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htm perspective plan 2001-2015

Education and Training Importance of education in the coming years is recognized as a necessary ingredient for sustainable economic growth. Education is seen as the key to better quality of life as well as a means of providing a new set of skills required for the future years. According to the vision of the Quaid-e-Azam, scientific and technical education should be given to the people to compete with the fast-developing world. Sound education should be provided to the people to instill in them the highest sense of honor, integrity, responsibility, and selfless service to the nation. Investment in human capital prepares the critical mass of educated manpower on the one hand, and on the other hand prepares future leaders in various fields to steer successfully the country through thick and thin. Education Sector Reforms The Education Sector Reforms (ESR) in essence, build on the 1998-2010 Education Policy and thus are not a new policy innovation but an Action Plan for reform. The ESR is based on a long-term framework with a four year action plan for 2001-2005. The main features of the reform agenda are macro level reforms in planning, procedures, resource mobilization and utilization; sector wide approaches for reinforcement of linkages between sub-sectors (i.e. primary / elementary / non-formal literacy, secondary / technical, higher education and quality assurance structures); internally driven strategies and internally developed milestones for implementation of the ESR; a holistic basis for planning of human resource development in the country; the Social Action Program (SAP is integrated in this approach with 77% of the Action Plan covering SAP and all areas of Education For All (EFA); institutional reforms at all levels, i.e. federal, provincial and district levels to be triggered by the ESR; maximizing equal opportunities and reducing the gender gap at all levels of education; literacy through Education For All for a literate Pakistan is ensured by institution of comprehensive programs supported by the Compulsory Primary Education Ordinance and broad based institutional support; the delivery of quality education at all levels for improving the quality of social capital is to be achieved by rewarding expertise, providing access to improved teacher training programs, curriculum reforms and innovative projects. Education Sector Reforms To meet the human resource needs of the country, a shift to science and technology is being made at the Secondary and Higher Education levels thereby creating employment options for young men and women. An innovative project of video-textbooks and library is being initiated in collaboration with the AIOU and Ministry of Science and Technology; to bring the educational system at par with international standards, introduction of a three years Masters program is being planned. It is proposed to build public-private partnerships for mobilizing all sections of society in the provision of education through restructured education foundations and other initiatives. The private sector is to be promoted in providing education at al levels especially for higher and professional education through incentive packages and flexible arrangements. A modular approach is being developed for the sub-sector reforms and programs to create space for innovation, testing and expeditious implementation. Perspective Development Plan 2001-2011: Objective / Targets The Perspective Development Plan 2001-2011 in Education and Training encompasses

the following objectives: Improvement of literacy rate Education for all (EFA) Improvement in participation rate at secondary level Introduction of technical education at secondary and post-secondary level Producing higher education graduates responsive to the socio-economic and technical needs of the country Quality education

Strategies and Operational Program Strategies and operational program to be followed during 2001-11 include new initiatives to achieve accelerated literacy rate, education for all, better science education facilities, introducing technical stream at secondary level and for higher education and quality assurance are given below:
Education: Ten year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11 Issues Strategies Operational Program i) Low literacy and participation rates at - Adult Literacy Campaign - Assisted by Special Task Force on primary/elementary/secondary level Human Development from August, 2001 - Formal & non Formal System - Establishment of 30000 Non-formal Schools (including existing 7100) - Universal Primary Education - Opening of 32000 primary schools and up-gradation of 53000 primary schools to elementary level - Universal Secondary Education - Up-gradation of 19000 elementary schools to secondary level. ii) Low quality of education at all levels - Improve standard of teachers - Teacher Training Project - Curricula improvement - Education Testing Service - Improve examination system - Establishment of National Education Assessment System - Universal Secondary Education - Up-gradation of 19000 elementary schools to secondary level. Revamp Science Education - Revamping of Science Education facilities in 3000 existing secondary schools iii) Limited option for - Introduce technical/vocational stream - Technical Education Projects technical/commercial/ vocational in secondary schools education. - Polytechnics at District and Vocational - Estt. Of 90 Polytechnics by 2011 in institutes at Tehsil level addition to existing 60 (covering all districts) - Starting evening shift in 100 Polytechnics. - Opening Technical Stream in 2000 secondary schools (5 in each Teshil) iv) Low participation of private sector - Incentive to private sector through - Education Foundations Projects grants and soft loans - Encourage public/private partnership. - Community participation Projects

Under perspective 2011, a high level educational profile will be achieved. Physical and teaching facilities will be provided by continuously increasing investment in education and implementing long term Action Plan for Education Sector Reforms. A summary of targets is given below:
Benchmark 2000-01 Participation Rate (%) Primary Stage Total Male Female Elementary Stage Target 2003-04 Target 2010-11

