You are on page 1of 1

Sean Li Math 4340 Notes Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra Lecture 24 3/15/13 Groups of order 21.

1. Commutative group: cyclic group C21 . Non-commutative group: G C7 C3 , as from the previous lecture, restated below. Assume G exists, then it has a unique normal subgroup K of order 7 and non-normalsubgroups of order 3, denote one of these H . Then H K = {e}. Clearly H normalizes K as K G. If : H Aut K , then G H K . An automorphism is found by setting x x2 x4 x. Proposition. Let H, K be two normal subgroups of G such that H K = {e}. Then H commutes elementwise with K and HK H K . Note hkh1 k 1 = k k 1 K and hkh1 k 1 = hh H , thus it is the identity. Thus we have hk = kh. For the second part, every element of HK can be uniquely written as hk as H K = {e}. Then the mapping HK H K given by hk (h, k ) is a homormorphism, as (h1 k1 )(h2 k2 ) = h1 h2 k1 k2 (h1 h2 , k1 k2 ) = (h1 , k1 )(h2 , k2 ). This is one-to-one and onto, so it is an isomorphism.