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PRACTICAL COURSE IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR - PART II-

1st YEAR STUDENTS

AUTHOR: Maria-Anca MAICAN

Braov, 2011

Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................4 UNIT ONE........................................................................................................................6 I.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................6 I.2. Competences ...................................................................................................6 I.3.1. Personal Pronouns ........................................................................................6 I.3.2. Relative Pronouns ........................................................................................7 I.3.3. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................................................8 I.3.4. Possessive Pronouns ....................................................................................8 I.3.5. Reflexive Pronouns .....................................................................................9 I.3.6. Demonstrative Pronouns ...........................................................................10 I.4. Exercises .......................................................................................................10 I.5. End of unit test .............................................................................................12 UNIT TWO. ....................................................................................................................14 II.1. Introduction..................................................................................................14 II.2. Competences ................................................................................................14 II.3.1. The Cardinal Numeral ..............................................................................14 II.3.2. The Ordinal Numeral ................................................................................15 II.3.3. Other Types of Numerals .........................................................................16 II.4. Exercises ......................................................................................................17 II.5. End of unit test .............................................................................................18 UNIT THREE. ................................................................................................................20 III.1. Introduction ................................................................................................20 III.2. Competences...............................................................................................20 III.3.1. Definition ................................................................................................20 III.3.2. Classification of adverbs in point of meaning .........................................21 III.3.3. Classification of adverbs in point of form ...............................................21 III.3.4. Spelling ...................................................................................................21 III.3.5. Degrees of comparison ...........................................................................22 III.3.6. Position of adverbs .................................................................................23 III.4. Exercises ....................................................................................................25 III.5. End of unit test............................................................................................27 UNIT FOUR. ..............................................................................................................29 IV.1. Introduction ................................................................................................29 IV.2. Competences ..............................................................................................29 IV.3.1. Characteristics .........................................................................................29 IV.3.2. Specific usage of modal verbs ................................................................30 IV.4. Exercises ....................................................................................................32 IV.5. End of unit test ..........................................................................................34 UNIT FIVE. ....................................................................................................................37 V.1. Introduction..................................................................................................37 V.2. Competences................................................................................................37 V.3.1. Conditional Types.....................................................................................37 V.3.2. Conjunctions of Condition........................................................................38 V.3.3. Mixed Conditionals ..................................................................................38 V.4. Exercises .....................................................................................................39 V.5. End of unit test ............................................................................................42 UNIT SIX........................................................................................................................44 VI.1. Introduction ................................................................................................44 2

VI.2. Competences ..............................................................................................44 VI.3.1. Definition and use ...................................................................................44 VI.3.2. Form .......................................................................................................45 VI.3.3. The Agent ................................................................................................46 VI.3.4. The Object ...............................................................................................46 VI.3.5.Verbs with limited use in the passive ......................................................46 VI.3.6. Impersonal passive constructions............................................................47 VI.4. Exercises ....................................................................................................48 VI.5. End of unit test ..........................................................................................49 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................................52

Introduction
The Practical Course in English Grammar Part II attempts at revising and consolidating essential grammar at intermediate level, which have not been addressed in the first part of the course. It also providing opportunities for students to practice grammar structures and assess themselves. To this end, each unit includes a theoretical part which synthesizes essential information from outstanding books in English morphology, followed by a wide range of exercises. The exercises are designed so as for students to be able to solve them both individually and in pairs, during the tutorials. The course also comprises regular tests, at the end of each unit, which give students the possibility to check their knowledge. The grammatical information provided in the course can be used for reference when needed or worked through systematically.

Course objectives The aim of this course is to provide students with comprehensive grammar structures linked to the following areas: the pronoun, the adverb, the numeral, modal verbs, conditional clauses and passive voice. At the end of this course, the distance-learning students will be able to: Operate with a wide range of new grammar structures; Use language accurately; Identify the appropriate form of the parts of speech required; Compare and contrast English and Romanian morphological systems.

Resources Apart from the printed material, the course also requires the use of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. Areas from the course which might be found problematic can be further studied using the bibliography provided by the tutor.

Course structure The course is structured in 6 units, each of them including objectives, a theoretical part with examples, followed by exercise and an end of unit test.

Preliminary requirements Being designed at intermediate level, the course requires students to have knowledge of English at pre-intermediate level.

The average time for individual study Each unit of this course requires no more than 4-5 hours of individual study.

Assessment At the end of the semester, each student will receive a grade which will reflect the results of a written test meant to assess the students acquired knowledge (70% of the final grade) and students activity during the tutorials (30% of the final grade).

UNIT ONE. THE PRONOUN


Content I.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................6 I.2. Competences ...................................................................................................6 I.3.1. Personal Pronouns ........................................................................................6 I.3.2. Relative Pronouns ........................................................................................7 I.3.3. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................................................8 I.3.4. Possessive Pronouns ....................................................................................8 I.3.5. Reflexive Pronouns .....................................................................................9 I.3.6. Demonstrative Pronouns ...........................................................................10 I.4. Exercises .......................................................................................................10 I.5. End of unit test .............................................................................................12

I.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding the category of noun in English.

I.2. Competences On completion of UNIT ONE, students will be able to specify the noun classes in English and form the plural and possessive case of English nouns correctly.

Study time for UNIT ONE: 4-5 hours.

I.3.1. Personal Pronouns Personal Subject Pronouns refer to the person who is doing the action of the verb or the verb speaks about. A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. 1 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
st

Person

Subject form I you he/ she/ it we you they

Object form me you him/ her/ it us you them

Singular

Plural

Use:

It is used in the following situations:

o to refer to a thing or an animal: I dont like that cat. It looks aggressive. o to refer to a baby or small child: Mary is having her 2nd baby. Its going to be a girl. o in expressions of time, distance, temperature, weather: Its 10 pm./ Its 100kn to Leeds./ Its 10 degrees today./ Its quite windy. o with impersonal verbs: It seems that everybody is here. o followed by adjectives: it is advisable/ recommended/ compulsory etc. Personal Object Pronouns to refer to the person whom the action of the verbs affects. An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase.

EXAMPLE I like coffee. Do you like coffee? He runs fast. She is clever. John helped me. It doesn't work. We are happy. You are our friends. They are students.

John helps me. Did you see him? Does Mary know her? Can the engineer repair it? He has just seen us. They want you to arrive in time. You should call them.

I.3.2. Relative Pronouns Are pronouns that introduce a relative clause and have reference to an antecedent. Pronoun 1. WHO 2. WHOSE 3. WHOM Use - replaces a subject noun for a person. - indicates possession both for people and things, but of which would be more common in the latter case. - is the object form of who; - replaces an object noun for a person, with or without preposition - replaces a subject/ object noun for things only. - replaces a subject/ object noun for things a person (informal); - replaces a subject/ object noun for a person in everyday speech.

4. WHICH 5. THAT

EXAMPLE The woman who called you is my friend. The woman that called you is my friend. (informal) The woman whom you called is my friend.

The woman that you called is my friend (informal). The car which/ that hit me was yellow. The artist whose painting you admire is from our country. The student whose phone just rang should stand up. Omission of relative pronouns: Relative pronouns can be left out in object defining relative clauses (i.e. they give important information which tells us exactly what is being referred to):

EXAMPLE The book which you lent me is really good./ The book you lent me. The person whom I talked to was Mary./ The person I talked to was Mary. BUT The book, which I havent read, was still on the shelf. (Non-defining relative clause, so the relative pronoun cannot be omitted). I.3.3. Interrogative Pronouns Are pronouns used to ask questions. Pronoun 1. WHO 2. WHOSE 3. WHOM 4. WHICH Use always used to refer to people always used to refer to possession always used to refer to people; appears in object position with or without preposition can have both personal and non-personal reference, if used as determiners (it implies a selection from a limited group) can have both personal and non-personal reference, if used as determiners.

5. WHAT

EXAMPLE Who is the head of this department? Whom should I speak to so as to solve the problem? Whom did you phone? Who/ which is your favourite writer? What/ which music do you like? What can I do for you? What time is it? Whose is this book? Whose car did you drive here? I.3.4. Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Possessive adjectives are usually used to describe a noun, being placed before it, like other adjectives. Possessive pronouns show ownership, without being followed by nouns; 8

Personal pronoun I You He She It We You They Use:

Possessive adjective My Your His Her Its Our Your Their

Possessive Pronoun mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

Possessive adjectives/ pronouns have specific forms according to the number of owners, but disregards the number of possessed objects: my pen/ pens; my pen/ our pen; Possessive adjectives are also used with parts of the body.