83 96 70

94 02 85

104 107 101

Total Male Female Secondary Total Male Female Higher Education Literacy Rate (%) Total Male Female

57 67 46 35 42 27 2.50 52 64 39

66 77 52 45 50 39 3.00 61 73 47

97 100 94 79 81 77 5.5 78 88 67

Perspective Plan 2001-2011 has been prepared under National Education Policy 19982010, which recommends enhanced funding to raise literacy level, remove urban-rural and gender imbalances, improve quality of education at all levels, strengthen higher education facilities, and provide for demand driven education. The Education Sector Reforms focus on implementation strategies, program summaries and innovative programs which include proposals of Education For All, poverty reduction, public-private partnership, good governance and re-defining the role of the Federal Ministry of Education for spearheading the reform efforts and mobilization of resources. Perspective 2011 will focus on improving literacy and participation rate through formal and non-formal education system. Girls technical and science education will receive special attention. Quality education at all levels will be ensured through better teaching facilities. Curricula will be reviewed. Financial and managerial constraints will be overcome through good governance. New initiatives will include a national education assessment system and introduction of merit through training of teachers. Description of Programs During Perspective 2011 period about 32000 new primary schools will be established. About 53000 existing primary schools will b upgraded to elementary level and about 19000 elementary schools will be upgraded to secondary level. Technical skills will be introduced in about 2000 existing secondary schools. Revamping of science education facilities in about 3000 existing secondary schools will take place. These facilities will also be provided in appropriate number of upgraded schools. Appropriate number of higher secondary schools/colleges will be added to accommodate output at secondary/higher secondary level. Number of new universities will be established and existing universities will be strengthened. Existing institutions will also be consolidated to improve quality of education. About 90 new poly / mono techniques will be established while existing ones will be strengthened. Major Programs (a) Literacy Literacy rate will be increased from 52% at present to 78%. This will be done by expanding Universal Primary Education (UPE). For out of school youth, especially, below 18 years of age, separate programs will be launched. To develop feasible literacy programs performance evaluation for earlier non-formal education programs will provide guidance. (b) Education for All UPE for boys will be achieved by 2003 and for girls by 2007. This will be done by providing building to all existing shelter less primary/elementary schools besides provision of additional classrooms in the existing overcrowded schools. Mosque schools will be converted to regular schools and existing primary schools to elementary schools wherever the enrolment so permits. New mosque schools will be established in areas where regular schools may not be feasible. Drop out rate will be reduced by improving the efficiency of the

system through better supervision, administration and involvement of local communities at district/tehsil levels. Strong motivational campaign will be launched to persuade parents to send their children to schools. This will be reinforced by legislation for compulsory primary education. Gender and regional imbalance in availability of basic education facilities will be taken care of. Evening shift will be started in areas where feasible. Entry qualification for fresh Primary School Teachers will be raised to Intermediate with one-year teacher training and for Middle School Teachers as Bachelor degree with one-year teacher training to help achieve quality education. Wherever feasible, co-educational primary schools will be established in which female teachers will be appointed. (c) Secondary Education Diversification of courses for the students in different stream at this stage is a very crucial task. Democratic access to various career options will be provided at this stage. To accommodate increasing output of elementary graduates a concomitant increase in facilities at secondary level, with focus for girls education will be the thrust of Perspective 2011 programs. Up-grading elementary schools, adding classrooms to existing schools and introduction of technical stream in secondary schools will be the strategy to achieve the target. Private sector will be encouraged to share this responsibility, especially, in setting up of model schools at district level. To improve the quality of secondary education Master degree holders in relevant subjects with degree in education will be recruited as Secondary School Teachers. Intensive in service training will be provided to teachers at least once in five years. Existing science teaching facilities in high schools will be revamped. d) Technical Education & Vocational Training Technical and vocational education will be expanded and diversified courses will be introduced. Provision of multiplicity of options, at close proximity of even rural clientele will be ensured. The out reach will assure accessibility of technical education, vocational training facilities for urban-rural and male-female clientele alike. It will be made in tune with demand in job market. Curricula will be made responsive to the requirements of industry. Linkage with industry will help achieve this goal. At present about 35% of matriculates move into technical, commercial and vocational training which by 2011 will rise to 50%. It is expected that private sector will respond to these initiatives. (e) Teacher Education Quality education requires motivated and competent teachers at all levels. It is recommended that intake qualification of teachers at all levels be enhanced. Teacher training institutions be revamped to ensure output of devoted prospective teachers. The existing teachers should undergo intensive in-service training to improve their working efficiency. Management training will be mandatory for all future administrators of education from secondary school levels to higher education levels. Awards and medals will be given to hardworking and devoted teachers. (f) Higher Education State of the art education, in marketable disciplines, will be provided at this level. The intake qualification of teachers will be raised as M. Phil degree for Postgraduate Colleges, and Ph. D for universities. Intensive in service training will be mandatory. Traditional and irrelevant disciplines will be dispensed with or merged with those in other institutions while new emerging and marketable disciplines with focus on research will be introduced. Split PhD training in local universities/institutes in collaboration with foreign universities will be started. A substantial allocation to universities will be made to enhance their research capabilities and start new research programs through provision of better infrastructure facilities and staff development. National Council for Academic Awards and Accreditation will

