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The Analytic of the Frames

Social Cultural Frame


Social group(s): Interactive (networked) space: Community (communities) of practice & action Shared definitions of world & situations: a worldview, worldviews (how many hats do we wear?) (Goffman, 1974; Spradley, 1980; Brown & Duguid, 2000) Shared system(s) of meanings, practices, situations: values, norms, virtues: learned sense of why & how to act publicly & privately Norm: Explanatory principle or rule, standard or criterion of behavior (Geertz, 1973; Spradley, 1980; Hall, 1981; Trompenaars, 1994; Gannon, 2001; Trompenaars & Woolliams, 2003; Hooker, 2003, Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005; Karahanna et al, 2005; Lewis, 2006) Situation + circumstances: Structure of behavior: Practices: habits of behavior: All behavior is sensible and patterned (habitual) Mental models: (Hall, 1981; Norman, 1988; Senge, 1990)

Frames or Categories for organizing experience: Time & Space, Power & Uncertainty, Masculinity & Femininity, Individualism & Collectivism, Long Term & Short Term Orientations (Goffman, 1974; Hall, 1981; Russo & Schoemaker, 1990; Fairhurst & Sarr, 1996; Hooker, 2003; Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005; Gladwell, 2008) Learning how to do things, how to act, what to talk about & how to talk about it, what to say & how to say it, how & what to smell, how & what to hear, how & what to see. Learning why. Vocabularies & lessons learned

Social Cultural Frame: key ideas for making observations and asking questions

High & low contexts of communication: Common sense(s): codes & policies: restricted & elaborated: Common uses, senses of things; Culture of honor; Metaphors, takes and language (Whorf, 1956; Hall, 1981; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 2000; Lakoff, 2002; Hauser, 2006; Gladwell, 2008)

Shared ontologies (The Whats in our world): What counts as real things (for us, for me), Things that are valued Shared metaphysics (How the Whats are in the world): How the things of our world are in our world, How & Why things are valued, reasons & purposes

Moral grammar, moral codes, social intelligence, social savvy (Szasz, 1974; Goleman, 1995; Georges, 2003; Goleman, 2006; Hauser, 2006)

Globalization Frame International business system Competition, commodities, knowledge Transnational Economy: financial, trade (Dunning, 1993; Waters, 1995; Friedman, 2000; Buckley, 2003) Metaphors Lexus: modernity Olive Tree: Tradition Global-local narratives Golden Straitjacket (Friedman, 2000) Integration Technologies Markets Nation-states (Friedman, 2000; Friedman, 2006) World Wide Web Digitalization of Communication networks Interconnectivity Cyberculture (Friedman, 2000; Levy, 2001; Brake, 1997)

Democratization: Global Frame: key ideas Technology, wealth for making observations creation, finance, and asking questions information, decisionmaking Free market & trade (Friedman, 2000) Culture: international system of meanings Homogenization Hegemony Conflict orientation (Moran, Harris & Stripp, 1993; Friedman, 2000; Williams, 2000) Values of global business organizations (Brake, 1997) Caring, confidentiality Fairness, honesty Openness, participation Respect, responsibility Results, sharing Unity, understanding

Global dimensions (for information gathering) of Politics Culture Technology Finance National security Ecology (Friedman, 2000)

Economic Frame Rationality: the right choice (decision) Rational choice theory Cost benefit analysis Perfect & imperfect information Constraints & affordances (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Levitt & Dubner, 2005; Harford, 2006) Pleasure (Bentham), satisfaction, happiness (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Harford, 2006; Landsburg, 2007) Results & consequences of actions Externalities, spillovers & side effects Cost benefit analysis (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Harford, 2006; Landsburg, 2007) Utility (Hume) Incentive Motivation (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Levitt & Dubner, 2005; Harford, 2006; Harford, 2008) Market [situation: interaction] Goods & services Supply & demand Price (worth, value, utility) Competition Limited resources (Heilbroner, 1999; Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Levitt & Dubner, 2005; Harford, 2006) Choice & freedom Perfect & imperfect decision-making (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Harford, 2006; Landsburg, 2007) Global Social cultural Ethical

Economic Frame: key ideas for making observations and asking questions Human nature, a social animal Self-interest Perfect & imperfect altruism (Wheelan, 2002; Flynn, 2005; Harford, 2006; Landsburg, 2007; ORourke, 2007)

Ethical Frame Eudaimonism Character ethics (Virtue ethics) - self realization, self Deontologism
A universalizable (intentional) rule which justifies an action as right or good, if it is right and good in and of itself, and you know this intuitively (it fits a mental model of acting rightly or good), and it does not violate meaning shared (e.g., In all things, do no harm) (Green, 1994; Mason, Mason & Culan, 1995;)

Utilitarianism
Doctrine of utility: that a moral act is one that results in the most pleasure or happiness with the least pain. The more happiness (pleasure), the more moral the act. Egoist version: the greatest good for oneself Universalist version: The greatest good for the greatest number. (Wiener, 1954; Walton, 1988; Williams, 1972; Williams, 2000) Act-utilitarianism states that actions are judged by their results, that is, the generation of pleasure.

knowledge (excellence; Plato). Highest moral good is self actualization and growth in fulfilling potential (Plato). To act habitually with excellence in every situation (Aristotle). Personal well-being or eudaimonia is the ultimate criterion by which character, action, and consequences are judged. (MacIntyre, 1984)

Virtue (Excellence) is knowledge Happiness is self actualization Righteousness or justice Do no wrong knowingly. (Solomon, 1992a; Solomon, 1992b; Solomon, 1997) The Golden Mean Virtue is a habit of right action in moderation leading to eudaimonia (well-being)

Plato & Socrates

Ethical Frame: key ideas for making observations and asking questions

Aristotle

Rule-utilitarianism states that principles (policies) of actions aimed at producing the greatest amount of happiness (pleasure) should guide behavior.