You are on page 1of 272

Allah has chosen for the people of Islam their path and their direction.

Surat Al-Baqarah in the Quran verse 143 means: [And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation]. Islam is a medium (just) religion between excessive exaggerations of practice and abandonment of life. This medium just position is not taken from personal whims and desires, but rather obtained from the religious discourse of Islamic sources. Those devoutly practicing the Religion of Islam based on its true teachings are against deviating away to extreme positions. Extremists have not correctly understood Islam and in that they do not represent Muslims but rather merely represent themselves. The Islamic shari`ah (system of rules) calls for a moderate just approach and manner against forms of perversion and vice. Perusing the following excerpts and passages one can understand the basis for the above affirmation: Surat An-Nahl in the Quran verse 90 means: *Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and the giving to the kin, and He forbids immorality, acts of evil and outrage. Allah instructs you in order that you may take heed.] Imam Ahmad related in his musnad as well as an-Nasaiy and Ibn Majah in their sunan and al-Hakim in his al-mustadrak from the route of Ibn `Abbas may Allah be pleased with them that the Prophet peace be upon him said: O people, be warned from excessiveness in matters of the Religion. Also his saying: Dont be an excessive extremist and this applies to both matters of ideology and practice. Ibn Mas`ud may Allah be pleased with him narrated from the way of Imam Muslim that the Prophet peace be upon him said: The extremist fanatics are doomed. Although extremism as a concept is not a new phenomenon, what we are witnessing today from anarchist exacerbations requires prompt action and a strong resolve. The global extremist movement driving this form of anarchy is manifested in groups that come under a multitude of names hiding under the cloak of Islam in order to bury itself in the midst of Islamic communities. In defence of the true teachings of Islam which lead to the right path of moderation, safety and security, and in order to preserve our next generation of youth from being cast into the nets of extremism, we will present to you this study which we hope will enlighten you and inform you. We have to first though attend to the importance of differentiating between Islamic practice which is a true following of the rules of Islam and extremism which is a perverted view that deviates from the meanings of the merciful shari`ah (system of rules).. Its also important to admit to the existence of extremism in order to then plan to weed it out from society. We will begin the study with a brief historic account of some extremists who falsely claimed followership of Prophet Muhammad, followed by an expos of their ideology, and then end with remedies and solutions according to the rules of the Islamic shari`ah (system of rules).

The Beginnings of Extremism

Earlier, many people entered into Islam freeing their hearts from the odious practices of ignorance and tribalism. Their hearts were pacified with what the Prophet peace be upon him called them to. They were a people of middle ground, fairness and justice. Those are the true followers of Islam. Others, however, had ulterior motives and they came out to spread envious gossip by attempting to split the line. It was those whose hearts did not pacify with peace of mind. Those constituted the fringe sects of destruction and diseased ideologies who had to conceal themselves with the cloak of Islam to spread their evil and disrupt the harmony in Islam. Amongst those are the khawarij (dissenters) who appeared in the first century on the Islamic calendar and whom the Prophet peace be upon him warned against. Abi Dharr may Allah be pleased with him reported from the way of Imam Muslim that the Prophet peace be upon him said: There will be those that come after me who will read the Quran but it does not go past their throats. They leave Islam like a spear leaves a prey, and they never return to it. They are the worst of the creations. Islamic scholars combated against them including the great Prophetic companion `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who debated them with refutations from the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet. In fact, the fourth Khalif (successor) our Master `Aliy Ibn Abi Talib may Allah be pleased with him also fought them.

Extremism in Modern Times Extremism is a warped ideology of misinterpretations and deviation away from the mainstream community. The great majority of Muslims do not subscribe to extremist ideologies and theological perversions. As a result, the extremists have always been challenged historically because of their small number and because of their fringe positioning. This fact has meant that extremists have always tended to overtly gather in order to protect and pass their distorted views down the generational line. Today we still witness the presence of the sect known as the khawarij despite their appearance under other names. The same way their elders passed group-blasphemy to all those that were outside their sects, their modern day versions have resorted to the same worrisome mentality. Theyve continued to assault, to shed the blood and to extort the properties of all those who go against them, the same way their elders did with the sons of the companions of the Prophet. Except today their threat is greater especially when theyre not being faced with a unified and prompt ideological counter-offensive. The khawarij of today have followed the same concepts of their elders which has resulted in copycat acts of terror by which they shed the blood of the rulers and the peoples of states, the Imams and the contractors, the journalists and ambassadors, the engineers and the doctors, the farmers and the craftsman the old and the young the males and the females. They called upon the peoples to dissent against the leaders by way of revolutionary coup d'tats and armed revolts to hit at the infrastructure of governments and to kill its soldiers and police officers. If people refuse their calls then they pass groupblasphemy against them, and they shed their blood and extort their properties. This has led them to bomb civilian buses and to leave explosives at airports, trains, public roads, and in fact they have previously destroyed mosque minarets to the extent that one of their speakers here in Sydney said on a local radio station about the killing of those and their likes in the police force: Its as permissible to us as drinking water. In deed they have destroyed the reputation of Islam and Muslims.

We will now quote for you some passages as taken from extremists books: In their book fi dhilal al-Quran (In the Shades of the Quran) *vol. 3/G8/p.1198+ they say: He who obeys a human in a secular law even if it were partial obedience then this person is a mushrik (idolater) and a blasphemer no matter how emphatically he utters the testifications of faith. They also say in the same book *vol. 2/G7/p.1057+: All humankind in the East and the West inclusive of those who repeat the testifications of faith on the minarets with no indicator or factual happening are deeper in sin and worse in punishment on the Day of Judgment because they have blasphemed for the worship of creations. In the third volume of the same book on page 1449 and what proceeds it the following is written: It is required upon those who are called the Jama`ah al-Islamiyya or the brotherhood group to snatch the reigns of power from the rulers and to destroy their systems and to revolt against them by way of coups throughout the states. We will now quote for you the sayings of the four Sunni schools of thought as they are the highest authority for the Sunnis in refuting this global extremist movement and its aligned groups who falsely claim to be part of the Sunni populace. The Mufti of the Hanbalis in Mecca Sheikh Muhammad bin `Abdullah bin Hamid (d. 1295 H.) said in his book as-suhub al-wabilah (The Downpouring Clouds) page 276 about the leader of the extremist Wahhabi movement: If he was contested and refuted and could not overtly kill his contester, he sends a hit man to murder him on his bed or at night in the market place, because he believed in the blasphemy of those who opposed him and the shedding of their blood. The Mufti of the Shafi`is in Mecca Sheikh Ahmad Zayni Dahlan (d. 1304 H.) wrote in his book ad-durar as-sunniyyah (The Sunni Gems) about the leader of the extremist Wahhabi movement that he used to say: And all that is under the seven skies is a mushrik (idolater) fully, and he who kills a mushrik is rewarded with Paradise. He (Mufti) also relayed about the Wahhabi leader his statement: He who enters our way shares our rights and obligations, and he who doesnt is a blasphemer whose blood is shed and wealth is squandered. He also mentioned in his book umara al-balad al-haram (The Princes of the Holy Land) that when the Wahhabis entered at-Taif they killed the people en mass including the elderly and the children, the honourables, the princes and the layman. They even slaughtered the suckling infants by their mothers breasts. They also assaulted the pilgrims to Mecca through extortion and murder. The Faqih (Jurisprudent) of the Hanafis Ibn `Abidin (d. 1252 H.) said in his hashiyat radd al-muhtar `aladdurr al-mukhtar (Commentary on Enlightening the Perplexed on Selective Pearls) *vol.4, p.262+: The Wahhabis believe that they are the Muslims alone and that those who contradict them in matters of creed are mushriks (idolaters), in that they have shed the blood of the Sunni populace and the blood of its Sunni scholars. The Maliki Sheikh Ahmad as-Sawi (d. 1241 H.) mentioned in his commentary on al-Jalalayn [vol.3 p.307308] about the khawarij who misinterpret the true meanings of the Quran and the Prophetic traditions

shedding in that the blood of the Muslims as is witnessed today in their localities. They are a sect in the Hijaz region (East Arabia) who are called the Wahhabis, they think they have a legitimate authority but in deed they are the liars who have been deceived by the devil who has made them forget the remembrance of their Lord. Those are the evil satanic sect; in fact the sect of Satan is defeated. We ask Allah to eradicate their path. Their leader has also emerged from a place (Najd) that the Prophet peace be upon him prophesied about by saying from there the horn of devil emerges *related by al-Bukhariy]. The Wahhabis today label themselves with many names including: The Salafi Group. We should also not forget what took place at their hands from the killing and slaughtering of the kids in East Jordan until one of them was caught saying: Do not prevent us from its blessing implying he too wanted to contribute to the cowardice slaughtering. Dr Muhammad al-Ghazali (d. 1996) and who was a disciple of Sheikh Hasan al-Banna may Allah have mercy on him mentioned in his book min ma`alim al-haqq (From the Characteristics of Truth) [p.264]: Those underground youth were later on a major threat to the group, as they started turning against each other in assassinations until they became a destructive tool for terror in the hands of those who had no true knowledge of Islam and could not be relied upon for the common interest of society. Hasan al-Banna also said about them before he died that they were not brothers and they were not Muslims. Furthermore, the extremists have killed many people in Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Saudi, Iraq and other places thinking that their killing of those who oppose them is a means of seeking reward from God. Amongst those theyve killed is Sheikh Muhammad ash-Shami who was the Mufti of a village near Aleppo called `Ifrin, and they also killed the Sheikh Dr. Hussayn adh-Dhahabi the Minister for Islamic Endowments and an academic at an Islamic College in Egypt. They also killed Sheikh Nizar al-Halabi the chairman of the Islamic Charity Projects Association in Lebanon. Today, their crimes have not ceased as theyve continued to carry out indiscriminately and against all sections of society their kidnappings and their other acts of terror. Their threat is escalating and reaching new fronts beyond New York, Madrid, Bali, London and Sharm Elsheikh. All this they claim to be under the banner of Jihad and martyrdom and under the veil of Islam. The fact of the matter remains that Islam is against them and against their evil acts. Those extremists who think they form the army of God and His Prophet are in fact waging war against the path of God and His Prophet. They think they are reformers, but in fact they are spreading sedition and evil in the land.

Remedies and Solutions Many are asking about the means and methods to solve this phenomenon that is disrupting the good name of Islam by spreading violence, terror and blood. The answer to this stems from the realisation that the extremist falsely hide under the cloak of Islam, and they are proponents of ideologies which have no relation to Islam whatsoever. So the solution starts by undressing them from their deceptive cloaks and masks and by refuting them with blatant evidence that exposes the fallacies of the ways and the perversion of the practices that are taken from a dark philosophy.

The war against extremism is a systematic war which has to be accompanied with preventative measures. It is here that we realise the immense need for Islamic scholars, Sheikhs and Islamic religious workers who remain at the forefront of the line of defence against them. In the absence of those spiritual guides the road for those extremists will be paved and their aims will be easier to achieve. It is of utmost importance to continue training new religious workers and Sheikhs by supporting them with the know hows and the rebuttal documents to be able to expose extremism and its proponents. Its important to expose those in the public arena so that they cannot continue to find access to the general public. The same way, the elders of the extremists were debated, rebutted and warned against through broadcasting the word and publishing the texts that bare them from their disguise, the Islamic leaders of today need to speak out against the modern version of the khawarij in order to prevent them from teaching their ideology through pulpits, mosques, radio stations, satellite channels, schools, public lectures. The Muslim youth need to be protected from their danger. They should never get access to their books. The solution should not be only restricted to security measures, as such measures on their own in the face of extremism will sometimes result in added motives for the extremists who act upon a recursive chain of actions and reactions in order to expand their sphere of conflict from one generation to another. Alone it could also attract the attention of some oblivious youth who might grant their sympathy to these extremist groups. As a result, the prevention of extremist ideology from spreading and the counter dissemination of the true moderate teachings through qualified people are amongst the necessary duties which will give results, especially if the action taken was proactive and consistent. We all need to resolve this phenomenon, each through his area of expertise and with as much capacity as they could bear. We need to exhibit good judgment and courage in fighting ignorance with knowledge, extremism with moderation and deviations with the truth. Darul-Fatwa of Australia in its moderate Islamic path as represented by the traditional Sunni methodology of Imams, Sheikhs, religious workers, organisations, Islamic centres and sections of the Australian Islamic community ask the governments and nations to differentiate between Muslims and terrorists and to further promote that there is no relation between Islam, terrorism and extremism. Darul-Fatwa reaffirms here that Muslims throughout the world and particularly in Australia are against all odious violent attacks that are driven by the one global extremist ideology. We also reaffirm the need to disassociate Islam from terrorism and Muslims from extremists. Despite this clear disassociation, the extremists continue to push a wedge in the community in order to present themselves as spokesmen and defenders of the faith, aiming in that to keep the trickle of sympathy flowing towards them. This sympathy is the only tool that these extremists seem to want, because it allows them to further their agenda within the community by spreading their ideological and theological misinterpretations and perversions. Darul-Fatwa of Australia repeats its utter condemnation of terrorism and its perpetrators and reasserts its full support for any counter action against it. Darul-Fatwa calls the international community to take on its responsibilities and to intensify its efforts in fighting this abhorrent phenomenon and to work towards weeding out its poisonous and deviant ideologies. It also calls upon those to take the right and

direct approach in exposing their fallacies which are rejected by both the scholars and the populace of Islam. It also calls for an international cooperative effort on a religious front in the region in order to tackle this issue from its roots. Darul-Fatwa of Australia is on the traditional way of the Prophet (Sunni) and it works according to the traditions of fourteen centuries of Islamic scholarship. We warn against extremism because it misleadingly calls for action in the name of Islam, while its not the true creed of the Muslims. We further assert that it is an Islamic rule to not betray Muslims and non-Muslims alike. It is not permissible for Muslims who are dealing with non-Muslims in matters of trade to bias the balance and betray the non-Muslim. It is also not permissible for the Muslim to squander with a trust that a nonMuslim has entrusted him with. These are words and statements which we have convincingly repeated over and over, because such is our conviction and resolve. We have not uttered words of deception or double talk under pressure or due to any offers made. Such is the shari`ah (system of rules) of Islam and we have said the same thing over and over for more than a decade in this country. We are part and parcel of the Australian community, citizens of Australia who do not wish to see this country turn into a theatre for these violent extremists and their corrupt ideology under the placards of freedom. It is for this reason that we extend our hands of collaboration to anyone from this Australia society (organisations, individuals and governments) who wish to fight this extremism. We also assure the Australian people that we are working with them to protect this country and its people from the evil of an extremist ideology. We say to all, that we are not the ones who exchange conviction for positions, and not those who disregard the true Islamic fatwa for any agenda or program. We are witnessing today people who compete for air time and coverage, while concealing their true identity and motives behind void utterances of peace and moderation. Their private sessions contain the same rants that they distribute in their bookstores claiming to advise the youth towards the right path for salvation. It is also behind doors that they accuse those calling against extremism to be mere agents or informers. It was only recently, when one of them was extolling extremists by saying that it werent for them Allah would have sunk the Earth from underneath us and he called those carrying out suicidal attacks martyrs. People be warned from these deceptions and tricks. In fact counselling against extremists cannot be achieved only by statements and words, but has to be accompanied with a continuous effort in order to eradicate this social dilemma and save nations and its peoples from its danger. This work requires qualified and diligent individuals. Our Islamic community is against extremism and its proponents. However, those who were trained at the hands of what is called al-Jama`ah al-Islamiyyah or the Wahhabis or Hizbut-Tahrir cannot be trusted with the youth of our community, nor can they be trusted with the custody of our mosques or our academic institutions and schools. They do not represent the silent majority in our communities. On the contrary, to hide them in our midst and to protect them is in fact a cart Blanche to these individuals to further their ideological agendas and to continue their

disrepute against the good name of our Islamic community. Silence over them potentially produces new generations of badly informed youth. We also refuse to accept for these extremists any labels or organisational names which contain an Islamic label that could potentially continue that trickle of sympathy that the extremists O so love. It should be noted that these individuals remain in the fringe, and that the scholars of the global Islamic community and its populus remain at odds with their theories of collusion and conspiracy. In the end, it is very important for the Muslims to return to the true fountains of knowledge, and remain steadfast to the right sources of shariah without any distortion. The right Islamic teachings protect you from all forms of extremism. Trusted is the Prophet peace be upon him who said: O people learn for knowledge is obtained through direct teaching and rulings are sought through proper education. He whom Allah Has willed goodness for will be granted this true knowledge *related by at-Tabaraniy in his mu`jam al-kabir (The Great Almanac) from a reliable route]. The trustworthy Prophet peace be upon him also said: Allah rewards for gentleness what He does not reward for violence *related by Muslim and others+. Lets walk down the true path of the Prophets, the road of those chosen by God, for in such is happiness and in such is peace. We thank you for reading this. Peace and mercy be upon you. ------------------------------------------------------------Bismillhi Arrahmni Arrahim... Please invite & join " Islam is Against Extremism and Terrorism" http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=21023543366 .May GOD ,WHO is THE C r E a T o R of UNIVERSE &,WHO I love THE MOST,guide you .Thank you ever so much for joining there/ Accelerating growth in Africa The World Bank is the largest provider of development assistance to Africa. Thirty-nine of the worlds poorest countries are found on the continent, and almost 50% of IDA funds are disbursed there. In the last five years, the Bank and its partners have increased their commitments to Africa to fight poverty, boost economic growth and lessen the impact of the economic, food and fuel crises. This book explains the Oath Ceremony which took place in Alam-e-Arwah. One promise was from all Humans in general (Oath of Alast) and the remaining two were specifically from the Prophets. A book to remind you your promise with Allah Subhanahu Ta'ala and the Highest Stature of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu AlaihiWasallam. Virtues of the Prophet (PBUH) and Companions - 19th Dhul Hijjah 1431 (25th

November 2010) Narrated Anas (Radi-Allahu 'anhu): Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) was neither very tall nor short, neither absolutely white nor deep brown. His hair was neither curly nor lank. Allah sent him (as an Apostle) when he was forty years old. Afterwards he resided in Makkah for ten years and in Medina for ten more years. When Allah took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard. Bukhari Vol. 4 : No. 748 Bahaya: Novel Melayu unsur dakyah Syiah! (Mesti Baca) Ini buku terbaru yang saya baca, kali ini bukan dari kategori non-fiksi, ia sebuah novel, berlatarkan sejarah tahun 1699, dalam Kerajaan Johor Lama, yang kesudahannya saya rasa semua tahu dan maklum, kerana ia pernah difilemkan, Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Di Julang.

