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o Engorgement of the vessels of face,

SYNDROMES neck, and arms.


o Nonproductive cough
o Dyspnea
ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES • TAKAYASU'S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the
Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young
• ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation women.
exposure. • WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME:
o 12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.
o 24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme o Short PR interval
exhaustion), fever, diarrhea o Delta wave = early QRS complex.
o Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension,
tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe IATROGENIC (or Secondary to Medical Treatment)
death.
• CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG
• AFFERENT LOOP SYNDROME:
reaction ------> Chest Pain, burning sensation over
Gastrojejunal loop obstruction, proximal to a
parts of body.
gastrojejunostomy.
• BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage
o Ingestion of food produces nausea, pain,
(injury) to half of spinal cord ------> symptoms:
and duodenal distension.
o Loss of pain and temperature sensation on
• ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME: Adhesions
contralateral side of body.
within the endometrial cavity, causing
o Loss of proprioception and discriminatory
amenorrhea and infertility.
touch on ipsilateral side of body.
o Adhesions probably were caused by
surgery.
CARDIOVASCULAR • ULYSSES SYNDROME: Ill effects from
follow-up diagnostic tests following a false-
• ADAMS-STOKES SYNDROME: Heart block, with positive screening test.
slow or absent pulse, often accompanied by
convulsions. NEOPLASTIC (Malignant or Benign)
• BARLOW SYNDROME: Floppy Mitral Valve
Syndrome; Massive Mitral Valve Prolapse ------>
• CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor
Late apical systolic murmur, systolic click, or both.
producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ------>
• EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME: Ventricular-
secondary symptoms:
Septal Defect ------> Pulmonary hypertension and
o Cyanotic flushing
cyanosis.
o Diarrhea
• FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral
o Bronchial spasm
Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the
o Edema, ascites.
leaflets.
• CRONKHITE-CANADA SYNDROME: GI-
• LERICHE'S SYNDROME: Occlusion of distal
Polyps with diffuse alopecia (hair-loss) and nail
aorta ------>
dystrophy.
o Hip, thigh, and calf fatigue.
o May see protein-losing enteropathy and
o Impotence
malabsorption.
• BEHCET'S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ------>
• GARDNER'S SYNDROME: Multiple
secondary symptoms:
inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
o Oral and genital ulcers
o Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid
o Uveitis
cysts
o Optic atrophy
o Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ------>
• SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in
predisposition to colonic
shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring
adenocarcinoma.
after Myocardial Infarction.
• LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME:
• SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity;
Progressive proximal muscle weakness
continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia,
secondary to a carcinoma.
alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of
• MEIGS' SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with
tachycardia.
ascites and hydrothorax
• SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused
• PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near
by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ------>
pulmonary apex ------>
o Edema

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o Neuritic pain of chest and arm o Mental retardation, autism, spastic
o Muscle atrophy of the arm cerebral palsy
o Horner's Syndrome (impaired cervical o X-Linked recessive
sympathetics) • MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue
• PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis disorder ------>
(hamartomas) of small intestine o Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long
o Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal digits and extremities
mucosa and skin around mouth and lips o Subluxation of lens
o Dissecting aortic aneurism
CONGENITAL • POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile
defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection
during first trimester.
• CEREBELLAR SYNDROME: Congenital o Microphthalmos, cataracts
Cerebellar Ataxia o Deafness
• CERVICAL SYNDROME: Supernumerary C7 rib - o Mental retardation
-----> Pressure on brachial plexus ------> pain o Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary
radiating over shoulder, arm, and forearm over C7 arterial stenosis
distribution. • PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature,
• DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of mental retardation, polyphagia with marked
Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants ------> obesity, sexual infantilism.
Hydrocephalus. • RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME:
• DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and Parathyroid • SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME:
Glands) ------> secondary symptoms: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.
o No cell-mediated immunity ------> Frequent • TURNER'S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.
viral and fungal infections o Dwarfism
o Characteristic facial deformities o Webbed neck
• DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental o Valgus of elbow.
retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon o Amenorrhea
crease in hand. • WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in
• FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper -----
hypoplasia ------> refractory anemia, pancytopenia. -> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular
• EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME: Congenital
degeneration.
defect in collagen.
o Hyper-elasticity and friability of the skin.
o Hyperextensibility of the joints. ENDOCRINE, REPRODUCTIVE
• FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal
malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial • AMENNORRHEA-GALACTORRHEA
anomalies, limb defects. SYNDROME: Non-physiologic lactation,
• GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies resulting from endocrinologic causes or from a
against basement membranes ------> pituitary disorder.
Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs). • CONN'S SYNDROME: Primary
o Often, death by renal failure Hyperaldosteronism ------> muscular weakness,
• KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY --- hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.
---> testicular atrophy, increase in gonadotropins in • CUSHING'S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of
urine. cortisol ------> secondary symptoms and
• KLIPPEL-FEIL SYNDROME: characteristics:
o Cervical vertebrate fused o Fatness of face and trunk with wasting
o Congenital short neck, limited neck rotation of extremities
o Abnormalities of the brainstem and o Buffalo hump
cerebellum o Bone decalacification
o Low hairline. o Corticoid diabetes
• LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of o Hypertension
HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho- • PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME: Abnormal
ribosyltransferase ------> sensation in breasts, abdominal pain, thirst,
o Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones headache, pelvic congestion, nervous irritability.
o Choreoathetosis o Ocassionally nausea and vomiting.

