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Switching and Lightning

Surges in Power Systems


The University of British Columbia
Electric Power Group
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering;
Power Systems Consultants, Vancouver, Canada
Hermann W. Dommel
June 2012

Email: hermannd@ece.ubc.ca

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Presentation Outline
Closing and re-closing operations on transmission lines (line energization)

Reduction of overvoltages in closing and re-closing operations on
transmission lines

Computer models for closing and re-closing operations on transmission lines

Examples for closing and re-closing operations on transmission lines

Lightning surges

Example for temporary overvoltages

Examples for subsynchronous resonance

Example for single-line-to-ground fault on transmission lines


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Presentation Outline
Example for transient recovery voltage

Example for linear resonance after opening a transmission line in parallel
with another line

Examples for steady-state coupling between parallel transmission lines

Capacitor switching

Inrush Currents

Interruption of small inductive currents

Real-time simulators, EMTP-type software

Specific references, general references
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Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
Circuit breakers at both ends I and II cannot close simultaneously.





Therefore, the voltage
surge travelling down
the line doubles
at the open end.


Low impedance
termination (dotted).
t 4
1
=
end open
f
t 2
1
=
Z low
f
f
open-end
= 250 Hz for 300 km
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Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
In reality, overvoltage can be >2.0 p.u. because:

not infinite source in A (therefore reflections),
line may have "trapped charge" from preceding opening operation,
three poles do not close simultaneously,
there are multi-velocity waves on a three-phase line (zero-sequence
wave speed is slower than positive sequence wave speed),
etc.

Approximate classification (from a paper by M. Erche [1]):
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Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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Statistical distribution
Overvoltage is not a single value, but statistically distributed because
overvoltage depends on V
source
at instant of closing,



three poles do not close simultaneously.

Closing times
Many cases must be run with different circuit breaker closing times,
that are either varied
statistically,
or systematically.
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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Cumulative frequency distribution
from 100 closing operations on
digital computers and transient
network analyzers (TNAs).



2 % value is often used
to define overvoltage with
one number
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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If insulation can withstand the 2 % overvoltage value, then 98 % of switching
operations will statistically be successful.
2 % of switching operations may statistically cause insulator flashover.
By opening circuit breaker and re-closing again, arc will be extinguished
(self-restoring insulation).
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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Voltage/time curves
Peak instantaneous overvoltage is not enough to say whether flashover
across insulator occurs.
Waveshape is also determining factor.
For nice laboratory impulses,
voltage/time curves can be obtained.

Actual waveshapes are much more
complicated, but standard impulse
waveshapes are needed for laboratory testing,
to meet impulse test standards.
There are flashover models, such as the
integral method, but rarely used:
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
( )
}
=
2
1
0
t
t
F dt v ) t ( v
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Events in re-closing operations
A fault occurs, usually in one phase.
The transmission line is de-energized (switched off at one end, then on
other end).
On unfaulted phases, the current is capacitive when remote end is
already switched off. Therefore, current and voltage are 90 out of
phase.
When current interrupts at current zero, voltage on line is at its
maximum (say, at -1.0 p.u.).
If circuit breaker re-closes when source voltage is at its opposite
maximum (say, at +1.0 p.u.), there is a voltage change of 2.0 p.u.
This re-closing operation with trapped charge produces the highest
overvoltages.
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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Events in re-closing operations
The overvoltage is now 3.0 p.u.
Closing & Re-closing Operations on Transmission Lines
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1. Controlled closing

Contacts close at instant when voltage is close to zero across the
contacts.

Requires some prediction of voltage across contacts.

Prediction is easy with a sinusoidal voltage on the source side, and
zero voltage on the line side,
or dc voltage on the line side with trapped charge.

Prediction is more complicated when re-closing into trapped charge
on a line with shunt reactors.
Reduction of Overvoltages in Closing and Re-Closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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1. Controlled closing
Re-closing into trapped charge on a line with shunt reactors:

In this case, there
is a beat phenomenon
in voltage across
contacts.

Resonance between
shunt reactors and
line capacitance
usually somewhat
below 50 or 60 Hz).
Reduction of Overvoltages in Closing and Re-Closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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2. Closing (pre-insertion) resistors
Close contact I first, then II after 8 to 10 ms.
From [1]:
Reduction of Overvoltages in Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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3. Metal oxide surge arresters
At both ends
At both ends and middle.
4. Comparison from [2] & [3] (re-closing into trapped charge with shunt reactors):
(staggered closing = close 2
nd
and 3
rd
pole 8 and 16 ms later in 60 Hz system)
Reduction of Overvoltages in Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Feeding network
Simplest model is voltage source behind 50 Hz or 60 Hz short-circuit
impedance, both for positive sequence and zero sequence.





This simple model is reasonable
if the feeding network is mostly
inductive, as in the case of
switching from a power plant:
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Feeding network
If the feeding network is more complicated, CIGRE recommends to
represent the lines in detail one or two substations away from the
substation where switching is done.
Beyond the one or two substations away, use the short-circuit
impedances to represent the rest.
Some utilities prefer to represent the large system completely in detail
(Hydro-Quebec?).
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Feeding network as equivalent network
A simplified version of an equivalent network recommended by CIGRE
uses the short-circuit impedance (resistance R
SC
and inductance L
SC
) in
parallel with the surge
impedance of the connected
lines, divided by the number
of lines, R
S
= Z
surge
/n [4]:

Frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE) creates an R-L-C
network that has more or less the same frequency response as the
complete network, over the frequency range of interest. Starts from
frequency scan of complete network.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Feeding network as equivalent network
H. Singh and A. Abur developed a time domain model that reaches back
more in history [5]:


This can handle travel time delays on transmission lines more easily.

Both FDNE and the time domain model are developed from the full
system.

If the equivalent is not used very often, it may be best to work directly
with the full system.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ... t t v g t t v g t v g t i + A + A + = 2
2 1 0
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Circuit breaker
Normally, the circuit breaker is represented as an ideal switch,
with closing time specified,
and closing taking place at the next time step nt t
close
, or in some
versions at nt closest to t
close
.
For slow circuit breakers or circuit switchers, prestrike may have to
be taken into account.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
t
Voltage across
contact
Contacts start to close
Dielectric strength
of contacts
Electric closure
Aiming point
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Transmission line; constant parameter model
The simplest model is the constant parameter model with constant per-
unit length parameters R, L, C, both in positive sequence and zero
sequence.
In EMTP version that I am familiar with, R is not really distributed,
but lumped at both ends and the middle.


Total resistance must be much less than
characteristic impedance Z
char
.
A truly distributed resistance is a special case of line models with
frequency dependent parameters,
because Z becomes frequency dependent:
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
length ' R R =
' C j
' L j ' R
Z
char
e
e +
=
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Transmission line; constant parameter model
This model is often accurate enough for switching studies because
frequencies are not very high (maybe to 10 kHz),
positive sequence parameters are more or less constant in that
range.






Zero seq. parameters are frequency dependent, but if three poles
close simultaneously, then there are no zero sequence surges.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Transmission line, frequency-dependent parameter models
Zero sequence parameters are very much frequency dependent.









This dependence must be taken into account if there are noticeable
zero sequence currents and voltages in the transients.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Transmission line, frequency-dependent parameter models
F. Castellanos and J. R. Marti [6] developed a frequency-dependent line
model by lumping in many more places along
lossless line sections, and taking the frequency dependence of these
lumped impedances into account.
represents the resistances and internal
inductances of the conductors and of earth return.
For three-phase lines, these impedances are 3*3 matrices.
It works directly in the phase domain, without having to go through
transformation between phase and mode quantities.
Well suited for un-transposed lines.
This approach works for underground cables as well, with minor
modifications [7].
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
( ) ( ) e e e
ernal int
L j R +
( ) ( ) e e e
ernal int
L j R +
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Transmission line, frequency-dependent parameter models
Most EMTP models are based on fitting propagation factor e
-l
and
characteristic impedance Z
char
() in the frequency domain.
For both positive and zero sequence, find propagation constant

With approach of J. R. Mart [8], calculate propagation factor A() = e
-l

in frequency domain, & convert to weighting function a(t) in time domain.
Before, we picked one history term
going back . Now we pick more,
using a weighting function a(t).
For efficiency, recursive
convolution is used to sum
history points with a(t).
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines

( ) ( ) ( ) ' C j ' L j ' R e e e e + =
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Transmission line, frequency-dependent parameter models
The characteristic impedance was a pure
shunt resistance Z before. Now it is
frequency- dependent.

Approximate

with an R-C circuit, as shown at right.
Straightforward for balanced (perfectly
transposed) lines.
On un-transposed lines, transformation
matrix approximated as real and constant
(not good for double-circuit lines).

Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
( )
( ) ( )
'
' '
C j
L j R
Z
e
e e e
e
+
=

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Transmission line, frequency-dependent parameter models
Much progress has been made, particularly for un-transposed lines,
mostly with phase domain based models:
T. Noda, N. Nagaoka and A. Ametani [9] developed the ARMA model
(auto-regressive moving average).
A. Morched, B. Gustavsen and M. Tartibi [10] developed the universal
model with vector fitting.
B. Gustavsen [11] added many refinements.
A. B. Fernandes and W. L. A. Neves included effects of shunt
conductance [14, 15].
Etc.
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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Trapped charge
There are various ways to represent it, depending on EMTP version.
Simulate the line opening, wait for trapped charge to settle to dc after some
oscillations, then close again. May require long simulation time.

In version which I use, initial conditions can be read in, which override the ac
steady-state solution values. Example for line from 1 to 2 with phases A, B,
C, read in initial voltages in 1A, 1B, 1C, 2A, 2B, 2C, and read in zero initial
currents in 1A-2A, 1B-2B, 1C-2C.

In older versions of EMTP, and maybe ATP, you can connect special voltage
sources V
max
cos(t) with a frequency of 0.001 Hz, (Tstart =
5432.0?), to approximate dc (solving directly for dc requires extensive code
changes to handle L = 0 and 1/C = ).
Computer Models for Closing and Re-closing
Operations on Transmission Lines
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CIGRE test case for energization of 202.8 km long line from inductive
source [12]



Source impedance (generator + transformer):
R
pos
= R
zero
= 6.75 ; X
pos
= X
zero
= 127 at 50 Hz.
Line: Z
pos
= 0.04 + j 0.318 /km at 50 Hz, C
pos
= 11.86 nF/km;
Z
zero
= 0.26 + j 1.015 /km at 50 Hz, C
zero
= 7.66 nF/km;
length = 202.8 km. Constant R, L, C assumed.
Circuit breaker: closing times, with respect to instant when voltage in
phase A goes through zero from positive to negative;
T
CLOSE-A
= 3.05 ms, T
CLOSE-B
= 8.05 ms, T
CLOSE-C
= 5.55 ms.
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
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CIGRE test case for energization of 202.8 km long line from inductive
source [12]








Overvoltage at receiving end in phase B; computer results (dashed line)
superimposed on family of curves from transient network analyzer
results; time count starts when wave arrives at receiving end

Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
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CIGRE test case for energization of 202.8 km long line from inductive
source [12]
This case did not have high frequencies, and constant parameter line
model and single
-circuit gave
almost identical
results.
In general, I would
not recommend
-circuits (on
transient network
analyzers, switched
line was typically represented by cascade connection of 10 -circuits).
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
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CIGRE test case for energization of 202.8 km long line from inductive
source [12]
Trapped charge can increase or decrease the overvoltages.
Depends on polarity of trapped
voltage.

Trapped charge Overvoltages
(p.u.) (p.u.)
A B C A B C
0.0 0.0 0.0 2.068 2.166 2.287
0.9 0.8 -0.8 1.368 1.538 1.342
-0.9 -0.8 0.8 3.086 3.172 3.469
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
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Energization of 400 km long line through closing resistors [13]
This was a field test by CEMIG in Brazil.
Line was switched from a power plant. No other lines were connected.
Line had a three-phase shunt reactor at sending end.
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
S
P
T
S
P
T
Sending
end
Receiving
end
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Energization of 400 km long line through closing resistors [13]
Modelling: (1) Find positive and zero sequence impedances looking into
power plant (generator with X
d
) , and then model as 3
coupled impedances.
(2) Model shunt reactor as 3 coupled impedances.
(3) Model line with constant parameters.
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
SOURCE
BREAKER
TRANSMISSION
LINE
REACTOR
Sending
end
Receiving
end
[x]
Vs(t)
[x]
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Energization of 400 km long line through closing resistors [13]
Voltages at sending end.
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
solid line: field test
dotted line: simulation
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Energization of 400 km long line through closing resistors [13]
Voltages at receiving end.









Going from constant to frequency-dependent parameter models did
not improve results much.
Examples for Closing and Re-closing Operations on
Transmission Lines
solid line: field test
dotted line: simulation
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Lightning Surges
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Backflashover: Lightning
stroke to tower or ground
wire produces overvoltage
on tower, which leads to
flashover across insulator to
line conductor

Direct stroke to conductor

Overvoltages induced into
line from nearby lightning
stroke to ground
The three main causes of lightning overvoltages:

39
Lightning Surges
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Simple single-phase study [40].
40
Lightning Surges
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Surge arrester characteristic (old silicon-carbide type with gap)
41
Lightning Surges
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Volt-time characteristic of 220 kV insulator string
42
Lightning Surges
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Results
43
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
Surge function, double exponential:

Used in impulse testing, such as in 1.2/50 s test.
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( )
t t
max
e e V ) t ( v
| o
=
44
Impulse shape for 1.2/50 s test:
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Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
45
CIGR surge function, with realistic convex front [41].

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. tail the for e k e k ) t ( v
and , front the of % for t k t k ) t ( v
/ ) t t ( / ) t t (
n
2 90 1 90
4 3
2 1
90
t t
=
+ =
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
46
Standler function [42] for convex front and for short tail, such as 8/20 s
impulse for surge arrester testing, which cannot be represented with
double exponential function


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( ) t
t
/ t
n
e
t
k ) t ( v

|
.
|

\
|
=
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
47
Heidler function (for convex front; short and long tail) [43]

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( )
( )
( ) t
t
t
/ t
n
n
e
/ t
/ t
k ) t ( v

+
=
1
1
1
Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
48
Short tail issue discussed by R. B. Standler in [42. p.87] :

Short tails (relative to front), such as 8/20 s current impulse for
surge arrester testing, cannot be represented with double
exponential function.
From my own tests, the shortest tail possible with the double
exponential function, using front time defined through 10 % and
90 % values, is 8/31 s, with
= - 69 730
= - 111 059
I
max
= 5.893 for a crest value of I
crest
= 1.0.

The shortest tail possible with the double exponential function, using
front time defined through 30 % and 90 % values, is 8/28 s.
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Surge Function Sources (either Voltage or Current)
49
Other improvements to lightning surge studies
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M-phase line models
*)

I prefer lossless high-frequency approximation, with



Tower models for surges

Models for insulator flashovers

Surge arrester models
*)
Metal-oxide arresters without gaps nowadays

Cable models
*)


Transformer models
*)

_______________________________________________________
___
*) See IEEE PES Task Force on Data for Modeling System
Transients in: list of references (slide 102)
d
D
Z
r
h
Z
mutual surge self surge
ln 60 ,
2
ln 60 = =

Electricit de France used a surge generator in outdoor and indoor
substations to produce fast surges of the lightning type [39].
50
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Lightning Surges
51
Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor
Example from M. Erche [1]:





This case is probably from American Electric Power Corp.
Caused by resonances between harmonics from transformer
saturation and line capacitance.

Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor










Overvoltages can last a long time.
Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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Energization of a line terminated with transformer or shunt reactor
Nonlinear inductances do not keep peak voltages down.
Part of the voltage around voltage zero is cut out, because of 90
phase shift between flux and voltage.
V
RMS
= f(I
RMS
) must be converted to flux linkage = f (current) (simplified
as 2-slope nonlinearity here)





This cut out produces the harmonics.
Example for Temporary Overvoltages
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Interaction between mechanical resonances on turbine-generator shaft
system and on electric network side
Occurs at frequencies below power frequency.
Most likely to occur on steam turbines, if a transmission line with series
capacitors is switched.
Unlikely to occur on hydro turbines because stiffer with higher
resonance frequencies.
Can also be caused by control modes in nearby HVDC terminal.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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Interaction between mechanical resonances on turbine-generator shaft
system and on electric network side
Example from General Electric Co. [17].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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First IEEE benchmark model [18, 20].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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First IEEE benchmark model, torque between generator & exciter.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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Second IEEE
benchmark
model [19, 21].
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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Second IEEE benchmark model, shaft between generator and low
pressure steam turbine.
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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Frequency-scan for impedance seen from power plant
Helps to see whether potential for subsynchronous resonance exists.