Novel ini adalah tulisan Faisal Tehrani, penulis muda yang sedang membina nama sebagai penulis tersohor. Saya mula menggemari gaya bahasa Faisal sejak mula berkenalan dengan karyanya lewat 1515. Sebelum itu saya hanya membaca novel Melayu karya Abd. Talib Hassan ataupun Abdul Rahim Awang. Penulis-penulis hebat biasanya membawa personaliti mereka dalam penulisan, begitulah Abd. Talib Hassan, begitulah Abdul Rahim Awang, maka begitulah juga si Faisal Tehrani ini.

Saasatul Ibaad maksudnya pemain politik, ringkasnya ia bercerita tentang pemain-pemain utama dalam senario politik Johor Lama di sekitar tahun 1699 itu, cerita ini berkisar di sekitar watak-watak benar yang difiksyenkan secara sangat baik oleh Faisal.

Di sebalik langgam bahasanya yang mengasyikkan, Faisal ternyata telah sangat menggusarkan saya. Menggunakan kehalusan ayat-ayatnya, Faisal melemparkan dan mengajar doktrin Syiah, lebih dari itu meletak watak-watak utama dalam Kerajaan Johor Lama seperti Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid, anakandanya Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil (kemudiannya Sultan) dan guru mereka Orang Kaya Dato Utama Mahdi Hasan dari Naning sebagai pengamal Syiah. Ya, saya faham atas nama fiksyen dan kreativiti, sejarah boleh dilakar dengan apa sahaja rupa dan wajah, tetapi seperti saya katakan tadi, penulis hebat biasanya membawa personaliti mereka di dalam penulisan, dan itulah personaliti Faisal Tehrani. Kehebatan seni Faisal Tehrani nampaknya semakin hari semakin dicemari propaganda ideologinya sendiri.

Sebagai sebuah novel yang berkait dengan cara pemerintahan baik, tidak kisahlah jika Faisal hanya mahu menurunkan pesan-pesan yang pernah disampaikan oleh Saidina Ali Abi Talib sahaja, padahal banyak lagi pesan pasal pemerintahan negara yang boleh dikutip hasil titipan tiga lagi Khulafa ur-Rasyidin, Saidina Abu Bakar, Omar dan Osman. Saya juga tidak ralat bila Faisal memasukkan berderet hadis-hadis yang bersanadkan Muhammad ibn Yakub al-Kulaini (yang didakwa sebagai ahli hadis paling baik dan paling awal), yang dikenal sebagai mujadid Syiah ketiga. Faisal mungkin sahaja boleh berkata itu kata orang, bukan kata-katanya sendiri.

Tetapi sebuah pantun yang digarap Faisal dan dimasukkan ke dalam novel ini betul-betul menderau darah saya, perhatikan baris-barisnya; Ada berempat sahabat Nabi, Ada seorang jadi khalifah, Abu Bakar, Omar, Osman, dan Ali, Saidina Ali suami Fatimah. Faisal nampaknya menganut faham bahawa tidak wujud khulafa ur-rasyidin, kerana bagi Faisal, Abu Bakar, Omar dan Osman itu bukan khalifah, hanya Saidina Ali seorang sahaja.

Fasal mensyiahkan Kerajaan Johor Lama pula, Faisal jelas melarik propaganda ini dalam satu dialog Dato Utama Mahdi Hasan, Sudah. Cakap tuan itu laut yang bahaya. Seperti teluk disangka elok, pulaunya kecil berbahaya, ada batu berendam juga gelombang dan karang yang mengancam. Moleklah disimpan perkara sampai tiba masanya. Mungkin bukan kerja kita. Mungkin zaman Abdul Jalil bila sudah ada peluang dan tersedia ruang, akan kita lakukan perubahan yang pernah kita rencanakan. Johor akan mendapat manusia seperti Alaudin, seperti Aceh pernah mendapat ia, bila tiba masanya. Dan kalau diizinkan Allah dan para sayyid, akan kita dapat negeri walaupun jauh dari Madinah, jauh dari Kufah. Dengan negeri itu kita menantinya nanti kembali mendiri pemerintahan di Kufah.

Yang lain-lain dari novel ini, yang saya rasa penting juga untuk saya perturunkan di sini sebagai persoalan yang boleh dibincangkan adalah kecenderungan Faisal untuk menggambarkan kebejatan pemimpin dalam novelnya dengan aktiviti seks songsang. Kalau dulu dalam 1515, Puteri Kembang Piah digambarkan sebagai lesbian, dalam Saasatul Ibaad ini pula Sultan Mahmud digambarkan sebagai seorang pelaku homoseks.

Entahlah, kalau ikut di kulit belakang novel ini, Saasatul Ibaad dikatakan sebagai karya Faisal yang paling bercita-cita besar dan provokatif, tetapi bagi saya novel ini tidak lebih sebagai sebuah naskah dakwah seorang mubaligh Syiah yang dikarang indah.

http://zukriaksah.com/ http://pinkturtle2.wordpress.com/2008/12/11/11423/

Next Generation Leaders Programme (NGL) As part of its mission and vision, the Internet Society is dedicated to cultivating a new generation of Internet leaders, aged from 20 to 40 years old, who will address the critical technology, policy, business, and education challenges that lie ahead.

The Internet Society Next Generation Leaders programme is a unique blend of coursework and practical experience to help prepare young professionals from around the world to become the next generation of Internet technology, policy, and business leaders. A need for new Internet leaders Today's world has become increasingly complex and interconnected. With more than 1.5 billion people already online, the challenge remains to extend the benefits of the Internet to the billions more who can benefit from the economic, cultural, and educational opportunities the Internet provides. The Internet model of decentralized architecture and distributed responsibility for development, operation, and management has been the catalyst for boundless innovation and creativity. That model also creates important leadership opportunities, especially in those spaces where technology, policy, and business intersect. In order to be successful, the next generation of Internet leaders will require a wide range of skills in a variety of disciplines as well as the ability and experience to work with people at all levels of society. The curriculum The Internet Society Next Generation Leaders programme is a unique blend of coursework and practical experience to help prepare young professionals from around the world to become the next generation of Internet technology, policy, and business leaders. To progress within the curriculum and complete each step, candidates are required to demonstrate their leadership skills and community building ability. The objective of the programme is to help participants: accelerate their training in diplomatic skills, master the drivers of Internet-based innovation and growth, and experience the technical development of the Internet. Programme entrants benefit from a flexible curriculum that allows them to choose to either first complete the academic component (eLearning) or enhance their practical Internet experience.

Hands-on Internet experience can be gained through participating in ISOC's representation programmes or demonstrating one's own Internet-based professional history. Read more about the NGL curriculum and Laureates programme. Are you a Next Generation Leader? (selection criterias) Each year, the Internet Society will accept a group of qualified young Internet professionals from academia, the public sector, industry, and civil society into its Next Generation Leaders programme. Candidates should be between the ages of 20 and 40 and demonstrate leadership potential in their chosen field. Read more about requirements to enter the NGL programme. Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence Al-Ghazali Translated by David Burrell Paperback 180pp ISBN 1-887752-35-8 It is fair to say that the "Book of Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence " plays an axial role in Ghazali's celebrated compendium, the Ihya Ulum al-din. What is at issue is not Divine Unity itself, but the implications for the community arising from the idea that everything comes from God and that "there is no agent but God." How can we trust in Divine Providence? Ghazali states that "all that exists in creation--sustenance given or withheld, life or death, riches or poverty, and everything else that can be named" is solely initiated and originated by God Most High. "If the gates of mystical insight were opened to you, this would be clear to you with a clarity more perfect than ordinary vision." But those gates are not opened to most of us, so the test of our understanding of divine unity will not come by direct insight into the ways of God, but through a life of trust in which concerted practice will bring each of us personally to the threshold of the only understanding possible to us. What sort of a practice is trust in divine providence? It entails aligning oneself with things as they really are: in Ghazali's terms, with the truth that there is no agent but God Most High-- a reminder that everything in the universe is created by that same God and so reflects something of God's majesty and beauty. Yet the very thing that escapes our understanding is the secret connection of each creature with its creator. This requires effort, which cannot be solely intellectual, for our relationship to the One Creator resists formulation. If we truly believe that each created thing reflects God's majesty and beauty, then each event in our lives also reveals God's way of guiding us.

By trying our best to act according to the conviction that the divine decree expresses the truth in events as they unfold, we can allow ourselves to be "shown" how things truly lie. Faith tawhid and practice tawakkul reinforce one another. The understanding we can have is that of one journeying in faith, a "salik," the name which Sufis appropriated for themselves.Ghazali selects stories of Sufi sheiks, offering them as examples to help point us towards developing specific skills of trusting: habits of responding to different situations in such a way that we learn by acting how things are truly ordered, the truth of the divine decree. Ghazali's judicious use of stories is intended to imitate the Sufi practice of master/disciple, where the novice is helped to discern how to act. So the challenge of understanding the relation of the free creator to the universe becomes the task of rightly responding to events as they happen, in such a way that the true ordering of things, the divine decree, can be made manifest in our actions-as-responses. When put into practice in this way, the "knowledge," which faith in divine unity brings can lead us to an habitual capacity [or "state"] to align our otherwise errant responses to situation after situation according to that faith. One of the greatest Sufi thinkers of all time, Al-Ghazali (died 1111 C.E.) shares his startling and original exploration of the meaning of trust in Divine Providence and recommends specific spiritual skills to help the seeker develop a state whereby he may rightly respond to events as they happen.

The opening lines of the book possess a harmony and a force of their own: "Praise be to God, ruler of visible and invisible worlds ... He is the master of hearts and breasts who diverts eyes from attending to means and causes to the cause of causes, raising their resolve from their inclination towards material things and ordinary concerns to the One who orders them all". The book is divided into two parts; the first half discusses the: (i) The benefits of the trust in God (ii) Divine Unity [tawhid] as the foundation of trust in God and (iii) Diverse dimensions of agency. Ghazali as per his style begins by quoting Quranic verses on the benefits of trust in God including Let the believers put their trust simply in God *14:12+ A few hadith are then discussed relating to the same subject. He then discusses Divine Unity [tawhid] in the next section. This is explained through four stages. Firstly, speaking the words of the Divine Unity There is no god but God while the heart is heedless. The second stage is that of those who believe the meaning of this statement in their heart this is the condition of the general community of Muslims. The third stage is described as those who bear witness to *faith in divine unity+ on the path of interior illumination by means of the light of truth and finally the fourth stage being those who see only unity when they regard existence, which is the witness of righteous ones and those whom the Sufis call annihilated by faith in Divine Unity The discussion regarding the nature of faith in Divine Unity mentions how everything that we see and experience throughout life ultimately comes to us from God. Life or death, wealth or poverty, and everything else that we care to mention the sole one who initiated and originated it all is God Most High

The second part of the book talks about the states of trust in Divine Providence and mentions the accompanying practices. This part of the book is then divided into the following sections (i) What the [Sufi] sheikhs say by way of defining such trust (ii) Trust in divine providence with regard to obtaining provisions. Imam al-Ghazali explains trust in Divine Providence [tawakkul] through the example of a trustee [wakil]. One is confident in the trustee on the basis that he possesses four qualities namely: that he be nothing but rightly guided, exquisitely able and powerful, flawlessly eloquent and utterly compassionate. Then a parable is used of a person who is wrongly accused and a detailed discussion takes place of how the accused would place all his confidence in the trustee or authorised representative [wakil] and how we should use the parable to aspire to trust in God Most High. The next section then goes on to discuss two further stages of trust in Divine Providence, the above being the first stage. Put succinctly they can be mentioned here as the state of one who comports himself with God Most High as a child with his mother i.e. he knows no one other than her. And the third stage (which is the highest) being in the presence of God Most High, whether active or at rest . This stage differs from the second in that whereas in the second stage the child runs to the mother for all his needs and screams when a need requires to be fulfilled; the third stage consists of a child who knows that his mother is looking for him whether he screams for her or not *9+. This last stage results in one leaving petitionary prayer and asking behind him, confident in His magnanimity and solicitude Although some aspects of the book require a certain degree of focus and re-reading until one become comfortable with the point being made, the book is a rewarding experience. Consistent with the rest of the Ihya, this book imparts invaluable lessons and examples for us to emulate and cherish. On the whole, a valuable contribution in making the treasure of the Ihya available in the English language. Reviewed by: Naeem Azam Source: Deenport.com Divine Sayings: 101 Hadith Qudsi: The Mishkat al-Anwar of Ibn 'Arabi [Paperback] Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi (Author), Stephen Hirtenstein (Translator), Martin Notcutt (Translator) 5.0 out of 5 stars See all reviews (1 customer review) Divine Sayings: 101 Hadith Qudsi: The Mishkat alReview "Stephen Hirtenstein and Martin Notcutt have produced in Divine Sayings a beautifully translated version of Ibn 'Arabi's best known collection of Hadith, based not only on the published Arabic text but also several important manuscripts, with full scholarly apparatus." William C. Chittick, professor, Stony Brook University

"This classic collection (and first critical edition) of 101 memorable Divine Sayings' related by the Prophet, translated in full for the first time in English, is not just an indispensable key to the teachings of Ibn 'Arabi and the wider traditions of Islamic spirituality. These short sayings are also a simple, direct, immediately accessible summary of the most universal spiritual lessons." James W. Morris, professor, Boston College Product Description

A collection of 101 hadith sayings, this work is one of the most important and influential early collections of hadith qudsi. Falling into three categories, the first 40 sayings each have a full, unbroken chain of transmission that goes back to God through the medium of the Prophet Muhammad. The second category are sayings mostly taken from well-known written collections. The final section is drawn from similar books, with Ibn 'Arabi adding one extra hadith, orally transmitted. Comprised of a full introduction explaining the meaning of Hadith, the text stresses the importance of this tradition in Ibn 'Arabi's writing. See all Editorial Reviews Product Details * Paperback: 120 pages * Publisher: Anqa Publishing; first paperback edition (January 28, 2008) * Language: EnglishAnwar of Ibn 'Arabi More Information *MOHON DISEBARKAN. The Life of Imam Abu Hanifah Nu'man ibn Thabit, 80-150 A.H. by Maida Malik Better known as `Imam-e-`Adham' (The Greatest Imam), or by his kunyah `Abu Hanifah', Nu'man ibn Thabit was born in the city of Kufa (modern day Iraq) in the year 80 A.H (689 A.D). Born into a family of tradesmen, the Imam's family were of Persian origin as well as descending from the noble Prophet's (saw) Companion Salman al-Farsi (ra). Imam Abu Hanifah's father, Thabit, had met in Kufa Imam `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra) who made dua for him and his progeny, and some say that Abu Hanifah was a result of this dua. A hadith given by al-Bukhari and Muslim states that Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated Allah's Messenger (saw) as saying:"If the Religion were at the Pleiades, even then a person from Persia would have taken hold of it, or one amongst the Persian descent would surely have found it." Abu Hurairah (ra) also narrates:"We were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (saw) when Surat al-Jum`a was revealed to him and when he recited amongst them, (those who were sitting there) said `Allah's Messenger?' but Allah's Apostle (saw) made no reply, until he was questioned once, twice or thrice, and there was amongst us Salman the Persian. Allah's Apostle (saw) placed his hand on Salman and then said:"Even if faith were near the Pleiades, a man from amongst these would surely find it." Imam as-Suyuti a Shafi'i alim (rh) remarked:"It has been communicated unanimously that this hadith refers to Imam Abu Hanifah." Kufa at the time of the Imam's birth was a great center of knowledge and learning, with many of the noble Prophet's (saw) Companions (ra) having taken residence there. Due to the presence of these venerable people who had engendered so much interest in hadith and riwayat that practically every house in Kufa had become a center of these disciples and their disciplines. At first, Imam Abu Hanifah was not a student of knowledge. However, by coincidence, while one day passing by the house of Sha'bi (an acclaimed "Great Scholar among the Successors (rh)"), Abu Hanifah was called in by the shaykh who mistook him for a student. "Where are you going young man?" asked Sha'bi. Abu Hanifah named the merchant he was going to see. "I meant to ask," asked Sha'bi,