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• SHEEHAN'S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary o Headache, fever, malaise.
necrosis ------> hypopituitarism. • TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by
• STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME: Polycystic superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph
ovary ------> infertility, amenorrhea, hirsutism. Seen Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin
in obese women. TSST ------> systemic anaphylaxis.
• TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION SYNDROME: o Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
Insensitivity to Testosterone. Male o Red rash followed by desquamation
Psuedohermaphroditism • WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON
o Complete female external genatalia, SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ------
incompletely developed vagina, rudimentary > DIC, hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ----
uterus. --> fulminant adrenal failure.
o Vomiting, diarrhea.
PULMONARY o Shock
o Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory
collapse.
• KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus
(lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from chronic
sinusitis and bronchiectasis. RENAL
• HAMMAN-RICH SYNDROME: Interstitial fibrosis
of the lung. • KEMMELSTIEL-WILSON SYNDROME:
• MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis.
pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right • BARTTER'S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular
lung. Cell Hyperplasia ------> secondary symptoms:
• CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic o Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic
Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia. Alkalosis, elevated renin and
angiotensin
INFECTIOUS o No hypertension.
o Compare to Conn's Syndrome
• FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type II: Renal
• FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS SYNDROME: Gonococcal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia,
Periphepatitis in woman, as a complication of cysteine deposition, rickets.
Gonorrhea. • THORN'S SYNDROME: Salt-losing nephritis.
• GUILLAN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious
Polyneuritis of unknown cause.
• HUNT'S SYNDROME: Herpe's Zoster infection of NEUROLOGICAL
Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate Ganglion ------
> facial palsy. • CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME:
o Zoster of ear Compression of Median Nerve through the
• REYE'S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and Carpal Tunnel ------> pain and parasthesia over
seizures in kids, after a viral infection treated by distribution of Median N.
aspirin. • FROIN'S SYNDROME: Block in CSF flow ----
• REITER'S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. --> xanthochromia (yellow discoloration) of
Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post- CSF.
chlamydial. • ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium,
o Urethritis confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in
o Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis) a person that was previously psychologically
o Arthritis normal.
o Skin lesions like karatoderma • GERSTMANN'S SYNDROME: Lesion
blenorrhagicum between occipital area and angular gyrus ------>
o Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis. symptoms:
• SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic o Finger agnosia, Agraphia, acalculia
epidermal necrolysis. o Right-left disorientation
• STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema • HORNER'S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of
Multiforme complication. cervical sympathetic ganglion ------>
o Large areas of skin slough, including mouth o Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
and anogenital membranes. o Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)
o Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis,
conjunctivitis.

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• KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term UNCATEGORIZED
memory in chronic alcoholism, caused by
degeneration of mamillary bodies. • YELLOW-NAIL SYNDROME: Stop growth
• RILEY-DAY SYNDROME: Familial dysautonomia. of nails ------> increased convexity, thickening,
and yellowing of nails.
GASTROINTESTINAL o Found in Lymphedema, bronchitis,
chronic bronchiectasis.
• MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of • COSTOCHONDRAL SYNDROME: Pain in
lower end of esophagus from vomiting ------> chest with tenderness over one or more
hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics. costochondral junctions.
• MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired o Similar to Tietze's Syndrome but no
absorption of dietary substance ------> diarrhea, specific inflammation.
weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific • TIETZE'S SYNDROME: Costochondritis.
deficiencies. Swelling and tenderness of the costal cartilege.
• BARRET SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the • MIKULICZ'S SYNDROME: Salivary and
lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia of lacrimal enlargement as seen in several diseases:
esophageal columnar epithelium ------> squamous o Sarcoidosis
epithelium. o Tuberculosis
• ZOLLINGER-ELLISOHN SYNDROME: Gastrin- o Leukemia
secreting tumor in pancreas ------> Severe peptic • MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME: Malingering -
ulcers, gastric hyperacidity. - fabrication of a clinically convincing disease by
• PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal an itinerant malingerer.
Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of papillae of • PICKWICKIAN SYNDROME: Symptom
tongue. cluster
o Also see hypochromic anemia, o Obesity
splenomegaly. o Hypoventilation
o Somnolence
o Erythrocytosis
RETICULOENDOTHELIAL, HEMATOLOGIC • RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME: Need to
stretch legs at night before going to sleep; twitch
• BANTI'S SYNDROME: Chronic Congestive in legs causing insomnia.
Splenomegaly with anemia, caused by either Portal • STRAIGHT BACK SYNDROME: Loss of
Hypertension or Splenic Vein Thrombosis. normal kyphosis of thoracic spine ------>
• BUD-CHIARI SYNDROME: o Straight spine
o ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ------> o Ejection murmur
Massive ascites and dramatic death. o Widened cardiac silouhette on x-ray
o CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal • SJÖGREN'S SYNDROME: Autoimmune
hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, complex
ulimately death. o Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and
• DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in mouth)
excretion of conjugated bilirubin ------> recurrent o Dryness of Mucous membranes
mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood. o Telangiectasias in face
• CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities o Parotid enlargement
in leukocytes with large inclusions.

• CRUVEILHIER-BAUMGARTEN SYNDROME:
Symptoms cluster:
o Liver cirrhosis
o Caput Medussae
o Venous hum and thrill
• FELTY'S SYNDROME: Rheumatoid Arthritis with
splenomegaly, leukopenia, anemia, and
thrombocytopenia.
• LOFFLER'S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with
transient infiltrates in lungs.

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