EXAMPLE I finished all my homework in time. The mistake was mine./ It was my mistake. Julys car is big./ Her car is big./ Her cars are big. She changed her mind. I.3.5. Reflexive Pronouns Indicate that the action of the verb is undergone by the doer (the object of a sentence is the same as the subject); I You He She It We You They Use: myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

with verbs such as: hurt, consider, ask, pride, care etc. as the object of a preposition, when the subject and the object are the same; to emphasize the subject. sometimes are omitted.

EXAMPLE He has just hurt himself. I bought a present for myself. He saw all this himself. He washed (himself) and left. I.3.6. Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives Demonstrative pronouns replace nouns, nominal groups, sentences etc., the substitution characterizing them in point of space or time. Demonstrative adjectives are used to specify a particular instance or set of instances of a noun. Near Singular Plural THIS THESE Far THAT THOSE

EXAMPLE This wine tastes good. Have you seen this movie? These are bad times. Do you like these pictures? That is a beautiful scenery. Look at that boy!

Those were the days! Can you see those people? This problem is heavier than that one. These boxes are bigger than those.

I.4. EXERCISES

I.4.1. Choose the most suitable answer: 1. The teacher usually gives students a lot of homework: a. me; b. them; c. you. 2. Hes reading a story to his little sister. a. me; b. her; c. them. 3. The boys are riding their bikes. a. it; b. them; c. its. 4. My mother is writing a letter to John. a. him; b. her; c. it. 5. I dont know the answer. a. it; b. its; c. him. 6. Sally is going to Mary. a. her; b. him; c. me.

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7. Open the window, please. a. it; b. them; c. us. 8. Can you tell the people the way to the airport? a. you; b. them; c. us. 9. is the girl in the blue dress? a. who; b. whom; c. which 10. . is the name of the team in red? a. what; b. which; c. whom. I.4.2. Fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun: 1. I talked to the boy car had broken down at the corner of the street. 2. Mr. Nelson, ..is a teacher, lives next door. 3. They often visit their aunt lives in Scotland. 4. This is a student name I cannot remember. 5. Thats John, the boy I have known since he was a little baby. 6. Thank you very much for the book you lent to me. 7. .is the capital in England? 8. .city do you like best; London, Paris, Prague or Amsterdam? 9. ..is on in London right now? 10. ..is that guide book? Its not mine. 11. To .did you send that postcard with a picture of Big Ben? 12. Robert painted this T-shirt 13. Lisa did the cake all by .. 14. We helped ..to some brandy at the party. 15. Emma, has your son taken the photo all by ..? 16. The child wrote the letter . 17. For .did Sheila make these cookies? 18. .. of the names did you choose for the puppy? 19. Help with a cake, please. 20. ..was a good example he gave. I.4.3. Complete the sentences with the corresponding possessive pronoun: 1. Your telephone might work, but .doesnt. I couldnt phone anyone. 2. My grammar book is thicker than Marys. Mine is 300 pages long, while ..is 200. 3. The gloves she lost were not . They were mine, unfortunately. 4. Tom, my pencil is broken. May I borrow ..? 5. Your colleagues were wonderful. .just didnt want to hear about this. 6. Kate has eaten her lunch already, but I'm saving until later. 7. You can't have any chocolate! It's . . She will scold you! 8. We gave them our telephone number, and they gave us 9. Its not my dog. Its .. They take care of it. 10. This is my opinion and only I.4.4. Fill in the gaps with the correct reflexive pronouns. 1. I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO . 2. The girl looked at in the mirror. 3. Freddy, you'll have to do your homework . 4. You don't need to help them. They can do it . 5. I introduced .to my new neighbour.

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6. Boys, can you make your beds .? 7. She made ..a pullover. 8. What happens when a fighting fish sees ..in the mirror? 9. The father decided to repair the car .. 10. We can move the table .. I.4.5. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate demonstrative pronoun/ adjective: 1. He can't understand ..problem. Could you help him? 1. 2. Hello, is Rachel speaking. Hello. How are you, Rachel? 2. 3. Hey, Jim, is .your glove? I've just found it on the floor. 3. 4. Look at woman over there. She's a Spanish teacher. 4. 5. Jane, is my friend, Mary. Nice to meet you, Mary. 5. 6. Look at ..painting over there. What fabulous colours! 6. 7. Don't take .mug, it's broken. Take this one. 7. 8. Listen! .awful dog next door is barking again. 8. 9. His uncle, who fought in world war II, told him that in ..days they didn't have enough food. 9. 10. .mountains in the distance are the Alps.

I.5. End of UNIT TEST

I.5.1. Choose the most suitable answer: 1. The books are for Peter. a. her; b. him; c. you. 2. Can you help my sister and I? a. her; b. me; c. us 3. .students completed the assignment? a. who; b. whom; c. whose. 4. .. the highest official in the company? a. whos; b. whose; c. whats. 5. To did Mark lend his video game? a. who; b. whose; c. whom. 6. . of the students do you think was right? a. which; b. who; c. whose. 7. Jim left ......... own notebook in the classroom. a. her; b. his; c. its. 8. The proud parents brought home ......... new baby girl. a. their; b. its; c. our. 9. The computer quickly stores information on ......... huge memory. a. your; b. their; c. its. 10. These warm chocolate chip cookies melt in ......... mouth. a. its; b. your; c. yours. I.5.2. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate pronoun: 1. The man, .. father is a doctor, has just had an operation. 2. The children are shouting in the street are not from our school. 3. The car, ..owner is a young man, is an American one.

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4. What did you do with the money ..your mother gave to you? 5. .is Pamela Anderson? - Shes an American film-star. 6. ...is Tony Blairs address? - Its 10, Downing Street. 7. .way shall we go - to the right or to the left? 8. ...is Madame Tussauds like? 9. ...beach was quite empty last year. 10. ..exhibition will be open until the end of May. 11. ..people come from that hotel over there. 12. What does notice say? 13. ...exhibition closed a month ago. 14. He was dismissed on the 13th. ..night the factory went on fire. 15. Do you see birds at the top of the tree? 16. . are the old classrooms. Those are the new ones. 17. .is my cousin, Jessica. 18. Wasn't .a horrible thing to say? 19. .of the two girls is your desk mate? 20. The girl friends organize the party is Jane.

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UNIT TWO. THE NUMERAL


Content II.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 14 II.2. Competences ........................................................................................................... 14 II.3.1. The Cardinal Numeral ......................................................................................... 14 II.3.2. The Ordinal Numeral ........................................................................................... 15 II.3.3. Other Types of Numerals .................................................................................... 16 II.4. Exercises.................................................................................................................. 17 II.5. End of unit test ........................................................................................................ 18

II.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding the numeral in English.

II.2. Competences On completion of UNIT TWO, students will be able to differentiate between cardinal and ordinal numerals and use them appropriately in given contexts.

Study time for UNIT TWO: 4-5 hours.

II.3.1. CARDINAL NUMERALS Cardinal numerals denominate numbers: 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen

20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 24 twenty-four 25 twenty-five 26 twenty-six 27 twenty-seven 28 twenty-eight 29 twenty-nine 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty

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17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen

90 ninety 100 one hundred 1,000 one thousand 1,000,000 one million 1,000,000,000 one billion

decimals are indicated by , which is read point. After the point, each number is read separately; the zero after the decimal point is usually read nought(BrE), but o and zero(AmE) are also possible.

EXAMPLE 30.234 thirty point two three four 123 789.765 one hundred and twenty three thousand seven hundred and eighty nine point seven six five 0 can be spoken in many different ways: o zero o nought o naught o oh (phone numbers) o nil o love (in tennis). Arithmetic operations are spoken as follows: o addition: 3+3=6 (three plus three equals six/ three and three is six); o subtraction: 3-3=0 (three minus three equals oh/ is oh); o multiplication: 3x3=9 (three multiplied by three equals nine/ is nine); o division: 3:3=1 (three divided by three equals one/ is one); Superscripts are spoken as: e.g. 8 (eight squared); 8 eight cubed/ eight to the power of three.