"Whose classes you attend?" "Nobody's," replied the Imam regretfully. "I see signs of intelligence in you," began Sha'bi,"you should sit in the company of learned men." It was after this encounter that the young Imam began his quest for knowledge. Imam Abu Hanifah acquired knowledge from over four thousand people. His teachers included many prestigious men of the time whose sanad went back to a number of Companions (ra). He himself was blessed with the meeting of the Companions: Anas ibn Malik, Abdullah ibn Afwa and Sahl ibn Sa'ad (ra), thus gaining him the rank of being a Tabi'i (Successor to the Companions). Amongst Imam Abu Hanifah's shayukh was Hammad ibn Sulayman, he joined his circle at the age of 22, having already become a well-known debater and studied with this shaykh until the latter's death, whereupon he took over his majlis (circle) at the age of forty. Shu'ba, a leading muhaddith who knewby-heart two thousand traditions was also a teacher of Imam Abu Hanifah. Shu'ba was greatly attached to Imam Abu Hanifah saying: "Just as I know that the sun is bright, I know that learning and Abu Hanifah are doubles of each other." The Imam's quest for knowledge inevitably took him to the Holy Sanctuaries, at a time when Makkah was a busy center for learning. A number of acknowledged masters of hadith, who had had access to the Prophet's (saw) Companions (ra) had established their own schools there. Of these was `Ata bin Rabah's (rh) school. `Ata was a famous Tabi'i who had associated with most of the Companions (ra) and acquired from this association a status of authority. He himself claimed to have met two hundred men who had associated with the Noble Prophet (saw). The leading Companions (ra) all acknowledged his learning. Abdullah ibn `Umar (ra), son of the Caliph `Umar (ra) often used to say:"Why do people come to me when `Ata ibn Abi Rabah is there for them to go to?" Of the other Muhaddithin of Makkah whose classes the Imam attended was `Ikrimah. He was the slave and pupil of Abdullah ibn `Abbas, who educated him with great care and attention, making him so proficient that he, during his own lifetime gave Imam Abu Hanifah the authority to exercise personal judgement and rulings. "Imam Abu Hanifah was the first to analyze Islamic jurisprudence, divide it into subjects, distinguish its issues and determine the range and criteria for analytical reasoning (qiyas)." Al-Hafiz al-Kabir Abu Bakr Ahmad al-Harizmi wrote in his book"Musnad": `Saif al-Aimma' reports that when Imam Abu Hanifah derived a matter from the Qur'an and Hadith, he would not give the answer to the inquirer unless all of them [his students] confirmed it. One thousand of Abu Hanifah's disciples attended all his classes when he taught in the Mosque of Kufa City. Forty of them were mujtahids. When he would find an answer for a matter, he would suggest to his students who would study it together, and when they reached an agreement of it being consistent with the Qur'an and Hadith, and with the words of the Sahabah (ra), he would be delighted and say, "Al-hamdu li'llah wallahu Akbar," and all those who were present would repeat his words. Then he would tell them to write it down. Ibn `Abd al-Barr relates in"Al-Intiqa'": `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Dawraqi said:"Ibn Ma'inn was asked about Abu Hanifah as I was listening, so he said"He is trustworthy (thiqatun), I never heard that anyone had weakened him." No less than Shu'ba wrote to him [for narrations], and ordered him to narrate hadith.'

Ibn Hajar said in Kharija ibn al-Salt's notice in"Tahdhib al-Tahdhib": Ibn Abi Khaythama said:"If al-Shu'bi narrates from someone and names him, that man is trustworthy (thiqa) and his narration is used as proof (yuhtajju bi hadithihi)". Many well-known shuyukh narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah, to name but a few: al-Thawri, ibn alMubarak, Hammad ibn Zayd and `Abd al-Razzaq (one of Imam al-Bukhari's shaykhs.) Al-Mizzi in"Tahdhib al-Kamal" names about one hundred names of those who narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah. Imam as-Shafi'i (rh) is recorded to have stated:"All men of fiqh are Abu Hanifah's children" and"I would not have acquired anything of knowledge had it not been for my teacher. All men of knowledge are children of the ulema of Iraq, who were the disciples of the ulema of Kufa, and they were the disciples of Abu Hanifah." The Hanafi madhhab, entitled after the Imam, spread far-and-wide during the time of the Ottoman Empire. Today, more than half of the Muslims on the earth perform their `ibabadah according to the Hanafi madhhab. The Hanafi school has decided court cases in the majority of Islamic lands for the greater part of Islamic history, including the `Abbasid and Ottoman periods. Not only was Imam Abu Hanifah's extraordinary mind and knowledge something to be admired, but so too was his exemplary character and piety. Al-Dhahabi writes:"Accounts of his piety and devotion have reached a degree of tawatur (i.e., an unbroken chain of uncontradicted narrations)." He was given the title of"The `Peg'" by some, for his continuous standing in prayer, often reciting the entire Qur'an in his nightly rakahs. He performed the Fajr prayer with the ablution made for the Isha prayers for forty years (due to him praying the whole night through). It is reported that he had recited the whole Qur'an seven thousand times in the place where he died. He earned his living through trade (sending goods to other places), and with the earnings he made, he met the needs of his students. He gave much to charity and every Friday he would distribute twenty gold coins to the poor for his parents' souls. In the year 146 A.H, Abu Hanifah was sent to prison by Mansur, the leader at the time, after the Imam's refusal to state that Mansur was the rightful khalifa, as well as refusing the position of presidency of the Supreme Court in recompense. While in prison, Imam Abu Hanifah was thrashed with a stick. Mansur repented and sent the Imam money, only to be refused again. By now, Imam Abu Hanifah had become well-known and thousands flocked to meet and seek his opinion wherever he went. His imprisonment far from reduced his popularity, and Mansur realized that he would have to treat the Imam carefully, thus he allowed him to teach while still in prison. Mansur finally decided to do away with the great Imam and had him poisoned. Abu Hanifah, feeling the effects of the poison, bent down in prayer and died in the month of Rajab. News of the Imam's death reached far-and-wide, and thousands gathered at the prison. The city Qadi washed his body, and kept repeating:"By God, you were the greatest faqih and the most pious man of our time ..."

By the time the bathing was finished, so many people had assembled that the funeral prayer was performed attended by fifty thousand people. The Great Imam died in Baghdad in 150 A.H at the age of seventy. May Allah (swt) be pleased with him. Ameen. Qalam All rights reserved. The Shfi madhhab is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within the Sunni branch of Islam. The Shfi school of fiqh is named after Imm ash-Shfi. The other three schools of Islamic law are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali. Principles The Shfi school of thought stipulates authority to four sources of jurisprudence, also known as the Usul al-fiqh. In hierarchical order, the usul al-fiqh consist of: the Quran, the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, ijm' ("consensus"), and qiyas ("analogy").

The Shfi school also refers to the opinions of Muhammad's companions (primarily Al-Khulafa arRashidun). The school, based on Shfi's books ar-Risala fi Usul al-Fiqh and Kitb al-Umm, which emphasizes proper istinbaat (derivation of laws) through the rigorous application of legal principles as opposed to speculation or conjecture. Imam Shfi approached the imperatives of the Islamic Shariah (Canon Law) distinctly in his own systematic methodology. Imam Shfi, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal almost entirely exclude the exercise of private judgment in the exposition of legal principles. They are wholly governed by the force of precedents, adhering to the Scripture and Traditions; they also do not admit the validity of a recourse to analogical deduction of such an interpretation of the Law whereby its spirit is adopted to the circumstances of any special case. A wise young man - a story from the Imam's childhood Imam Abu Hanifa - by Dr. G.F. Haddad Return to Scholars he Greatest Imam Abu Hanifa Oleh Prof. Madya Dr Abdul Halim El-Muhammady, Fakulti Undang-undang Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)

Prof. Madya Dr Abdul Halim El-Muhammady adalah Naib Presiden Wadah Pencerdasan Umat (http://www.wadah.org.my/) dan Mantan Timbalan Presiden Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM). Kertas ini dibincangkan dalam program seminar Taadib Islam anjuran ABIM dan PKPIM. --Abstrak

Ahli sejarah ada berpendapat bahawa kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia antara abad ke 13 M dan 14 M. Tetapi mengikut kesan-kesan sejarah yang ditemui di Pahang, Kedah dan matawang di Kelantan menunjukkan kedatangan Islam tarikhnya lebih awal dari itu. Jika mengambil pendapat majoriti sejarah yang menyatakan kedatangan Islam antara abad 13 M dan 14 M, ternyata pendakwah yang datang itu telah dipengaruhi oleh mazhab tertentu, kerana sejak dari abad ke 10 M, setelah perkembangan ijtihad terhenti maka Negara-negara Islam telah pun dipengaruhi oleh mazhab empat terutamanya dalam fiqh iaitu mazhab Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i dan Hanbali.

Justeru, kemungkinan besar pendakwah yang datang ke Malaysia itu telah dipengaruhi oleh mazhab Shafi'i kerana mereka dikatakan datangnya dari Hadhramaut Yaman atau Gujerat, India yang terpengaruh dengan mazhab Shafi'i. Hasil dari pendakwah-pendakwah ini menjadikan Malaysia menerima Islam berasaskan mazhab Shafi'i dalam fiqhnya sama ada dalam ibadat, muamalat, munakahat dan jenayah yang dapat dikesan dalam kanun negeri-negeri Melayu dan teks-teks pengajian fiqhnya serta amalan masyarakat. Mazhab Shafi'i telah menerima gugatan dalam sejarah melalui 3 gelombang bermula dari kes perdebatan masalah jilatan anjing pada tahun 30-an, timbulnya masalahmasalah khilafiyyah yang menggugat parti Islam Setanah Melayu dalam tahun lima puluhan. Gelombang ketiga timbulnya perdebatan masalah khilafiyyah di masa kini. Ia ditimbulkan oleh kaum muda ketika itu, dan kemudiannya oleh sebahagian pelajar-pelajar keluaran Universiti Madinah, atau yang terpengaruh dengan pemikiran Wahabi, tetapi kesannya tidak mengubah pegangan masyarakat Melayu dari berpegang kepada mazhab Shafi'i di peringkat pemerintah dan peringkat awam.

Persoalan khilafiyyah ini timbul kembali pada masa kini seperti bacaan 'ussolli' dalam solat dan talqin jenazah dan sebagainya yang merupakan ulangan peristiwa yang berlaku sebelum ini yang secara umumnya tidak menjejaskan pegangan mazhab Shafi'i, terutamanya dalam solat, perkahwinan dan amalan-amalan sunat. Cuma ada kelonggaran dalam penerimaan pendapat mazhab lain dalam muamalat di masa kebelakangan ini kerana keperluan pasaran yang banyak mentarjihkan pendapat Hanafi dan kecenderungan sebahagian generasi muda mengikut tafsiran mazhab lain dalam beberapa amalan ibadat dan kerohanian, tetapi ia tidak mengubah pegangan rasmi pemerintah dan masyarakat terhadap mazhab Shafi'i secara umumnya. Kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia Penentuan tarikh kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia belum mendapat kata sepakat di kalangan ahli sejarah, cuma secara umumnya mereka menerima bahawa kedatangan Islam ke sebelah sini di antara abad ke 13M dan 14M.[2] Walau bagaimanapun, penemuan-penemuan baru pada batu-batu bersurat yang dijumpai di Pahang [3], Kedah [4] dan mata wang emas di Kelantan [5] ada menunjukkan bahawa kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia adalah tarikhnya lebih awal dari apa yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya.

Pendakwah-pendakwah yang menyebarkan Islam di Malaysia itu adalah datangnya dari luar. Ahli sejarah tidak ada kata sepakat tentang dari mana asalnya pendakwah-pendakwah yang mula datang ke Malaysia. Dalam masalah ini ada dua pendapat yang diberikan; satu pendapat mengatakan pendakwahpendakwah itu dari Negara Arab [6], pendapat ini diterima sebelum tahun 1885, ada pun selepas tahun

1885, timbul pula pendapat kedua yang mengatakan bahawa pendakwah-pendakwah itu datangnya dari India [7] dan bukannya dari Negara Arab.

Dalam kenyataan di atas, menampakkan perbezaan pandangan tentang asal datangnya pendakwahpendakwah itu. Tapi, apa yang agak menarik dalam penyelesaian masalah ini ialah apa yang dijelaskan oleh Sayed Naquib al-Attas, di mana beliau memandang bahawa pendakwah-pendakwah itu sebenarnya datang dari satu tempat, iaitu Timur Tengah dan bukannya dari India, cuma mereka itu sebelum sampai ke Nusantara ini kemungkinan melalui India dan juga jalan-jalan lain.

Bagi memperkuatkan pendapat ini beliau mengemukakan alasannya iaitu antara lain kefahaman agama yang dibawa oleh pendakwah-pendakwah itu adalah bersifat Timur Tengah dan bukan India, lagi pula kandungan dan cara penghuraian akidah, pelbagai mazhab ilmu Tasawwuf, peribentuk tulisan jawi serta corak beberapa huruf-hurufnya, nama gelaran bagi hari-hari mingguan, cara melafazkan al-Qur'an dan beberapa perkara penting lainnya menyatakan ciri-ciri tegas bangsa Arab dan bukannya India sebagai pembawa dan penyebar asli agama Islam di kepulauan Melayu-Indonesia.[8]

Apa pun tarikh penentuan kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia pada abad ke 13 M atau 14 M, ternyata jelas dalam peringkat masa tersebut. Negara-negara Islam telah dipengaruhi oleh mazhab tertentu dari mazhab yang empat. Perkembangan ini sebenarnya berlaku sejak dari abad 4H/10M lagi di mana pada abad ini telah diterima bahawa pintu ijtihad telah tidak terbuka lagi dan setiap Muslim dikehendaki mengikut salah satu dari mazhab yang empat iaitu Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i dan Hanbali. Maka, dengan perkembangan ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa pendakwah-pendakwah yang datang ke Malaysia itu telah dipengaruhi oleh mazhab tertentu di mana mereka itu berada.

Dilihat kepada catitan yang diberikan oleh ahli sejarah bahawa pendakwah-pendakwah yang datang itu adalah bermazhab Shafi'i; sama ada mereka itu datangnya dari Semenanjung Tanah Arab [9] atau yang datangnya dari India.[10] Oleh yang demikian, ini menunjukkan bahawa kawasan Hadhramaut di Semenanjung Tanah Arab, dan Gujerat di India pada waktu kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia adalah dipengaruhi oleh Mazhab Shafi'i.

Memandang kepada pendakwah-pendakwah itu menganuti mazhab Shafi'i, maka dalam mereka menyampaikan dakwahnya dalam bidang hukum adalah terikat dengan tafsiran mazhab yang mereka anuti, dan natijah dari itu maka masyarakat Malaysia yang menerima Islam dari mereka itu telah terpengaruh dengan mazhab Shafi'i sebagaimana pegangan pendakwah-pendakwah itu sendiri, dan mereka menjadi fanatik dengan mazhab itu sebab mereka tidak pernah didedah dengan tafsiran mazhab yang lain. Jelasnya, mereka mengenal Islam melalui tafsiran mazhab Shafi'i dalam fiqhnya.[11] Pengaruh Mazhab Shafi'i

Mazhab Shafi'i adalah mengambil peranan utama dalam perkembangan pemikiran fiqh kepada masyarakat di Malaysia. Mazhab ini memberi kesan yang mendalam kepada masyarakat dengan dikembangkan melalui dua saluran; pendidikan dan perundangan. Dalam pentafsiran fiqh, hanya mazhab Shafi'i disebarkan dan diperkenalkan.

i) Pendidikan Dalam pendidikan tradisional Islam di Malaysia, sama ada pendidikan pondok, masjid dan surau atau sekolah agama sesudah itu, didapati mata pelajaran fiqah adalah dianggap sangat penting dan diajar di institusi-institusi tersebut. Buku-buku teks yang digunakan keseluruhan kandunganya beraliran mazhab Shafi'i; sama ada buku-buku itu dari Bahasa Melayu Klasik dalam tulisan jawi atau buku-buku Bahasa Arab.

Buku-buku teks yang ditulis dalam bahasa Melayu Klasik Jawi yang digunakan adalah kebanyakannya dari tulisan ulama-ulama' Pattani dan Indonesia.[12]

Antara buku-buku teks itu ialah karangan Sheikh Dawud b. Sheikh Abdullah al-Fatani; Kitab Hidayat alMuta'alim, Munat al-Musalli dan Kitab Furu' al-Masa'il; karangan Muhammad b. Ismail Dawud Fatani, Kitab al-Bahr al-Wafi wa al-Nahr al-Safi dan Matla' al Badrain; karangan Muhammad Arshad b. Abdullah al-Banjari, kitab Sabil al-Muhtadin Li Al-Tafaquh fi Amr al-Din dan karangan Sheikh Nur al-Din Muhammad Jailani b. 'Ali al-Raniri, kitab Sirat al-Mustaqim.

Selain itu, kitab-kitab fiqh dalam mazhab Shafi'i yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab juga digunakan sebagai buku teks. Antaranya ialah karangan Abu Shuja', al-Ghayah; karangan Nawawi, Minhaj al-Talibin, karangan Zain al-Din al-Malibari Fath al-Mu'in, karangan Qalyubi wa 'Umairah, al-Mahalli; karangan Sayyid al-Bakri 'I'anat al-Talibin dan karangan Zakaria al-Ansari "Fath al-Wahab bi Sharh Minhaj alTullab" .