Example
from [26]:




Measured: Short circuit was applied for a few cycles. Change in v, i
transformed from time domain to frequency domain, to obtain Z().
Examples for Subsynchronous Resonance
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When a single-line-to-ground fault occurs on a transmission line, there
will be overvoltages on the unfaulted phases (typically 1.6 p.u.)
Frequency dependent line model is necessary, because there are large
zero sequence currents (I
zero
= I
pos
= I
neg
in fault current).
Example [8]:
Example for Single-Line-to-Ground Fault
on Transmission Lines
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When circuit breaker opens to remove the fault, a transient recovery
voltage appears across the contacts.
If rate of rise is too steep or amplitude is too high, circuit breaker may
restrike or re-ignite.
Important to include stray capacitances of transformers, busbars, etc.
Initial rate of rise used to be a problem in gas-insulated substations.
Example
from [13, 25].

Fault current:
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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For simulation, one can either simulate complete event (fault initiation,
fault clearing).

I prefer cancellation method, whereby a current is injected across
circuit breaker contacts that cancels the fault current.
Starts from zero initial conditions.
Network need only be represented to distance away where total
travel time > t
max
(no reflections coming back beyond that point).
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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Results for fault at 1.2 km from substation:













Solid line = field test; dotted line = simulation.
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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Initial rate of rise becomes worse if fault farther away from substation
(short-line fault
or kilometric fault).

Fault moved from
1.2 km to 8.0 km:

Fault current
decreases 13.7%.
Initial rate of rise
increases.
Example for Transient Recovery Voltage
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Can be studied as a steady-state case at power frequency (60 Hz or 50
Hz)
Best transmission line model is -circuit.
For complicated transposition schemes, use one -circuit for each
section.
Example from planning study at Bonneville Power Administration:
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
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Can be studied as a steady-state case at power frequency (60 Hz or 50
Hz)
Varying L of shunt reactor showed possibility of
resonance between coupling
capacitance and L.
L was changed somewhat to avoid
resonance at 60 Hz.
Resonance is more likely to occur at
harmonic frequencies in such cases.
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
rated current 132 A
rated inductance 6.09 H
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A similar case that actually happened on a 345 kV line that was close to
an energized 138 kV line is reported in [31] and [32].

A case of what might happen on a 765 kV line close to an energized
345 kV line is discussed in [33] for these situations:
No transpositions on both lines.
345 kV line transposed.
765 kV line transposed.
Both lines transposed.
Example for Linear Resonance after Opening a
Transmission Line in Parallel with another Line
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Three circuits in parallel are modelled as five nine-phase -circuits
Coupling is capacitive.
Steady-
state
case.
Example 1 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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Example 1 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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A double-circuit line is modelled as a cascade connection of twelve
six-phase -circuits.

Coupling is inductive [23].

Steady-state case.
Example 2 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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Results from one of many tests.
Example 2 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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73
From B. C. Hydro and Power Authority [24]

Steady-state case.

A large zero sequence voltage was induced into a 138 kV line from
adjacent 500 kV lines.

It distorted the 2-element revenue metering schemes of two large
industrial customers supplied from the 138 kV line.

The two customers were overcharged 3.5% for 15 years.

They received refunds of Can. $ 4 million.

The metering scheme was changed.
Example 3 for Coupling between
Parallel Transmission Lines
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Capacitor switching
Switching capacitances off
When switching a capacitor or unloaded transmission line off, the
capacitance remains charged up.



2.0 p.u. overvoltage
across contacts half a
cycle after opening.
Modern SF
6
circuit
breakers are less likely
to restrike than older
circuit breakers.
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Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
Voltage on capacitor cannot change instantaneously, because it is
determined by integral:



Equivalent circuit for EMTP
studies.

If voltage is originally zero, bus voltage collapses to zero temporarily
after switching on.
Creates voltage collapse on bus, as well as high inrush currents into
capacitor bank.
( ) ( )
}
+ =
t
du i
C
v t v
0
1
0
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Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
High dv/dt, v, and i may create
problems.
From Brunke and Schockelt [16]:








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Capacitor switching
Energization of capacitors
Reduction of transients with:
Closing (pre-insertion) resistors.
Synchronous (controlled) closing, close to zero voltage across
contacts.
Current-limiting reactors in series with capacitor.
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Capacitor switching
Effect remote from substation where capacitors are switched
In case shown here, it may have caused phase-to-phase insulation
failure 56 km away in a phase-shifting transformer [22].

Field test
and
simulation:

The University of British Columbia
79
Capacitor switching
Back-to back switching of capacitors
Back-to-back switching: one capacitor bank is energized, and another
capacitor bank next to it is switched on.
This is worst condition, as seen in previous case.

I analyzed a failure where an induction motor was switched on, close to
another running induction motor, in a pipeline pumping station.
Both had capacitors connected for power factor correction.
When second motor was switched on with vacuum contactor, the
contacts welded together, and contactor could no longer be opened.
After complicated modelling of induction motors, capacitors, etc., it
turned out to be so simple I could have solved it with a slide rule.
The University of British Columbia
80
Capacitor switching
Both induction motors were 5 m apart through a cable.
Both had a 600 kVar capacitor, rated 4.16 kV (line-to-line), 83.3 A.
One energized capacitor discharged into the capacitor of the motor being
switched on, through whatever inductance is between them.
Creates a very high inrush current, which welded the contacts in this
case.
The University of British Columbia
81
Capacitor switching
Simulation:










A current-limiting reactor would solve the problem.
The University of British Columbia
82
Capacitor switching
A more likely problem in such cases is overvoltages created by re-
ignitions when opening the vacuum contactor.
This is caused by tendency of vacuum contactors or circuit breakers to
chop currents (see next slide).
Surge capacitor on load being switched helps to prevent re-ignition (not
an issue in my case).
The University of British Columbia
83
When an unloaded transformer is energized, high inrush currents
may occur that are higher than rated current.

Cause is the nonlinear magnetizing inductance, with its nonlinear
curve for flux = f(i).

Modern circuit breakers close with high speed. Closing at v = 0 is as
probable as closing at v = V
max
(slow contacts used to prestrike close to
V
max
).

Since flux is integral of voltage



we get 2 p.u. flux if we close
at v = 0, assuming the residual
flux (0) at t = 0 is zero.
Inrush Currents
The University of British Columbia
}
+ =
t
du v ) ( ) t (
0
0
84







Residual flux can make the inrush current higher or lower.

There may also be high-frequency overvoltages in energizing three-
phase banks if the closing times are more than 5 ms apart. This may
have caused damages recently.
Inrush Currents
The University of British Columbia
85
The inrush current also depends on the tap position of the load tap changer,
and by positioning it conveniently, the inrush currents can be reduced.

If other transformers are already in operation close to the one being
energized, there is sympathetic interaction between them that influences
the inrush currents [35].

By monitoring the flux in the transformer, and by controlling the closing of the
circuit breaker contacts, it becomes possible to close at just the right
moment to reduce the inrush current to very small values similar to the
steady-state exciting current ([36], [37], [38]).
Inrush Currents
The University of British Columbia
86

Example from CIGRE Working Group [34]:
Inrush Currents
The University of British Columbia
87
Example from CIGRE Working Group [34]:
Inrush Currents
The University of British Columbia
88
Problem is current chopping in circuit breaker opening

Tendency to chop if current is small (because
of falling v(i) characteristic of arc, arc voltage
becomes high when current becomes low).

Small current is not the problem, but high derivative di/dt.

Can cause overvoltages

as .

Maximum overvoltage
factors when interrupting
magnetizing currrent of
high voltage transformers [1].
Interruption of Small Inductive Currents
dt
di
L
The University of British Columbia
89
Can also happen when switching off reactor-loaded transformers.













Vacuum circuit breakers have tendency to chop even at higher currents.
For CIGR reports, see [27], [28], [29], [30].
Interruption of Small Inductive Currents
The University of British Columbia
90
Real-time simulators
Playback

A simple way to test protective relays is to play back
simulation results through amplifiers. There is no feedback
from relay that may cause other actions.

Real-time simulators
(not my expertise; J. R. Marti works on it in UBC).

Commercially available:
RTDS (Manitoba, Canada)
Hypersim (Quebec, Canada)
OPAL (Quebec, Canada)
etc.
The University of British Columbia
91
EMTP-Type Software
BPA EMTP. Bonneville Power Administration may use
ATP now.

UBC MicroTran. Owned by University of British
Columbia. Website: www.microtran.com.

DCG/EPRI EMTP. Was developed from BPA EMTP by
Development Coordination Group and EPRI. First
commercialized as EMTP96 by Hydro One in Toronto,
Canada, then as EMTP-RV by Transnergie Technologies
(subsidiary of Hydro Quebec), and now by CEA
Technologies Inc. (www.emtp.com).
The University of British Columbia
92
EMTP-Type Software
ATP (Alternative Transients Program). Free, but requires
a license. EMTP developers cannot get it.

PSCAD and EMTDC from Manitoba HVDC Research
Centre (www.pscad.com).

