straddled a narrow section of Washington states second-largest river, the Pend Oreille. The Pend Oreille County Public Utility District built and operates the 80 MW hydroelectric plant, which today provides power to 8,500 customers. Most major hydroelectric plants generate electricity by systematically controlling the release of stored water behind a dam. However, Box Canyon is a run-of-the-river hydro plant, meaning the flow of water from upstream sources drives the submerged turbines without a retention area to help smooth out changes in flow. This means operators at Box Canyon have to maintain the delicate balance between optimal power generation and the rivers natural ecosystem. Seasonal rains, melting snowpack, and other natural forces put pressure on Box Can-

yon, swelling the incoming flow from upstream dams and reservoirs. Swift currents are naturally a plus for hydro power production because more water provides more energy to turn the turbines. But state-protected lands behind Box Canyon cant be allowed to flood because theyre home to sensitive animal habitat and picturesque public parks that attract thousands of visitors annually to Washingtons northeast corner. Consequently, Box Canyon operators work continuously, mostly by hand, to control the amount of water flowing through the dam and the elevation of the river behind it.
Challenges of an aging facility

Most of the original mechanical controls and hydroelectric equipmentincluding the four turbines, generators, and auxiliary machinery remained much the same as when they were installed more than 50 years ago. Even for a team of highly experienced operators, thats a lot of working parts to monitor and adjust separately, said Terry Borden, manager of hydro production at Box Canyon. We also have to contend with whatever the weather throws at us.



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While the average flow rate All our systems were out of trolLogix PACs (programmable at Box Canyon is 26,400 cfs automation controllers) for each date, and because no real (cubic feet per second), spring unit. One controls the turbine thaws and early summer rains system and upgrade of the control station governorgeneral unit the other can push that level to 80,000 cfs handles controls, and above. At those rare heights, and the equipment had been auxiliary pumps, and stopping operators stop the turbines and starting the generators. done since the plant was built, and control room, a series In open the dams hydraulic gates the of to let the river flow unfettered everything was just worn out. FactoryTalk View supervisory through spillways. edition HMIs provide operators Day-to-day fluctuations in the river are far less dramatic, with valuable information and diagnostics via EtherNet/IP. but still can vary significantly. To contend with those varia- FactoryTalk SE Server software consolidates HMI data from tions, operators constantly monitor flow rates and water eleva- the hydro units, allowing Box Canyon operators to monitor tions behind the dam. They use that information to control the and manage system parameters, such as river elevations and flow through the dam by adjusting the turbines wicket gates, flow rates, from a central point. FactoryTalk Historian SE the large doors that open to allow water into the turbines. The provides for centralized data, event, and alarm databases. goal is to keep power production as close to maximum as posThe PlantPAx system architecture also opens up commusible while keeping river levels as stable as possible. nication between the PACs and third-party equipment through Collecting critical data involved in the power generation EtherNet/IP, so valuable information is instantly available to process has also been a largely manual process, with operators everybody who needs it, Borden said. recording instrument readings by hand. Without an electronic network to share the data, operators had to enter it into Excel Results The new system has helped increase generating efficiency spreadsheets and then distribute hard copies to other departments. Purchasing employees, for example, use month-to- at the plant by allowing more exact monitoring of the turbine and generator systems. In turn, operators can detect and correct month trending data to help calculate power contracts. All our systems were out of date, Borden said. And problems earlier, such as high temperatures in the generator or because no real upgrade of the control station and the equip- low flow in cooling systems. Its too soon to put a number on it, but we anticipate this ment had been done since the plant was built, everything was just worn out.

Regulators want more

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) recently noted the need for modernization when Box Canyon applied to renew its license for the next half century. FERC granted the license but stipulated the plant had to invest in upgrades to comply with the latest federal standards. We needed state-of-the art automation to meet all our requirements, from integrated control to real-time reporting to plant security, Borden said. Before the project began, Borden and his team planned on approaching Rockwell Automation to provide the comprehensive control solution the plant needed. Borden notes, We had invested in four Allen-Bradley SLC controllers, one on each turbines governor blade control system, so we had some experience with Rockwell Automation. The Pend Oreille utility district selected the PlantPAx process automation system, an integrated control and information solution that combines capabilities of a distributed control system with access to process information to help achieve plantwide optimization. Implementation of the PlantPAx solution at Box Canyon is happening in stages, along with the rest of the $150 million project. The district must continue to produce power during the upgrade, using three of the four turbine-generator units at all times. One unit has already been replaced and the second is under way. The process includes disassembling the unit down to its concrete foundation. Then the new turbine and generator are installed, along with new switch gear, relay-protection systems, pumps, and pipes. The PlantPAx solution includes two Allen-Bradley ConCONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 P9

