You are on page 1of 7

MET 465 Supplement #4: Heating and Cooling Supply Airflow Determination

After the heating and cooling loads are calculated (refer to course supplements #2 and #3), the heating and cooling system supply airflow quantities must be calculated. Data from previous heating and cooling load calculation examples will be utilized to illustrate this process for a multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) system with terminal reheat. Room Sizes and Occupancy Levels Design Occupancy # 2 2 2 2 20 0 Conference 1

Room Office 1 Office 2 Office 3 Office 4 Conference Room Halls

Dimensions 22 x 22 22 x 25 22 x 25 22 x 25 22 x 50 6 x 97

Zone 1 2 3 4

Rooms 1 2, 3 4 Conf, hall

Figure 1: Example Building Floor Plan


Table 1: Cooling Load for Example Building:

Note: The zone peak loads are shown in the table above. The overall building peak cooling load occurred at 2:00 pm, and that total will be utilized for system capacity sizing.

Table 2: Heating Load for Example Building:

-1-

Cooling Load Parameters: Outdoor Air Temp. = 87 F Outdoor Relative Humidity = 26% Return Air Temp. = 76 F, 30%RH (space conditions)

Heating Load Parameters: Outdoor Air Temp. = -12 F Outdoor Relative Humidity = 0% Return Air = 70 F, 30%RH (space conditions)

Air Flow Calculations for a VAV system with Terminal Reheat: To maintain comfort and healthy air conditions with the HVAC system, the cooling coils must supply cooling at a rate able to offset the heat gain to the space/zone being conditioned. Schematically, the conditioning process for cooling can be represented as shown in the figure below. Additionally, a pre-heat coil is included in the system with the capability of heating 100% of the building air (at outdoor air conditions) to supply air conditions. This will guard against system shock when the temperature of outdoor air is very low.
EA RA OA MA Pre-heat Coil Cooling Coil VAV Terminal Unit with Reheat SA at 55 F Mixing Box Space / Zone to be Conditioned

SA at 90 F

Outdoor air enters the mixing box and mixes with return air. If necessary, the mixed air will be heated sensibly to the supply air temperature of 55 F. Generally, with a VAV system, the mixed air will require cooling (supplied by the cooling coil) to bring the supply air to 55 F. The supply air temperature of 55 F is a designer choice and is very common in HVAC applications.

Figure 1: Schematic of a VAV System with Terminal Reheat Solution Method: (Air Flow requirements based upon cooling requirements) To determine the amount of flow required in the VAV system, the following process is utilized: 1. Plot known conditions on the psychrometric chart. See the psychrometric chart (page 7). 2. Compute the SHR for the cooling and dehumidification process. SHR = Qsensible / Qtotal = 76912 BTU/hr / 85788 BTU/hr = 0.90

SHR Sensible Heat

Total Heat

Refer to the psychrometric chart (page 7) for specifics. -2-

3.

Draw a line on the psychrometric chart protractor representing the calculated SHR. See the psychrometric chart (page 7).

4.

Transfer a parallel line from the protractor to the room air conditions. This represents the condition line for the space being conditioned. Conditioned air must be supplied to the space at conditions somewhere on this line in order to offset the heat gain to the space. See the psychrometric chart (page 7).

5.

Draw a vertical line representing the chosen supply air dry bulb temperature. The intersection of these two lines represents the required supply air conditions needed to maintain the space at the desired conditions. See the psychrometric chart (page 7).

6. Condition

List known psychrometric conditions of outdoor air, return air, mixed air, and supply air. mass (lb/hr) DBT ( F) 87 76 WBT ( F) 62 56 RH % 26.2 30 TH AH (BTU/lbda) (lbm/lbda) 30.4 25.8 0.0086 0.0069 SV (ft3/lbda) 16.8 16.43 cfm

Outside Air Return Air Mixed Air Supply Air

55

46.5

57

20

0.0048

15.7

7.

Calculate the amount of supply air required to offset the load of the space (Energy Balance).

Qload= mSA(THRA-THSA) mSA=( Qload / (THRA-THSA) ) = 85788 BTU/hr / (25.8-20) BTU/lb = 14,791 lb/hr V = m * SV = 14,791 lb/hr * 15.7 ft3/lb * hr / 60 min = 3870 cfm 8. Calculate the supply air requirements (SAmax) for each zone and room at peak load

Example - For Zone 1: Qload,z1 = mSA(THRA-THSA) mSA=( Qload,z1/ (THRA-THSA) ) = 13778 BTU/hr / (25.8-20) BTU/lb = 2375 lb/hr V = m * SV = 2375 lb/hr * 15.7 ft3/lb * hr / 60 min = 622 cfm See attached summary sheet (page 7) for zone capacity requirements (SA max cfm column)

-3-

9.