DigSILENT from Germany (www.digsilent.de).

NETOMAC (Siemens).

SABER for power electronics.

SPICE, PSPICE for electronics.

Etc.
The University of British Columbia
93
The End
Thank you for your attention!
Any Questions?
The University of British Columbia
94
References
[1] K. Ragaller, editor, Surges in High-Voltage Networks. Plenum Press, New York, 1980,
p. 63-97.
[2] K. Froehlich, C. Hoelzl, M. Stanek, A.C. Carvalho, W. Hofbauer, P. Hoegg, B.L. Avent,
D.F. Peelo, J.H. Sawada, Controlled closing on shunt reactor compensated
transmission lines - Part I: Closing control device development - Part II: Application of
closing control device for high-speed autoreclosing on BC Hydro 500 kV
transmission line, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 734-746, April
1997.
[3] CIGRE Working Group 13.07, Controlled switching of HVAC circuit breakers
Benefits and economic aspects, ELECTRA No. 217, pp. 37-47, Dec. 2004.
[4] CIGRE Working Group 33.02, Guidelines for representation of network elements
when calculating transients. Technical Brochure CE/SC GT/WG 02, 1990.
[5] H. Singh and A. Abur, Multi-port equivalencing of external systems for simulation of
switching transients, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 374-382, Jan.
1995.
[6] F. Castellanos and J. Mart, Full frequency-dependent phase domain transmission
line model, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., Vol. 12, pp. 1331-1339, Aug. 1997.
The University of British Columbia
95
References
[7] Ting-Chung Yu and Jos R. Mart, A robust phase-coordinates frequency
dependent underground cable model (zCable) for the EMTP, IEEE Trans.
Power Delivery, Vol. 18, pp. 189-194, Jan. 2003.
[8] J. R. Marti, Accurate Modelling of Frequency-Dependent Transmission Lines in
Electromagnetic Transient Simulations, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and
Systems, vol. PAS 101, No.1, pp. 147157, January 1982.
[9] T. Noda, N. Nagaoka and A. Ametani, Phase Domain Modeling of Frequency-
Dependent Transmission Lines by Means of an ARMA Model, IEEE Trans. Power
Delivery, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 401-411,January 1996.
[10] A. Morched, B. Gustavsen and M. Tartibi, A Universal Model for Accurate
Calculation of Electromagnetic Transients on overhead Lines and Underground
Cables, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1032-1038, July 1999.
[11] B. Gustavsen, Validation of frequency dependent transmission line models, IEEE
Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 925-933, April 2005.
[12] CIGR Working Group 13.05, The calculation of switching surges. Part I. A
comparison of transient network analyzer results, ELECTRA No. 19, pp. 67-78,
Nov. 1971.
The University of British Columbia
96
References
[13] C.A.F. Cunha and H.W. Dommel, Computer Simulation of Field Tests on the 345
kV Jaguara-Taquaril line, (in Portuguese), Paper BH/GSP/12, Presented at II
Seminario Nacional de Producao e Transmissao de Energia Eletrica in Belo
Horizonte, Brazil, 1973 (English translation by D.I. Cameron).
[14] A. B. Fernandes anad W. L. A. Neves, Phase-domain transmission line models
considering frequrency-dependent transformation matrices, IEEE Trans. Power
Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 708 - 714, April 2004.
[15] A. B. Fernandes and W. L. A. Neves, Transmissioin line shunt conductance from
measurements, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 722 - 728, April 2004.
[16] J. H. Brunke and G. G. Schockelt, Synchronous energization of shunt capacitors
at 230 kV, presented at 1978 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Power
Meeting, New York, N. Y., Jan. 29 Febr. 3, 1978, paper no. A 78 148-9.
[17] D. H. Baker, Synchronous machine modeling in EMTP, IEEE Course Text Digital
Simulation of Electrical Transient Phenomena, No. 81 EHO 173-5-PWR, IEEE
Service Center, Piscataway, N.J., 1980.
The University of British Columbia
97
References
[18] IEEE Task Force, "First benchmark model for computer simulation of
subsynchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-96, pp. 1565-
1572, Sept./Oct. 1977.
[19] IEEE Task Force, "Second benchmark model For computer simulation of
subsynchronous resonance", IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-104, pp.
1057-1066, May 1985.
[20] Microtran Factsheet No. 1, Subsynchronous Resonance - Test Case 1, April 2003
(available on website www.microtran.com; click on Tech Spot).
[21] Microtran Factsheet No. 2, Subsynchronous Resonance - Test Case 2,
April 2003 (available on website www.microtran.com; click on Tech Spot).
[22] R. M. Hasibar, Examples of electromagnetic transients studies using the BPA
EMTP, Course Notes, EMTP Short Course, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wisconsin, 1987. Follow-up paper describing transformer failure: R. S. Bayless,
J. D. Selman, D. E. Truax, and W. E. Reid, Capacitor switching and transformer
transients, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 3, pp. 349-357, Jan. 1988.
[23] W. G. Peterson, R. M. Hasibar, and D. C. Gentemann, Grand Coulee Raver
500 kV double circuit line test July 15-16, 1980, Div. of System Engineering,
Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR, U.S.A.
The University of British Columbia
98
References
[24] M. B. Hughes, Revenue metering error caused by induced voltage from adjacent
transmission lines, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 7, pp. 741-745, April 1992.
[25] H. W. Dommel, Case Studies for Electromagnetic Transients. Microtran Power
System Analysis Corp., Vancouver, Canada, Sept. 1993.
[26] M. B. Hughes, R. W. Leonard, and T. G. Martinich, Measurement of power system
subsynchronous driving point impedance and comparison with computer
simulations, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-103, pp. 619 630, 1984.
[27]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 1
and 2", ELECTRA No. 72, pp. 73-103, CIGRE, Paris, Oct. 1980.
[28]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 3,
Part A", ELECTRA No. 75, pp. 5-30, CIGRE, Paris, March 1981.
[29]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 4,
Part A", ELECTRA No. 101, pp. 13-39, CIGRE, Paris, July 1985.
[30]CIGRE Working Group 13.02, "Interruption of Small Inductive Currents, Chapters 4:
Reactor Switching: Part B: Limitation of Overvoltages and Testing", ELECTRA
No. 113, pp. 51-74, CIGRE, Paris, July 1987.


The University of British Columbia
99
References
[31] M. J. Pickett, H. L. Manning, and H. N. Van Geem, Near resonant coupling on EHV
circuits: I Field investigations, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-87, pp.
322-325, Febr. 1968.
[32] M. H. Hesse and D. D. Wilson, Near resonant coupling on EHV circuits: II
Methods of analysis, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol. PAS-87, pp. 326-334,
Febr. 1968.
[33] J. J. LaForest, K. W. Priest, A. Ramirez, and H. Nowak, Resonant voltages on
reactor compensated extra-high-voltage lines, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., Vol.
PAS-91, pp. 2528-2536, Nov. 1972.
[34] B. Holmgrem, R.S. Jenkins, and J. Riubrugent, Transformer inrush current, CIGRE
Report 12-03, 1968.
[35] H.S. Bronzeado, P.B. Brogan, and R. Yacamini, Harmonic analysis of transient
currents during sympathetic interaction, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 11,
pp. 2051-2056, Nov. 1996.
[36] J. H. Brunke, and K. J. Frhlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by
controlled switching, Part I, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 16, pp. 276-280, April
2002.
The University of British Columbia
100
References
[37] J. H. Brunke, and K. J. Frhlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by
controlled switching, Part II, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 16, pp. 281-285, April
2002.
[38] E. Portales and A. Mercier, on behalf of CIGR Working Group A3.07, Controlled
switching of unloaded power transformers, ELECTRA No. 212, pp. 39-47, Feb.
2004.
[39] M. Rioual, Measurements and computer simulation of fast transients through indoor
and outdoor substations, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 5, pp. 117-123, Jan.
1990.
[40] J.R. Marti and H.W. Dommel, "Line models for lightning studies," Trans. Engineering
and Operating Division, Canadian Electrical Association, Vol. 28, 1989, 15 pages.
[41] CIGR Working Group 33.01, Guide to Procedures for Estimating the Lightning
Performance of Transmission Lines. CIGR Techn. Brochure Ref. 63, Paris 1991.
[42] R. B. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits for Overvoltages. Wiley-Interscience,
New York, N.Y. 1989.
[43] F. Heidler, "Analytische Blitzstromfunktion zur LEMP-Berechnung (analytical
lightning current function for LEMP calculations)", Paper No. 1.9, ICLP-
Proceedings, Munich 1985.


