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Chapter 4.

Feedback Control System Characteristics


Goal: to learn concept of system error signal
# error control

sensitivity of system # transient performance of feedback system disturbance rejection cost of feedback

4.1 Open- and Closed-Loop Control Systems


* Idea of feedback utilize error signal to achieve desired system response results in a closed-loop
Figure 4.1 #? error

* Comparison of open and closed loop system - open loop: generates output in response to input w/o feedback

R ( s)

- closed loop: measures output, compares it with desired output, and feed the difference to actuator

* Error reduction in closed loop

# .

E a ( s) = 1+ G (1s)H( s) R ( s)
1+ G ( s)H( s) 1

For good error reduction,

4.2 Sensitivity of Control System to Parameter Variations


In practice, process

G ( s)

is subject to various changes (say, G ( s) )

OL:

R ( s)

G ( s)+G ( s)

Y ( s)+Y ( s)

CL:

OL: Y ( s) =G ( s)R ( s) CL: Y ( s) =

G ( s) (1+ GH( s)+ GH( s))(1+GH( s))

R ( s)

For CL, when

G ( GH( s)GH( s) , Y ( s) = (1+ GHs()s)) 2 R ( s)

Def. system sensitivity

T:

system TF,

G:

G S = lim0 T( s)/T( s)) = T T = ln T G ( s)/G ( s G ln G


process(plant) TF

* system sensitivity

OL: CL:

s S = T ( s)/T(( s)) = 1 # T=G G ( s)/G s 1 S = T ( s)/T(( s)) = 1+ GH( s) G ( s)/G


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* sensitivity of CL system

G S T = T T = 1+1GH G G
) S T = T ( s) H = 1+GH((ss) H H( s) T GH S T = S T S G , = parameter G
* for accurate control
# H=feedback gain

of G

OL: G must be accurate CL:

GH( s) GH( s)

# G

4.3 Control of Transient Response of Control Systems


Def. transient response = response of system until steady-state is reached One of control purposes improve transient response (ex, too slow response, too much overshoot, ...) Solution

replace G(s) with better one cascade control feedback control

Ex. motor speed control system


Figure 4.13

ig. 4.7

V a ( s)

K1 G ( s)= s+1
1

( s)

# K1 tau1

OL:

va ( t)= k2E

( t) =K 1k2E (1- e

- t / 1

too slow if 1 is large!

Let's try feedback control


Figure 4.14(a)

CL:

r ( t)= k2E

( t)

k2E 1- exp ( -( K a K tK 1 )t ) Kt 1

]
100)

comparison b/w OL and CL responses ( 1 =10,


Figure 4.15

Ka KtK1 =

4.4 Disturbance Signals in a Feedback Control System


disturbance = unwanted input signal that affects system's output Ex. DC motor with load torque disturbance
Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8

Compare error for step disturbance ( T d ( s)= OL


( s)=

D) s

1 E ( s) = d ( s)- ( s) = Js+ b +( K K /Ra ) T d ( s) m b

-1 Js+ b +( K m K b/Ra ) T d ( s)

(let d ( s) = 0 )

1 lim e( t)= lim sE( s) = lim s Js+ b +( K K /Ra ) D s t s0 s0 m b = b +( K DK /Ra ) =- o ()


m b

CL (feedback control)
Figure 4.9

Figure 4.10(b)

K 1 a G 1 ( s)= K R K m , G 2 ( S )= Js+ b , H( s)= Kt + K b Kt a a


# K 8

( E ( s) = - ( s)= 1+ G (G)2Gs)( s) H( s) T d ( s) 1 s 2

E ( s) G1 H T d ( s) 1

if

G 1G 2H( s) 1

lim E ( t) = lim sE ( s) = s K R a K D t s0 aK m t s

= K R aDK = - c () aKm t

comparison

R aD K a K mK t = R a b + K m K b c () = D K a K mK t o () b + K mK b/R a
Figure 4.11

typically less than 0.02

4.5 Steady-State Error


steady-state error = error after transient response has disappeared *

e ss

in OL

R ( s)

E o ( s)= R ( s)- Y ( s) = (1- G ( s)) R ( s) e o ()= lim e o ( t)= lim sE o ( s) = 1- G (0) t s0


*

e ss = 0 if G (0)= 1 . But G (0) is usually large


in CL

if

G ( s)

changes,

e ss = 0 /

e ss

E c ( s)= R ( s)- Y ( s) = 1+ 1 ( s) R ( s) G

(with

H( s) = 1 )

e c ()= lim e c ( t)= lim sE c ( s)= 1+1 (0) G t s0


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Ex.

e ss e ss

is small when

G (0)

is large

remains small even when

G ( s)

changes

e ss

from parameter change

compare

e ss

when

G ( s)

changes from

OL (when before: after:

K = 1 and K =-0.1 ) K e ss = 1- G (0) = 1- K = 0 e ss = 1-K - K = 0.1 K = 100


and
K

K s+1

to

K + K s+1

CL (when before: after:

1 e ss = 1+1 (0) = 1+ K = G e ss = 1+ K1+ K = 1/91

K =-0.1 )
1/101

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4.6 Cost of Feedback


increased number of components and increased complexity loss of gain: OL

G ( s)

-> CL

G ( s)/(1+ G ( s))

introduction of possibility of instability Q: Why control? Let's just make A: Not realizable since

G ( s)

G ( s) = Y ( s)/ R ( s)

equal to 1.

represents real process with dynamic characteristics.

Q: OK. Then, how about cascade control to make

G 1 ( s) G ( s) = 1 ?

A:

G ( s)

must be accurate. Sensitivity problem and other problems still remain.

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