be created for reinforcing the quality of the Private Education System. In fields, where feasible, three year degree course will be introduced. The existing dual control of the universities will be eliminated. Some of the existing universities will be made fully autonomous for which suitable legislative cover will be provided. Special support will be given for developing selected university departments, having potential for up-gradation, as Centers of Excellence, especially in newly emerging scientific fields. Linkage of higher education will be established for knowledge-based industrialization. In a country where highly talented manpower is available, quality control and research and development activities are almost non-existent, resulting in unimaginable brain drain which requires immediate attention of all concerned. To make optimal use of available highly educated manpower, infrastructure development of the R&D institutions need to be updated with state-of-the-art instruments. Separate allocations will be made for R&D during the Plan. Existing scholarship schemes will be continued. Split Ph.D. training in local universities/institutes in collaboration with foreign universities will be started. Libraries of educational institutions will be strengthened and their proper utilization will be ensured. Accessibility to modern literature, research based material and information technology will be provided to higher educational & research institutions. g) Examination System Examinations play a pivotal role in improving the quality of education. It is, therefore, necessary to improve quality of examinations, thereby raising general standard of education and checking mal-practice in public examinations. Structural changes in the conduct and quality of examinations are needed to achieve the following objectives. (a) improving intellectual abilities of students, such as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and synthesis, (b) ascertaining and enhancing validity, public acceptance, transparency and fairness of examinations; and (c) having a feedback for ensuring continuous assessment of the whole education process by improving teaching strategies, school effectiveness, curriculum design, appropriateness of textbooks and the whole delivery system. In order to improve the examination system, it is proposed that the Boards shall bring organizational improvements by (a) establishing research cells so as to provide feedback for improvement of the system as a whole to conduct research oriented professional activities and to train teachers, paper setters, examiners and invigilation staff, (b) paper setting cells to develop variety of questions, question papers in different subject, (c) computerization of process and appointment of well qualified honest, dedicated and experienced staff, preferably on contract basis to ensure fairness, transparency and validity in the examination results. Model question papers will be developed for intellectual assessment of the students. The teachers may be trained; (i) to impart teaching-learning in the class based on these model question papers; and (ii) to test and assess the students on continuous basis. In order to eliminate the element of selective study and at the same time ensuring the comprehension and application skills in a particular subject, the question papers will be so framed that these cover the entire curriculum and not specifically based on one textbook only. (h) Improving Quality Quality of education at all level will be improved in order to gain the competitive edge required in the knowledge based global economy. The strategic intervention for this purpose will focus on physical infrastructure, books and equipment, incentive to poor students, national education testing service, establishment of regulatory body for quality assurance (National Council for Accreditation and Quality Assurance), one year honors course after Bachelors degree, academy for university teachers, performance based contract

appointments, indigenous PhD scholarship programs, increase in non-salary budget of universities and create growing research endowment fund. (i) Video Textbooks-Libraries In order to improve the standard of secondary education and specially, in the field of science education it is imperative to have good and innovative science teachers. Together with availability of teachers it is equally necessary that adequate scientific, video text-book libraries be established. These video lessons-libraries will enable the students to improve upon the quality of science education at the secondary level. These efforts will supplement the teaching learning process. Nearly 70% of household in Pakistan have access to TV sets so these video lessons-libraries can be available to the majority of people and to all the students at the secondary level through provision of TV and a video player to all the schools. Out of school students, continuing their study privately, can also take advantage of these lessons through the educational channel as well as by borrowing these videos from the districts and tehsil level resource centers. These videos will not only arouse interest of students in science subjects but will encourage them to innovate, prepare practical models for demonstrating scientific concepts. Educational experts as well as technical facilities of the private sector can be involved in the development of these programs. These lessons/films can also be made available to the private institutions on cost or hiring basis. Similarly, these videos/films can also be provided to the general public through the video shops at subsidized rates. j) Tehsil/District Resource Centers Training and support to quality education provision is an ever increasing need. The service is required through a decentralized process for timely response to needs of the clients i.e. teachers, head teachers, supervisors/learning coordinators and other district education managers. However, in spite of elaborate district level training sites (GCETs and other designated training outposts) there has been insufficient field based support to teachers and education managers. The proposal is to set up 20 Resources Centers integral to the quality component of the Education Sector Reform (ESR) in a phased manner. (k) Role of Private Sector During Eighth Plan private sector was encouraged to establish educational institutions and at all levels. As a result, at the school level about 25% students are enrolled in private institutions. At the higher level there are 61 universities/institutions available in private Sector. An inventive driven system will be provided to these institutions to nurture economical, high quality education at all levels in a competitive environment and to further expand private sectors contribution in the field of education Private Sector partnership with the public sector for better utilization of existing facilities will be encouraged with innovative approaches. l) Community Involvement It is intended to ensure involvement of communities and local bodies to resolve the problems of quality of construction, repair and maintenance of buildings, management of day to day problems of schools located in remote areas, teacher absenteeism, purchase out of non-salary recurrent grants etc. Resources for education sector will be improved through social mobilization, community participation and activating the NGOs, CBOs and local bodies. Increase in literacy rate will be ensured through continued efforts of public sector, NGOs and communities. The role of communities and NGOs will particularly be focused for setting up new girls institutions in rural areas and urban slums.

