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Chart

A chart is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structures. The term "chart" as a graphical representation of data has multiple meanings:

A data chart is a type of diagram or graph, that organizes and represents a set of numerical or qualitative data. Maps that are adorned with extra information for some specific purpose are often known as charts, such as a nautical chart or aeronautical chart. Other domain specific constructs are sometimes called charts, such as the chord chart in music notation or a record chart for album popularity.

Types of Chart
There following types:

Histogram Bar Graph Pie Graph Line Chart

Histogram
In statistics, a histogram is a graphical representation showing a visual impression of the distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable and was first introduced by Karl Pearson.[1] A histogram consists of tabular frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals (bins), with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval. The height of a rectangle is also equal to the frequency density of the interval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the interval. The total area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative frequencies

Bar chart
A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally. A vertical bar chart is sometimes called a column bar chart.

Example of a bar chart, with 'Country' as the discrete data set.

A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a discrete value. Some bar graphs present bars clustered in groups of more than one (grouped bar graphs), and others show the bars divided into subparts to show cumulate effect (stacked bar graphs).

Pie chart
A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Play fair's Statistical Breviary of 1801. Pie charts are very widely used in the business world and the mass media. However, they have been criticized,[4] and many experts recommend avoiding them, pointing out that research has shown it is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be replaced in most cases by other plots such as the bar chart.

Line chart
A line chart or line graph is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points connected by straight line segments. It is a basic type of chart common in many fields. It is similar to a scatter plot except that the measurement points are ordered (typically by their x-axis value) and joined with straight line segments. A line chart is often used to visualize a trend in data over intervals of time a time series thus the line is often drawn chronologically.

Bi-graph
A bi-graph (often used in the plural bi-graphs) can be modeled as the superposition of a graph (the link graph) and a set of trees (the place graph). Each node of the bi-graph is part of a graph and also part of some tree that describes how the nodes are nested. Bi-graphs can be conveniently and formally

displayed as diagrams. They have applications in the modeling of distributed systems for ubiquitous computing and can be used to describe mobile interactions. They have also been used by Robin Milner in an attempt to subsume Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and -calculus. They have been studied in the context of category theory.

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