II.3.2. ORDINAL NUMERALS 1st first 2nd second 3rd third 4th fourth 5th fifth 6th sixth 7th seventh 8th eighth 9th ninth 10th tenth 11th eleventh 12th twelfth 13th thirteenth 14th fourteenth 20th twentieth 21st twenty-first 22nd twenty-second etc. 30th thirtieth 40th fortieth 50th fiftieth 60th sixtieth 70th seventieth 80th eightieth 90th ninetieth 100th hundredth 101st hundred and first 1000th thousandth

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15th fifteenth 16th sixteenth 17th seventeenth 18th eighteenth 19th nineteenth

Ordinal numerals are formed with the suffix th, except for the first three; The article the normally precedes the ordinal numerals: e.g. the second student; The final y at the end of the tens turns into ie; When written in figures the last two letters of the word must be added;

EXAMPLE first= 1st second= 2nd twenty-fifth=25th Titles of kings are written in Roman figures, but are read using ordinal numerals preceded by the:

EXAMPLE Charles V - Charles the Fifth Elisabeth II - Elisabeth the Second Dates are expressed by ordinal numerals and can be written in a variety of ways:

EXAMPLE May 12/ May the 12th /May 12th / 12 May/ 12th of May When writing in words or reading fractions other than (a half) and (a quarter), we use a combination of cardinal and ordinal numerals:

EXAMPLE 1/5 a/one fifth 4/5 four fifths 1/10 a /one tenth 8/10 eight tenths II.3.3. OTHER TYPES OF NUMERALS

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Multiplicative numerals: show the proportion in which a quantity has increased: e.g. double, twofold, threefold, fourfold etc. Distributive numerals indicate the distribution and grouping of objects: e.g. one by one, by twos, by threes Adverbial numerals show how many times the action is performed: e.g. once, twice, there times, thrice, four times etc.

Lets remember... when reading a number made of three or more figures we place and before the word denoting tens or units: e.g. 634 (six hundred and thirty four); the words hundred, thousand, million, billion, dozen do not make the agreement with the plural if preceded by a quantity: e.g. two hundred people; a couple million. But we say hundreds / thousands/ millions/ dozens of people; in telephone numbers, each figure is spoken separately, except for double or treble figures: e.g. 0268 355 499 oh two six eight three double five four double nine.

II.4. EXERCISES II.4.1. Write the following numbers in words: 4, 87, 18, 36, 51, 3, 10, 21, 16, 93, 82, 76, 6, 13, 69, 99, 45, 51, 42, 73, 85 5.000; 700; 13.000; 100.000; 200.000; 600; 500; 3.000; 10.000

EXAMPLE

II.4.2. Read the following dates aloud: 03.05.1965, 18.08.1957, 23.01.1970, 24.12.1943, 18.02.2005, 03.01.2001, 21.03.1884, 31.07.1211

01.11.2000,

29.10.1999,

II.4.3. Translate the following questions and then answer them: 1. Cnd te-ai nscut? 2. n ce an te-ai nscut? 3. Cnd s-a nscut mama ta? 4. n ce an s-a nscut tatl tu? 5. La ce dat a fost proclamat independena Romniei? 6. Cnd a fost proclamat independena Americii? 7. n ce an a descoperit Columb America? 8. n ce an a fost Unirea Principatelor Romne? 9. La ce dat ncepe semestrul de toamn la Duke? 17

10. La ce dat ncep cursurile universitare n Romnia?

II.5. End of UNIT TEST

II.5.1. Choose the correct answer: 1. of people sat quietly in the hall. a. hundred; b. hundreds; c. five hundreds; d. five hundred. 2. Eggs are cheap. I bought a. two dozens; b. two dozen; c. two a dozen; d. two dozens of them. 3. He wrote a ..report. a. five-thousand-word; b. five-thousands-word; c. five-thousand-words; d. five-thousands-words. 4. Next week, we are going to study .. a. Lesson Nine; b. Lesson Ninth; c. Lesson Nineth; d. the nineth lesson. 5. About of the workers are young people. a. third-fifths; b. three-fifth; c. three-fifths; d. third-fifth. 6. About .old people died of the flu last winter. a. two thousand of; b. two thousand; c. two thousands; d. two thousands of. 7. The scientist is in his a. thirties; b. thirtys; c. thirty's; d. thirtieths. 8. "C" is ..letter of the English alphabet. a. a third; b. third; c. the third; d. the third of the. 9. He's been in the United States for .. a. one year and a half; b. one year and half; c. one year and an half; d. one and half years. 10. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days. Today is .day. a. the one hundred fourty-ninth; b. the one hundred forty-nineth; c. one hundred forty ninth; d. the one hundred forty-ninth. 11. Today is a. the twenty-second of July; b. the twenty-two of July; c. twenty-second of the July; d. the twenty-second of the July. 12. The train will stop on . a. the Track Second; b. Track Second; c. Track Two; d. Second Track. 13. More than ..of the teachers in our school are young or middleaged. a. 70 percent; b. 70 percents; c. 70 percentage; d. 70 percentages. 14. Last week I went to that store and bought something useful. a. the second-hand; b. second-hand; c. second hand; d. two-hand. 15. She is the most beautiful of a. us three; b. three us; c. our three; d. we three. II.5.2. Write the following numbers: 12th October 1492 12th April 1961 6th March 1876 8,454 km

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206 822 824 5,895 m 19,888,000 20th July 1969

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UNIT THREE. THE ADVERB


Content III.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................20 III.2. Competences..................................................................................................20 III.3.1. Definition ...................................................................................................20 III.3.2. Classification of adverbs in point of meaning ............................................21 III.3.3. Classification of adverbs in point of form ..................................................21 III.3.4. Spelling ......................................................................................................21 III.3.5. Degrees of comparison ..............................................................................22 III.3.6. Position of adverbs ....................................................................................23 III.4. Exercises .......................................................................................................25 III.5. End of unit test...............................................................................................27

III.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding the category of adjective in English. III.2. Competences On completion of UNIT THREE, students will be able to make up adverbs from given words, form the degrees of comparison both for regular and irregular adverbs and make the difference between the different forms of a given adverb.

Study time for UNIT THREE: 4-5 hours.

III.3.1. DEFINITION Adverbs are usually used with verbs to give more information about the action to say how, where or when it is done, but they can also modify adjectives, other adverbs, and, less frequently, prepositional phrases, pronouns, numerals, nouns or a whole sentence.

EXAMPLE He does not write legibly enough. They always go to school on foot. They wake up early in the morning. She is an extremely intelligent woman. He drives extremely carefully.

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You are completely out of your mind. Nearly everybody participated in the meeting. Over one hundred people have been invited. I had talked to her the day before. Actually, I cannot come. III.3.2. CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS IN POINT OF MEANING According to their meaning one can distinguish several types of adverbs: adverbs of time: e.g. after, afterwards, already, before, lately, early, ever, first, immediately, late, meanwhile, never, rarely, presently, once, since, soon, then, weekly, yet, when, yesterday, tomorrow, today, etc. adverbs of manner: e.g. badly, certainly, easily, fast, kindly, slowly, so, somehow, surely, thus, well, etc. adverbs of place: e.g. above, away, before, behind, between, near, hence, near, far, under, over, outside, upwards, downwards, wherever, anywhere, nowhere, somewhere, everywhere, etc. adverbs of cause, reason, or result: e.g. consequently, hence, for that, for that reason/purpose, on purpose, so, so that, that is why, therefore, etc. concession adverbs: e.g. however, still, yet, etc. adverbs of frequency and repetition: e.g. once, twice, three times, firstly, secondly, thirdly, lastly, again, etc. interrogative adverbs: e.g. how, when, where, why, etc.

III.3.3. CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS IN POINT OF FORM We can distinguish the following types of adverbs: simple adverbs: e.g. just, only, well, back, down, near, often, so, hard compound adverbs: somehow, somewhere, therefore, hereby, nowhere, however, always, outside, sometimes, throughout, meanwhile, midway derivational adverbs with suffix: o ly: oddly, interestingly, slowly, quickly, partly, hourly o wise: clockwise o - ward(s): northward(s) o ways: sideways o style: cowboy-style derivational adverbs with prefix: o aagain, o bebefore, beneath, beyond o totoday, tomorrow, together adverb phrases: after all, at all, at first, at least, at most, in vain, in particular, in full, in fact, not at all, of course, to be sure, upside down, now and then, to and fro, up and down

III.3.4. Spelling Sometimes when we turn adjectives into adverbs, by adding the suffix -ly, there may be spelling variations.