Memandangkan kepada asas keilmuan yang diajar di pondok, di surau, di masjid dan sekolah-sekolah agama berasaskan kitab-kitab di atas, maka sudah cukup untuk melihat sejauh mana kesan dan mendalamnya pengaruh mazhab Shafi'i dalam masyarakat Malaysia di peringkat awam, atasan dan peringkat ulamanya. Apabila mereka hanya didedahkan kepada satu aliran pemikiran sahaja sudah sewajarnya timbul sikap fanatik kepada mazhab tersebut.

Sikap berpegang kepada mazhab Shafi'i berlaku adalah natijah dari proses penyampaian ilmu demikian. Sebahagian besar dari kitab-kitab di atas masih lagi digunakan sebagai buku teks dalam pengajian fiqh di Malaysia sehingga masa kini terutamanya di masjid-masjid, sekolah-sekolah pondok dan pengajian halaqah di peringkat masyarakat awam dan institusi kehakiman.

ii) Perundangan Kesan Islam dan aliran mazhab Shafi'i ini bukan sahaja mempengaruhi masyarakat umum malah ia juga mempengaruhi sistem keadilan negara kerana sebelum kedatangan penjajah, undang-undang Islam diamalkan di negeri-negeri Melayu. Sejak dari abad kelima belas apabila undangundang Melaka iaitu Kanun Melaka dan Kanun Laut Melaka digunapakai di negeri Melaka. Kanun ini digubal lebih kurang pada tahun 1444 mengikut kenyataan Richard Winstedt.[13] Demikian juga undang-undang Pahang iaitu Kanun Pahang yang digunapakai pada masa pemerintahan Abdul Ghafur di abad keenam belas. Kedua-dua undang-undang ini mengandungi pelbagai bidang perundangan, keluarga, jenayah, muamalat, antarabangsa, prosedur, keterangan dan sebagainya. Undnag-undang ini adalah beraliran Mazhab Shafi'i.[14]

Contoh Undang-undang Pahang: "Bab peri hukuman apabila seseorang akil baligh membunuh seorang orang Islam disahajanya dibunuhya itu, laki-laki atau perempuan, kecil atau besar maka yang membunuh itu dibunuh. Bermula tiada harus Islam dibunuh oleh (membunuh) kafir. Bermula tiada harus merdeka dibunuh oleh membunuh hamba orang."[15] "Peri hukuman segala orang yang murtad. Apabila seseorang Islam murtad disuruh taubat 3 kali, jika tiada ia mahu taubat dibunuhnya, hukumannya jangan dimandikan dan jangan ditanamkan pada kubur Islam."[16] Pada masa penjajahan British, Undang-undang Islam diiktiraf sebagai undang-undang negeri berdasarkan kes Ramah lwn Laton. Dalam Enakmen Negeri Selangor 1952, iaitu Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Selangor 1952 terdapat peruntukan-peruntukan yang jelas tentang keterikatan undang-undang dengan Mazhab Shafi'i, terutamanya dalam bahagian kesalahan-kesalahan.[17] Selain itu, terdapat juga kes yang pernah diputuskan oleh mahkamah yang tidak membenarkan perkahwinan perempuan yang bermazhab Shafi'i dengan lelaki yang bermazhab Hanafi kecuali apabila si perempuan mengubah mazhabnya kepada Hanafi.[18]

Selepas Malaysia mencapai kemerdekaan, semua Enakmen pentadbiran agama Islam negeri-negeri menyatakan tentang terikatnya dengan mazhab Shafi'i dalam pengeluaran fatwa, dan tafsiran hukum serta amalannya kecuali jika dengan pendapat Mazhab Shafi'i itu membawa kepada keburukan masyarakat, maka mazhab empat yang lain dapat diterimapakai. Selepas undang-undang pentadbiran agama Islam dipinda dan diperlengkapkan untuk digunapakai di negeri-negeri, maka peruntukan yang mengikat dengan mazhab Shafi'i masih dikekalkan.[19] Kecuali Negeri Perlis yang tidak mengikut peruntukan ini kerana ia berpegang dengan sumber yang asas iaitu Qur'an dan Sunnah.[20]

Selain itu, mengikut Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri-negeri yang diselaraskan masih ada peruntukan mengikat Mazhab Shafi'i sebagai asas pengeluaran fatwa dan tafsiran hukum.[21]

Dengan adanya peruntukan ini, maka segala perkara yang berkaitan dengan hukum sama ada fatwa atau keputusan mahkamah mestilah merujuk kepada buku-buku yang bermazhab Shafi'i, sama ada bukubuku dalam bahasa Melayu atau Arab. Antara kitab-kitab Arab, kitab Minhaj al-Talibin, Mughni alMuhtaj, Nihayat al-Muhtaj, 'Ianat al-Talibin dan lain-lain. Kitab-kitab Jawi pula seperti Sabil al-Muhtadin, furu'al-Masail, Ahkam Syariah Johor, Majallah Ahkam Johor, Kifayat al-Muhtadin, Matla' al-Badrain dan sebagainya.[22]

Selain itu, Enakmen-enakmen Negeri-negeri yang berkaitan dengan hukum-hukum seperti hukum kekeluargaan, pusaka, wasiat dan jenayah termasuk juga prosedur dan keterangan dalam bidang kekeluargaan, harta dan jenayah yang berasaskan Mazhab Shafi'i. Gugatan kepada Aliran Mazhab Shafi'i Gugatan yang berlaku ke atas Mazhab Shafi'i melalui 3 gelombang;

Gelombang pertama berlaku pada tahun 20-an dan 30-an pada masa itu gerakan kaum muda cuba mengemukakan idea-idea baru yang berbeza dengan pegangan sedia ada dalam masyarakat Melayu yang berpegang kepada Mazhab Shafi'i. Perkara yang ditimbulkan oleh golongan kaum muda ini menyentuh tentang peranan akal dalam memahami hukum, persoalan-persoalan hukum ikhtilaf dan tentang bid'ah. Gelombang pertama berlakunya gugatan terhadap aliran mazhab Shafi'i ialah pada awal abad ke-20 di mana beberapa orang pelajar yang melanjutkan pelajaran ke Arab Saudi, Mesir dan India telah terpengaruh dengan pemikiran gerakan Islah di sana.

Hijaz ketika itu dipengaruhi oleh pemikiran Muhammad Abdul Wahab yang mendokong idea Ibn Taymiyyah dan Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jauziyyah yang kedua-duanya beraliran Mazhab Hanbali dalam fiqh.[23] Manakala gerakan Islah di Mesir pula dipelopori oleh Muhd Abduh dan Rashid Rida yang beraliran Mazhab Hanafi.[24]

Gerakan Islah ini cuba menimbulkan kembali idea ijtihad untuk menyelesai keperluan hukum supaya kembali kepada sumber asal al-Qur'an dan Sunnah. Dengan seruan kepada ijtihad menolak taqlid yang diamalkan dalam masyarakat.[25]

Sungguhpun tokoh-tokoh ini menyeru kepada ijtihad, tetapi dalam amalan di negara-negara mereka bergerak masih tidak terkeluar dari metod fiqh yang mereka warisi di Hijaz ketika Muhammad Abdul Wahab menguasai Hijaz, Mazhab Hanbali diterimapakai di sana di peringkat pemerintah dan awam

sehingga ke hari ini.[26] Demikian juga keadaan di Mesir yang telah dipengaruhi metod Hanafi dalam amalan fiqhnya. Abduh dilantik sebagai Mufti Mesir dari 1899-1905 sebagai sumber rujukan fatwa yang majoriti bermazhab Hanafi.[27] Ini bererti segala masalah yang timbul jika terdapat peruntukan dalam undang-undang yang digubal, maka itu yang akan diterimapakai. Jika tidak, mereka akan berijtihad untuk mendapat penyelesaian masalah baru melalui mazhab lain dan bukannya mereka mencairkan mazhab yang sedia ada.[28]

Aliran pemikiran Islah telah dapat mempengaruhi beberapa orang pelajar antaranya Sheikh Muhd Tahir bin Jalaluddin al-Azhari yang berkesempatan belajar di Mekah dan Qahirah yang terpengaruh dengan pemikiran Muhd Abduh dan Rashid Ridha.[29] Manakala pelajar-pelajar yang belajar di Mekah dan di India ada yang terpengaruh dengan ajaran Sheikh Waliyullah al-Dahlawi yang dibawa oleh Maulana Ubaidullah al-Sindhi seperti Haji Nik Abdullah, Haji Nik Mahmud Haji Wan Musa, Hj. Abdul Rahman Haji Nik Mahmud yang beraliran Islah.[30]

Pemikiran Islah ini juga dapat mempengaruhi golongan yang berpendidikan bukan agama, yang membaca bahan-bahan aliran demikian dari Majalah Islamic Review yang diterbitkan oleh Kamaluddin Khaja di Waking England [31] dan sumber-sumber lain.

Antara mereka yang terpengaruh dengan pemikirannya ialah Za'aba [32], Kamaluddin berasal dari India dan bermazhab Hanafi terpengaruh dengan gerakan yang lahir di Lahore.[33] Kemudian beliau berpindah ke England menjadikan pusat kegiatannya di sana.

Mereka yang terpengaruh dengan gerakan Islah di Saudi dan Mesir serta India telah menyebar idea mereka kemudiannya di Malaysia. Sheikh Tahir yang bergerak di kawasan utara Pantai Barat Malaysia telah dapat mempengaruhi Sayyid Sheikh Ahmad al-Hadi, Haji Abbas Mohd Taha dan Sheikh Mohd Salim al-Kalili [34], manakala aliran pemikiran Sheikh Waliyullah al-Dahlawi pula tersebar di Kelantan dan Terengganu yang dibawa oleh Nik Abdullah, Hj. Nik Mahmud dan Nik Abdul Rahman.[35]

Selain itu, di negeri Perlis pula terdapat kecenderungan menolak Mazhab Shafi'i dan taqlid seolah-olah dipengaruhi oleh pendapat Ibn Taimiyyah (m.1283), dan pihak berkuasa agama di Perlis merujuk kepada autoriti yang beraliran demikian seperti karya Syaukani Nail al-Awtar.[36] Kecenderungan tidak terikat kepada mazhab ini dapat dilihat dalam peruntukan Enakmen Pentadbiran Majlis Agama Negeri Perlis yang memperuntukkan bahawa Undang-undang Islam di Negeri Perlis berasaskan al-Qur'an dan Sunnah serta tidak mengikatnya dengan sebarang Mazhab Fiqh. Sebenarnya aliran ini adalah daripada pengaruh kitab-kitab yang ditulis oleh Hasan Bandung dari Indonesia yang dibawa oleh beberapa orang yang berpengaruh ketika itu di Perlis seperti Wan Ahmad Wan Daud, Hj. Ahmad b. Hj. Muhammad dan Sheikh Ahmad bin Mohd Hashim. Aliran ini timbul dalam lingkungan tahun 20-an (1924-1925) dan pada tahun 1959 dimasukkan dalam Undang-undang Pentadbiran Majlis Agama Negeri Perlis.[37]

Gelombang kedua berlaku antara tahun empat puluhan dan enam puluhan. Gelombang kedua ini adalah sebagai menyambung usaha yang berlaku sebelumnya. Penumpuan kebangkitan pada waktu ini lebih banyak menumpukan kepada persoalan-persoalan khilafiyyah yang lebih khusus sehingga menimbulkan perpecahan di kalangan masyarakat awam terutamanya dalam Parti Islam Setanah Melayu ketika itu yang merasa tertekan dengan keadaan yang berlaku. Timbulnya isu-isu khilafiyyah yang membawa perpecahan di kalangan masyarakat ini menyebabkan satu ijtima' diadakan untuk membuat satu keputusan dalam isu-isu yang dibangkitkan.

Akhirnya mereka sepakat memutuskan bahawa persetujuan dicapai terhadap pendirian ulama-ulama beraliran Mazhab Shafi'i dalam isu-isu yang dibangkitkan. Antara isu-isu yang dibangkitkan adalah seperti menyebut 'usolli' dalam solat, talqin kematian, tahlil arwah dan sebagainya. Ahmad Fuad selaku Yang dipertua PAS ketika itu terpaksa melakukan ijtima' khusus untuk mendapat kata sepakat dalam memilih masalah khilafiyyah untuk diamalkan di negara ini.[38]

Persoalan khilafiyat ini juga timbul perbincangannya di Kelantan dan Terengganu. Bagi membendung pemikiran aliran baru dalam isu-isu khilafiyat ini, maka Jawatankuasa Ulama' Majlis Ulama' Kelantan telah mengeluarkan sebuah buku yang bertajuk Kitab al-Qawl al-Mufid Li ifadat al-Mustafid, karangan Hj Muhammad bin Idris. Salah seorang anggota Jawatankuasa Ulama Majlis.

Gelombang ketiga pula berlaku dari tahun 70-an sehingga kini yang dipelopori oleh golongan muda yang terdedah kepada pengajian di Saudi dan di Indonesia. Gelombang yang berlaku ini seolah-olah sebagai menyambung pemikiran dan pendekatan golongan kaum muda sebelumnya. Mereka mempertikai beberapa amalan yang ada dalam masyarakat yang diambil daripada ulama'-ulama' beraliran Mazhab Shafi'i. Satu gerakan yang berpusat di Kuala Pilah ada membuat pengisytiharan yang dikeluarkan pada 22hb Julai 1966 dalam memorandum pertubuhannya berbunyi: Ahli Sunnah tidak bertaqlid kepada sesuatu mazhab masyhur atau tidak masyhur, tetapi ia boleh melakukan ittiba' atau mengikut sesuatu pendapat Ulama setelah diketahui keterangannya dengan jelas daripada Qur'an dan Hadith sahih. Bahawa ahli Sunnah tidak bersandar kepada sebarang mazhab yang ada dalam negeri ini melainkan kembali kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, jadi salahlah orang yang memperkatakan isu Mazhab Shafi'i itu benar atau semua isi Mazhab Hanafi itu benar dan lain-lainnya.

Sebenarnya kita mesti akui bahawa tiap-tiap Mazhab itu ada salahnya dan imam-imam itu manusia seeprti kita yang juga berbuat kesalahan dengan sengaja atau tidak sengaja dan bukan seperti Nabi-Nabi yang ma'sum daripada kesalahan yang disengaja dan yang tidak disengaja dalam urusan hukum-hukum agama yang 'ubudiyyah dan keduniaan.[39] Kenyataan di atas menunjukkan bahawa golongan ini tidak mengikat diri dengan mana-mana mazhab yang muktabar yang diiktiraf di dunia Islam dan mazhab Shafi'i di negara ini. Mereka beranggapan

mereka mempunyai kelayakan yang cukup untuk berijtihad mutlak, seperti imam-imam yang muktabar, kerana ulama' itu adalah manuisa dan mereka juga manusia tidak ada bezanya.

Sedangkan bagi orang-orang yang mengkaji ilmu mengetahui bahawa ulama'-ulama' besar yang muktabar itu yang mengamal ijtihad adalah lengkap dari sudut ilmu asas syariah dan ilmu alatnya. Dibandingkan kita di masa kini, walaupun manusia, ilmu asas syariahnya amat terbatas dan begitu juga ilmu alatnya seperti bahasa Arab, jadi bagaimana ingin menjadi mujtahid mutlak?

Berijtihad tanpa asas ilmu yang lengkap dari sudut ilmu utama syariah dan ilmu pelengkap dalam Bahasa Arab serta tidak terikat dengan kaedah Usul al-Fiqh boleh membawa kepada penyelewengan dan kesesatan dari kebenaran. Hal ini dapat dilihat bibit-bibitnya pada masa kebelakangan ini dengan kemunculan kelompok liberal yang tidak mahu terikat dengan kaedah epistemologi Islam dan kaedah usulnya dalam memahami Qur'an dan Sunnah yang akhirnya membawa kepada kecelaruan tafsiran terhadap sumber-sumber dan ajaran-ajaran Islam. Pendekatan Gerakan Da'wah Kaum Muda Pendekatan kaum muda ini dalam menyampaikan seruan mereka tidak menghargai sumbangan ulama' beraliran Mazhab Shafi'i malah sumbangan mereka dari sudut ilmu dan pembangunan masyarakat diperkecilkan dan diperlekehkan. Mereka juga tidak menghargai adab dan budaya setempat dalam menyampaikan seruan mereka. Berdasarkan pemerhatian yang telah dibuat, golongan ini hakikatnya telah melanggar adab-adab berdakwah kerana kecenderungan mereka menggunakan bahasa-bahasa yang kasar dan menghina.

Mereka juga tergamak mencabar autoriti-autoriti agama dan perundangan syariah yang diterimapakai dalam masyarakat dan negara yang berpegang kepada mazhab Shafi'i. Ini kerana mereka menganggap ulama' beraliran mazhab Shafi'i membawa ilmu yang menjadikan umat Islam tidak tepat memahami Islam dan tidak ada usaha ijtihad dalam ilmu yang mereka lakukan, tetapi hanya mengikut mazhab membabi buta sahaja atau disebut juga taqlid buta.