The University of British Columbia
101
General References
In addition to the specific references quoted before, advice for Electromagnetic
Transient Studies can also be found in the following publications:

IEEE Publications:
J. A. Martinez-Velasco, editor, Computer Analysis of Electric Power System Transients.
IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., 1997. Collection of papers on 619 pages.
IEEE PES Special Publication, Modeling and Analysis of System Transients. IEEE
Catalog No. 99TP133-0, IEEE Operations Center, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., 1998.
Put together by a Working Group chaired by A.J.F. Keri:
i Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Using Digital Programs - Introduction (A.J.F. Keri, A.M. Gole)
1. Digital Computation of Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems: Current Status (J.A. Martinez-Velasco)
2. Modeling Guidelines for Power Electronics in Electric Power Engineering Applications (K.K. Sen and L. Tang, H. W. Dommel, K.G. Fehrle,
A.M. Gole, E.W. Gunther, I. Hassan, R. Iravani, A.J.F. Keri, R. Lasseter, J.R. Marti, J.A. Martinez, M.F. McGranaghan, O.B. Nayak, C.
Nwankpa, P.F. Ribeiro)
3. Modeling Guidelines for Low Frequency Transients (R. Iravani, A.K.S. Chandhury, I.D. Hassan, J.A. Martinez, A.S. Morched, B.A. Mork, M.
Parniani, D. Shirmohammadi, R.A. Walling)
4. Modeling Guidelines for Switching Transients ( D.W. Durbak and A.M Gole, E.H. Camm, M. Marz, R.C. Degeneff, R.P. O'Leary,
R. Natarajan, J.A. Martinez-Velasco, Kai-Chung Lee, A. Morched, R. Shanahan, E.R. Pratico, G.C. Thomann, B. Shperling, A.J.F. Keri,
D.A. Woodword, L. Rugeles, V. Rashkes, A. Sarshar)
5. Modeling Guidelines for Fast Front Transients (A.F. Imece, D.W. Durbak, H. Elahi, S. Kolluri, A. Lux, D. Mader, T.E. McDermott,
A. Morched, A.M. Moussa, R. Natarajan, L. Rugeles, E. Tarasiewicz)
6. Modeling Guidelines for Very Fast Transients in Gas Insulated Substations (J.A. Martinez and D. Povh, P. Chowdhuri, R. Iravani,
A.J.F. Keri)
7. Modeling and Analysis of Transient Performance of Protection SystemsUsing Digital Programs (A.K.S. Chaudhary and R.E. Wilson,
M.T. Glinkowski, M. Kezunovic, L. Kojovic, J.A. Martinez)
8. Bibliography on Modeling of System Transients Using Digital Programs (J.A. Martinez-Velasco and T. E. Grebe)
The University of British Columbia
102
General References
IEEE Power Engineering Society, Tutorial on Electro- magnetic Transient Program
Applications to Power System Protection. A. Tziouvaras, Course Coordinator. IEEE
Catalog No. 01TP150.
IEEE PES Task Force on Data for Modeling System Transients, Parameter
Determination for Modeling System Transients Part I: Overhead Lines; Part II:
Insulated Cables; Part III: Transformers; Part IV: Rotating Machines; Part V: Surge
Arresters; Part VI: Circuit Breakers; Part VII: Semiconductors, IEEE Trans. on
Power Systems, Vol. 20, pp. 2038-2094, July 2005.

Books (compiled with help from Dr. Luis Naredo):

H. H. Skilling, Transient Electric Currents. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937.
H. A. Peterson, Transients in Power Systems. Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
1966 (ISBN 0-486-61685-1).
R. Rdenberg, Electrical Shock Waves in Power Systems. Harvard University Press,
1968.
J. P. Bickford, N. Mullineux, and J. R. Reed. Computation of Power-System
Transients. IEE Monograph Series 18, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1976.
The University of British Columbia
103
General References
W. D. Humpage, Z-Transform Electromagnetic Transient Analysis in High Voltage
Networks. IEE Power Engineering Series 3, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK,
1982 (ISBN 0-906048-79-6).
A. Greenwood, Electrical Transients in Power Systems, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons,
1992.
P. Chowdhuri, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems. Research Studies Press
LTD, 1996; John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (ISBN 0 86380 180 3).
L. van der Sluis, Transients in Power Systems. John Wiley and Sons, LTD, 2001 (ISBN
0 471 48639 6).
N. Watson and J. Arrillaga, Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation. The
Institution of Electrical Engineers, United Kingdom, 2003.
L.C. Zanetta Jr., Transitrios Eletromagnticos em Sistemas de Potencia (in
Portuguese). Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, 2003.
Antonio E. A. Arajo and Washington L. A. Neves, Transitrios Eletromagnticos em
Sistemas de Energia (in Portuguese). Editora de Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Brazil, 2005.
Juan A. Martinez-Velasco, Power System Transients: Parameter Determination. CRC
Press LLC; 1st edition (Oct 2 2009).
The University of British Columbia
104
General References
Antonio Gmez Expsito, Anlisis y operacin de sistemas de energa elctrica,
McGraw Hill, Madrid, Spain 2002.
Antonio Gmez-Expsito, Antonio J. Conejo, Claudio Caizares, Electric Energy
Systems Analysis and Operation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2009.
H. W. Dommel, EMTP Theory Book, 2nd edition. Microtran Power System Analysis
Corp., Vancouver, Canada, 1992, latest update January 2005 (there is probably an
ATP edition from what I delivered to Bonneville Power Administration in 1986).
J. C. Das, Transients in Electrical Systems; Analysis, Recognition, and Mitigation.
McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y., U.S.A., 2010.
M. A. Ibrahim, Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. IEEE Press and John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, N. J., USA, 2012. This 718-page book contains many cases of
disturbances that were recorded on digital fault recorders.
The University of British Columbia
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Douglas Mader
dmader@bellsouth.net
Insulation Coordination
Studies
IEEE PES Short Course
Electromagnetic Transients in Power System and Insulation
Coordination Studies
June 18, 2012
New Orleans, Louisiana
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


IEC Standard 60071-1 (2010)

3
rd
edition published 2006 (amended in 2010)

terms and concepts defined

standard withstand values defined (up to 1200 kV)

standard tests defined

IEEE Standards C62.82.1 (2010)
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


IEC Standard 60071-2

published December 1996

application guide for 60071-1

IEEE Standard 1313.2-1999 (R2005)
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
IMPORTANT TERMS
AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIPS
Selection of performance criterion leading to the coordination
factor is heart of problem
EMTP-RV
Representative Overvoltage
Coordination Factor Performance Criteria
Coordination Withstand Voltage
Safety Factors
Required Withstand Voltage
Tables
Rated or Standard Insulation Level
STRENGTH
STRESS
IEC 60071-1
k
k
a
s
k
k
cd
cs
Insulation Coordination Process
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


The selection of the dielectric strength of equipment
in relation to the voltages which can appear on the
system for which equipment is intended, taking into
account the service environment and the
characteristics of available protective devices.
Insulation Coordination
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


U
m
- The highest voltage for equipment


Range I - U
m
< 245 kV

Range II - U
m
> 245 kV
System Characterization
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


For the purposes of insulation coordination,
overvoltages are divided into four classes:


Temporary Overvoltages (power frequency)

Phase-to-Earth and Phase-to-Phase
Longitudinal


Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


Next,

Slow-Front Overvoltages

Phase-to-Earth and Phase-to-Phase
Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


And finally

Fast-Front Overvoltages

Combined Overvoltages

Phase-to-Phase
Longitudinal in phase and out-of-phase
Representative Overvoltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Representative Overvoltage
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-1
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

After discussing the various overvoltage stresses,
their origins, and typical values, we will explore
examples of overvoltage calculation and use a
model 230 kV system and computer simulation to
illustrate

Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Temporary Overvoltages (TOV)

Origins

Earth Faults (Phase-Earth)
Load Rejection
Ferroresonance
Harmonic resonance
Transformer Inrush
Machine Self-Excitation


Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Usually, especially for long distance transmission,
load rejection following loss of system synchronism
results in the highest temporary overvoltage.
Generally desirable to limit 1-second value to 1.5 per
unit of rated rms voltage.
This is because the maximum TOV determines the
required rating of surge arresters. The switching and
lightning impulse protective level are determined in
turn by the arrester rating. These protective levels in
turn determine the insulation design and cost.
Can usually be achieved by an optimum mix of series
and shunt compensation including SVC in some
cases, and avoiding low harmonic order resonances
TOV Determines Insulation Design
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr



A one minute duration power frequency overvoltage:

- a maximum value

- a set of peak values

- a complete statistical distribution


Representation of TOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Slow-Front Overvoltages (SFOV)