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Our new process capabilities will allow the district to monitor and operate remote sites from one central location, saving on both labor and travel costs.
increased reliability and unit uptime will reduce operating costs once the entire project is complete, Borden said. Operators will also be able to perform additional maintenance tasks they dont have time for now, like digging trash out of the intakes. The ControlLogix controller and FactoryTalk software have allowed us to capture more real-time information, and retain it for future analysis and trending. System data is also automatically sent to a corporate network database that allows other depart-

Each of the four turbine-generator units was dismantled down to the concrete. Here a new runner is being lowered into place. Courtesy: Rockwell Automation

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More than a story, a process narrative can define your next automation project, and you can write it yourself.

Open HMIs in 3 New Sizes!

hen launching an automation project, you might want to begin by creating a process narrative. Not sure what that is? Here are some answers What is a process narrative? A process control narrative is a written description of a manufacturing process that details the steps needed to start up, maintain an ideal running state, and safely shut down the system. When is it written? While a narrative can be written anytime, it is often created at the onset of a large capital project, such as the installation of a new system or the retrofit of a legacy system. Why? Because kicking off a successful capital project requires a common understanding across several groups of stakeholders on how the manufacturing process will work. Who should write the narrative? Ideally, the plant engineering and operations team should create the documents. This ensures that the plant operations staff owns and completely understands the process. However, dont forget that innovation requires collaboration. While plant staff writes the narrative, they should seek opinions and different view points from other stakeholders. What should be included in a narrative? A proper narrative will include equipment numbers and descriptions, detailed descriptions of the modes and sequence of operation, how the system will respond to upsets, how the system will ensure personnel, food, and environmental safety, and more. The exact details will depend on the nature of your company. There is no fixed format. Is it worth it? Yes. Lets consider the benefits: 1. Process optimizationA key step to process improvement can be having a subject matter expert on the system sit down and write out the process step by step. Sharing this description with colleagues challenges them to think of better, faster, or just different ways of doing things. 2. Knowledge transferProcess knowledge is mission-critical to a manufacturing business. Too often companies lose valuable intellectual property when key resources resign or assume new roles. 3. Documentation for programming teamIt provides clear instructions to your process control programming team, whether internal to your organization or a thirdparty SI. This will decrease development time and help your startups to run smoothly. Jason Montroy, Maverick Technologies. Read the Real World Engineering blog at

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ments to easily access the information, rather than shuffle through print-outs. The security features offered by the FactoryTalk Asset Centre software also enable the direct reporting and documentation required under the NERC CIP (North American Electric Reliability Corporations critical infrastructure protection) provisions. Once the turbine-generator project is completed, Borden and his team plan to take full advantage of the remote monitoring capabilities offered by the new process control system. The utility district operates a smaller dam and pumping stations outside Box Canyon, and it plans to improve their connection to the districts SCADA system. Our new process capabilities will allow the district to monitor and operate

remote sites from one central location, saving on both labor and travel costs, Borden said. Also on the utilitys agenda is another installation important to Oregonians: adding a fish passage system at the dam. This will protect bull trout and other species on their downstream and upstream journeys. ce Jason Wright is Plant PAx product manager at Rockwell Automation.

Visit our website for complete details

Every Machine Needs The Human Touch

Go Online
n Learn more about Box Canyon and Pend Oreille County Public Utility District at


Call us: 425-745-3229

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software &

Power drives for variable speed and torque control now offer extended ratings
Rockwell Automation has extended the ratings of its Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 755 ac drives to 1,500 kW (2,000 hp). The PowerFlex drive family is well suited for a wide variety of applications ranging from simple variable speed and variable torque control to the most demanding systems requiring constant torque control. The latest frame extension delivers the enhanced control capabilities of earlier high-power models, including features, such as 400/480/600/690 volt ratings and N-1 technology. The power-range extension is one of several enhancements to the PowerFlex 755 drive designed to provide application exibility. Additional features and benets available include the following oor-mount drives and dualport EtherNet/IP option module.
Rockwell Automation