Konsep ijtihad yang dibawa oleh golongan kaum muda ini nampaknya telah tersasar kerana tidak mengenengahkan persoalan-persoalan besar untuk kepentingan umat sedangkan inilah yang sepatutnya dilakukan. Berkemungkinan hal ini disebabkan kekurangan persiapan dari sudut keilmuan dan kurangnya pengalaman membawa ijtihadnya kepada persoalan-persoalan khilafiyyah yang sememangnya tidak pernah dapat diselesaikan oleh ulama'-ulama' muktabar sejak dahulu kerana tabiat persoalan itu diterima untuk berbeza pendapat oleh ulama'-ulama' muktabar.

Asas Aliran Pemikiran Tidak Bermazhab

Golongan pembaharu ini dikenali dengan kaum muda. Mereka ini secara jelasnya adalah golongan yang dipengaruhi oleh gerakan Islah di Mesir, Arab Saudi atau India. Lantaran itu aliran pemikiran dan pergerakannya adalah sebahagian besarnya sama dari segi penekanannya dengan apa yang berlaku di Timur Tengah dan India, iaitu kembali kepada al-Qur'an dan al-Sunnah, mengamalkan ijtihad dan meninggalkan taqlid dalam menyelesaikan masalah hukum.[40]

Dalam seruan mereka kepada masyarakat tentang idea Islah, didapati penekanan-penekanan tertentu yang ditimbulkan dalam masyarakat. Masalah kefahaman agama, masalah pendidikan, dan masalah kesedaran politik dan ekonomi orang Melayu.[41] Tapi penekanan banyak yang ditumpukan dalam seruan mereka ialah masalah kefahaman agama.[42] Seruan Islah ini disalurkan melalui majalah-majalah yang mereka terbitkan seperti Al-Imam (1906-1908), Al-Ikhwan (1926-1931), Saudara (1928-1941) dan majalah-majalah agama lain yang dikeluarkan pada waktu itu seperti Pengasuh dan seumpamanya. Selain itu, melalui penulisan-penulisan buku dan risalah-risalah dan melalui institusi-institusi pendidikan. Masalah Kefahaman Agama i) Peranan Akal Dalam memahami agama golongan ini cuba menimbulkan peranan akal. Tulisan-tulisan yang mereka terbitkan menganjur supaya mengguna akal dan kebebasan berfikir sehinggakan mereka menganggap amalan agama yang tidak berasaskan kepada kefahaman akal adalah sia-sia belaka. Sayyid Sheikh al-Hadi ada menjelaskan: "...oleh itu hendaklah tiap-tiap manusia menggunakan akal di dalam tiap-tiap amalan agama ini terlebih dahulu daripada yang lainnya kerana tiap-tiap amalan yang tidak diterima oleh akal itu sia-sia sahaja."[43] Ekoran dari kebebasan untuk berfikir telah melahirkan kecenderungan menghapus taqlid dan mengamalkan ijtihad. Mengamalkan ijtihad dengan sendirinya menolak taqlid dan dengan itu membawa kepada tidak mengikat diri dengan mazhab tertentu, dan jelas dari tulisan Abu Bakar al-Ashari menyatakan bahawa Islam tidak semestinya terbatas dalam lingkungan empat mazhab kerana tidak ada di sana asas yang menentukannya.

Oleh yang demikian beliau menganjurkan supaya dibuat penilaian semula pandangan mazhab-mazhab dan membuat penilaian untuk memilih pendapat yang paling tepat dengan nas dan yang paling sesuai dengan kehendak massa. Beliau juga berpendapat bahawa perbezaan mazhab menimbulkan kekacauan dan perpecahan di kalangan umat Islam, menyulitkan perlaksanaan Islam sebagai satu undang-undang dan menimbulkan kekeliruan kepada orang-orang bukan Islam tentang hakikat Islam yang sebenarnya.[44]

ii) Masalah Hukum Furu' Bertitik-tolak daripada galakan mengguna akal dan kebebasan berfikir, mereka menolak taqlid. Mereka juga berpandangan bahawa ada di antara ajaran-ajaran Islam yang diamalkan

dalam masyarakat Islam dianggap telah diselubungi oleh bida'ah dan khurafat yang diciptakan yang mesti dihapuskan.

Mereka juga meneliti dan menilai perkara-perkara yang diamalkan dalam masyarakat berasaskan kepada nas al-Qur'an dan hadith Rasulullah SAW. Jika amalan-amalan itu tidak didapati sumbernya dari dua asas itu mereka anggap sebagai amalan bida'ah yang diciptakan. Bida'ah yang dimaksudkan itu ialah apa yang disebutkan oleh Izzuddin Ibn Abdul Salam iaitu perbuatan yang tidak ada pada masa Rasulullah SAW. Bida'ah itu ada dua iaitu bida'ah lughawiyyah dan bida'ah shar'iyyah. Maka bida'ah shar'iyyah itu ialah dalam perkara akidah dan ibadat dan bida'ah dalam perkara shar'iyyah itu adalah hukumnya sesat sebagaimana maksud hadith Rasulullah SAW: "Tiap-tiap perkara bida'ah adalah sesat, dan tiap-tiap perkara sesat akan membawa ke neraka."[45] Berasaskan pemikiran demikian maka amalan-amalan berikut hukumnya bida'ah mengikut penilaian mereka: 1. Menentukan bilangan minima jamaah sembahyang Jumaat seramai 40 orang.[46] 2. Melakukan sembahyang Zuhur selepas sembahyang fardu Jumaat sebagai Ihtiyat.[47] 3. Azan pertama pada hari Jumaat.[48] 4. Ingatan muadhin dengan "Ya ma'shara al-Muslimin" sebelum khatib berkhutbah.[49] 5. Melafazkan 'usolli' sebelum takbirat al-Ihram.[50] 6. Mengucap perkataan 'Sayyidina' dalam selawat atas Nabi SAW.[51] 7. Berdiri ketika membaca marhaban atau selawat.[52] 8. Sembahyang sunat qabliyyah Jumaat.[53] 9. Membaca talkin ke atas mayat sesudah selesai ditanam.[54] 10. Tidur di dalam liang lahad oleh si alim sebelum mayat dikebumikan untuk mendapat berkat.[55] 11. Kenduri dan tahlil kematian.[56] 12. Menunggu di atas kubur kerana kematian.[57] 13. Kenduri mengingati kelahiran Nabi Muhammad SAW.[58] 14. Membuat bubur ashura pada hari sepuluh bulan Muharram.[59] 15. Sembahyang tarawih 20 rakaat.[60] 16. Berdoa selepas sembahyang.[61] 17. Menggunakan bedok menandakan masuk waktu solat dan memanggil umat Islam untuk bersolat.[62] 18. Membaca qunut sembahyang subuh.[63] 19. Mengadakan fidyah sembahyang dan puasa.[64] 20. Sembahyang Tasbih.[65] Selain itu terdapat juga beberapa amalan masyarakat yang diikuti mengikut tafsiran imam Shafi'i atau Shafi'iyyah yang dianggapnya tidak tepat dengan kehendak nas pada pandangan mereka. Kita tidak perlu terikat dengan amalan-amalan tafsiran itu seperti berikut: 1. Bersentuh kulit lelaki dengan perempuan membatalkan wudhu'. Namun, bagi mereka tidak membatalkan wudhu.[66] 2. Ma'mum membaca Fatihah dalam solat untuk sah solatnya sekalipun dia berimam. Bagi mereka tidak perlu membaca.[67] 3. Membasuh siku harus dimulakan dari atas atau bawah. Bagi mereka membasuh siku mesti dimulai dari tangan.[68] 4. Membaca Fatihah dimulai dengan Bismillah, bagi mereka dimulai dengan al-Hamdulillah.[69] 5. Membina masjid dari wang kutipan zakat.[70] Mereka berpendapat ini adalah bertentangan dengan nas. 6. Menjual harta wakaf di suatu tempat untuk dipindahkan tempat lain.[71] Mereka berpandangan ini adalah bertentangan dengan nas. 7. Menyamak bekas jilatan anjing.[72] Bagi mereka tidak wajib disamak. Mereka juga cuba berijtihad tentang masalah-masalah baru untuk menentukan hukumnya. Antaranya ialah faedah simpanan bank dan koperasi tidak dianggap riba.[73]

Konflik Kaum Muda dan Kaum Tua Masalah yang ditimbulkan oleh golongan pembaharu ini dalam masalah agama sebagaimana yang dijelaskan di atas menimbulkan kegelisahan dan tidak disenangi di kalangan ulama'-ulama' yang berpegang dengan mazhab Shafi'i.

Ekoran dari pendedahan tentang konsep ijtihad dan masalah-masalah khilafiyyat, menimbulkan ketegangan di antara golongan ini dengan para ulama'. Maka lahirlah perdebatan-perdebatan hangat secara terbuka di majlis-majlis umum,[74] dalam majalah-majalah, di dada akhbar, sehinga timbul tuduh menuduh di antara satu sama lain.[75] Kesan ketegangan ini dalam beberapa peringkat bukan sahaja dirasai oleh mereka yang terlibat malah oleh masyarakat awam yang turut terpengaruh dengan ajaran para ulama' itu.[76]

Dengan lahirnya fenomena baru ini dalam pemikiran agama khususnya dalam fiqh membuatkan perkembangan dan kestabilan pemikiran mazhab Shafi'i dalam sejarah perkembangannya di Malaysia tergugat. Tapi, ternyata jelas kekuatan dan keutuhannya dapat dipertahankan, kerana kealiman para ulamanya dalam bidang ilmu serta kesungguhan mereka dalam penyebaran ilmu melalui institusiinstitusi pendidikan yang mereka asaskan dan juga melalui penulisan buku-buku yang bermutu yang dapat dijadikan panduan kepada para penuntut ilmu.

Lantaran kegigihan para ulama' itu bekerja didapati kesannya jelas dalam masyarakat dan kekal berterusan diamalkan mazhab Shafi'i sama ada di kalangan masyarakat awam serta pemerintah. Manakala golongan pembaharu ini didapati kegiatannya terbatas dan penulisannya adalah lebih bersifat provokasi dan kurang sekali karya-karya yang mendalam dan bermutu jika dibandingkan dengan apa yang telah dihasilkan oleh ulama'-ulama' tradisional.

Walau bagaimanapun, idea-idea positif yang dibawa oleh kaum pembaharu ini tidak kita nafikan terutamanya dalam melahirkan kesedaran politik dan kefahaman Islam terhadap masalah-masalah yang perlu disedari untuk kepentingan umat Islam.

Sungguhpun pertelagahan itu berlaku dalam masalah furu' agama, tetapi dalam masalah besar tentang kepentingan umat Islam mereka bersatu kemudiannya, sehingga mereka menjadi satu "force" yang mencorakkan gerakan politik di negara ini untuk mengembalikan identiti Islam itu ke pangkuan masyarakatnya.

Kesan daripada perkembangan ini, maka didapati beberapa buah karya khilaf telah muncul dalam persuratan Melayu sebagai berikut: 1. Kitab Penebas Bida'ah Kepala Batas oleh Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin 2. Ketetapan Muzakarah Ulama' Malaya 1953. 3. Masalah Jilatan Anjing dalam Empat Mazhab oleh Sheikh Taha. 4. Kitab al-Qawl al-Mufid li ifadat al-Mustafid oleh Hj Muhd bin Idris.

Sumbangan Ulama Tradisional kepada Ilmu dan Pembangunan Masyarakat Sumbangan ulama tradisional dalam memartabatkan ajaran Islam dalam masyarakat adalah besar dan meliputi sumbangan kepada golongan pemerintah dan masyarakat umum. Sungguhpun ulama' tradisional mengambil Mazhab Shafi'i sebagai asas dalam tafsiran hukum dan fatwa bukanlah bermakna mereka tidak berijtihad, tetapi ijtihad mereka masih berada dalam kerangka mazhab dan menggunakan kaedah Usul al-fiqh.

Barangkali ijtihad mereka yang sangat menyumbang kepada perkembangan perundangan negara pada peringkat awal ialah pengkanunan undang-undang Islam untuk keperluan pelaksanaan pemerintah dimulai dengan Kanun Melaka pada 1444, kemudian diikuti dengan negeri-negeri lain seperti Pahang, Kedah dan lain-lain. Demikian juga ijtihad mereka dalam memilih amalan-amalan kerohanian untuk mengukuh hubungan masyarakat dan sosial seperti zikir-zikir kematian dan talqin, upacara-upacara keagamaan seperti mengingati kelahiran Nabi Muhammad SAW, tahun baru Islam, hari Asyura dan lainlain.

Selain itu mereka mempunyai semangat kebangsaan yang tinggi. Hal ini dapat dilihat dalam usaha mereka mengembangkan bahasa Melayu dengan huruf Arab dalam bidang penyampaian ilmu dan pentadbiran negara, di samping penekanan mereka terhadap bahasa Arab dalam penyebaran ilmu. Mereka juga amat menghormati budaya bangsa dalam berpakaian dan berda'wah . Mereka tidak membawa balik budaya Arab dalam berpakaian, tetapi melahirkan bentuk pakaian Islam yang bercorak budaya Melayu, seperti baju Melayu misalnya dan tidak membawa purdah untuk wanita. Mereka tidak menyekat wanita dari terlibat dalam kegiatan masyarakat sama ada untuk kepentingan duniawi seperti dalam ekonomi, pertanian dan perusahaan, begitu juga dalam sosial seperti gotong-royong dalam majlis kenduri, perayaan-perayaan keagamaan dan menyelesaikan keperluan masyarakat. Mereka juga tidak disekat daripada terlibat dalam kegiatan keilmuan dan kegiatan kerohanian seperti menghadiri majlismajlis agama dan solat berjama'ah di masjid.

Mereka diberi kebebasan bergerak dalam masyarakat selama tidak terdedah kepada bahaya dan dapat menyumbang kepada pembangunan masyarakat. Tidak sebagaimana wanita dalam masyarakat Islam di negara-negara lain.

Sumbangan ulama' tradisional dalam pembentukan budaya dalam masyarakat juga tidak dapat dinafikan. Budaya dalam majlis perkahwinan umpamanya, aspek agama turut diterapkan dan juga budaya seperti hiburan selawat dan paluan rebana diperkenalkan, majlis persandingan diadakan sebagai satu bentuk pengisytiharan perkahwinan dan persediaan jamuan makan serta buah tangan untuk tetamu. Demikian juga dalam pertukangan, perubatan, perbomohan dan perbidanan, ilmu mempertahankan diri, budaya berkhatan anak serta majlis khatam al-Qur'an.

Dalam bidang keilmuan,mereka menulis kitab dalam pelbagai bidang ilmu seperti fiqh, akidah, akhlak, perubatan, pertukangan, perusahaan dan lain-lain. Penulisan mereka juga mansasarkan pelbagai peringkat sama ada untuk kanak-kanak mahupun orang dewasa. Hasil penulisan mereka dalam bidang agama adalah lebih menonjol sama ada mereka menghasilkan karya asli atau menterjemahkan bukubuku rujukan muktabar yang diterbitkan di Timur Tengah.

Karya-karya penting seperti Tafsir Baidawi, Ihya' Ulum al-Din yang diberi judul Siyar al-Salikin, Bidayah alHidayah dengan tajuk Hidayah al-Salikin karya Abdul Samad al-Falanbangi, demikian juga kitab-kitab lain seperti Matlaat Badrain, furu' al-Masail oleh Sheikh Dawud dan lain-lain. Manakala karya dalam bahasa Arab pula didapati Tafsir al-Qur'an dan Maraqiy al-Ubudiyyah ulasan Bidayat al-Hidayah karya Sheikh alNawawi al-Jawi.

Dalam perundangan, mereka turut memberi sumbangan dalam bentuk susunan Kanun untuk pentadbiran keadilan pemerintah yang berbeza dengan penulisan buku-buku fiqh. Ulama' tradisional mengambil mazhab Shafi'i sebagai asas tafsiran hukum untuk kegunaan pemerintah dan masyarakat awam. Melalui pendekatan ini, memudahkan masyarakat memahami Islam dan memudahkan pemerintah melaksanakan Islam di peringkat negara. Dalam amalan keagamaan juga dari sudut fiqh umumnya berasaskan mazhab Shafi'i dan dalam kerohanian dan tasawwuf diambil pemikiran al-Ghazali dan al-Nawawi.

Hasil daripada usaha ulama tradisional yang menggunakan pendekatan dakwah mendampingi pemerintah dan rakyat telah memberi kesan yang sangat besar terhadap Islam dan pembangunan umat. Islam dapat bertapak dalam pemerintahan, bahasa Melayu dan budaya Melayu dapat menjadi alat pemersatu. Begitu juga tafsiran Islam yang seragam dalam bidang hukum di peringkat pemerintah dan rakyat dapat mengukuhkan perpaduan umat dan memudahkan pemerintah melaksanakannya. Umat Melayu bersatu menjadi umat yang kuat, menjadi tonggak kepada kedaulatan negara dan Islam dijadikan agama negara serta turut menjadi salah satu daripada ciri-ciri orang Melayu.

Pendekatan penyebaran ilmu yang diasaskan oleh ulama' tradisional diwarisi oleh ulama'-ulama' kemudian yang terdidik di Al-Azhar dan Mekah dengan meneruskan pegangan amalan hidup keagamaan

kepada mazhab Shafi'i dan menggunakan ijtihad dalam perkara-perkara yang diperlukan oleh masyarakat berasaskan kerangka mazhab mu'tabar dan kaedah usul al-fiqh.