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final -le preceded by a consonant is dropped: probable probably when final -le is preceded by a vowel , silent -e is not dropped: sole solely final -e in adjectives ending in -ue is dropped: due duly, true truly final -l in adjectives ending in -ll is dropped: full fully final -y is turned into -i irrespective of the preceding sound: day daily, merry merrily pretty prettily adjectives ending in -ly such as friendly, lonely, timely, etc. cannot be turned into adverbs by adding the suffix -ly . Therefore they may become be turned into adverbs by adding a word: in a friendly way

III.3.5. DEGREES OF COMPARISON a. Comparative of Equality asas, or so...as in the negative Drive as carefully as you can. My grandfather doesnt understand things so easily as he used to.

b. Comparative of Inferiority lessthan and not so/asas He ran less quickly than expected.

c. Comparative of Superiority and Superlative one syllable adverbs as well as the adverb early form the comparative with -er and the superlative with est:

EXAMPLE near nearer late later early earlier

nearest latest earliest

adverbs ending in -ly as well as the adverb seldom form the comparative with more and the superlative with most:

EXAMPLE cleverly more cleverly nicely more nicely seldom more seldom

most cleverly most nicely most seldom

there are adverbs in English which form the comparative and the superlative irregularly:

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EXAMPLE well badly ill far (fore ) near little much late

better worse farther/further nearer less/lesser more later

best worst farthest/furthest nearest/next least most latest/last

in English, there are special constructions which use the comparative of adverbs:

EXAMPLE I feel cold more and more. We like his attitude less and less. The farther we walk, the later we will be back. III.3.6. POSITION OF ADVERBS Adverbs and adverbial phrases usually go at the end of the sentence, and normally the order is MANNER, PLACE, TIME: They were talking quietly in the garden last night. We can sometimes move one of these adverbs to the beginning of the sentence for emphasis or focus: Last night they were talking quietly in the garden. / In the garden, they were all talking quietly. Not all adverbs can be used in all three positions: initial, mid, end.

Adverbs in initial position: most adverbs of time: Yesterday she worked very hard. Then she came and talked to me. certain adverbs of frequency can also go in initial position: Sometimes I think everything is all right. Occasionally they come and help us. adverbs of place can go in initial position, especially in a descriptive style. She opened the box. Inside was another box. Here comes the winner. Down came the rain. certain adverbs of manner can be used in initial position Slowly they reached the summit. Thus they taught us everything.

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Adverbs in mid position mid-position adverbs go before the verb, but they always go after the verb to be. They often go to the cinema. He was never happy with his job. when a verb has several parts, the most common position is after the first auxiliary verb. I have always liked rock music. in emphatic sentences, many adverbs are placed before the first auxiliary verb. I certainly want to join you.

Adverbs that cannot go in mid position adverbs of place do not normally go in mid-position. They all came here. Everybody went westwards. adverbs of definite time and frequency cannot be placed in mid-position. Only adverbs of indefinite time and frequency can be placed in mid-position. I met her yesterday. Tomorrow I am going to the dentist. He has recently visited the museum of modern arts.

Adverbs in end position adverbs of place can refer to direction ( forward, backward ) or position (in Bucharest) . Adverbs of direction usually come before adverbs of position. When there are two adverbs of position, the larger place is mentioned last. They go to school in Bucharest. Why is he walking around in the living room? They studied in a drama school in New York. Adverbs that cannot go in end-position adverbs which direct our attention to one part of the clause usually go in midposition He was simply trying to be more polite. My attention was particularly caught by the tennis match. adverbs that say how certain something is to happen or to be true cannot normally be placed in end- position. Examples here include: probably, certainly, definitely. You have probably lost your wallet. I definitely saw her last night. adverbs of degree such as nearly, almost, quite, hardly, scarcely cannot be placed in end-position. Mid-position is normal for them. I can hardly distinguish the letters on that board. I nearly finished the project.

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Lets remember... there are adverbs whose form coincides with that of adjectives: first, low, daily, weekly, friendly, deadly, likely, lively certain adverbs have two forms, sometimes with different meanings: one ending in -ly and one which looks like an adjective: right/ rightly, wrong/ wrongly, har/ hardly, easy/ easily, late/ lately, direct/ directly.

EXAMPLE He had a friendly attitude. They talked to us in a friendly way. Try and do it right this time. It is not easy at all, as you have rightly said. You guessed wrong. I wrongly believed that you wanted to help me. Come close; I want to tell you something. Please study this file closely; it is very important. You dont need to get angry; take it easy. I found my way back very easily. He came too late. I havent seen them lately. We are flying direct. I can explain you directly. You should always aim high. He is highly thought of. It was raining hard. It hardly matters anymore.

III.4. EXERCISES

III.4.1. Fill in the gaps either with an adjective or an adverb, starting from the word given:

EXAMPLE Peter works .(slow)./ Peter works slowly. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He reads the newspaper .every morning. (quick) Mary is a very ..person. (nice) This class is .loud today. (terrible) Max is an ..good singer. (extreme) One can ..open a bottle using this device. (easy) Its a ..day today. (wonderful) She sang the song .. (beautiful) 25

8. He is always a ..driver. (careful) 9. He drives the car ..(careful). 10. The dog barks ..(loud). III.4.2. Rewrite the complete sentence using the word in brackets: 1. He listens to the radio. (often) 2. They read a book. (sometimes) 3. Pete gets angry. (never) 4. Tom is very friendly. (usually) 5. I take sugar in my coffee. (sometimes) 6. Ramon and Frank are hungry. (often) 7. My grandmother goes for a walk in the evening. (always) 8. Walter helps his father in the kitchen. (usually) 9. They watch TV in the afternoon. (never) 10. Christine smokes. (never) 11. I visited him when he was in England. (often) 12. We'll go and see her. (tomorrow) 13. You should speak loud for everybody to hear you.(enough) 14. I go to Spain. (rarely) 15. He writes to me. (seldom) 16. I like English. (very much) 17. I'd accept it if he wanted to help me. (perhaps) 18. You come back home late. (always) 19. I think you're wrong. (really) 20. You like going to the cinema, don't you? (usually) 21. I'll interview candidates in this office tomorrow. (very carefully) 22. I speak to him, how could I know that? (never) 23. I had arrived when I realized that he was ill. (hardly) 24. Don't do that stupid thing. (again) 25. I'll phone him. (immediately) III.4.3. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adverb: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I speak English now than last year. (fluent) She greeted me of all. (polite) She smiled than before. (happy) This girl dances .of all. (graceful) Could you write ? (clear) Planes can fly .than birds. (high) He had an accident last year. Now, he drives .than before. (careful) 8. Jim can run .than John. (fast) 9. Our team played of all. (bad) 10. He worked .than ever before. (hard)

III.4.4. Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb. 1. Joanne is happy. She smiles . 2. The boy is loud. He shouts .. 3. Her English is fluent. She speaks English ..

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Our mum was angry. She spoke to us . My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives . The painter is awful. He paints . Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano . This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house . 9. She is a good dancer. She dances really .. 10. This exercise is simple. You ..have to put one word in each space.

