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Some well known combinatorial identities appear to be special cases of more general identities for integral domains. The article has been published in the JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications, Volume 31, Number 1, 2013, pages 1-4. A postscript has been added to the published version, and additional material will be added from time to time. The author would like to hear from those who have discovered similar identities.

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E. F. Cornelius, Jr.

Published in JP J Algebra, Number Theory and Applications

Vol. 31, No. 1 (2013), Pages 1-4

Abstract: Some well known combinatorial identities appear to be special

cases of more general identities in integral domains.

Let D be an integral domain (i.e., a commutative ring with 1 but without

zero divisors) embedded in its quotient eld, so that division makes sense. If

d1 ; d2 ; : : : ; dn are nonzero elements of D, n 1, and d0 = 0, then the following

relations hold:

(A)

n

P

( 1)i (dn

i=1

d0 ) (dn di

d1 di

1)

n

X

(B)

( 1)i

i=1

n

i

proved in [1], in the context of matrix inversion in integral domains.

If dn in (A) is replaced by

(C)

n

P

i=1

dn , then

d1 di

1)

= 2 (dn +d0 )

d1 dn 1 dn

1)

(D)

n

P

i=1

n+i 1

i

2n

n

2 n(n+1)n! (2n

2n

n

1)

= 2 (n

1)!n(n+1) (2n 1)

(2n 1)!

= 2 (n

(n 1)!n!

1)!n!

(2n)!

2n(2n 1)!

(2n 1)!

= 2 (n 1)!n! .

n!n! =

n!n!

and

same result is obtained.

When di = d; d 2 D; d 6= 0; i = 1; 2; : : : ; n, then (C) becomes a geometric

i 1

n 1

Pn

Pn

n n

series, i=1 d(2d)

= i=1 2i 1 = 2n 1 = 2 d(2d)

1 = 2 dnd

1.

(d)i

dn

When di = ri ; r 2 D; r 6= 0; i = 1; 2; : : : ; n, then the terms in (C) become

r n (r n +r)

r

Sn =

(r n +r i 1 )

= rn r(rn 1

ri

n i n 1

r

n i n

r

(r

i=1

Pn

i(i+1)

(r

+ 1) (rn i+1 + 1), so that

1

+ 1) (rn i+1 + 1) = 2(rn 1 + 1) (r + 1) 1 =

Qn 1

2 i=1 (ri + 1) 1.

satisfying jxj < 1, then the sequence of functions Sn = Sn (x) converges to some

S(x). Recall that if q(j) represents the number of partitions of the integer j

into

the generating function for the q(j) is given by

P1 distinctj parts,

Q1 j 2 N, then

k

q(j)x

=

(1

+

x

).

See

[3], Part 3.1, Generating function & Note 10.

j=0

k=1

Both thePinnite product and the innite series converge for jxj < 1, to some

1

Q(x) = j=0 q(j)xj . Thus,

S(x) = 2Q(x)

Although Sn =

n

P

i=1

(dn d0 ) (dn di

d1 di

1)

does reduce to

n

P

2n

1 when di =

i=1

expression. To compute Sn , note that

n

P

i=1

(dn d0 )

d1

(dn d0 ) (dn di

d1 di

(dn d0 )(dn d1 )

+ :::

d1 d2

dn

d1 dn 1 dn ([d2

+ [dn (dn

+ [di

d1 )

(dn d0 )

d1

1)

(dn dn

dn 1

2)

(dn d0 ) (dn dn

d1 dn

dn ] + [d3

dn (dn d1 )] + : : :

dn (dn d1 ) (dn di 2 )] + : : :

(dn dn 2 )] + [(dn d1 ) (dn dn

1)

1 )]).

Pn+1

then Sn = d1 1dn 1 j=2 dj

dn (dn d1 ) (dn dj 2 ); i.e., when, j = 2,

the product dj

dn (dn d1 ) (dn dj 2 ) = d2

dn , and when j = n + 1,

2

n+1

P

Q

1

d1

dn

d1 )

(dn

dk (dn

dn

1 ).

dl ).

j=2 j k n; 1 l j 2

The principal hurdle in attempting analogize these generic formulas to classical combinatorics is the obvious lack of symmetry analogous to ni = nn i . In

general, it is not reasonable to expect that

i = 1; : : : ; n 1.

(dn d0 ) (dn di

d1 di

1)

(dn d0 ) (dn dn

d1 dn i

REFERENCES

[1] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. and Schultz, P., "Root bases of polynomials over

integral domains", in Models, Modules and Abelian Groups (de Gruyter 2008),

238-248. The article is posted with permission at http://www.scribd.com/doc/

109726168/Root-Bases-of-Polynomials-Over-Integral-Domains.