Justeru yang diambil perhatian dalam perkara-perkara baru yang memerlukan ijtihad. Sesuatu yang telah sebati dalam kehidupan masyarakat berasaskan mazhab Shafi'i dalam ibadat dan keluarga tidak perlu kepada ijtihad baru, kecuali jika ada keperluan seperti ijtihad tentang harta sepencarian dan bayaran zakat dengan mata wang. Bidang-bidang lain yang memerlukan ijtihad maka ia diteruskan dengan mengambil kira pandangan mazhab Shafi'i. Sekiranya pendapat mazhab Shafi'i tidak sesuai maka mazhab lain diterimapakai.

Hal ini banyak terjadi dalam muamalat yang mengambil beberapa jenis akad dari mazhab selain Shafi'i seperti al-Istisna' menurut pandangan Hanafi dan al-Tawarruq dari pandangan Hanbali. Begitu juga dalam proses mengkanunkan undang-undang syariah dalam Enakmen. Pendekatan ini membawa kepada perubahan pemikiran masyarakat dalam bidang hukum berlaku secara evolusi, teratur dan licin, serta tidak menggugat struktur besar pembinaan hukum dalam masyarakat. Dengan demikian ia dapat memenuhi keperluan "mengekalkan yang lama yang bermanfaat dan membawa yang baru yang lebih baik."

Kesimpulan Gerakan aliran tidak bermazhab ( )telah bertapak di Malaysia hampir satu abad. Dalam jangka masa yang begitu lama, tidak nampak satu sumbangan yang besar dari sudut keilmuan dan pembangunan masyarakat dibandingkan dengan sumbangan yang diberikan oleh ulama' yang beraliran mazhab. Apa yang dapat dilihat, aliran tidak bermazhab ini nampaknya belum dapat diterima dalam arus perdana masyarakat Malaysia sama ada di peringkat pemerintah dan rakyat. Hal ini berkemungkinan disebabkan tidak adanya hasil karya ilmu yang berwibawa dan muktabar mahupun ulama' muktabar mengikuti aliran ini kecuali yang serpihan seperti al-Albani.

Aliran ini juga tidak berlaku dalam pengalaman negara Islam selepas penerimaan mazhab tertentu dalam amalan masyarakat. Kenyataan yang jelas dapat dilihat di Arab Saudi masih bermazhab Hanbali, Turki, Mesir dan Pakistan bermazhab Hanafi, negeri-negeri Afrika seperti Libya, Tunisia dan Moroko adalah bermazhab Maliki. Aliran tidak bermazhab ini sebenarnya tidak mempunyai asas autoriti yang kuat dari sudut keilmuan dan tidak cukup wibawa ulamanya, dibanding dengan ulama' beraliran mazhab dan karya mereka.

Dalam perkembangan semasa, dengan berpegang kepada mazhab tertentu dalam tafsiran hukum dan amalan seperti yang diamalkan di Malaysia, hakikatnya tidaklah menghalang kemajuan masyarakat. Berpegang dengan satu mazhab dalam perkara hukum yang berkaitan dengan ibadat dan kekeluargaan

dapat mengukuhkan asas pembinaan masyarakat dan menguatkan perpaduan umat, manakala dalam bidang-bidang yang memerlukan ijtihad seperti muamalat dan sebagainya, kita memberi ruang dengan mengamalkan ijtihad supaya masyarakat hidup terarah kepada satu matlamat yang jelas.

Kita tidak mahu pengalaman kecelaruan pemikiran mazhab yang berlaku di Timur Tengah dan Indonesia seperti yang kita saksikan menjadi penyebab terjejasnya perpaduan dan kebahagiaan hidup masyarakat Islam, dibawa ke Malaysia untuk dijadikan panduan dalam membangun manusia. Ulama' tradisional kita dengan kekuatan ilmu dan komitmen dakwah telah dapat menyatukan umat Nusantara dengan mazhab Shafi'i, dari Filipina di Selatan sehingga ke Kemboja di Utara, janganlah pula kita mengecewakan usaha ulama' tradisional yang tinggi nilainya membangun ilmu dan umatnya dengan penuh padu ini dipertikaikan dan dipecah-pecahkan oleh aliran tanpa mazhab yang tidak berasaskan ilmu dan pengalaman ilmuan yang muktabar. NOTA KAKI [1] Kertas kerja yang dibentangkan dalam Seminar Hukum Islam Semasa V, "Menilai Realiti, Penghayatan dan Prospek Fiqh Syafie di Malaysia" anjuran Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya, 22-23hb Ogos 2007.

[2] Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang teori kedatangan Islam ke Malaysia, lihat Cesar Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines, 1973; Sayed Naquib al-Attas, Preliminary statement on a general theory of the Islamization of the Malay, Indonesia Archipelago, Kuala Lumpur, 1969 dan S.Q Fatimi, Islam comes to Malaysia, Singappore, 1963.

[3] Batu nisan yang dijumpai di Pekan Pahang menunjukkan tarikh di atasnya 14 Rabi'al-Awal, tahun 419H.Lihat Mukhtar Shafie, "Batu Nisan kurun ke 5H/10M di Pekan Pahang dalam Tamadun Islam di Malaysia, (Kuala Lumpur, 1980) hal. 15.

[4] Batu nisan yang dijumpai di Tanjung Inggeris, Kedah menunjukkan tarikh di atasnya 291H/903M. Lihat Mastika, bil. 10, 1965, hal. 34. Selain itu ada maklumat lain yang menunjukkan bahawa saudagarsaudagar Arab Islam yang berada di Canton sewaktu berlaku kekacauan di Cina, lari membawa diri dan berlindung di Kulah (Kedah) dan Pantai Barat Tanah Melayu. Peristiwa ini berlaku dalam masa pemerintahan Maharaja Hi Tsung (265-76H/878-89M). Lihat Sayed Naquib al-Attas. Op.cit.hal. 11.

[5] Wang emas yang dijumpai di Kelantan ada mencatatkan tarikh di atasnya 577H/1161M. Lihat Saad Shukri Hj. Muda, "Detik-detik Sejarah Kelantan, (Kota Bharu, 1971)". Hal. 28.

[6] Crawford, Sir John's History of Indian Arshipelago, (Edinburgh, 1820), vol. 11, hal. 28.

[7] Harison, Berian, South East Asia, A Short History, (London, 1957), hal. 43.

[8] Lihat Sayed Naquib al-Attas, Islam dalam Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, (Kuala Lumpur, 1972) hal. 34.

[9] Crawford, op.cit, hal.259-260.

[10] S.Q. Fatimi. Op.cit. hal.6.

[11] Lihat M.M. Mackeen, Contemporary Islamic Legal Organisation in Malaya. (Monograph series No.12, Yale University, 1969). Hal. 50.

[12] Untuk melihat sebahagian dari kitab-kitab jawi klasik yang didapati di Malaysia, lihat Mohd. Nor bin Ngah, "Some writings of the traditional Malay Muslim scholars found in a Malaysia," dalam Tamadun Islam di Malaysia, hal. 9-12.

[13] Richard Winstedt. The date of Malacca Codes dlm Journal Malayan Branch. Vol. 29. 1956, hlm.33.

[14] J.E. Kemple & R.O. Winstedt. A Malay Legal Digest, Journal Malayan Branch, Vol.21Pt. 1.1948. hlm.1 [15] Ibid. [16] Ibid.

[17] Lihat Hooker. The personal law of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. 1976. hlm. 19. [18] Ibid.

[19] Lihat peruntukan dalam Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri-negeri sebelum pindaan dan penyelarasan dibuat dalam Enakmen-enakmen tersebut.

[20] EPAP

[21] Lihat Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Selangor.

[22] Lihat AzizanAbdul Razak. The administration of Muslim law in Malaysia. Hlm. 118. Thesis M.Phil. University Kent.

[23] Muhd.Amin. 1979. Zua'ama' al-Islah, fi al-'Asr al-Hadith. Qahirah. Hlm. 20-21.

[24] Lihat C.C. Adams,.1932. Islam & Modernisme. New York. Hlm. 79-80

[25] Ahmad Amin. Op.cit. hlm. 14, 25

[26] Hafiz Wahbah. 1935. Jazirat al-Arab fi al-Qur'an al-Ishrin, Qahirah. Hlm.319-321.

[27] Mengikut Undang-undang Mesir no. 25, 1920. Rujukan utama pendapat arjah Mazhab Hanafi, manakala Undang-undang No. 25, tahun 1924 dibenarkan masalah-masalah tertentu boleh dirujuk kepada Mazhab empat yang lain. Lihat Shahatah al-Husaini,. 1969.al-Ahwal al-Shakhsiyyah, Qahirah. Hlm. 15.

[28] C.C. Adam. Op.cit. hlm.80

[29] William R. Roof. 1967. The origin of Malay Nationalis. New Haven & London. Hlm. 60.

[30] Lihat Nik Abdul Aziz. 1980. Sepintas lalu tentang Tariqah Shah Waliyullah al-Dahlawi & pengalirannya ke Tanah Melayu dalam Pendidikan di Malaysia dahulu & sekarang. Kuala Lumpur. Hlm. 81.

[31] Lihat Adnan Hj. Mohd Awang, Za'aba dan ajaran Khawaja Kamaluddin dalam pendidikan Islam dahulu dan sekarang. Hlm. 81. [32] Ibid. hlm 70. [33] Ibid. 71-78

[34] Lihat W.R.Roof. op.cit.hlm 61-63

[35] Lihat Nik Abdul Aziz.op.cit.68-69

[36] M.M.Mackeen.1969.Contemporary Islamic Legal Organisation in Malaya (Monograph Series, No.12, Yale University. Hlm.50)

[37] Lihat Mohd bin Harun. "Satu Kajian Konsep Ahli Sunnah wal Jama'ah dan Pelaksanaannya dalam Majlis Ugama Islam Perlis" hal. 91. Tesis di Jabatan Syariah Fakulti Islam UKM 1975/76.

[38] Lihat ketetapan Muzakarah Ulama' Semalaya anjuran PAS pada tahun 1953.

[39] Lihat memorandum yang dikeluarkan oleh HAshim Ab Ghani, Ketua saksi Syari'iyyah Madrasah Ittiba' al-Sunnah Kuala Pilah. 22 September 1966.

[40] Lihat Za'aba, the Malays and Religion dalam Tamadun Islam di Malaysia, hal.100-110

[41] Lihat al-Imam, 1 (julai 1906)

[42] W.R. Roff. Op.cit. hal 57.

[43] Al-Hadi, Ugama Islam dan akal. hal. 25.

[44] Sidek Fadzil. Op.cit. hal. 430-435. Abu Bakar al-Ashari, Kemerdekaan berfikir dalam Islam, (P.Pinang, 1954) hal. 59-60.

[45] Tahir Jalaluddin, Risalah Penebus Bidaah Kepala Batas, hal. 20. [46] Ibid. Hal. 7. [47] Ibid. Hal. 15. [48] Ibid. Hal. 20. [49] Ibid. hal. 21. [50] Ibid. hal. 29. [51] Ibid. hal. 30. [52] Ibid. [53] Ibid. hal. 22 [54] Ibid. hal. 32.

[55] Lihat tesis latihan Ilmiah Jabatan Shariah 1975/76 yang disediakan oleh Zainal bin Sulaiman bertajuk 'Pengaruh Kaum Tua dan Kaum Muda serta implikasinya terhadap masyarakat Melayu Kelantan, hal. 32.

[56] Mohd. Idris. 1953. al-Qawl al-Mufid li ifadat al-Mustafid. Kota Bharu. Hal. 36. [57] Ibid. Hal. 33. [58] Ibid. Hal. 22. [59] Ibid. Hal.3.

[60] Pengalaman penulis.

[61] Lihat tesis latihan Ilmiah jabatan Syariah 1975/78 oleh Muhammad bin Harun Berjudul,satu kajian konsep ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah dan pelaksanannya dalam Majlis Ugama Islam Perlis. Hal. 133.

[62] Lihat Mohd. Sarim Hj. Mustajab. Op.cit. hal. 155

[63] Pengalaman penulis. [64] Pengalaman penulis. [65] Pengalaman penulis [66] Pengalaman penulis.

[67] Mohd. Bin Haron. Op.cit . hal.129. [68] Ibid. 199. [69] .Ibid. 138.

[70] Nik Abdul Aziz. Op.cit. hal. 120. [71] Ibid. Hal. 122. [72] Ibid. Hal. 128.

[73] W.R. Roof. Op.cit. hal. 78.

[74] .Pernah berlaku di Kelantan perdebatan terbuka di Istana Sri Cemerlang dalam tahun 1937 di antara Kaum Muda dengan Kaum Tua tentang hokum jilatan anjing. Lihat Nik Abdul Aziz, Perbahasan tentang Jilatan Anjing: Satu perhatian. Lihat Jebat, bil. 9. 1979/80.

[75] Kenyataan ini dapat dilihat dalam tulisan-tulisan yang dikeluarkan oleh kedua pihak; dalam majalahmajalah dan akhbar-akhbar tempatan; antara lain lihat sikap Za'aba tentang kritikannya ke atas ulama' tradisional dalam mempertahankan peribadi dan ajaran Khamaja Kamaluddin. Lihat Adnan Haji Mohd Awang. Op.cit. hal. 70. Sunni Scholar Of Yemen Shaikh Habib Ali Al Jafri Explain About Beliefs Of Companions (Sahaba) Of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu AlaiheWasallam) Who Used To Visit Grave Of Prophet Muhammad With Belief That They Are Going To Meet The Prophet By Considering Him As Alive As He Was In His Worldly Life & Th Muhammad ibn Sa'd ibn Mani' al-Baghdadi or Ibn Sa'd, often called Katib ul-Waqidi, the scribe of Waqidi. Biography Ibn Sa'd was born in the year 168AH/784CE) and died in 230AH/845CE. He was a Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam and an Arabian biographer, received his training in the tradition from Al-Waqidi and other celebrated teachers. He lived for the most part in Baghdad, and had the reputation of being both trustworthy and accurate in his writings, which, in consequence, were much used by later writers. Ibn Sa`d was from Basra, Iraq, then lived in Baghdad in the 9th century. He is said to have died at the age of 62 in Baghdad. and was buried in the cemetery of the Syrian gate. The Major Classes The book of The Major Classes (Arabic: Kitab Tabaqat Al-Kubra) was is a compendium of biographical information about famous Islamic personalities. It is eight volumes long. This work contains the lives of Mohammed, his Companions and Helpers, including those who fought at the Battle of Badr as a special class, and of the following generation, the Followers, who received their traditions from the Companions. Ibn Saad's authorship of this work is attested in a postscript to the book added by a later writer. In this notice he is described as a "client of al-Husayn ibn `Abdullah of the `Abbasid family". Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is coterminous. Having a population estimated between 7 and 7.5 million, it is the largest city in Iraq and the second largest city in the Arab World (after Cairo, Egypt).

