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Application of Technology Assignment 2 Electronic Stability Control System Introduction Electronics have not been used much in the

automobiles, this being largely due to the relationship between the added cost and the benefit. Other than a radio, electronics introduced into commercial automobile during the 1950s and early 1960s were not well received by the customers (0). However, due to Governments regulations on reducing carbon emissions, improving safety and saving fuel, the requirement for better control of the car arose. Thus, the development of relatively low cost per-function solid state digital electronics that can now be used for engine control, communication, fuel economy, entertainment and many other applications. ESC (ESC) One area where digital electronics has had a positive impact on vehicle safety is the application of the Electronic stability Control (ESC) System. According to --, the ESC system is a computerized system that improves the safety of a vehicles stability by detecting and preventing skids (traction). It can help the driver from losing control of the vehicle in a panic swerve or when driving on icy or slippery roads. Braking can easily be applied to individual wheels automatically to counter over steer or under steer. The system can also help reduce engine power until control is regained. History The earliest innovators of ESC system were Mercedes-Benz and BMW in the 1987 (0). They introduced their first traction control system which is designed to apply individual wheel braking and throttle to keep traction while accelerating. In 1992, Robert Bosch working with BMW and Continental Auto Systems developed a system to reduce engine torque and prevent loss of control. This was then applied to the entire BMW model and become known as the Electronic Stability Program (ESP). Thats ESC system has other names according to their manufacturers, for

example, Dynamic Stability Control, Vehicle Stability Assist, Active Stabilty Control and etc. How ESC System works ESC system works with the other vehicles safety and regulatory devices, that is, the anti-lock braking (ABS) and traction control system (TCS) to prevent and correct problems before they become accidents. The ABS prevents the wheels from locking during braking and helps with over and under steer from getting worse while slowing the vehicle down to a controllable speed. TCS detects wheel slippage and is in charge of the longitudinal movements of the vehicle. At the centre of the ESC system is the Yaw velocity sensor, which acts like a compass and constantly monitors the exact attitude of the vehicle and registers.if the ESC system detects that the vehicle is swinging too far or not enough around the YAW(around a vertical axis or z), it is activated. Modern electronic system (sensors) report how high the current break pressure is, lateral acceleration is, position of steering wheel is and the difference in wheel speed. When handling becomes instable, necessary correcting commands are executed by the computer to bring the vehicle under control in a fraction of a second. Esc system information is fed into a vehicles central computer via 3types of sensors, (Geisler, 2011), that is; Wheel-speed sensors found at each wheel and it measures wheel speed Steering-angle sensors - found in the steering column and measures drivers intended direction. Rotational-speed sensor - known as the Yaw sensor, it is in the middle of the car. ESC systems have an off switch which enables the driver to disable ESC as when desirable, for example, when stuck in mud or snow. Benefits of ESC System The most important role of ESC system in driving safety has been the reduction in the number and severity of crashes. Numerous studies around the world have

shown that ESC is effective in helping control the car and thereby reducing the severity of crashes and saving lives. The following is listed to support of this; In the USA, in 2004, the National highway and traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) carried out studies on the effectiveness of ESC. The NHTSA concluded ESC reduces crashes by 35% on passenger cars. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) carried out its own study in June 2006, and showed that ESC reduces all fatal crashes by43%, total single vehicle crashes by 56% and fatal rollover by 77-80%, and in large trucks by 40-56%. In the UK, a research was carried out for the Department for Transport by Loughborough University found out that cars fitted with ESC are 25% less likely to be involved in a fatal accident than those without ESC. Skidding and overturning could be reduced by 59%. In 2006, Thatcham, an automotive research company produced fitment ratings for ESC in the UK and found out that 40% of UK models were fitted with ESC and this increased to 75% in 2011. In Europe ESC is complusory for all new cars as from November 2011 and on all cars by 11/2014. In Canada, Transport Canada in recent studies has shown that ESC can reduce number of total or serious crashes in light duty vehicles by 29%. A new Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standard now require ESC system for vehicles with gross weight of 4536kg and manufactured on or after September 1, 2011. Global Technical Regulation (GTR) the USA, Europe and Canada helped develop a Global Technical Regulation for ESC under the United Nations World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulation (WP29). This was adopted in June 2008 and will help promote international trade. GTR requires all new vehicles to be fitted by2012 and updates on old cars by 2014. Insurance according to IIHS (2006), losses under collision coverage were 15% lower for vehicles with ESC systems than for those models without. Disadvantages

ESC slightly increases fuel consumption due to added weight of components to the car. A new ESC system will add about 4kgs to the mass of a vehicle. Research carried out on car drivers perception of ESC system (V etal,2011), found that drivers tend to drive more carelessly when believing they have ESC, however, this may be due to lack of knowledge about ESC. Additions of ESC to the car will also add cost to final price of the car. Conclusions ESC systems also allows the driver to experience enhanced comfort and driving agility. References