III.5. End of UNIT TEST

III.5.1. Fill in the gaps either with an adjective or an adverb, starting from the word given: 1. The bus driver was .injured. (serious) 2. Kevin is .clever. (extreme) 3. This hamburger tastes ..(awful) 4. Be ..with this glass of milk. It's hot. (careful) 5. Robin looks ..What's the matter with him? (sad) 6. Jack is upset about losing his keys. (terrible) 7. This steak smells.. ..(good) 8. Our basketball team played last Friday. (bad) 9. Don't speak so .I can't understand you. (fast) 10. Maria .opened her present. (slow) 11. Its ..cold today, considering its still summer. (usual) 12. Actually I found Tonys book was .interesting. (surprise) 13. ., my father used to go to school with your father. (interest) 14. The police managed .to find the missing children. (success) 15. Her compositions are always ..written. (nice) 16. I am .ashamed of your behaviour. (thorough) 17. Mike tried to phone Cathy several times. (success) 18. These instructions seem .complicated. (necessary) 19. Someone had ..left the front door open. (obvious) 20. This question is .difficult, isnt it? (awful) III.5.2. Rewrite the complete sentence using the word in brackets: 1. Have you been to London? (ever) 2. Peter doesn't get up before seven. (usually) 3. Our friends must write tests. (often) 4. They go swimming in the lake. (sometimes) 5. The weather is bad in November. (always) 6. Peggy and Frank are late. (usually) 7. I have met him before. (never) 8. John watches TV. (seldom) 9. I was in contact with my sister. (often) 10. She will love him. (always) 27

III.5.3. Correct the following sentences if necessary: 1. Im tired because I have been working hard. 2. I tried hard to remember her name, but I couldnt. 3. This coat is practically unused. Ive hardly worn it. 4. Mary is a good tennis player. She hits the ball hardly. 5. Dont walk so fast. I cant keep up with you. 6. I had plenty of time, so I was walking slow.

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UNIT FOUR. MODAL VERBS


Content IV.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................29 IV.2. Competences ..........................................................................................................29 IV.3.1. Characteristics .....................................................................................................29 IV.3.2. Specific usage of modal verbs ............................................................................30 IV.4. Exercises ................................................................................................................32 IV.5. End of unit test ......................................................................................................34

IV.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding Present Tenses in English. IV.2. Competences On completion of UNIT FOUR, students will be able to use modal verbs appropriately, to making a clear difference between the type of action expressed by each modal verb.

Study time for UNIT FOUR: 4-5 hours.

IV.3.1. CHARACTERISTICS MODAL VERBS: CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD, MUST Characteristics Examples 1. are not followed or preceded by to, She can dance very well. except for ought, which is followed by to; 2. have the same form for all persons and I should go./ She should go. tenses; 3. the construction modal verb + perfect He must have arrived earlier. infinitive describes an event, activity or situation that may/may not have happened in the past; 4. some modal verbs have another modal I can speak English. She said she could verb counterpart for the past: can could, speak English.

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may/ might, shall/ should, will/ would; 5. in questions, the modal verb comes before the subject; 6. form the negative by adding not after the modal verb; 7. can/ may/ must have corresponding paraphrases.

Shall I help you? You should not panic. You can sing./ You are able to sing. You may go./ You are allowed to go. You must wait./ You have to wait.

IV.3.2. SPECIFIC USAGE OF MODAL VERBS MODAL VERB 1. WILL USAGE - to construct the Future Tense of regular and irregular verbs; - to show that a decision has been made; - to construct the Future Tense of regular and irregular verbs, for the 1st person singular and plural; - to make a suggestion/offer in the form of a question - equivalent with to be able to; - to describe ability/willingness to do something now; - to ask for permission; - to express perception with certain verbs; - CANT + HAVE is used to make deductions about past actions. - to describe ability/willingness to do something in the past; - to express perception in the past with certain verbs; - COULD+ HAVE expresses possibility or uncertainty about past actions. -equivalent with to be allowed to/ to be permitted to; - to express a possibility/make a suggestion at the present time or in the future; - to give/ask for permission; - MAY + HAVE expresses possibility or uncertainty about past actions. - to express a possibility/make a 30 EXAMPLE They will visit our country next year. I will repair the roof immediately. I shall take this into account by all means.

2. SHALL

Shall I help you? Bill can drive a car very well. Can Mary use your computer, this evening? He can hear the music. Jim cant have noticed you.

3. CAN

4. COULD

My parents could play golf twenty years ago. He could hear the music. You could have been hurt!

5. MAY

If you return tomorrow, you may see Mr Smith. May I use your pen? He may not have received the letter.

6. MIGHT

You might catch the train if

7. MUST

8. WOULD

suggestion at the present time or in the future; might suggests less certainty than may; - MIGHT + HAVE expresses possibility or uncertainty about past actions. - equivalent with to have to; - to explain obligation or necessity where there is no choice; - to assume knowledge of a fact or information; - MUST + HAVE is used to make deductions about past actions. - to describe or talk about a situation/activity that is imagined or thought about; - to ask for or supply factual information; - to issue or accept an invitation

you hurry up.

She might have missed the train. You must buy a ticket to use the train. Martin must like his job, he has worked in that office for ten years. I must have left my wallet in the car. I would like to visit Canada soon. Would you please tell me the price of a ticket to the museum. Would you like to come to New York with me? You should see a doctor. I think Brian should look f a job now. You should have helped him yesterday.

9. SHOULD

10. OUGHT TO

11. NEED TO

- to express suggestion/ advice; - to express thoughts and personal opinions aloud; - SHOULD + HAVE expresses the speakers feeling that a mistake has been made. to advise or make You ought to stop smoking. recommendations, involving the idea that something is deserved or a moral obligation. - loses to in the negative, in the You ought not take such risks informal style. when the children are with you. - to express necessity. It can I neednt buy all that stuff also be used as non-modal verb: now. when used as a modal verb, it is I dont need to buy all that followed by the short infinitive. stuff now. When used as a full verb, it takes a long infinitive. - in the negative, it expresses the lack of obligation. You neednt hurry up.

EXAMPLE He can speak English. = He is able to speak English.

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Can he speak English? = Is he able to speak English? He cannot/ cant speak English. = He is not able to speak English. You may go. = You are allowed to go. May I go? = Am I allowed to go? You may not go. = You are not allowed to go. You must hurry up. = You have to hurry up. Must you hurry up? = Do you have to hurry up? You neednt hurry up. = You dont have to hurry up. Lets remember... in the structure MODAL VERB + HAVE + V3, the verb HAVE never changes its form; with a first person subject, must involves self-obligation, whereas have to involves obligation by external forces; negative obligation is expressed by means of must not, while for the lack of obligation we use neednt/ dont have to.

IV.4. EXERCISES IV.4.1. Complete each sentence with one verb: can could may might should ought to shall will

EXAMPLE 1. could 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. It is said that he ..read at the age of three. You ..take a pullover in case it gets cold. It's going to rain all afternoon. we visit our friends? Scott ..be 21 at the end of the year. Julie said they traffic was heavy, so she ..be late for the meeting. You look a bit confused. . I help you? You were so rude. You ..be ashamed of yourself! I don't know the meaning of this word. I borrow your dictionary? 9. Jane is in hospital. You ..visit her. 10. I can see you have a lot of luggage. .I help you? 11. However angry you are, you never talk to people like that. 12. This report is urgent you . finish it by four oclock. 13. . I help you with the report? 14. John have gone home, his PC is still on! 15. You .. have checked the data, I did it yesterday. 32

16. Something bad . have happened to Joan, she has never been late like this. 17. You .. have deleted the file, you need it later. 18. The secretary have already left, but I am not sure. Check her office. 19. ..you be so kind as to help me? 20. We all visit our friends when in need.

IV.4.2. Choose the most suitable answer:

EXAMPLE 1. d 1. Youtold them that! I asked you to keep quiet! a. mustn't have; b. mightn't have; c. wouldn't have; d. shouldn't have. 2. He..it; he was with me all the time. a. cant have done; b. mightnt have done; c. wont do; d. cant do. 3. It.have been a good idea to asked her before you just jumped in. a. should; b. could; c. may; d. might. 4. I can't imagine what you .to do something so stupid. a. can have thought; b. couldnt have thought; c. could have thought; d. may not have thinking. 5. you have left the keys in the car? a. may; b. could; c. must; d. mustnt. 6. You ..have helped me a little more - you weren't doing a. may; b. could; c. must; d. can. 7. I say this much for him: he's very generous. a. might; b. will; c. may; d. could. 8. You .have posted my letters for me while you were in the post office. a. mustnt; b. might; c. can; d. wont 9. He.., though I warned him not to. a. would go; b. must go; c. can have gone; d. would have gone. 10. Well, you ..have sold him the car if you didn't think he would pay you. a. cant; b. may not; c. mustnt; d. should not. 11. That house is too expensive for us. We ..it. a. shouldnt buy; b. shouldnt have bought; c. dont have to buy; d. can buy. 12. The police officer says that the injured victims of the car crash.. be removed before the ambulance arrives. a. neednt; b. havent to; c. couldnt; d. mustnt. 13. There was an explosion in the coal mine but all colliers ..escape. a. could; b. can; c. couldnt; d. may not. 14. Jean looked really sad after Jimmy had turned her down. She .be still in love with him. a. can; b. mustnt; c. may not; d. should. 15. Yesterday Tony Blair defended an intervention in Iraq. He ..it.

