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ANILINE FROM NITROBENZENE

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Aniline has always been one of the most important products of the color industry but it may also be utilized to produce antioxidants and vulcanization accelerators for rubber, and as an intermediate in the production of herbicides, pesticides, dyes and pigments, and among many other uses. [1] Aniline, when freshly prepared, is a colorless oily liquid (boiling point of 184C). It has an unpleasant odor and is not poisonous in nature. It is heavier than water and is only slightly soluble. However, it is soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene and its color changes to dark brown on standing. It is a volatile organic compound (VOC), and as such it can be involved in reactions with other air pollutants that form ground-level ozone, which can cause harm to crops and materials and could have significant impacts on wildlife. It may also cause cancer and genetic damage. Several environmental agencies aim to ensure that there is no appreciable risk of such effects from environmental exposures. As of 2011, the total world production of aniline is 4,000,000 tons per year. This plant is projected to contribute 0.5 % of the total market share. [2] Aniline can be produced in several ways. Most common of these, which are employed by several manufacturers, are the reduction of nitrobenzene with iron turnings and water in the presence of small amounts of hydrochloric acid, the gas-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene with a fluidized-bed catalyst [3], and the ammonolysis of chlorobenzene or of phenol [4]. This design is centered on the catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene using copper as the catalyst, and is to produce 20, 000 tons of aniline per year. The process could be done in either the liquid or vapor phase. In this design, several process options were considered to come up with the optimum design, and in the selection, factors such as environmental, economic, sustainability and safety were also considered. Mass and energy balances were calculated to set up the basis in designing the equipment used. Process safety was also considered, and lastly profitability analysis was made to check if the plant is profitable or not.