Origin

Line energization and reclosing
Faults and fault clearing
Load rejection
Switching of inductive and capacitive currents
Slow front lightning overvoltages (of minor importance)

Important particularly in range II
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
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rights reserved
81\211.pr



Surge Arrester Protection
- deterministic method
- truncation values if U
ps
> U
t

- U
ps
if U
ps
< U
t


No Surge Arresters
- deterministic method
- truncation values
- statistical method
Representation of SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


(no surge arrester limitation)

Usually characterized by a statistical (Weibull or
Gaussian) probability distribution of standard switching
impulses (250/2500 us) with the following parameters:
Statistical Representation of SFOV
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rights reserved
81\211.pr


Distribution Definition

U
e2
- overvoltage phase-to-earth in per unit
having 2% probability of being exceeded
U
p2
- same as U
e2
but phase-phase
S
e
- standard deviation of the distribution
phase-earth in per unit
S
p
- standard deviation of the distribution
phase-phase in per unit
U
t
= U
50
+ 3S (truncation)(Weibull)
Statistical Representation of SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr



Per Unit Base
2

3
U
m
phase-to-earth peak
SFOV Studies
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
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Fast-front Overvoltages (Lightning)

a) Begins with lightning current probability distribution
and front time probability distribution and a spacial
distribution of stroke termination points.

b) Because of separation effects, each piece of
equipment has a different representative
overvoltage which is a statistical quantity.
Determining Overvoltage Stresses
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


TOV
1
- 1 second temporary overvoltage capability
- basis of application (ANSI)

- IEC uses 10 seconds

- gives one point on the "No-Prior-Energy"
curve
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Determine TOV
1 (10)

- use computer simulation to determine TOV envelope
and arrester energy for such origins as

- load rejection
(model complete machine and controls)
- transformer inrush
- ferroresonance
- dynamic overvoltage associated with HVDC
- determine earth fault factor from X
1
X
0
R
0
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Selection of Surge Arresters
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Performance criteria, coordination factor, and the
selection of the Coordination Withstand Voltage

U
CW
= k
C
U
rp
k
cd
Deterministic
k
cs
Statistical

For temporary overvoltage (Power Frequency)
K
cd
= 1.0.

- main considerations are pollution and
extreme wind.


Coordination Withstand Voltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

For Equipment protected by surge arresters

use deterministic or conventional method

select arrester rating by temporary overvoltage

for slow front overvoltages

- by EMTP-RV studies, determine protective level
U
ps
at equipment
U
CW
for SFOV with Surge
Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

For Slow Front Overvoltages

If U
ps
< 0.7 U
e2
k
cd
= 1.1 for phase-earth
or if U
ps
< 0.5 U
e2
k
cd
= 1.1 phase-phase

If 0.7 < U
ps
/ U
e2
1.2 use graph (p - e)
If 0.5 < U
ps
/ U
e2
0.9 use graph (p - p)

This adjustment to k
cd
takes into account the skewing of
the probability distribution due to the control by the
arrester.

Note also that where the degree of limitation of U
e2
by
arresters is large, the limited values of U
p2
can approach
2xU
ps
.
U
CW
for SFOV with Surge
Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
K
CD
for SFOV Limited by SA
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pre

Application of Weibull Distribution to "m"
Insulations

P
m
= 1 - (1 - P)
m
yielding P
m
(X) = 1 - 0.5

and

Z
m
= Z/m
1/5


and
U
50m
= U
50
- 4(Z - Z
m
) = U
50
- 4Z (1 - 1/m
1/5
)
m 1 +
X
4
5
Self-Restoring Insulation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Self-Restoring Insulation
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved

Example: - 100 insulators
- For each, U
50
= 1600 kV
Z = 100 kV

Then: - Z
m
=100 / (100)
1/5
= 39.8 kV

and - U
50m
= U
50
- 4 (Z - Z
m
) = 1600 - 4 x (100 - 39.8)

= 1359.2 kV


P(u)% 50 16 10 2 1 0.1 0
U (kV) 1600 1500 1475 1400 1370 1310 1200
Um(kV) 1359 1319 1308 1280 1268 1244 1200
Self-Restoring Insulation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

i.e. No Surge Arrester Protection

applies in particular to slow-front overvoltages

Usually consists of self-restoring insulation

k
C
determined by a risk-of-failure calculation



Computer calculation (laborious)
R = f(U) P(U) dU
U
t
U
50-4z
SFOV U
CW
for Unprotected Equipment
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
SFOV U
CW
for Unprotected Equipment
81\211.pre

Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Simplified by relating risk-of-failure to the ratio of the voltages
corresponding to two reference probabilities.

the statistical withstand voltage

U
90
= U
50
- 1.3Z

the 2% overvoltage U
2


K
CS
= U
90
/U
2


statistical coordination factor

Choice of K
CS
is the key performance criteria.
Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 60071-2
Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Example 100 insulators
Let U
e2
1200 kV S
e
= 100kV

For one insulator
U
90
(10% F.O. prob.) = 1475 kV
K
CS
= 1475 = 1.23
1200
R = 10
-5


For 100 insulators
U
90
= 1308 kV
K
CS
= 1308 = 1.09
1200
R = 10
-3


Simplified Statistical Method for SFOV
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Fast Front Overvoltages

For fast-front overvoltages k
cd
= 1.0 and the
protective level at the equipment takes into
account separation effects, which can be quite
large at higher values of U
m
U
CW
for FFOV with Surge Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved


For simple arrangements of equipment with close-by
arresters and terminal capacitance less than a few
hundred picofarads, we would expect the protective
level at the equipment to approach:

U
cw
= U
p
+ 2ST
U
p
= arrester lightning impulse protective level
S = steepness in kV/s
T = equivalent time in microseconds
=

c = light speed in m/s (~ 300)
+ a + a +
1 2
c
U
CW
with Surge Arrester Limitation
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Source IEC 60071-2
Effect of Separation Distance
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr
Correction and safety factors are applied to
obtain the Required Withstand Voltage

Altitude Correction (IEC 721-2-3 (1990))

Applied to external (atmosphere-exposed)
insulation

k
a
= b
m


b = e
(H/8150)


H = altitude in meters
}
k =
a e
H
8150
m
Safety and Correction Factors
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

For switching-impulse required withstand:

m is determined from the figure as a function of
U
CW
and the insulation configuration


Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

For lightning impulse required withstand and short-
duration power-frequency withstand voltages of air gaps:

m = 1

For polluted insulator continuous power frequency
withstand:

m = 0.5 - 0.8 (standard units - fog units)
Exponent m for
Altitude Correction Factor
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


If k
a
>1.05 the required withstand voltage of
external insulation can be greater than that for the
internal.

Example transformer winding versus bushings

Either:
- over design the internal insulation
- external insulation separately tested on a
dummy
- air clearances equal to or greater than tables
A1 - A3.


Mixed Insulation at High Altitudes
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

Safety Factors

aging
unknowns
tolerances - assembly, quality control, installation
test dispersion

External Insulation k
S
= 1.05

Internal Insulation k
S
= 1.15

Then U
RW
= k
a
k
S
U
CW


* may be up to 1.2 or more for GIS in Range II
Required Withstand Voltage
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


In range I, we specify and test

short-duration power frequency withstand

lightning impulse withstand

In range I, we must convert the required switching
impulse withstand voltage into an equivalent short-
duration power-frequency withstand voltage or
lightning impulse withstand voltage.

Table 2 of IEC 60071-2 Section 5.2 provides
conversion factors.
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr

In range II, we specify

switching impulse withstand voltage phase-earth and
phase-phase

lightning impulse withstand voltage

We must convert the required power frequency
withstand voltages phase-earth and phase-phase to
an equivalent switching impulse withstand voltage.

Table 3 of IEC 60071-2 Section 5.2 provides
conversion factors.
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Conversion of U
RW
to
Standard Test Voltages
81\211.pre
Source IEC 60071-2
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
81\211.pr


Select a set of standard insulation values closest to
each of the values of U
RW
for the various
overvoltage classifications.