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a. must have done; b. mustnt have done; c. shouldnt have done; d. shouldnt do. 16. My baby has a skin infection. The doctor says that .give him a bath. a. mustnt; b. couldnt; c. would; d. shall. 17. Even for a great champion like Roger de Vlaeminck winning Paris-Roubaix four times wasn't a piece of cake but at last he do it. a. was able to; b. must; c. may; d. was to. 18. Mrs. Wilson is suspected of having strangled her husband despite her age and blindness. She him. a. cant have killed; b. must have killed; c. should have killed; d. could kill. 19. Our teacher says that this novel has an incredible plot. Therefore we.read it. a. may not; b. cant; d. should; d. may. IV.4.3. Put the following sentences in the past and future:

EXAMPLE 1. I had to begin./ I will have to begin.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I must begin. You dont have to come. You cant mean it. You should help me. The data must be wrong. I cant speak German. We may use calculators at the exam. You may be right. I can carry the bag for you. You must listen to your parents.

IV.5. End of UNIT TEST

IV.5.1. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate modal verb: 1. You run faster if you weren't so lazy. 2. It's too cold. I ..close the window. 3. He be friendly, but he is usually unfriendly. 4. We ..watch TV so much. 5. You leave the class before 1 o'clock. 6. Stop smoking! You really not smoke. 7. We not climb those mountains when we were kids. 8. I have no time. I .leave now. My parents are waiting for me. 9. You failed in your final test. You .have studied harder. 10. Sami lift that heavy table. He is too weak. 11. You .. have connected these two wires. Its so dangerous. 12. The dog is barking because it .have heard something. 13. I didnt take any risk, so I ..have been injured.

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14. Sorry I have forgotten your birthday. I ..have looked in my notebook. 15. He told us he ..be there tomorrow. 16. David have taken your books by mistake. 17. You are an adult. You ..have done it. 18. Lets end the conversation now. I go. 19. It be a good idea to take a holiday. 20. She looks great! She be over 40. IV.5.2. Fill in the gaps with one of the following modal verbs: can could have to must might should

1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be exhausted after such a long flight. He ..prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest. 2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you ..walk downtown and explore the waterfront. 3. Hiking the trail to the peak ..be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You .research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent. 4. When you have a small child in the house, you leave small objects lying around. Such objects .be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death. 5. Dave: ..you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No, I can't. 6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It .have cost a fortune. 7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they .die. 8. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I just say a few things in the language. 9. The book is optional. My professor said we .read it if we needed extra credit. But we .read it if we don't want to. 10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It ..be in there. That's the only other place it ..be. 11. You ..take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said there's a storm north of here and it .rain later on this afternoon. 12. we pull over at the next rest stop? I really ..use the bathroom and I don't know if I .hold it until we get to Chicago. 13. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He ..have left it here last night.

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14. Ned: ..I borrow your lighter for a minute? Stephen: Sure, no problem. Actually, you keep it if you want to. I've given up smoking. 15. I ..believe she said that to Megan! She insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. She have just said she was full or had some salad if she didn't like the meal. 16. Do you ..chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. 17. Mrs. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer be someone in this room. It ..be any one of us! 18. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding. Pamela: It .have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just nervous. After all, the big day is tomorrow. 19. ..you always say the first thing that pops into your head? ..you think once in awhile before you speak? 20. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this room. It be lying around here somewhere. Where it be? be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.

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UNIT FIVE. THE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE


Content V.1. Introduction..................................................................................................37 V.2. Competences................................................................................................37 V.3.1. Conditional Types.....................................................................................37 V.3.2. Conjunctions of Condition........................................................................38 V.3.3. Mixed Conditionals ..................................................................................38 V.4. Exercises .....................................................................................................39 V.5. End of unit test ............................................................................................42

V.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding THE Conditional Clause in the English language.

V.2. Competences On completion of UNIT FIVE, students will be able to differentiate between the three patterns of conditional clauses and use them appropriately in given contexts.

Study time for UNIT FIVE: 4-5 hours.

V.3.1. CONDITIONAL TYPES Type Main Clause IF 0. Describes what always happens or tells people what to do in different situations Present Tense/ Imperative I come if Take a pill I. Describes what someone thinks will happen in a real situation. Future Simple I will come Ill come with you Ill let you know 37 if Subordinate clause

Present Simple I have time. you have a headache.

Present Simple (but also Present Continuous/ Present Perfect) I have time. you are driving.

Ive seen the film. II. Refers to things that might happen in the future or things that you can imagine happening. Present Conditional I would come if Refers to an unreal situation. The time referred to is the past. Perfect Conditional I would have come if

Past Simple I had time.

III.

Past Perfect I had had time.

V.3.2. CONJUNCTIONS OF CONDITION Apart from if, conditional clauses can also begin with: unless means if not and is used to say that something will only happen in certain circumstances. It cannot be used with another negation; if only, imagine, suppose, supposing, provided, as long as, on condition that; if can be omitted; this triggers an inversion in the conditional clause;

EXAMPLE Ill go out for a walk unless it rains. Supposing you saw an alien, what would you do? Provided you leave now, youll catch the train. If I had known the truth, I would have told you.= Had I known the truth, I would have told you. If I were in your shoes, I would help everybody.= Were I in your shoes, I would help everybody. If you friends need help, give it to them.= Should you friends need help, give it to them. V.3.3. MIXED CONDITIONALS Types II and III conditionals can sometimes be mixed. The most frequent combination is that between Type III in the conditional clause and type I in the main clause:

EXAMPLE If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldn't have a headache now. You wouldnt be crying now if you had listened to me.

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Lets remember... we usually use were for all persons in the subordinate clause of Conditional II for the verb to be: e.g. I wouldnt go f I were you. not all if sentences are conditional sentences. In this situation, it is possible to use Future or Conditional after if: e.g. I dont know if he will come or not. it is also possible to use will/ would in conditional clauses in polite requests: e.g. Id be very glad if you would/ will be so kind as to help me. it is also possible to use should in conditional clauses to refer to something that is possible, but still improbable: e.g. Tell him the news if you should come across him.

V.4. EXERCISES V.4.1. Provide the right form for the verb in brackets:

EXEMPLE 1. would 1. If you were rich, you (buy) a house. 2. If you had invited me to the event, I .(accept) with pleasure. 3. Your car will go faster, if you .(use) this type of oil. 4. If I were you, I (stop talking). 5. If you buy two pens, we ..(give) you one free. 6. If we had married, we (be) very happy. 7. If I had enough money, I .(go) to the seaside for my summer holiday. 8. If you look carefully, you (see) all the animals in the park. 9. If you had lent me your car, I (be) delighted. 10. If they . (accept) my invitation, I would b really happy. V.4.2. Fill in the gaps with the right form of the verb: Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off. Give me back my tail, said the mouse. And the cat said, Well, I (give) 1..you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. The mouse, however, went to the cow. The cat (give / only) ..2.me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. And the cow said, Well, I would give you milk if you (get) .3me some hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. The mouse, however, went to the farmer. The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) 4me some milk. And the cow (only / give) 5me milk if I get her some hay. And the farmer said, Well, I would give you hay if you (bring) .6.me some meat. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. The mouse, however, went to the 39

butcher. The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) .7.me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) 8some hay. And the farmer (only / give) .9..me hay if I get him some meat. And the butcher said, Well, I would give you meat if you (make) 10the baker bake me a bread. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. The mouse, however, went to the baker. The cat (give / only) .11.me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. And the cow (give / not) ..12me milk if I don't get her hay. And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcher (have) ..13some meat for him. And the butcher will not give me meat if you (bake / not) ..14.him a bread. And the baker said, Well, I (give) .15.you bread if you promise never to steal my corn or meal. The mouse promised not to steal, and so the baker gave the mouse bread, the mouse gave the butcher bread. The butcher gave the mouse meat, the mouse gave the farmer meat. The farmer gave the mouse hay, the mouse gave the cow hay. The cow gave the mouse milk, the mouse gave the cat milk. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back. But imagine what would have happened otherwise. If the mouse (promised / not) 16never to steal corn or meal, the baker (not/give) 17the mouse bread. If the baker (not / give) ..18.the mouse bread, the butcher (refuse) .19..to give her meat for the farmer. If the butcher (refuse) 20..her any meat, the farmer (not / be) ..21.willing to give the mouse hay. If the farmer (not / be) .22willing to give the mouse hay, the mouse (not / receive) ..23milk from the cow. If the mouse (not / receive) .24..milk from the cow, she (not / get) ..25 back her tail. V.4.3. Provide an appropriate verb for each of the following sentences:

EXEMPLE 1. would be 1. It ..silly if we tried to walk there. 2. I ..the film only if the reviews are good. 3. She'd have taken me to the station if her car .down. 4. If you ., he won't help you. 5. If it yesterday, we would have gone sailing. 6. ..after their dog again if they go on holiday this year? 7. Would you mind if I .your mobile? 8. I .the mail if it had contained a virus. 9. Even if I a wet-suit, I wouldn't go scuba-diving. 10. that strict if you'd known the truth? 11. If I had more time, I .to your party yesterday. 12. Give the book to Jane if you ..it. 13. If you hadn't lost our flight tickets, we .on our way to the Caribbean now. 14. If you dinner right now, I'll come back later.

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15. If we .off earlier, we wouldn't be in this traffic jam now. 16. What would you do if you ..of murder? 17. If I hadn't eaten that much, I so sick now. 18. We would take another route if they ..the road. 19. She only .if she's in a good mood. 20. If she were sensible, she that question, by which she offended him so much. V.4.4. Practice inversion in the following if clauses:

EXEMPLE If Mary should ring, tell her to stay at home./ Should Mary ring, tell her to stay at home. 1. If I were you I would make a little more effort to save some money. Were. 2.If they had known the truth, they wouldnt have been so upset. Had. 3. If you should happen to be in town, call on us. Should... 4. If I were you, Id take up German lessons. Were.. 5. If the tourists need further information, they can ask the receptionist. Should... 6. If the weather is fine, we shall go swimming. Should... 7. If someone had phoned the police earlier, the thief would have been caught. Had 8. If you had been more careful, you wouldnt have lost your credit card. Had... 9. If you had told me about your debt, I could have helped you. Had 10.If you change your mind, well go together to the party. Should.. V.4.5. Rewrite the following sentences using unless: 1. If the students dont write their homework, they will get bad marks. 2. If we dont hurry, well miss the train. 41

3. If I dont take my umbrella, Ill get wet. 4. If it isnt fine tomorrow, we wont go for a ride. 5. If the employer doesnt give him a pay rise, he will resign. 6. If he hadnt got bad news, he wouldnt be so upset. 7. He wouldnt have gone to the party if they hadnt invited him. 8. She could become a famous singer if she took music lessons. 9. They wouldnt invest their money if they werent sure about the profit. 10. I wouldnt have invited you at the cinema if I had seen the film before.

V.5. End of UNIT TEST

V.5.1. Provide the right form for the verbs in brackets: 1. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I'm afraid she is not there because, if she (be) .at the office, she (answer) .the phone. 2. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I'm afraid she is not there because if she (be) .at the office, she (answer) the phone. 3. I want to ring a friend now, but I don't know his phone number. If I (know) ..his phone number, I (ring) .him. 4. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don't know his phone number. If I (know) ..his phone number, I (ring) him. 5. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don't think what she is planning is a good idea. If I (be) you, I (do / not) ..this. 6. A friend tells me what she did. I don't think what she did was a good idea. If I (be) ..you, I (do/ not) .this. 7. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I'm seeing her in town tonight. If Sarah (be) ..in Italy, I (see/ not) her in town tonight. 8. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night. If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see/ not) ..her in town last night. 9. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him you (get/ not) ..the flu if you (eat) ..more fruit. 10. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him You (get/ not) .the flu if you (eat) . more fruit. V.5.2. Consider the following text and then provide the right form of the verbs given: New Orleans was founded by the French. It first had a French name, NouvelleOrlans, in honour of the Duke of Orleans, King of France. The city lies on the river 42

Mississippi and a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi is an unforgettable experience. New Orleans is also an important centre for music, especially for jazz and rhythm and blues. 1. Do you like jazz music? Because if you (like) . jazz, you (love) ..New Orleans. 2. Vanessa hates boat trips. But if she (hate / not) ..boat trips, she (enjoy) a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi. 3. I (do) .a course in jazz dancing if I (have) ..more time. But unfortunately I don't have time. 4. If the founders of the city (hate) .the King of France, they (call / not) ..the place Nouvelle-Orlans in honour of him. V.5.3. Match the two columns: 1. We are only prepared to accept your offer 2. I should be very much obliged.. 3. If there is any way in which we may help 4. If I can be of any further help,.. 5. If you have any suggestion to make,. 6. Had your invitation reached me a little earlier,. 7. If this suggestion meets your approval, 8. If this magazine is of interests to you... 9. If reprints are available, 10. I should be very glad to know a) if you could let me have fell details of b) please do not hesitate to write to us. c) kindly write to us at once. d) I should have been happy to come to your country. e) you will reduce the price. f) I shall appreciate it immediately. g) kindly let us know. h) would you be so kind as to send us a few copies. i) please send back to us the enclosed reader card. j) if you can provide us with information about.

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UNIT SIX. PASSIVE VOICE


Content VI.1. Introduction ................................................................................................44 VI.2. Competences ..............................................................................................44 VI.3.1. Definition and use ...................................................................................44 VI.3.2. Form .......................................................................................................45 VI.3.3. The Agent ................................................................................................46 VI.3.4. The Object ...............................................................................................46 VI.3.5.Verbs with limited use in the passive ......................................................46 VI.3.6. Impersonal passive constructions............................................................47 VI.4. Exercises ....................................................................................................48 VI.5. End of unit test ..........................................................................................49

VI.1. Introduction This unit introduces essential elements regarding the use of the passive voice in English.

VI.2. Competences On completion of UNIT SIX, students will be able to make changes from active into passive constructions and choose the correct voice in a given context.

Study time for UNIT SIX: 4-5 hours.

VI.3.1. DEFINITION AND USE Voice is a grammatical category which makes it possible to view the action of a sentence in two ways without change in the facts reported.

EXAMPLE They have solved the situation./ The situation has been solved. Someone stole my bike./ My bike was stolen.

Passive voice is used: 44

to focus on the action when the agent is either not important, unknown or obvious; The criminal was sentenced to life imprisonment. I was born in 1981. Coffee will be made available before lunch. My nephew has been arrested twice this year. the agent is people or things in general;

to focus on new information by making it the topic of the sentence; Three basic types of stalker have been identified. to make a statement more impersonal and formal by avoiding the use of personal pronouns or vague words; It is generally recognized that smoking is bad for your health. This paper cannot possibly be finished in two hours. (the paper is the problem not our incompetence) to avoid the use of you in orders and rules: All applications must be handed in before the end of the month. in scientific and formal pieces of writing to highlight the objectivity of the discourse The time taken to travel between the units is calculated by the microprocessor. VI.3.2. FORM When rewriting active sentences into passive voice, one should consider the following:

the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped). SUBJECT Mary A letter Mary A letter Mary A letter Mary A letter Mary A letter Mary A letter Mary VERB Writes is written is writing is being written has written has been written Wrote was written was writing was being written had written had been written will write OBJECT a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter.

TENSE Present simple Active Passive Active Present continuous Passive Active Present perfect simple Passive Active Past simple Passive Active Past continuous Passive Active Past perfect simple Passive Future simple Active

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To be going to

Passive Active Passive Active Passive

A letter Mary A letter Mary A letter

Modal verbs

will be written is going to write is going to be written should write should be written

by Mary. a letter. by Mary. a letter. by Mary.

VI.3.3. THE AGENT The agent in a passive sentence is the same person or thing as the subject of an active sentence. It is usually introduced by by. The student learned the lesson well. The lesson was learned well by the student.

EXAMPLE The agent is only expressed when it is important to say who or what something is done by. In most passive sentences there is no agent as we have no interest in who or what performs the action.