(m) Poverty Alleviation Education is a tool for improving quality of life of the people. It also helps in improvement of earning by producing skilled manpower. Educated workers are more likely to be productive. It is estimated that through UPE, UEE and introduction of vocational and technical subjects at secondary level and through increased participation of matric pass-outs in technical and vocational streams, the country will be able to tackle in some measure the rising incidence of poverty. Output at higher education level will also increase especially in new emerging fields. (n) Good Governance and Decentralization Under the devolution and good governance plan district governments will be created with a district based and city base administration for rural and urban areas. Effective decentralization in education requires both macro and micro-level planning to ensure that education facilities work optimally for the benefit of citizens of the district. Whilst the provinces will work out their initial plans for decentralization each district would require technical support for capacity building in a variety of areas to ensure best planning and management systems. Under the current fiscal crisis, it is unlikely that provinces will have sufficient resource initially to support such initiatives. However, it is precisely this level of technical support that is imperative. The Social Action Program (SAP) may be one way of extending this support. However, another incentive could be in the form of innovative Block Grants, through Federal Transfers to lead districts who are keen to mobilize additional resources for better people-centered systems planning. Community participation, partnerships, accountability and monitoring of quality cannot become a reality without effective decentralization. Three Year Program The Three Year Plan will focus on improving literacy and participation rates through formal and non-formal education system. Girls and technical education will receive special attention. Information technology will be made available to educational institutions. Quality education at all levels will be ensured through better teaching facilities. Curricula will be reviewed. Financial and managerial constraints will be overcome through good governance. Objectives The main objectives of the Three-Year Plan in the Education and Training Sector are: Improving literacy rate to 61%, achieving Universal Primary Education for boys and 85% participation rate for girls, expanding Elementary Education and proportionately secondary education, with a focus on girls educational and vocational education; Diversifying and expanding technical, vocational, and commerce education and ensuring their spread to meet the requirements of each area/region; Creating appropriate teaching and research environment in higher education institutions; Improving quality of education at all levels; Enhancing of the education system through participation of local community in the conduct of day-t-day business of educational institutions; Devolution of powers to the lowest rung of hierarchy; empowerment of district officers to appoint, transfer and promote the teaching and non-teaching staff of schools and approve development projects up to a fixed cost limit.

The Policy Frame Work The following measures will be adopted to improve the performance of Education System::-

- Formal & non Formal Education in the private sector will be regulated at Federal and Provincial levels. Admission in professional education institutions will be regulated through a standard and transparent entry test Provision of non development budget to commission the new facilities created will be ensured.

Public Sector Development Programme Current Budget of Ministry of Education Demand Description
Main Secretariat, M&E Cell, Curriculum, Education Policy, etc. (Mostly pay and allowances) Higher Education Commission

(Rs. in Millions)

2009-2010 2010-2011
627.678 1,015,057

29-Education Attached Deptts, International Organizations ISESCO, UNESCO, Division

30-HEC

21,500.000

23,220,000 5,830,000

Autonomous Bodies, Pakistan Schools & Chairs Abroad, Private Educational institutions, National Educational 31-Education Institutions, Sub-Ordinate Offices, etc. (Mostly pay and allowances). Pay & allowances of teaching personnel in Federal Schools & 32- FG Educational Colleges. Institutions in the Capital and Fed. Areas

809.020

798,243

2281.967

2,502,858

Total including HEC Total Ministry of Education

25,218.665 27,536,158 3,718.665 4,316,158

Development Budget of Ministry of Education Year No of Proj. Allocation Revised Allocation Funds Released Funds Utilized
2008-09 85 6,269.652 4,052.568 2,548.95 2,168.543

2009-10 2010-11

101 86

8,097.613 5,070,864

5,500.000 5,070,864

3353.405 1722.202

3231.000 379.177

Public Sector Development Programme 2010-2011 Public Sector Development Programme 2009-2010