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Database Development Process

1. 2. Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, Fred R. McFadden. Modern Database Management. 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:Prentice Hall (Pearson Educational, Inc), 2005 A. Silberschatz, H.F. Korth, S. Sudarshan. "Database System Concepts (4th Edition). McGrawHill, 2002.

KRISNA ADIYARTA PASCA SARJANA (MAGISTER KOMPUTER) UNIVERSITAS BUDI LUHUR JAKARTA

Objectives

Definition of terms Describe system development life cycle Explain prototyping approach Explain roles of individuals Explain three-schema approach Explain role of packaged data models Explain three-tiered architectures Explain scope of database design projects Draw simple data models

Information Systems Architecture


Conceptual blueprint for organizations desired information systems structure Consists of: Data (e.g. Enterprise Data Modelsimplified ER Diagram) Processesdata flow diagrams, process decomposition, etc. Data Networktopology diagram Peoplepeople management using project management tools (Gantt charts, etc.) Events and points in time (when processes are performed)

Enterprise Data Model


First step in database development Specifies scope and general content Overall picture of organizational data at high level of abstraction Entity-relationship diagram Descriptions of entity types Relationships between entities

Segment from enterprise data model


Enterprise data model describes the highlevel entities in an organization and the relationship between these entities

Information Engineering

A data-oriented methodology to create and maintain information systems Top-down planninga generic IS planning methodology for obtaining a broad understanding of the IS needed by the entire organization Four steps to Top-Down planning: Planning Analysis Design Implementation

Information Systems Planning


Purposealign information technology with organizations business strategies Three steps: Identify strategic planning factors Identify corporate planning objects Develop enterprise model

Identify Strategic Planning Factors


Organization goalswhat we hope to accomplish Critical success factorswhat MUST work in order for us to survive Problem areasweaknesses we now have

Identify Corporate Planning Objects


Organizational unitsdepartments Organizational locations Business functionsgroups of business processes Entity typesthe things we are trying to model for the database Information systemsapplication programs

Develop Enterprise Model

Functional decomposition Iterative process breaking system description into finer and finer detail Enterprise data model Planning matrixes Describe interrelationships between planning objects

Example of process decomposition


Decomposition = breaking large tasks into smaller tasks in a hierarchical structure chart

Planning Matrixes

Describe relationships between planning objects in the organization Types of matrixes: Function-to-data entity Location-to-function Unit-to-function IS-to-data entity Supporting function-to-data entity IS-to-business objective

Example business function-to-data entity matrix

Two Approaches to Database and IS Development

SDLC
System

Development Life Cycle Detailed, well-planned development process Time-consuming, but comprehensive Long development cycle

Prototyping
Rapid

application development (RAD) Cursory attempt at conceptual data modeling Define database during development of initial prototype Repeat implementation and maintenance activities with new prototype versions

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design

Purposepreliminary understanding Deliverablerequest for study

Database activity enterprise modeling and early conceptual data modeling

Implementation Maintenance

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design

Purposethorough requirements analysis and structuring Deliverablefunctional system specifications

Database activityThorough and integrated conceptual data modeling

Implementation Maintenance

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design

Purposeinformation requirements elicitation and structure Deliverabledetailed design specifications

Database activity logical database design (transactions, forms, displays, views, data integrity and security)

Implementation Maintenance

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design

Purposedevelop technology and organizational specifications Deliverableprogram/data structures, technology purchases, organization redesigns

Database activity physical database design (define database to DBMS, physical data organization, database processing programs)

Implementation Maintenance

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance

Purposeprogramming, testing, training, installation, documenting Deliverableoperational programs, documentation, training materials

Database activity database implementation, including coded programs, documentation, installation and conversion

Systems Development Life Cycle


Planning Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance

Purposemonitor, repair, enhance Deliverableperiodic audits

Database activity database maintenance, performance analysis and tuning, error corrections

Prototyping Database Methodology

Prototyping Database Methodology

Prototyping Database Methodology

Prototyping Database Methodology

Prototyping Database Methodology

CASE

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) software tools providing automated support for systems development Three database features: Data modelingdrawing entity-relationship diagrams Code generationSQL code for table creation Repositoriesknowledge base of enterprise information

Packaged Data Models

Model components that can be purchased, customized, and assembled into full-scale data models Advantages Reduced development time Higher model quality and reliability Two types: Universal data models Industry-specific data models

Database Schema

Physical Schema Physical Conceptual Schema E-R models External Schema User Views Subsets of Conceptual Schema Can be determined from businessfunction/data entity matrices DBA determines schema for different users

Three-schema architecture
Different people have different views of the databasethese are the external schema

The internal schema is the underlying design and implementation

Developing the three-tiered architecture

Three-tiered client/server database architecture