[2] Knuth, D., Fundamental Algorithms, Vol. 1, The Art of Computer

Programming (Addison-Wesley, 2nd ed 1973)

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_(number_theory)

1)

Earlier drafts of this article contained erroneous or confusing statements

that have been deleted in the published version. As noted

P1 in the article, the

generating function for distinct partitions is Q(x) = j=0 q(j)xj , which can

Q1

be expressed as the innite product PQ (x) = k=1 (1 + xk ). One relationship

that the author

to establish is that Q

between the polynomials

Pn was attempting

n

j

k

Qn (x) =

q(j)x

,

of

degree

n,

and

P

(x)

=

Q

n

j=0

k=1 (1 + x ), of degree

n(n+1)

.

2

It turns out that Qn (x) equals the rst n + 1 terms of PQn (x). To see this,

express

[a] PQn = (1 + x)(1 + x2 ) (1 + xn ) as

[b] PQn (x) = 1 + c1 x + : : : + ck xk + : : : + cn xn + : : : + c n(n

1)

n(n 1)

2

The coe cient ck of xk in [b] is the number of ways to get exponents of the

x0 s in [a] to add up to k. Since those exponents are distinct and consist of

1; 2; : : : ; k; : : : ; n, it follows that ck = q(k) for 1 k n.

An analogous

result obtains for the generating function for all partitions,

P1

P (x) = j=0 p(j)xj , where p(j) represents the number of partitions of j. Let

Pn

Pn (x) = j=0 p(j)xj . According to [3], Part 3.1, Generating function & Note

Q1

7, P (x) can be expressed as PP (x) = k=1 1 1xk . In turn,

=

PP (x) = ( 1 1 x )( 1 1x2 ) ( 1 1xk )

2

2

4

k

(1 + x + x + : : :)(1 + x + x + : : :) (1 + x + x2k + : : :) . Let

[c] PPn (x) = (1 + x + x2 + : : : + xn )(1 + x2 + x4 + : : : + x2n )

2

(1 + xn + x2n + : : : + xn ) =

[d] (1 + x1 + x1+1 + : : : + x1+:::+1 )(1 + x2 + x2+2 + : : : + x2+:::+2 )

(1 + xn + xn+n + : : : + xn+:::+n ).

[e] PPn (x) = 1 + c1 x + : : : + ck xk + : : : + cn xn + : : : + c n2 (n

1)

n2 (n

2

1)

The coe cient ck of xk in [e] is the number of ways in which exponents of the

x0 s taken from one or more of the polynomials in [d] add up to k. See [4], p. 3,

Equation (2.3), and [3], Part 3.1, Generating function. The number of ways is

just p(k) for 1 k n, so that the rst n + 1 terms of PPn (x) are the same as

the terms of Pn (x).

Suppose

P k0 + k1 + : : : is a partition of n, k0 + k1 + : : : = n. Then it seems

that

(k0 + k1 + : : : ) is the sum of all partitions of n; i.e., that

k0 k1 :::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

k0 k1 :::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

1

n

(k0 + k1 + : : : ). The

k0 k1 :::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

P1

generating function P (x) = j=0 p(j)xj then could be written as

1

P

P

n

P (x) =

[

(k0 + k1 + : : : )] xn with the usual combinatorial conn=0

k0 k1 :::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

Similarly,

P

(k0 + k1 + : : : ) = nq(n), or q(n) =

k0 >k1 >:::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

Q(x) =

1

P

n=0

k0 >k1 >:::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

1

n

(k0 + k1 + : : : ) and

k0 >k1 >:::

k0 +k1 +:::=n

n

(k0 + k1 + : : :)] xn .

REFERENCES

[1], [2] and [3] denote the references in the article. Readers skeptical of using

Wikipedia as a reference may be relieved to know that Princeton University

does. http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Partition_%

28number_theory%29.html.

[4] denotes http://www.math.psu.edu/vstein/alg/antheory/preprint/andrews/

chapter.pdf.

ANOTHER GENERIC IDENTITY

In an integral domain embedded in its quotient eld, if ai 6= 1, then

an

1

2

1 + 1 a1a1 + (1 a1a)(1

a2 ) + : : : + (1 a1 ) (1 an ) = (1 a1 ) (1 an ) . In the domain of integers, if an = n + 1, n = 0; 1; : : : ; n, then 1 + 2=1! + 3=2! + 4=3! + ::: +

(n + 1)=n! = 1=n!. See http://www.linkedin.com/groups/algebraic-identity-innumber-theory-4510047.S.5816553869760548865?qid=167e8f1c-8c7c-444a-b15bd3f740944753&trk=groups_items_see_more-0-b-ttl.

GENERIC IDENTITIES

FOR COMPLETE HOMOGENEOUS SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIALS

are generic and may even hold for commutative rings with identity. See "Identities for complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials", JP J Algebra, Number

Theory and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 1 (2011), 109-116; http://www.scribd.com

/doc/16010484/Identities-for-Complete-Homogeneous-Symmetric-Polynomials.

BOUTINS IDENTITIES ARE GENERIC

Boutins identities are generic. For characteristic 6= 0, terms may equal 0.

https://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussion

ID=5853868262944694276&gid=4510047&commentID=5857882543507922944&

trk=view_disc&fromEmail=&ut=32vF0siYJIbCc1.

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