Safety system aims at upstream oil and natural gas facilities

Yokogawa has released its enhanced ProSafe-RS safety instrumented system, featuring I/O modules that operate reliably in high-temperature conditions typically encountered in desert locations. Support of an open communications protocol has also been added, enhancing its compatibility with other vendors DCSs. The new modules can operate at ambient temperatures up to 70 C (158 F), even while mounted closely together, which can reduce the system footprint. Also, ProSafe-RS has been enhanced by adding support for Ethernet-based Modbus/TCP communication with other systems. This facilitates exible connection of the ProSafe-RS system with DCSs from other vendors, allowing customers a greater range of choice. An independent certication body has certied that ProSafe-RS conforms to the IEC61508 international safety standard and can be used in SIL3 applications. Yokogawa,
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Machine vision cameras offer IP65 and IP67 enclosures with PoE
IDS Imaging Development Systems GigE uEye RE camera series offers Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) functionality to allow both power and data to be transferred by one cable, resulting in greater exibility when integrated in machine vision systems. The design is suited for harsh industrial environments with features such as a lockable, dust-tight, spray- and waterresistant M12 circular connector that conforms to IP67, and optically decoupled digital I/Os, as well as two general purpose I/Os. The camera also offers M5 mounting holes on all sides for exible positioning, along with an I2C bus for triggering peripheral devices.
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Photoelectric sensors for hygienic environments in food and pharma applications

Banner Engineerings QM26 and QMH26 photoelectric sensors are designed specically for pharmaceutical, food, and beverage applications. Their design was inuenced by the 2011 Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG) and food safety initiatives among private businesses. The QM26 is housed in a non-toxic 316L stainless steel housing to survive high pressure washdowns and temperature cycling. The sensor is Ecolab certied for inexhaustible sensor life in chemically cleaned environments and is intended for splash zone areas. The QMH26 is designed with minimal grooves and crevices and is self-draining for clean-in-place (CIP) applications.
Banner Engineering
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Head and DIN rail mounted temperature transmitters offer programming options
Non programmable ProSense models are available for thermocouple types J, K, or T, along with three-wire type Pt100 RTDs. Head-mounted models can be mounted in any ProSense connection head or any DIN Form B sensor head and are powered by 8 to 35 Vdc. 35 mm DIN rail-mount models are powered by 12 to 35 Vdc. They are reversepolarity protected and output is a linearized two-wire 4-20 mA current loop. Programmable models are available in both head-mount and DIN rail-mount styles. Compatible with a variety of thermocouple and RTD types, models feature linear resistance of 10 to 400 and 10 to 2,000 with F and C selectability. Head-mount models are powered by 8 to 35 Vdc and DIN rail-mount models are powered by 12 to 35 Vdc; both styles are reverse-polarity protected. AutomationDirect,
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Molded-case circuit breakers designed for commercial and utility scale photovoltaic systems
Eaton has introduced its new line of molded-case circuit breakers (MCCBs) designed for commercial- and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems. Used in solar combiner and inverter applications, Eaton PVGard circuit breakers are rated up to 600 A at 1,000 Vdc. Units in the series meet UL 489B, which requires testing to verify circuit protection that meets the specic requirements of PV systems, providing protection, switching, and isolation of PV systems up to 1,000 Vdc. Once the condition that created the fault is identied and repaired, the circuit breaker can simply be reset. They enable reductions in breaker, conductor, and enclosure sizes, and can help promote potential cost savings.
Eaton Corporation

Turbine meter with pulse output for water and waste water applications
Omega introduces its new series of turbine meters with a wide range of sizes and capacities. The FTB-630 series features a non-resettable mechanical totalizer built in a rugged package manufactured of cast iron and epoxycoated for protection. Five sizes are available, including 2-, 3-, 4-, 6-, and 8-in. pipes with ange mountings. These durable, accurate, and economical turbine meters have an optional pulse output available, and can be equipped with magnetic pulse reed sensors well suited for remote totalizing, pacing of electronic metering pumps, and water treatment applications. Omega,
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Network interface for device-level ring networks uses priority channel technology
Innovasics RapID platform network interface for industrial Ethernet connectivity supports high-performance device-level ring (DLR) networks. DLR is the fault recovery protocol endorsed by ODVA for network ring topologies, and can support beacon rates down to 100 s enabling fault recovery and ring restore times of less than 10 ms. Participation in the DLR ring is transparent to any host processor or host application connected to the RapID platform. As with all protocol versions of the network interface, the EtherNet/IP version with DLR incorporates PriorityChannel technology, which eliminates the effects of network trafc loading and ensures real-time EtherNet/IP messages are always processed on-time. A eld device incorporating Innovasics Network Interface solution is protected from unpredictable packet delays, excessive latency, and connection failure without worrying about network segmentation or switch conguration. Innovasic,
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software &

Monitoring CNCs on tablet devices via the Internet
Fanuc FA America has introduced an option that allows Series 30i/31i/32i-Model B CNCs to be monitored remotely using tablet-type devices. These controllers are now capable of acting as a web server, so a unit can display CNC screens on any device on a network. This ability allows maintenance or production personnel on the shop oor to monitor all CNC equipment from across the shop in one location and on one device. For simultaneous ve-axis highspeed machining, Fanucs 30i-B/31iB5 CNCs use high-speed smooth TCP with new fairing technology. This reduces cycle times while improving part accuracy and quality. In addition, Fanuc Series 30i-Model B CNCs offer a newly enhanced highspeed and large-capacity, multi-path PMC with largescale sequence control with a maximum of ve concurrent independent ladders.
Fanuc FA America