Located on the River Tigris, the city dates back to the 8th century. Baghdad has a past as a center of the Arab and Muslim world especially during the Abbasid Caliphate. Name There have been several rival proposals as to the specific etymology of the name Baghdad. The most reliable and most widely accepted among these is that the name is a Persian compound of Ba "garden" + dd "fair", translating to "The fair Garden", or Persian compound of Bag "god" + dd "given", translating to "God-given" or "God's gift", whence Modern Persian Badd. This in turn can be traced to Old Persian. Another leading proposal is that the name comes from Middle Persian Bgh-dd "The Given Garden". The name is pre-Islamic and the origins are unclear, but it is related to previous settlements, which did not have any political or commercial power, making it a virtually new foundation in the time of the Abbasids. The village of Baghdad did not have any political or commercial importance at the time of its selection by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur, who chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or "City of Peace" for his new foundation. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" had become almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (c. 130 - 207 AH; c. 748 - 822 AD), commonly referred to as al-Waqidi, was an early Arab Muslim historian. He was born and educated in Medina. When Harun al-Rashid made his hajj in 186 AH, and intended to visit Medina, he sent his vizier Yahya ibn Khalid ibn Barmak ahead to locate a suitable guide, and Yahya chose al-Waqidi. Al-Waqidi then followed the caliph back to Baghdad where he lived thereafter. At the time of his death he was qadi of the western side of Baghdad. Al-Waqidi was a tireless collector of traditions and the author of many books. His secretary, Muhammad Ibn Sa`d was also a famous historian. He made use of the information collected by al-Waqidi. Both of them wrote biographies of the prophet Muhammad that are important supplements to the "Sirat Rasul Allah" of Muhammad ibn Ishaq, but al-Waqidi's has survived only in part. Only one of al-Waqidi's works has survived - "Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi" ("Book of History and Campaigns") which describes the campaigns (Arabic "Ghazw") made by Muhammad while he was ruling in Medina. Another work still often ascribed to al-Waqidi, "Futuh al-Sham" ("Conquests of Syria"), contains characters from the sixth Islamic century, long after the time al-Waqidi lived. al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable. Imam Shafi'i says that,"the books written by Al-Waqidi are nothing but heaps of lies". Futuh al-Sham Title: Futuh al-Sham Author: al-Waqidi Binding: Hardcover. 700 pgs

Publisher: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah-Lebanon Al-Waqidi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Muslim historian Name: Abu `Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al al-Aslami Title: Al-Waqidi Birth: ca. 130AH / AD 748 Death: 207AH / AD 822 Main interests: History of Islam Works: "Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi" ("Book of History and Campaigns") Influenced: Ibn Sad Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic ' ( ) c. 130 - 207 AH; c. 748 - 822 AD), commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: ) , was an early Arab Muslim historian. He was born and educated in Medina. When Harun al-Rashid made his hajj in 186 AH, and intended to visit Medina, he sent his vizier Yahya ibn Khalid ibn Barmak ahead to locate a suitable guide, and Yahya chose al-Waqidi. Al-Waqidi then followed the caliph back to Baghdad where he lived thereafter. At the time of his death he was qadi of the western side of Baghdad. Al-Waqidi was a tireless collector of traditions and the author of many books. His secretary, Muhammad Ibn Sa`d was also a famous historian. He made use of the information collected by al-Waqidi. Both of them wrote biographies of the prophet Muhammad that are important supplements to the "Sirat Rasul Allah" of Muhammad ibn Ishaq, but al-Waqidi's has survived only in part. Only one of al-Waqidi's works has survived - "Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi" ("Book of History and Campaigns") which describes the campaigns (Arabic "Ghazw") made by Muhammad while he was ruling in Medina. Another work still often ascribed to al-Waqidi, "Futuh al-Sham" ("Conquests of Syria"), contains characters from the sixth Islamic century, long after the time al-Waqidi lived. al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable.[1] Imam Shafi'i says that,"the books written by Al-Waqidi are nothing but heaps of lies". [edit] Notes 1. ^ "(Prophet) Muhammad (pbuh)", Encyclopedia of Islam 1. I recently read a book in Urdu named "Daastaan Eemaan Farosho Ki" it is about Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi but im not sure about its authenticity Hazrat Maulana Mehboob Elahi Sahab DB Hazrat Mufti Taqi Usmani Sahab DB Ashaar and Islamic Nasheeds

SF Threads: Tafseer Bayanat by Mufti Taqi Usmani (Db) Bayanat by Various Shuyukh Reply With Quote Reply With Quote Qur'an School Learn Tajwid Online with a Live Teacher # 02-10-2010 04:26 PM #2 Saalik * View Profile * View Forum Posts * View Blog Entries * Visit Homepage Saalik is offline Senior Member Saalik's Avatar Join Date Mar 2006 Gender Brother Madhhab Hanafi Location Arz-ul-Ulama (Pakistan) Posts 159 Default Re: Authentic literature/documentaries on Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi R.A

There is a highly recommended book written by late Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi ra, called "Tareekh Dawat-o-Azeemat". It is composed in 7 volumes, each volume consist of the biographies of one of great personalities of past, including Salahuddin Ayubi ra. Other personalities which I remember includes Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani ra, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah ra, Mujaddai Alif Thaani ra, Maulana Rumi ra and others... Hope you'll find this book really beneficial inshaallah. http://www.darsequran.com http://www.al-inaam.com/tasawwuf/tasawwuf.htm http://tasawwuf.org

Through our destiny God speaks to us, Through our worship we speak to Him. [Hasan Le Gai Eaton] Reply With Quote Reply With Quote # 02-10-2010 04:55 PM #3 faaltu * View Profile * View Forum Posts * View Blog Entries faaltu is offline Moderator faaltu's Avatar Join Date Nov 2005 Gender Brother Madhhab Hanafi Posts 1,034 Default Re: Authentic literature/documentaries on Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi R.A Quote Originally Posted by Jawad_ Khan View Post can anyone please tell me where I can get an unbiased and authentic book on Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi R.A in English or Urdu? I recently read a book in Urdu named "Daastaan Eemaan Farosho Ki" it is about Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi but im not sure about its authenticity

An inspiring talk by Shaykh Zaheer Mahmood [DB] - Shaykh Salahudeen Ayyubi [RAH] Tabligh, Taleem & Tazkiyah @ Shariat.info

1st Sem, 1st Year - ShariahProgram. Reply With Quote Reply With Quote #

02-10-2010 05:36 PM #4 MujahidAbdullah * View Profile * View Forum Posts * View Blog Entries * Visit Homepage MujahidAbdullah is online now Senior Member MujahidAbdullah's Avatar Join Date May 2008 Gender Brother Madhhab Hanafi Posts 926 Default Re: Authentic literature/documentaries on Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi R.A Here is a PDF version of a Bio of Salahudin Ayyubi(RA) http://www.scribd.com/doc/38595073/Salahuddin Default Re: Authentic literature/documentaries on Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi R.A Jazak Allah for the links.... Just came across a wonderful book in Urdu "Futuh-ush-Shaam" written by Hazrat Waaqdee R.A who was a taabaee...... The book has details of the early Jihads led by Hazrat Abu Ubaida Bin Jarrah and Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed upto conquering Baitul Maqdas Al-Waqidi - Definition al-Waqidi ( d. 822) 'Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Omar Ibn Waqid al Sahmi ( ' d. 207 AH = 822 CE). Muslim historian. Born in Al Madinah, he moved to Iraq in 180 AH. There, he became acquainted with Yahiya al-Barmaki who sponsored him and introduced him to Harun al-Rashid, who made him judge of Baghdad, a position he continued to hold till his death. Although he knew lots of hadiths, but his speciality was historical data, and biographies of early Islam. It is said that he used to visit the places where battles occurred to see it for himself.

His scribe, Ibn Saad was also a famous historian. His works include: * Kitab Al Tarikh wa Al Maghazi (Book of History and Battles) * Akhbar Makkah (History of Mecca) * Darb Al Dananeer wa Al Darahim (Minting of Dinars and Drachms) * Kitab Al Tabaqat (Book of Generations) * Kitab Al Seerah (Book of Prophet Muhammad's biography) * Futuh Al Iraq (Conquest of Iraq) * Futuh Al Sham (Conquests of Syria). This book is a historical account attributed to Al Waqidi, but it is not actually his in its present form, since it contains characters from the 6th century AH. The manuscript of this book made it to the West early on, and based on one manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Simon Ockley's based his 'History of The Saracens'. Al-Waqidi - Example Usage In Islam, the ' were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. This form is plural; the singular is masculine ', feminine ''. Definitions of companion The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who saw Muhammad, believed in him and died a Muslim. Those that saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in. Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad, and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's (Muammad ibn Sa'd) early '' (The book of The Major Classes''). Muhammad ibn Ahmad Efendi (died 1622), who is also known with the sobriquet "", the author of the book entitled '''' (in Turkish), states as follows: "Once a male or female Muslim has seen Hadrat Muhammad only for a short time, no matter whether he/she is a child or an adult, he/she is called a Sahaba with the proviso of dying with as a believer; the same rule applies to blind Muslims who have talked with the Prophet at least once. If a disbeliever sees the Prophet and then joins the Believers after the demise of Muhammad, he is not a Sahaba; nor is a person called a Sahaba if he converted to Islam afterwards although he had seen the Prophet Muhammad as a Muslim. A person who converts to Islam after being a Sahaba and then becomes a Believer again after the demise of Prophet Muhammad, is a Sahaba." Madhhab is a Muslim school of law or fiqh (religious jurisprudence). In the first 150 years of Islam, there were many such "schools". In fact, several of the Sahbah, or contemporary "companions" of Muhammad, are credited with founding their own. The prominent Islamic jurisprudence schools of Damascus in Syria (often named Awza'iyya), Kufa and Basra in Iraq, and Medina in Arabia survived as the Maliki madhhab, while the other Iraqi schools were consolidated into the Hanafi madhhab. The Shafi'i, Hanbali, Zahiri and Jariri schools were established later, though the latter two schools eventually died out. Established schools The four mainstream schools of Sunni jurisprudence today, named after their founders (sometimes called the Aimmah Arbaa or four Imaams of Fiqh), are not generally seen as distinct sects, as there has been harmony for the most part among their various scholars throughout Islamic history.

Mlik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn 'mr al-Asbahi (Arabic ( ) c. 711 795) (93 AH 179 AH ) is known as "Imam Malik," the "Sheikh of Islam", the "Proof of the Community," and "Imam of the Abode of Emigration." He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in Sunni Islam. Imam Shafi, who was one of Malik's students for nine years and a scholarly giant in his own right, stated, "when scholars are mentioned, Malik is like the star among them." The Maliki Madhab, named after Malik, is one of the four schools of jurisprudence that are followed by Sunni Muslims to this day. Biography His full name was Abu Abdullah Mlik ibn Anas ibn Mlik Ibn Ab 'mir Ibn 'Amr Ibnul-Hrith Ibn Ghaimn Ibn Khuthail Ibn 'Amr Ibnul-Haarith. Malik was born the son of Anas ibn Malik (not the Sahabi) and Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina circa 711. His family was originally from the al-Asbahi tribe of Yemen, but his great grandfather Abu 'Amir relocated the family to Medina after converting to Islam in the second year after hijra (623). According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very fair, with white hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard and blue eyes. Ab Abdullh Muhammad ibn Idrs al-Shafi was a Muslim jurist, who lived from 767 CE to 820 CE. He was active in juridical matters and his teaching eventually led to the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or Madh'hab) named after him. Hence he is often called Imam al-Shafi'i. He is considered the founder of Islamic jurisprudence. Introduction The biography of al-Shafi'i is difficult to trace. The oldest surviving biography goes back to Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (died 327H/939) and is no more than a collection of anecdotes, some of them fantastic. The first real biography is by Ahmad Bayhaqi (died 458H/1066) and is filled with pious legends. The following is what seems to be a sensible reading. Family Al-Shafi'i belonged to the Qurayshi clan Banu Muttalib which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim to which Muhammad and the Abbasid caliphs belonged. Hence he had connections in the highest social circles, but he grew up in poverty. 767 786: Al-Mansur to Al-Hadi's era Early life, studies with Imam Malik He was born in Gaza and moved to Mecca when he was about two years old. He is reported to have studied with the "School of Mecca" (which might not even have existed, although some scholars are reported to have been active there). Then he moved to Madinah to teach others of the message of Islam and be taught by Malik ibn Anas. By Dr. G.F. Haddad Al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Taymi, al-Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150), called "The Imam" by Abu Dawud, and "The Imam, one of those who have reached the sky" by Ibn Hajar, he is known in the Islamic world as "The Greatest Imam" (al-imm al-a`zam) and his school has the largest number of followers among the four schools of Ahl al-Sunna. He is the first of the four mujtahid imams and the only Successor (tbi`i)

among them, having seen the Companions Anas ibn Malik, `Abd Allah ibn Abi Awfa, Sahl ibn Sa`d alSa`idi, Abu al-Tufayl, and `Amir ibn Wathila. Abu Hanifa is the first in Islam to organize the writing of fiqh under sub-headings embracing the whole of the Law, beginning with purity (tahara) followed by prayer (sala), an order which was retained by all subsequent scholars such as Malik, Shafi`i, Abu Dawud, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and others. All these and their followers are indebted to him and give him a share of their reward because he was the first to open that road for them, according to the hadith of the Prophet: "He who starts something good in Islam has its reward and the reward of those who practice it until the Day of Judgement, without lessening in the least the reward of those who practice it. The one who starts something bad in Islam will incur its punishment and the punishment of all those who practice it until the Day of Judgement without lessening their punishment in the least." Al-Shafi`i referred to this when he said: "People are all the children of Abu Hanifa in fiqh, of Ibn Ishaq in history, of Malik in hadith, and of Muqatil in tafsr." Al-Khatib narrated from Abu Hanifas student Abu Nu`aym that the latter said: "Muslims should make du`a to Allah on behalf of Abu Hanifa in their prayers, because the Sunan and the fiqh were preserved for them through him. Al-Dhahabi wrote one volume on the life of each of the other three great Imams and said: "The account of Abu Hanifas life requires two volumes." His son Hammad said as he washed his fathers body for burial: "May Allah have mercy on you! You have exhausted whoever tries to catch up with you." Abu Hanifa was scrupulously pious and refused Ibn Hubayras offer of a judgeship even when the latter had him whipped. Like al-Bukhari and al-Shafi`i, he used to make 60 complete recitations (khatma) of Quran every Ramadan: one in the day, one in the night, besides his teaching and other duties. Ibrahim ibn Rustum al-Marwazi said: "Four are the Imams that recited the entire Quran in a single rak`a: `Uthman ibn `Affan, Tamim al-Dari, Sa`id ibn Jubayr, and Abu Hanifa." Ibn al-Mubarak said: "Abu Hanifa for a long time would pray all five prayers with a single ablution." Al-Suyuti relates in Tabyid al-Sahifa that a certain visitor came to observe Abu Hanifa and saw him all day long in the mosque, teaching relentlessly, answering every question from both the scholars and the common people, not stopping except to pray, then standing at home in prayer when people were asleep, hardly ever eating or sleeping, and yet the most handsome and gracious of people, always alert and never tired, day after day for a long time, so that in the end the visitor said: "I became convinced that this was not an ordinary matter, but wilya (Friendship with Allah)." Al-Shafi`i said: "Knowledge revolves around three men: Malik, al-Layth, and Ibn `Uyayna." Al-Dhahabi commented: "Rather, it revolves also around al-Awza`i, al-Thawri, Ma`mar, Abu Hanifa, Shu`ba, and the two Hammads [ibn Zayd and ibn Salama]." Sufyan al-Thawri praised Abu Hanifa when he said: "We were in front of Abu Hanifa like small birds in front of the falcon," and Sufyan stood up for him when Abu Hanifa visited him after his brothers death, and he said: "This man holds a high rank in knowledge, and if I did not stand up for his science I would stand up for his age, and if not for his age then for his Godwariness (wara`), and if not for his Godwariness then for his jurisprudence (fiqh)." Ibn al-Mubarak praised Abu Hanifa and called him a sign of Allah. Both Ibn al-Mubarak and Sufyan al-Thawri said: "Abu Hanifa was in his time the most knowledgeable of all people on earth." Ibn Hajar also related that Ibn al-Mubarak said: "If Allah had not rescued me with Abu Hanifa and Sufyan [al-Thawri] I would have been like the rest of the common people." Dhahabi relates it as: "I would have been an innovator."

An example of Abu Hanifas perspicuity in inferring legal rulings from source-texts is his reading of the following hadith: The Prophet said: "Your life in comparison to the lifetime of past nations is like the period between the time of the mid-afternoon prayer (asr) and sunset. Your example and the example of the Jews and Christians is that of a man who employed laborers and said to them: Who will work for me until midday for one qirt (a unit of measure, part of a dinar) each? The Jews worked until mid-day for one qirt each. Then the man said: Who will work for me from mid-day until the asr prayer for one qirt each? The Christians worked from mid-day until the asr prayer for one qirt each. Then the man said: Who will work for me from the `asr prayer until the maghrib prayer for two qirt each? And that, in truth, is all of you. In truth, you have double the wages. The Jews and the Christians became angry and said: We did more labor but took less wages. But Allah said: Have I wronged you in any of your rights? They replied no. Then He said: This is My Blessing which I give to whom I wish." It was deduced from the phrase "We did more labor" that the time of mid-day to `asr must always be longer than that between `asr and maghrib. This is confirmed by authentic reports whereby: The Prophet hastened to pray zuhr and delayed praying `asr. The Prophet said: "May Allah have mercy on someone who prays four rak`as before `asr. `Ali delayed praying `asr until shortly before the sun changed, and he reprimanded the muadhdhin who was hurrying him with the words: "He is trying to teach us the Sunna!" Ibrahim al-Nakha`i said: "Those that came before you used to hasten more than you to pray zuhr and delay more than you in praying `asr." Al-Tahanawi said: "Those that came before you" are the Companions. Ibn Mas`ud delayed praying `asr. Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifa, and his two companions Muhammad ibn a-Hasan and Abu Yusuf therefore considered it better to lengthen the time between zuhr and `asr by delaying the latter prayer as long as the sun did not begin to redden, while the majority of the authorities considered that praying `asr early is better, on the basis of other sound evidence to that effect. Like every Friend of Allah, Abu Hanifa had his enemies. `Abdan said that he heard Ibn al-Mubarak say: "If you hear them mention Abu Hanifa derogatively then they are mentioning me derogatively. In truth I fear for them Allahs displeasure." Authentically related from Bishr al-Hafi is the statement: "No-one criticizes Abu Hanifa except an envier or an ignoramus." Hamid ibn Adam al-Marwazi said: I heard Ibn alMubarak say: "I never saw anyone more fearful of Allah than Abu Hanifa, even on trial under the whip and through money and property." Abu Mu`awiya al-Darir said: "Love of Abu Hanifa is part of the Sunna." * His Life * A wise young boy

* Abu Hanifa's foresight * Abu Hanifa's sagacity

Main sources: al-Khatib, Tarikh Baghdad 13:324-356; al-Dhahabi, Manaqib Abi Hanifa 22-36 and Tabaqat al-Huffaz 1:168; Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib 10:450; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya 10:114; al-Suyuti, Tabyid al-Sahifa p. 94-95; al-Haytami, al-Khayrat al-Hisan. return to Scholars

Sagacity of Imam Abu Hanifah

A man by the name of Ad-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Kharji, who rebelled during the time of the Ummayyads, entered the mosque in Kufa and told Imam Abu Hanifa, Repent! From what? asked Abu Hanifa. He answered, From your having permitted arbitration. Will you kill me or debate with me? asked the Imam. I will debate with you. And if we disagree on anything in the debate, who will decide between us? I will accept whomever you wish. Sit and judge between us if we disagree, Abu Hanifa said to one of ad-Dahhaks companions. Are you content for this one to decide between us? asked Abu Hanifa to ad-Dahhak. Yes You have allowed arbitration, so desist.

