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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

Computational Modeling of a GRID Connected System Using PVSYST Software


T.M. Iftakhar Uddin, Md. Abrar Saad, Husnain-Al-Bustam, Md. Zakaria Mahbub

Islamic University of Technology


AbstractElectricity is an essential part of our way of life in

Bangladesh. Most of the electricity is currently provided from the conventional thermal or natural gas utilizing power stations. With the growing concerns about the greenhouse gas emission and other environmental issues the renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells are increasingly being used for electricity production. This paper represents the computational modeling of a GRID connected home system for Bangladesh. The proposed "system" is defined as the set of components constituting the PV-array, the inverter, up to the connection to the national power grid. Each home will have the both connection with the national power GRID and a solar energy utilizing photovoltaic system. This type of power system will reduce the electricity bill. If we use this kind system the increasing power crisis could be reduced in a large extent.
Index TermsBangladesh, Computational, GRID, Photovoltaic, Solar, Energy, Electricity, National.

I. INTRODUCTION A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of a PV array and a number of balance-of-system (BOS) components, necessary for making the solar power ready to use. The PV array generates DC power with a variable voltage and current. It is possible to supply DC loads directly from the PV array [1]. Direct coupling of PV array and load is typically applied for applications that exhibit intrinsic storage capabilities like water pumping or cooling systems [2, 3]. If AC loads are to be supplied, an inverter is required, transforming the DC power from the PV array to AC power at prescribed voltage and frequency. In case the PV array does not directly supply a load, a storage device is needed. Mostly this is a battery but other technologies such as compressed air, superconducting coils, double-layer capacitors, redox batteries and hydrogen are currently explored or already applied [4, 5]. Such stand-alone systems are not connected to stiff mains. A way to increase their reliability of supply without additional storage equipment is to combine PV with other types of power generators as for example a diesel gen-set, a small gas

turbine, or a wind energy converter. Such systems are called hybrid systems. An extended hybrid system consisting of several spatially distributed loads and generation units is often also referred to as a micro grid. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems feed electricity directly to the electrical network, operating parallel to the conventional electric source. The simplest grid-connected system, such one with low-voltage for residential use, contains a PV array and an inverter unit. In high-voltage applications, the system requires transformers and appropriate power switching and protection devices [20]. Gridconnected PV systems generate clean electricity near the point of use, without transmission and distribution losses or the need for batteries. Their performance depends on local climate, the orientation and inclination of the PV array, and inverter performance. The output of a grid-connected PV system depends on the PV/inverter sizing ratio (Rs) 1, defined as the ratio of PV array capacity at standard test conditions to the inverters rated in put capacity. Properly matching PV and inverter rated capacities improves grid-connected system performance. Optimal sizing depends on local climate, surface orientation and inclination, inverter performance, and the PV/inverter cost ratio (T). Under low insolation (incident solar power), a PV array generates power below its rated capacity, leading to inverter operation at partial load. Inverter efficiency drops with part-load operation: it also becomes sub-optimal when a significantly undersized inverter is made to operate mainly in conditions of overload, which result in energy loss[18,20].

II.

GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS OF BANGLADESH

With an area of about 144,000 sq km, Bangladesh is situated between latitudes 20~34' and 26~38' north and latitudes 88~01' and 92~41' east. The country is bordered by India on the east, west and north and by the Bay of Bengal on the south. There is also a small strip of frontier with Burma on the southeastern edge. The land is a deltaic plain with a network of numerous rivers and canals[16]. Throughout this section we have shown the some geographical parameter of Bangladesh which clearly indicate that Bangladesh is in the perfect position for utilizing the solar energy. In the design we have used the double orientation that means the heterogeneous orientation. Two fields of different orientations connected in parallel on the same

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

inverter called the Heterogeneous Orientation [14]. The angle between the planes is 400. Figure-7 represent the diffuse factor. Actually it is the attenuation of the diffuse irradiance part due to the horizontal shading . A. Fields Orientation 1) First Field Orientation Plane Tilt 200 Azimuth 900 Table-1 2) Second Field Orientation Plane Tilt 200 Azimuth -900 Table-2