EXAMPLE A new mall has just been opened. The car has been damaged again. Im always being blamed for other peoples mistakes. VI.3.4. THE OBJECT There are verbs (give, tell, send, show, lend, get, bring, buy, hand, offer, pay, teach, write) which can be followed by two objects, a Direct Object and an Indirect one. These verbs can have two passive forms because either of the objects can become subjects.

EXAMPLE ( IO) ( DO ) Active = He sent her a letter. Passive = A letter was sent to her. Passive = She was sent a letter. ( DO) ( IO ) Active = They gave the award to a famous actor. Passive = The award was given to a famous actor. Passive = A famous actor was given the award. VI.3.5. VERBS WITH LIMITED USE IN THE PASSIVE

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we cannot use intransitive verbs in the passive because they dont have an object that can be changed into the subject Active = Dinosaurs disappeared many ages ago. *Passive = Dinosaurs were disappeared many ages ago. the verbs to suggest and to explain cannot change the indirect object to subject: Active = We explained him the procedure. Passive = The procedure was explained to him. * Passive = He was explained the procedure.

some verb phrases with two objects cannot be passive at all: Let me wish you the best of luck. The album earned them a fortune. I bear him no ill will. after some verbs, the Direct Object can be followed by a noun or adjective which describes the object: Active = They elected him President. Passive = He was elected President. Active = We considered him a genius. Passive = He was considered a genius. VI.3.6. IMPERSONAL PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS After verbs referring to mental processes, such as think, say, believe, feel, presume, understand, know or reporting verbs , such as claim, mention, request, point out, rumour the passive can be formed in two ways: a) It + passive verb + that Clause b) Subject + passive verb + Present/Perfect Infinitive. The latter construction is generally used in written English. It is often used in newspaper reports to avoid mentioning the source of the information. Consider the following examples:

EXAMPLE It is believed that the elections have been forged. The elections are believed to have been forged. It is thought that they have left the country. They are thought to have left the country. It is considered that he is a very dangerous man. He is considered to be a very dangerous man. It is said that exercising improves physical health.

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Lets remember... In spoken English we sometimes use the verb to get instead of to be in he passive: e.g. They got punished for making too much noise. Note that Present perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous are not used in the passive voice; passive forms can be used for Present infinitive, perfect infinitive, present gerund, perfect gerund; e.g. He wants to be taken seriously all the time. He was pleased to have been awarded the first prize. I enjoy being given flowers. Having been informed, she can now consider the matter.

VI.4. EXERCISES

VI.4.1. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice: 1. Sheila is drinking a cup of tea. 2. My father is washing the car. 3. Farmer Joe is milking the cows. 4. She is taking a picture of him. 5. I am writing a poem. 6. We are not playing football. 7. He is not wearing a tie. 8. Is she preparing the party? 9. Are they talking about the meeting? 10. Is she watering the flowers? VI.4.2. Choose the most suitable tense: Mickey Mouse (1) is born/was born on Walt Disneys sketchpad in March 1928. The first cartoon, Plane Crazy, (2) was premiered/premiered two month later on Sunset Boulevard. It was on November 1928 that Mickey Mouse (3) has officially born/was officially born. He (4) is featured/was featured/had been featured in Steamboat Willie, a film that (5) had been screened/is being screened/was screened at the Colony Theatre in New York and (6) was first animated/had been first animated/will be first animated movie to use syncronised sound. Minnie Mouse, Mickeys girlfriend, (7) was also featured/will be also featured/is being also featured. The now familiar falsetto voice of Mickey (8) has been provided/is provided/was provided by Walt Disney himself. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs nearly bankrupted the company and (9) will be finally/was finally released/is finally released in December 1937. VI.4.3. Complete the text using the active or passive forms of the verbs from the box:

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load set return forget

go lock take pick

Mickey made some purchases at Sears Roebuck and Company that the was to pick up at the store loading deck. While1 the goods into his car, he 2 his briefcase containing 589,71 dollars on the loading dock and 3 it. The briefcase 4 by a Sears employee and 5 inside. The next day the briefcase 6 to Mickey, but the money 7 Mickey contended that the defendant was liable because, as a bailee, the briefcase 8. . In a safe place. VI.4.4. Identify the errors and correct them. A third trend indirectly affecting school order is the increasing sensitivity of public schools to the rights of children. A generation ago it was possible for principals to rules schools autocratically, to suspend or expel students without much regard for procedural niceties. Injustices occurred; children are pushed out of schools because they antagonized teachers and principals. But this arbitrariness enabled school administrators to control the situation when serious misbehaviour was occurred. Students assaults on teachers punished so swiftly that such assaults were almost unthinkable. Even disrespectful language was unusual. Today, as a result of greater concern for the rights of children, school officials required to observe due process in handing student discipline. VI.5. End of UNIT TEST

VI.5.1. Put the verb in the passive: 1. Much of this town (destroy) by fire in the 16th century. 2. Next year, a new school ..(build) here to hold about 1,000 students. 3. Today, around 9 o'clock, a famous painting .(steal) from a museum by an armed gang and the Police are already questioning the museum employees. 4. My brother's friend .(bite) by a dog last spring and had to (take) to hospital. 5. Today, Argentina and Chile..(expect) to vote on a treaty. 6. A special prize ..(give) to the person who will have helped us find the culprit. 7. He ..(tell) to work harder if he wanted to keep his job. 8. This work must (do) immediately. 9. English (speak) all over the world. 10. She ..(say) to be living in Spain now.

VI.5.2. Turn into the passive voice: 1. They built this castle in 1756. This castlein 1756. 2. The mechanic has repaired my car. My car .

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3. They will obey him, don't worry! He ,don't worry. 4. They are painting the kitchen. The kitchen 5. They had prepared everything for the party. Everything for the party. 6. Hemingway wrote this novel in 1932. This novel .by Hemingway in 1932. 7. They make such shirts in China. Such shirts ..in China. 8. People must not take their cameras inside the factory. Cameras inside the factory. 9. The gardener has watered the flowers. The flowers . 10. I finished my work at 2 pm. My work ..at 2 pm. VI.5.3. Underline the correct form of the verbs: It was a hot summer day in a large industrial city. The temperature had soared into the 90s and the humidity was just as high. It soft, gentle breeze (1) would have been welcome/ was welcome, but never came. Instead the air (2) was felt/ feeling heavy, and people reacted strongly. Their eyes teared, their throats (3) were hurned/ hurning and their lungs (4) became congested/ congesting. Some (5) had to be rushed/ having rushed to hospitals, others (6) were forced/ were being forced to stay inside. The same scenario began repeating itself in city after city throughout the country. Air pollution which (7) was brought about/ was been brought by increased industrial development, was affecting peoples health. They became angry that air pollution was ruining their lives and felt that the government should do something about it. People from various states claimed that pollution (8) should be controlled/ will be controlled.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Acklam, R., First Certificate Gold, Longman, 2003; 2. Aspinall, T., Advanced Masterclass CAE, OUP, 2001; 3. Chefneux, G., Burada, M., Elements of Morpho-Syntax, Editura Paralela 45, Pitesti, 2001; 4. Radu, Lucian, Milotoiu, C., Sasu, L., Antonaru, C., Andrei, M., Farcas, A. Popa, R. si Ion, M. Gramatica Practica a Limbii Engleze (Morfologie). Brasov: Editura Universitatii Transilvania Brasov, 2005; 5. Vince, M., First Certificate Language Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 2003; 6. Vince, M., Intermediate Language Practice, Macmillan Heinemann, 2006; 7. http://www.englisch-hilfen.de 8. http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/simple_past.html 9. www.onestopenglish.com 10. www.learningenglishfeelgood.com 11. www.nonstopenglish.com 12. www.bbcenglish.com 13. www.english-at-home.com 14. www.english-test.net 15. www.english-online.at 16. www.esltower.com 17. www.englishforeveryone.org 18. www.englishexercises.org 19. www.learningenglish.com 20. www.didactic.ro 21. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english68552.php 22. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/pronouns/exercises?05 23. http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal1.htm 24. http://users.telenet.be/oldlark2002/GRAMMAR/MODAL-VERBS-1MULTIPLE-CHOICE.htm 25. http://www.rong-chang.com/ex/numerals01.htm 26. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english21904.php 27. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/cat-and-mouse 28. http://www.ego4u.com/en/read-on/countries/usa/tour/new-orleans 29. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english68552.php

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