Integrated CNC controller with Windows-based HMI functions

Mitsubishi Electric has introduced its multi-axis M700V Series CNC platform, a stand-alone, compact, integrated controller with a built-in display screen for HMI functions. The M700V comes in two models and both feature a high-speed servo network. The M700VW model operates on a Microsoft Windows platform for PC-based control. Other advances include improvements to basic CNC functions, more sophisticated graphic performance, and 66% lower power consumption of the built-in PLC. Designed for a range of metal-cutting, forming, plastic, and woodworking applications, the M700V CNC features simple HMI screens to facilitate navigation and operation, including a menu customization function, pop-up screens, and a guidance function. A 64-bit RISC CPU and a proprietary LSI power the CNCs.
Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc.
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Talking to process instrumentation

I/O systems have to offer multiple communication options to accommodate different types of field sensors and transmitters.
Peter Welander


signal formats grew out of a desire to have the best tool for a given job, but the practical result can be confusing. At least the number of signal formats has thinned out in recent years.

The variety of

he article on page 34 of this issue discusses how control system vendors have to provide a range of I/O (input/ output) options for the variety of signal types that a user might find with process sensors and actuators in a process unit. These include the big four process variables (flow, pressure, temperature, and level) along with control valves, safety sensors, analyzers, weight cells, and so on. The article cites three signal formats: analog with HART, digital (binary), and pulsations. (Well ignore various fieldbus protocols, wireless, and Ethernet.) Lets look at all three.

power at whatever level it needs. Most manufacturers have standardized on this signal format, moving on from older voltage signals due to their susceptibility to line loss through wire resistance. Adding HART to the analog signal is a way to carry additional information by modulating the current signal in a way that allows digital information to be piggybacked on the analog without disrupting the basic process variable. (Read more about HART in the article in our December issue.) A close look at the analog signal will show that it is not a flat line, but modulates at 1.2 or 2.2 kHz to carry binary sequences. The I/O connection cannot see the digital signal without a modem, so the process variable doesnt change.

A sensor measures its variable by modulating an electrical signal. It can cause a change in voltage, resistance, or capacitance. For example: Thermocouples generate a voltage in relation to temperature Strain gages, thermistors, and RTDs change resistance in response to movement or temperature, and Some pressure sensor designs use changes in capacitance to quantify changes in pressure. A raw signal directly from a sensor is usually not suitable for a control system as-is. It needs processing to adjust scaling, linearity, compensation, and so on. A device with this capability is typically called a transducer or transmitter. Thermocouples and RTDs are exceptions in that many control systems have I/O cards to take such raw signals directly; however, they are difficult to transmit over any distance so users often insert a transmitter to beef up the signal. In most cases, it will create a 4-20 mA current loop. The transmitter will draw a given current level at 24 Vdc from the supply in the I/O connection of the control system, corresponding to the variable. A zero value of the variable will draw 4 mA, and the maximum value draws 20 mA. Anything beyond those limits indicates a malfunction. A two-wire device powers its internal circuits using only the current it draws from the supply, meaning everything can operate at 4 mA or less. However, some need an external power supply. These are four-wire devices where two wires transmit the process variable and two bring in

In some cases calling a signal digital suggests something like a fieldbus or Ethernet where data is sent in packets. However, here were talking about a binary signal, or on or off. There are many process sensors that do not send out scalar data. They change their signal state when the variable crosses a specific threshold. For example, a low-level alarm in a tank switches on when a liquid level gets too close to the bottom. Another might be a pressure switch that turns on a compressor at a given point. Such devices may simply close or open a set of contacts like a relay. In other cases, an analog signal may change: 20 mA means on and 4 mA means off, but thats really an analog device.

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Read the article in this issue: Make your I/O smarter Also read: Making HART Communicate, December 2012 Subscribe to Process Instrumentation & Sensors eNewsletter at

Some sensors, particularly turbine flowmeters, send their signal as a pulsation, the frequency of which indicates the process variable. Such a flowmeter uses a proximity sensor that triggers each time the turbine propeller passes by. Higher flow makes the turbine spin faster and send pulses at a higher frequency. This variety of signal formats grew out of a desire to have the best tool for a given job, but the practical result can be confusing. At least the number of signal formats has thinned out in recent years, and system providers are doing a better job of accommodating those that remain. ce Peter Welander is a content manager for Control Engineering.


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