Where possible, design the insulation to
correspond to a Standard Insulation Level which is
defined as a set of rated insulation levels related as
a group to U
m
and corresponding to one line in the
IEC tables.
Rated/Standard Insulation Level
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 60071-1
Copyright Douglas Mader, all
rights reserved
Source IEC 60071-1
1
Douglas Mader
dmader@bellsouth.net
Study Examples Using EMTP
Electromagnetic Transients in Power System and Insulation
Coordination Studies
June 18, 2012
New Orleans, Louisiana
2
\211.pr

EMTP Models for Circuit Breakers

Ideal Switch

Acts as an ideal Switch:

Impedance = 0 before current zero
Impedance = after current zero

Assumes - Prospective currents and voltages are
unaffected by the interruption process
itself
Has primary use in breaker specification and
overvoltage studies
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
3
\211.pr
EMTP Models for Circuit Breakers

Simple time controlled
Closes at t t
close

Opens at t t
open
and current < I
margin
or at the next
zero crossing if I
margin
= 0

Heuristic (Statistical and Systematic)
Models the externally-observed circuit breaker
operation - pole spread, restrike, reignition, prestrike
Useful for overvoltage studies (statistical overvoltage
distribution)
Interrupts also as an ideal switch
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
4
\211.pr

Ideal Switch Random/Systematic

By combining the statistical distribution of overvoltages
with the statistical properties of breakdown strength of
insulation, it becomes possible to determine a risk of
flashover or insulation failure

Let Pd (U) be the known probability of flashover for a
known overvoltage U. and let p(U) be the probability of
occurrence of an overvoltage of magnitude U. The overall
risk of failure is then:

R = Pd(U) p(U) dU

-
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
5
\211.pr

Point on Wave delay

T
offset
= 1./f ((1-X) Dmin + X Dmax)
360.

X is a random uniformly distributed number between 0 and 1

Dmin and Dmax are the min. and max. angles
respectively of a window in a sinusoidal waveform of
frequency f



Circuit Breakers and
Switches
6
\211.pr

Typical Parameter Values and Practical Advice

Typical Pole Spans 6-10 ms (3.5-5.5 for newer spring-
hydraulic mechanisms
Standard Deviation 1-1.67 ms (.6-.8 ms)
Mean Closing Time 16-20 ms

Higher statistical overvoltages associated with larger pole
span

Make sure minimum absolute close time after random
calculation is > 0.0

Typically 200 shots used
If you have a fast machine use more for better accuracy
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
7
\211.pr

Typical Parameter Values and Practical Advice

Select the ideal switch output tab option to get the
actual switching times of the worst case and re-run it
to observe the waveshape

For point on wave use uniform law

Use Gaussian law for closing times at 3 std dev
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
8
\211.pr

Pre-insertion Resistors in Breakers

Common method of reducing line switching or capacitor
switching overvoltages

Typical Insertion Time 7-10 ms

Must be no less than twice the line travel time

Simulated by an independent statistical auxiliary contact
in series with the resistor and a statistical main shorting
contact dependent on the auxiliary contact with mean
closing time 7-10 ms. The standard deviation of the
auxilliary contact is typically half that of the main contact.
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
9
\211.pr

Preinsertion Resistors
A. Auxilliary Contact
B. Main Contact
R. Resistor
R A
B
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
10
\211.pr
Test System for Lab Exercises
x"=.0546
200
4
11kV 222MVA
10%
5
50MVA
0.9PF
220 kV
16km
7
145km
1
61MVAC
193km
24km
220kV
12 13
200MVA
9.1%
220kV
66kV
2
10
9.1%
400MVA
0.9PF
500MVA
50MVAC
11kV 9.1%
100MVA
11kV
220kV
290km
290km
230kV SYSTEM
GENERAL FEATURES
220kV
200
MVA
0.9PF
50MVA
9.1%
50
97km
220kV
9.1%
500MVA
500
11kV
6
8
11
X"=.08744
180
DRAFT\DJM\PAKGEN.PRE
200MVA
x"=.02186
x"=.1421
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
200
10%
200 MVA
11
\211.pr

Example


Set up a statistical three phase switch to leave a
trapped charge on line 1-2 by opening and another
to reclose the line against trapped charge. (Make a
subcircuit). Obtain the overvoltage distribution at the
BUS2 end.

Add a pre-insertion resistor to the reclosing breaker
and repeat.

Capacitor Switching

Circuit Breakers and
Switches
12
\211.pr

Transient Recovery Voltage

Breakers rated in terms of magnitude and rate of rise

ANSI and IEC standards have now been harmonized
with IEC 62271-100, but studies for older ANSI
breakers need to respect the applicable edition of
C37

Indoor and Outdoor breakers distinguished

Prospective TRV envelope is best simulated by
EMTP ideal switch
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
13
\211.pr

Transient Recovery Voltage

IEC Rating method is also divided into two groups at Um=100
kV, the same as ANSI.

The 2-parameter test characteristic applies to Class S1 and S2
breakers rated at or below 100 kV and the parameter values are
obtained from Tables 1 and 2 of 62271-100:

Uc = is a function of Um
t
3
is function of Um
t
3
= T
2
/1.138
td,t',u' allow for the
effect of bus/breaker
capacitance
Uc
U'
0
td t' t3
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
14
\211.pr

Transient recovery Voltage

Above 100 kV, the 4-parameter test characteristic applies and
parameters are obtained from Tables 3, 4, and 5 of 62271-100:

U1 = 0.8 Uc
t1 is function of Um
t2 = 3t1
Uc
U'
0
td t' t1
U1
t2
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
15
\211.pr
Simple Circuit for Overdamped TRV

300 mH 100 km
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
~
E cos t
16
\211.pr
Simple Circuit for Underdamped TRV
With With Short Line Fault

3 mH 1 km
~
E cos t
.25 uF
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
17
\211.pr

Transient Recovery Voltage

Important for Initial rate of rise to represent the bus
side capacitances. Distributed parameter lines may
be necessary for extensive buswork

Breaker capability curve can be generated in Controls
and plotted against the actual TRV

Entergy actual example
Circuit Breakers and
Switches
81\211.pre

Lightning Overvoltages

Three causes - all associated with overhead lines
1. Backflashover
2. Direct Strokes to Phase (shielding failure)
3. Induced (nearby strokes to ground)

Direct strokes to station are usually ignored because
perfect shielding via masts or wires is assumed.

Studies focus primarily on line performance
(backflashover and shielding failure events) and
arrester application
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 18
81\211.pre



Backflashover

Above typically about 50 kA strokes to towers or
overhead ground wires can produce voltages on the
tower high enough to cause flashover of the line
insulation.

Steep wavefront surge imposed on the affected phase
conductor which is attenuated in steepness and
magnitude through propagation by earth resistance and
corona

Reflections from adjacent towers and the footing act to
limit the overvoltage peak as does coupling to phase
conductors.
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 19
81\211.pre

Shielding Failure
Occur when a flash misses the shield wires or tower
and terminates directly on a phase conductor.
Prospective overvoltage at stricken point is:



V
60
= instantaneous power frequency voltage
Z
s
= conductor surge impedance

Most involve strokes of a few kA but can involve
subsequent strokes of greater magnitude (<80 kA)
and steepness than first stroke but with shorter tail
V = + V
60
(t)
I Z
2
s
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 20
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 21
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 22
81\211.pre

Shielding Failure

IEEE 1243-1997 (R2008)

S = 10I
.65
(m, kA) (Love)

I = 0.029S
1.54
(kA, m)

= 0.36 + .168 In (43 - [h
G
+ h

)]/2)

(h
G
+ h

) /2 < 40 m

= .55S h > 40 m
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 23

Important Parameters (CIGRE)

l
I
- Initial Crest Current
l
F
- Final Crest Current
T
h
- Tail Duration
t
d30
= T
30
/.6 = Rise time from 30% of peak to 90% of peak of l
I

S
m
= maximum steepness (at crest of l
I
)

All parameters are generally approximated by log-normal
distributions

Lightning stroke has a concave wavefront
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 24
PEAK
I
I
I
90
I
F
I
10
I
30
I[ka]
ITrig
Tan 10
TANG
(S
m)
T[us]
T
30
T
10
Definition of front parameters for a
lightning current impulse of negative
polarity
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 25
CIGRE Distribution for Key Parameters





Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 26
81\211.pre

Modeling Guidelines

Stroke Modelling

Modelled generally as an ideal current source.

Stroke Surge Impedance is an inverse function of
peak current (up to ~35 - 40kA)

Z
st
= 6897 158.45I
F
(Mazur & Ruhnke 2001)
(3000 ohms at 25 kA)

Double exponential type models inadequate.

Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 27
81\211.pre

Modeling Guidelines

Stroke Modelling

Simulation of concave wavefront is important for
lightning protection.
Peak current amplitude
Maximum steepness at 90% of current peak.
Average steepness between 30% and 90% of
current peak.