Figure 3. Orientation

Figure 1. Horizon Line Drawing Figure 4. Shed tilt optimization at Bangladesh

Figure 2. Shed Mutual Shading at Bangladesh

Figure 5. Shading Limit Angle

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

D. Homogeneous System 1) PV Module Max. no. of Module Vmpp (600 C) Voc (-100C)

2 Wp, 13 V 15 16.1 V 23.0 V Table-6

Figure 6. Near Shading

2) Inverter Inverter Operating Voltage Input Max. Voltage Global Inverter Power

0.1 kW, 24-50V, 50 Hz 24-50V 50 V 0.1 kWac Table-7

E. Design of the Array Initial Design Module in Series Nbr. String Overload Loss Pnom. Rating 10% 2 21 0.01% 0.84 Table-8

F. Operating Condition Figure 7. Diffuse Factor Vmpp (600 C) Vmpp (200 C) Voc (-100C) Plane Irradiance Impp (STC) Isc (STC) Max. Operating Power Array nom. Power 32 V 34 V 46V 1000 W/m2 2.5 A 3.1 A 0.1 kW 0.1 kWp Table-9

III.

SYSTEM DEFINING PARAMETER

A. System Specification Module Type Technology Mounting Disposition Ventilation Property Standard Polycrystalline Faade of tilt roof Ventilated Table-3

B. Defined PV Array Nominal Power Load Profile 84 Wp Grid Table-4 10 2 m2 1 0.1 kWp 0.1 kWp 0.1 kWp Table-5
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C. Global System Summary No. of Modules Module Area Inverters Nominal PV Power Max. PV Power Nominal AC Power

Figure 8. Array Voltage Sizing

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

Figure 9. Power Sizing: Inverter Output Distribution

Figure 11. Schematic Diagram

Figure 10. Array Losses IV.


PROPOSED MODEL

This research work is totally based on the PVSYST software. We have used this software for modeling purpose. All the figures, tables are depicted here in the paper are generated during the simulation process. In this section we have shown the proposed model of the GRID connected home system. As this paper represents the computational modeling so we just present the simulation results only rather than the description. Figure. 12 . System Loss Diagram

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

Figure 15. Daily System Output Energy

Figure 13. Energy Flow Diagram V. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS This section represents the performance analysis of the proposed system. From the performance analysis we can say that our design was very near to the ideal one. Figure 16. Incident Irradiation Distribution

Figure 14. Array Voltage Distribution

Figure 17. Normalized Production and Loss Factor

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

Table-11. Meteo and Incident Energy Figure-18. Performance Ratio

Figure 19. System Output Power Distribution VI. TABLES

Table-12. Effective Incident Energy

Table-10. Balances and Main Results

Table-12. Optical Factors

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May-2012 ISSN 2229-5518

Table-16. Normalized Performance Coefficient Table-13. Detailed System Losses ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Institute of the Science of the Environment, University of Geneva and specially Dr. Andre Mermoud for developing the of PVSYST software. This software helped us in doing many projects. VII.
CONCLUSION

Table-14. Detailed Inverter Losses

The primary energy carrier for photovoltaic is solar radiation. Its availability at the earths surface is determined by the astronomical sun-earth relationship and the earths atmosphere [21].The most important components of a grid-connected PV system are PV modules and inverters. PV modules are assembled from solar cells. Wafer-type crystalline silicon cells represent more than 90% of the world market, the investigations on system aspects of PV throughout this work assume the application of such cells[21]. The energetic performance ratio of the PV system is assessed by the performance ratio. From the market study we have calculated the total cost for setting up this kind of system and that is USD 300 USD which is equal to 24,000 BDT. The main problem with this system is the high price of the solar module. If we could able to develop the solar module locally then only it is possible to reduce the cost of this kind of system.

Table-15. Energy Use and Users Need

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