Evaluate the required amount of outside ventilation air in each room and zone and calculate the outside air fraction for that room and zone. OA fraction = OA/SAmax

Example For Zone 1: Zone 1 Room 1 OA (cfm) 40 SAmax (cfm) 621 OA Fraction 40/621 = 0.064 The amount of outside air required to maintain health in zone 1 is 6.4%.

See attached summary sheet (page 7) for room OA fractions (OA fraction) Note: The maximum OA fraction occurs in the conference room. Therefore, since all mixing happens at the mixing box, the minimum outdoor air for the system must be set to accommodate the zone with the highest outdoor air quantity required. This is the case unless a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) is installed in the conference room or the conference room air is filtered effectively. For this particular example the minimum outdoor air requirement is 24% of the total air. We will utilize that value. 10. Calculate the mixed air conditions.

mOA m RA

m MA

m SA

(for a constant mass system)

and mass of OA = .24 * mass of supply air = .24(14,791 lb/hr) = 3550 lb/hr so: mass of RA = mass of SA mass of OA = 14,791 3550 = 11,241 lb/hr

3550 lb/hr 87 F

OA

14,791 lb/hr 78.64 F MA

14,791 lb/hr 3870 cfm 55 F

SA

RA 11,241 lb/hr 76 F DBMA = (3550/14,791) * (87 F) + (11,241/14,791) * (76 F) = 78.64 F THMA = (3550/14,791) * (30.4 BTU/lb) + (11,241/14,791) * (25.8 BTU/lb) = 26.90 BTU/lb 11. Complete the psychrometric table values. Condition m (lb/hr) 3550 11,241 14,791 14,791 DBT ( F) 87 76 78.64 55 46.5 57 WBT ( F) 62 56 RH % 26.2 30 TH AH SV (BTU/lbda) (lbm/lbda) (ft3/lbda) 30.4 25.8 26.90 20 0.0086 0.0069 0.0073 0.0048 16.8 16.43 16.49 15.7 3870 cfm

Outside Air Return Air Mixed Air Supply Air

994

-4-

12. Calculate required Cooling Capacity. QMA-SA = mSA(THMA-THSA) = 14,791 lb/hr * (26.90 20) BTU/hr = 102,058 BTU/hr Tonnage of Cooling = 102,058 BTU/hr / 12,000 BTU/hr/ton = 8.5 Tons Select cooling coils with 8.5 ton capacity capable of delivering 3870 cfm at 55 F. 13. Size the Reheat Coils in the terminal units.

Remember, the air temperature leaving the AHU is at 55 F and 56% RH (see psychrometric chart). Each reheat coil (RHC) supplies only sensible heat to this supply air in order to heat the zone. Humidity is not controlled in this case. Thus, the reheat process follows a SHF = 1.0 line on the psychrometric chart and only the sensible heat loss will be utilized to size the reheat coil. Step 1: Draw a line with SHF = 1.0 from current supply air conditions on the psychrometric chart. See the psychrometric chart (page 7). Step 2: Plot room air temperature on that line (desired temperature is 70 F) See the psychrometric chart (page 7). Step 3: Make assumption about reheat air specific volume and temperature (DB between 90'F and 110'F) Assume SVrhc = 17.4 ft3/lb @ DB = 109'F (See the psychrometric chart - page 7) Step 4: Convert design volumetric flow rate (622 cfm) for the zone to a mass flow rate mrhc = V/SVrhc = 622 ft3/min / 17.4 ft3/lb * 60 min/hr = 2144.8 lb/hr -5-

Step 5: Solve for the reheated air total heat required to maintain 70'F in zone 1. Energy Balance Equation: Qload = mrhc(THrhc - THRA) THrhc = (Qload / mrhc) + THRA = (21,213 BTU/hr / 2144.8 lb/hr) + 23.6 BTU/lb = 33.5 BTU/lb Step 6: Intersect reheated air total heat with the SHF = 1.0 line to determine reheated air temperature. DBrhc = 114'F (See the psychrometric chart - page 7) Step 7: Solve for reheat coil capacity (reheat coil #1). Qrhc1 = .91 * cfm * (DBrhc - DBSA) = .91 * 622 * (114 55) = 33,373 BTU/hr QRHC1 = 33,373 BTU/hr See attached summary sheet (page 7) for zone reheat coil sizes. 14. Size the Pre-heat Coil (phc) Qphc = System total air * .91 * (DBSA DBOA) = 3870 cfm * .91 * (55 - -12) F Qphc = 151,433 BTU/hr Pre-heating capacity required at AHU (air-handling unit)

NOTE: The pre-heat coil is generally sized to heat 100% OA to SA conditions.

-6-

-7-