Tail is important
Tail duration (energy).
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 28
81\211.pre

Concave Front













l = At + Bt
n

where t = time in s
n = 1 + 2(S
N
-1) (2 + 1/S
N
)
S
N
= S
m
t
f
/ l
t
f
= front time
= t
d30


A = 0.9 n - S
m

1
n - 1
l
t
n
B = [S
m
t
n
- 0.9 l ]
1
t
n
n
(n-1)
t
n
= 0.6 t
f
3S
N
2
/(1 + S
N
2
)
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 29
81\211.pre

Tail





l = l
1
e
-(t-tn)/t1
- l
2
e
-(t-tn)/t2

t
h
= time to half value
t
1
= (t
h
- t
n
)/ ln 2
t
2
= 0.1 l / S
m
l
1
= t
1
t
2

t
1
-t
2
S
m
+ 0.9 l
t
2
l
2
= t
1
t
2

t
1
-t
2
S
m
+ 0.9 l
t
1
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 30
81\211.pre

Approximations
IEEE (5 kA < l < 200 kA)

= 0.30


= 0.20


Ramp function front at S
m
to l
peak

Ramp function tail from I
peak
through t
h

Adequate for studies and can easily be used in hand
calculations
P =
P =
1 +
l
31
2.6
1
l
1 +
S
24
4
1
S
log S
log I


Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 31
81\211.pre

For steel towers model tower as a distributed single
phase lossless line with surge impedance: (Chisholm
1985)








(based on surge impedance of conical sections)


r
1
= Tower Top Radius (m)
r
2
= Tower Midsection Radius (m)
r
3
= Tower Base Radius (m)
h
1
= Height from Base to Midsection (m)
h
2
= Height from Midsection to Top (m)



( ) ( )
-1
tan
1
2
R
avg

h
1
+ h
2
Z
avg
= 60 In cot
where
R
avg
=
r
1
h
2
+ r
2
(h
1
+ h
2
) + r
3
h
1


h
1
+ h
2
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 32
81\211.pre

Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Tower Surge Impedance

Propagation velocity in towers can vary from 70%
of light speed in broad cross-section lattice steel
towers with many cross arms to just under lighjt
speed in tall towers with narrow cross section

Surge impedance of guy wires should be evaluated
separately and placed in parallel

Surge impedance of a vertical wire of length h/2 is
about 10% more than that of a horizontal wire at
h/2


Douglas J. Mader 33
81\211.pre

Earth Electrode Model

Model the footing resistance and transient response

R
o
= low current earth resistance ()

g = geometric sum of length + width + depth (m)

= resistivity of earth (-m)

A = total surface area of electrode (m
2
)
R = ln (11.838g
2
/A) (Chisholm 2001)
o
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis

2 g

Douglas J. Mader 34
81\211.pre

Earth Electrode Model

Add a contact resistance correction term





For concrete piers use the area of the concrete in
the previous equation and the contact resistance
based on the resistivity of concrete (70-250 ohm-
meters)

L = total length of all the wires in the grid
R
c
= (Chisholm 2001)
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis

L
Douglas J. Mader 35
81\211.pre

Line Insulators

Represent by flashover in parallel with capacitance
Capacitance for suspension units ~ 80 pF/unit
Simulate flashover characteristic by built in leader
development, equal area integration models or
Volt-time curve models built using controls

CIGRE volt-time curve:






V = 400 + d (kV)

d = gap in metres

0.2 s < t < 16 s
710
t .75
[ ]
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 36
81\211.pre

Line Insulators

Leader Development Model:

t
c
= time to breakdown = t
i
+ t
s
+ t
l

t
i
= corona inception time (assumed=0)
t
s
= streamer propagation time

1/t
s
= 1.25(E/E
50
)-0.95 (1/usec)

E = max gradient in gap before breakdown (kV/m)
E
50
= average gradient at CFO


Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 37
81\211.pre

Line Insulators

Leader Development Model:
For t
l


dL/dt = K V(t)(V(t)/(g-L) - E
o
) (kV,m)

V(t) = voltage across the gap in kV
L = leader length in m
g = gap length in m
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 38
81\211.pre

Line Insulators

Leader Development Model:


Gap Config. Polarity K(m
2
/kV
2
sec) E
o
(kV/m)

Air Gaps,Post + 0.8 600
Insulators - 1.0 670

Cap and Pin + 1.2 520
Insulators - 1.3 600
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 39
81\211.pre

Line Insulators

Integration Model (d < 2m):


DE =
to

t
(U
AB
(t) - U
o
)
k
dt U
AB
> U
o


When the area reaches DE, at t=t
f
, flashover is
initiated

Voltage U
o
corresponds approximately to the voltage
defining the dielectric withstand of an air gap subjected
to a conventional lightning impulse of +ve polarity


Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 40
81\211.pre

Corona Attenuation and Distortion

Important for proper calculation of lightning
overvoltages coming into a station from an overhead
line

Complex phenomena - difficult to simulate accurately
over a wide range of line physical parameters

Affects mainly the wavefront by introducing a time
delay to the peak and a reduction in the steepness
which become more pronounced with increasing
propagation distance
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 41
81\211.pre

Corona Attenuation and Distortion


Few laboratory measurements available to provide
data (Maruvada, et al IEEE 1977) - cage data only


Most models start with the assumption of a cylinder
surrounding the conductor in corona. The cylinder
represents the boundary of the ionization (space
charge, attachment and recombination processes)
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 42
81\211.pre

Corona Attenuation and Distortion

The corona onset or inception voltage is constant for a
given conductor configuration, however time lags
associated with the electron avalanche process can
delay the onset for faster wavefronts such as lightning

The total capacitance within the region of ionization
increases dynamically as a result of particle
redistribution

Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 43
81\211.pre
Lightning Overvoltages
Modeling and Analysis
Douglas J. Mader 44
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Corona Attenuation and Distortion

Time domain models must be distributed at discrete
intervals between short (50 m or less) sections of
distributed line.

Can be costly in terms of computer resources (time
and memory).

A number of models similar in approach have been
prepared (Suliciu, Gary, etc.).

EMTP-RV uses a quasi three-phase Suliciu model
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Substation Components

Model substation busbar sections as untransposed distributed
parameter lines between bus supports but if distance between
supports < 3m, combine sections

Between each section lump the bus insulator and support structure
capacitance - for cap& pin:
123kV - 80 pF
400kV - 120 pF less (10-50) for post/NCI
765kV - 150 pF

Make sure sections accurately locate major equipment

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Model large lumped capacitances such as

CVT = 4 - 10 nF, the higher values with lower
voltages)
Magnetic PT ~550 pF
CT = 150-1000 pF with increasing voltage
Dead Tank Breaker ~50pf each side to ground
6-10 pF longitudinal
Live Tank Breaker 5pF to ground, 10pF longitudinal
Plus any grading or TRV capacitors
Bus support structures - three phases 100 ohm Zs
- one phase 300 ohm Zs
- ground resistance 0.1 ohm
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Cables and GIS:

Be careful to model short cables and GIS bus section
lengths accurately and watch out for voltage buildup
(standing waves) if any cables/bus sections can be
fed single-ended

Watch out for voltages between sheath and ground.
These are usually the most critical and should be
modeled using an untransposed cable with
transformation matrix evaluated at high frequency.
Any cross bonding and sheath ground
resistance/arrester protection must be included.
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Modeling Guidelines for GIS

Bus sections are lossless DP lines with Z typically
50-60 ohms and propagation velocity about 95% of
light speed.

Accurate overall length is important, however
rigorous spacer to spacer resolution is only
important for VFT analysis. For lightning, try to
avoid representing individual bus sections of less
than 3 metres as DP lines. Divide and lump the
spacer capacitance at each end of each bus
section.
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Modeling Guidelines for GIS

spacers - ~ 20 pF
magnetic PT - ~ 100 - 300 pF (400-800 kV)
closed circuit breaker - DP line of the length of the
breaker, velocity of .95c and Z calculated from
average diameter of breaker conducting elements
from end to end. Add lumped phase-earth caps.
Open circuit breaker - same but divided at open
contact and grading capacitors across opening.
Model closing resistor as separate breaker.
Disconnectors - include length as DP line
add shunt cap of ~25-50 pF


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Modeling Guidelines for GIS

surge arrester capacitance ~ 100-200 pF
cable terminals ~ 60-80 pF plus length as DP line
SF6-Oil bushing ~ gas filled ~20-40 pF
~ capacitive ~ 100-300 pF
ground switch ~ 20-40 pF
Elbow - additional ~ 20-40 pF
Bus end - additional 3-5 PF for spherical shield




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Power transformers

If possible use wideband transformer model esp. for
surge transfer studies where winding ratio > 10:1, if
not use the L-C matrix unless you do parametric
study

As a minimum, model transformers as input
capacitance including bushings [typical HV-G values
of large units are 4 - 40 nF (shell) 1 - 20 nF (core)]
in shunt with surge impedance of about 5000 ohms

Consider possible open breaker conditions and lines
out of service
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IEEE SPDC WG 3.4.11 Model
(Station Class or IEC Class 4-5)
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