*source: The Four Imams: Their Lives, Works, and their Schools of Thought, Muhammad Abu Zahras book.] The Four Imams: Their lives, works and their Schools of Thought A book by Muhammad Abu Zahra This book is a compilation of four books which deal with the lives and works of the four imams who founded the four great canonical schools of thought of Islamic fiqh. The book was originally written in Arabic by the great Egyptian scholar and theologian Muhammad Abu Zahra and is presented in English for the first time. In this book, there is a comprehensive, in depth analysis of the four Sunni madhabs and their founders, giving details of their biography and the methods they used in reaching their legal conclusions. This is particularly important important in the world today when many thousands of Muslims find themselves in a situation where there is not enough knowledge and therefore, no traditional allegiance to a particular madhab. As a result of this ignorance, there is also a great deal of futile disagreements amongst the Muslims. This work therefore has been long overdue in the English language and will be a milestone in bridging the gap amongst the Muslims and uniting them. It makes a stimulating and enriching read for all who are interested in deepening their knowledge of Islam. Brief Biographies of the Four Imams Imam Malik - the first of the four great imams and founder of the Maliki school of thought. He lived his whole life in Madina where much of the Quran was revealed and most of the legal practices of Islam established. He spent his life studying, recording and clarifying the legal parameters and precedents which was passed down to him by the first two generations of Muslims who were the direct inheritors of the perfected form of Islam left by the Prophet (saw). This book not only gives the biographical details of the Imam's life but also puts it in its historical context and most importantly, shows us the methods he used in reaching his legal conclusions which played a vital part in preserving exactly the legacy of the pure Divine Guidance left by the Prophet and his Companions. Imam Al Shafi - founder of the Shafi'i school of thought. He was remarkable in that he resolved the differences of opinion that arose in the still evolving Muslim community and brought them together in the most outstanding legal system in the whole history of mankind. This book looks at his life and traces the development of his thought. It talks of his teachers and his followers and shows how the system he devised grew out of the intellectual and political currents of his time. It also gives an in-depth historical analysis of the various movements and sects which formed the background to the Islamic world in which he lived. Imam Abu Hanifa - died in 150 AH/767CE. He met the companions of the Prophet (saw) and is counted amongst the Tabi'un (followers). He is renowned for his piercing intellect as faqih, his scrupulousness, integrity of character and his resoluteness in the face of oppression. His school is historically associated with the rule in India and is the most widely followed school of thought. This makes his study particularly important for the English speaking readers since it gives them an in-depth appreciation of the school followed by the majority of the Muslims in the world. Imam Ahmad Abn Hambal - chronologically the last of the four imams and lived just after the first three generations of exemplary Muslims, thus confronting a slightly different situation from that faced

by his three predecessors. This necessitated a fresh approach to the legal issues arising out of the situation of the rapidly expanding urban development and imperial government which had started to engulf much of the Muslim community. The book shows how Imam Ahmad through his incredible personal integrity and scrupulous adherence to sound tradition was able to chart a course through a story period in which he lived. His example provided his followers with the legal bases of what later became the Hanbali madhab. What is a Madhhab? Why is it necessary to follow one? Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1995 The word madhhab is derived from an Arabic word meaning "to go" or "to take as a way", and refers to a mujtahid's choice in regard to a number of interpretive possibilities in deriving the rule of Allah from the primary texts of the Qur'an and hadith on a particular question. In a larger sense, a madhhab represents the entire school of thought of a particular mujtahid Imam, such as Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi'i, or Ahmad--together with many first-rank scholars that came after each of these in their respective schools, who checked their evidences and refined and upgraded their work. The mujtahid Imams were thus explainers, who operationalized the Qur'an and sunna in the specific shari'a rulings in our lives that are collectively known as fiqh or "jurisprudence". In relation to our din or "religion", this fiqh is only part of it, for the religious knowledge each of us possesses is of three types. The first type is the general knowledge of tenets of Islamic belief in the oneness of Allah, in His angels, Books, messengers, the prophethood of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), and so on. All of us may derive this knowledge directly from the Qur'an and hadith, as is also the case with a second type of knowledge, that of general Islamic ethical principles to do good, avoid evil, cooperate with others in good works, and so forth. Every Muslim can take these general principles, which form the largest and most important part of his religion, from the Qur'an and hadith. The third type of knowledge is that of the specific understanding of particular divine commands and prohibitions that make up the shari'a. Here, because of both the nature and the sheer number of the Qur'an and hadith texts involved, people differ in the scholarly capacity to understand and deduce rulings from them. But all of us have been commanded to live them in our lives, in obedience to Allah, and so Muslims are of two types, those who can do this by themselves, and they are the mujtahid Imams; and those who must do so by means of another, that is, by following a mujtahid Imam, in accordance with Allah's word in Surat al-Nahl, " Ask those who recall, if you know not " (Qur'an 16:43), and in Surat al-Nisa, " If they had referred it to the Messenger and to those of authority among them, then those of them whose task it is to find it out would have known the matter " (Qur'an 4:83), in which the phrase those of them whose task it is to find it out, expresses the words "alladhina yastanbitunahu minhum", referring to those possessing the capacity to draw inferences directly from the evidence, which is called in Arabic istinbat. These and other verses and hadiths oblige the believer who is not at the level of istinbat or directly deriving rulings from the Qur'an and hadith to ask and follow someone in such rulings who is at this

level. It is not difficult to see why Allah has obliged us to ask experts, for if each of us were personally responsible for evaluating all the primary texts relating to each question, a lifetime of study would hardly be enough for it, and one would either have to give up earning a living or give up ones din, which is why Allah says in surat al-Tawba, in the context of jihad: " Not all of the believers should go to fight. Of every section of them, why does not one part alone go forth, that the rest may gain knowledge of the religion and admonish their people when they return, that perhaps they may take warning " (Qur'an 9:122). The slogans we hear today about "following the Qur'an and sunna instead of following the madhhabs" are wide of the mark, for everyone agrees that we must follow the Qur'an and the sunna of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). The point is that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is no longer alive to personally teach us, and everything we have from him, whether the hadith or the Qur'an, has been conveyed to us through Islamic scholars. So it is not a question of whether or not to take our din from scholars, but rather, from which scholars. And this is the reason we have madhhabs in Islam: because the excellence and superiority of the scholarship of the mujtahid Imams--together with the traditional scholars who followed in each of their schools and evaluated and upgraded their work after them--have met the test of scholarly investigation and won the confidence of thinking and practicing Muslims for all the centuries of Islamic greatness. The reason why madhhabs exist, the benefit of them, past, present, and future, is that they furnish thousands of sound, knowledge-based answers to Muslims questions on how to obey Allah. Muslims have realized that to follow a madhhab means to follow a super scholar who not only had a comprehensive knowledge of the Qur'an and hadith texts relating to each issue he gave judgements on, but also lived in an age a millennium closer to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his Companions, when taqwa or "godfearingness" was the norm--both of which conditions are in striking contrast to the scholarship available today. While the call for a return to the Qur'an and sunna is an attractive slogan, in reality it is a great leap backward, a call to abandon centuries of detailed, case-by-case Islamic scholarship in finding and spelling out the commands of the Qur'an and sunna, a highly sophisticated, interdisciplinary effort by mujtahids, hadith specialists, Qur'anic exegetes, lexicographers, and other masters of the Islamic legal sciences. To abandon the fruits of this research, the Islamic shari'a, for the following of contemporary sheikhs who, despite the claims, are not at the level of their predecessors, is a replacement of something tried and proven for something at best tentative. The rhetoric of following the shari'a without following a particular madhhab is like a person going down to a car dealer to buy a car, but insisting it not be any known make--neither a Volkswagen nor Rolls-Royce nor Chevrolet--but rather "a car, pure and simple". Such a person does not really know what he wants; the cars on the lot do not come like that, but only in kinds. The salesman may be forgiven a slight smile, and can only point out that sophisticated products come from sophisticated means of production, from factories with a division of labor among those who test, produce, and assemble the many parts of the finished product. It is the nature of such collective human efforts to produce something far better than any of us alone could produce from scratch, even if given a forge and tools, and fifty years, or even a thousand. And so it is with the shari'a, which is more complex than any car because it deals with the universe of human actions and a wide interpretative range of sacred texts. This is why discarding the monumental scholarship of the madhhabs in operationalizing the Qur'an and sunna in order to adopt the understanding of a contemporary sheikh is not just a mistaken opinion. It is scrapping a Mercedes for a go-cart.

Source: Masud Ahmed Khan's Website 'Abdullah bin Mutharrif berkata, "Sesungguhnya kematian menjadikan para pecinta nikmat dunia tidak berselera lagi untuk menikmati seluruh kenikmatan, maka carilah kenikmatan yang tidak akan disentuh kematian." (Tahdzibu Mauidzatul Mukminin min Ihya 'Ulumuddin, Muhammad Jamaluddin al-Qasimi, m/s. 480) Palestin Kami Datang Detik Cemas Mavi Marmara: Palestin Kami Datang Penulis: Fatimah Syarha Mohd Noordin & Dr Farhan Hadi Mohd Taib Terbitan: Telaga Biru Sdn. Bhd. Harga: RM17.00 HADIS-HADIS MENGENAI ISTERI YANG SOLEHAH..

Kepada setiap wanita yang sudah bersuami, atau yang bakal membina rumah tangga serta peringatan kepada diri sendiri juga.. Perhatikanlah betapa tingginya darjat suami kita terhadap kita dan jangan sesekali meremehkannya. Juga, lihatlah betapa tingginya ganjaran buat para isteri..

Rasulullah S.A.W bersabda:

Dunia itu adalah perhiasan dan sebaik-baik perhiasan dunia ialah wanita yang solehah. (Hadis Riwayat Muslim)

Apabila seseorang wanita solat 5 waktu sehari, berpuasa pada bulan Ramadhan, menjaga kemaluannya dan MENTAATI SUAMINYA maka akan dikatakan kepadanya: Masukilah syurga dari mana-mana pintu yang kau kehendaki. (Riwayat Ahmad dan dihukum Sahih oleh Al Albaani)

Kalau saja aku boleh menyuruh seseorang untuk bersujud kepada orang lain, nescaya aku akan menyuruh para wanita untuk bersujud kepada suami mereka. Seorang wanita itu belumlah memenuhi seluruh hak Allah terhadapnya sampai ia memenuhi seluruh hak suaminya terhadapnya. Iaitu kalau suaminya menginginkan dirinya sedang ia berada di atas pelana, maka ia akan memenuhi keinginan suaminya itu. (Dikeluarkan oleh Imam Ahmad dan yang lain dengan lafaz yang mirip. Dan dishahihkan oleh Syaikh al Albani dalam Ash Shohiihah 1203.)

Rasulullah S.A.W juga bersabda:

Kalau saja kedua lubang hidung suaminya mengeluarkan darah dan nanah, kemudian ia jilati dengan lidahnya, ia belumlah memenuhi hak suamimu itu. Kalau sahaja manusia itu pantas bersujud kepada seorang manusia lain, maka aku akan menyuruh para wanita untuk bersujud kepada suami mereka ketika para suami itu masuk mendatangi mereka karena keutamaan yang telah Allahberikan kepada para suami di atas para istri. Dikeluarkan oleh Al Hakim dan yang lain. Ia berkata: isnadnya shahih namun tidak dikeluarkan oleh Bukhori dan Muslim.

ISTERI ADALAH PEMIMPIN DI RUMAH SUAMI

Wanita yang beragama berupaya mendidik anak-anaknya dengan sempurna. Dia tahu dan sedar bahawa dirinya adalah ketua di rumah suaminya. Bertanggungjawab dalam memastikan anak-anak diberikan didikan agama yang secukupnya. Oleh itu, dia sentiasa memastikan anak-anaknya membesar dengan sempurna dari segi rohani dan jasmani. Jadi, suami yang meninggalkan anak-anaknya bersama isteri kerana mencari rezeki tidak akan bimbang kerana dia sedar bahawa isteri solehah lagi beragama yang dipilihnya itu berupaya menjaga dan mendidik anaknya dengan amanah sepanjang ketiadaannya di rumah.

Sabda Rasulullah s.a.w:

Setiap kamu adalah pemimpin dan setiap orang akan ditanya terhadap apa yang dipimpinnya. Seorang imam adalah pemimpin dan akan ditanya terhadap apa yang dipimpinnya. Seorang suami adalah pemimpin keluarganya dan akan ditanya tentang apa yang dipimpinnya. Wanita adalah pemimpin di rumah suaminya dan akan ditanya tentang orang yang dipimpinnya. Setiap seorang kamu adalah pemimpin dan akan ditanya tentang apa yang dipimpinnya. (Riwayat al-Bukhari dan Muslim)

PARAS RUPA, HARTA BENDA & KEDUDUKAN TIDAK KEKAL

Kecantikan paras rupa, harta benda dan darjat keturunan tidak akan berkekalan. Namun, kebaikan dan akhlak yang mulia akan kekal selagi hayat dikandung badan. Sehinggalah ia membawa pelakunya ke syurga.

Antara kelebihan wanita solehah ialah akan sentiasa menghiburkan hati suami, redha dan menghargai pemberian suami serta sanggup bersama suami sama ada ketika susah mahupun senang. Ini kerana, agama menuntut dia melakukan demikian.

Sebuah riwayat menceritakan:

Seorang wanita datang kepada Rasulullah s.a.w kerana hajat tertentu. Apabila selesai, Rasulullah s.a.w bertanya: Adakah kamu mempunyai suami? Dia menjawab: Ya. Sabda baginda: Bagaimanakah kamu dengan dia? Dia menjawab: Aku tidak melalaikan haknya melainkan jika melibatkan apa yang tidak mampu kulakukan. Sabda baginda: Kamu perlu lihat keadaan kamu daripadanya. SESUNGGUHNYA SUAMIMU ADALAH SYURGA DAN NERAKAMU.. Riwayat Ahmad dan al-Nasaai dengan sanad yang baik.

Wanita solehah memahami hak suami. Dia berusaha menunaikan semua hak itu semata-mata kerana mengharapkan redha ALLAH. Apa sahaja masalah rumah tangga yang dihadapinya akan ditangani secara baik dan terbuka. Dia juga bersedia menerima segala sikap baik dan buruk suami. Serta memohon petunjuk ALLAH agar dipermudahkan segala masalah yang dihadapinya ketika melayari hidup berumah tangga. Dia tidak akan sekali-kali membuka rahsia suami kepada orang lain terutamanya yang melibatkan rahsia di tempat tidur mereka.

Sabda Rasulullah s.a.w:

Sesungguhnya seburuk-buruk kedudukan manusia di sisi ALLAH pada hari kiamat ialah seorang lelaki yang mendatangi isterinya dan isteri yang mendatanginya, lalu salah seorang mereka mendedahkan rahsia pasangannya. Riwayat Muslim.

Mereka sentiasa gembira dan ikhlas menjalankan tugas sebagai isteri semata-mata kerana ALLAH dan yakin terhadap sabda Rasulullah s.a.w bahawa seorang wanita yang melakukan solat lima waktu, puasa

Ramadan, menjaga kemaluan dan mentaati suami, dia boleh masuk syurga melalui mana-mana pintu yang disukainya. (Hadis sahih riwayat Ahmad dan al-Tobrani).

Oleh itu, segala perintah agama dilaksanakan sepenuh hati semata-mata kerana ALLAH. Muslimah yang baik sentiasa memahami bahawa ketaatan yang diberikan kepada suami adalah sebagai melaksanakan perintah ALLAH. Asalkan ketaatan itu bukanlah yang bertentangan dengan syariat dan hukum ALLAH. Setelah itu dia akan diberikan pahala yang tidak terhingga banyaknya.. Keengganannya berbuat demikian mengundang laknat dan kemurkaan ALLAH.

TIDAK MENOLAK PERMINTAAN SUAMI

Wanita solehah tidak akan sekali-kali mengabaikan permintaan suaminya di tempat tidur. Dia sentasa berwaspada terhadap sabda Rasulullah s.a.w yang menyebut:

Demi yang jiwaku di tangan-NYA, mana-mana suami yang memanggil isteri di tempat tidur, lalu isteri itu enggan memenuhinya, maka segala yang ada di langit dan bumi akan murka terhadapnya sehinggalah suaminya redha kepadanya. Riwayat Muslim.

Dia juga memahami bahawa permintaan suaminya itu wajib dipenuhi segera dan tidak boleh ditangguhkan walaupun ketika itu dia sedang sibuk di dapur atau berada di atas kenderaan.

Permintaan yang ditunaikan itu dapat menjaga dan membantu suaminya menghindari segala bisikan dan runtunan syahwat yang melanda fikirannya. Dan menenangkan jiwa suaminya. Dalam sebuah hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim Nabi s.a.w bersabda:

Apabila salah seorang kamu tertawan dengan seorang wanita dan hal itu berbekas dalam hatinya, dia hendaklah segera mendapatkan isteri dan menggaulinya. Sesungguhnya itu akan membuang segala perasaan yang ada dalam dirinya. - Riwayat Muslim.

Hal ini amat berbeza sekali dengan wanita yang tidak memahami tuntutan agama. Mereka sewenangwenangnya menolak permintaan suami dan menganggap perbuatan itu tidak mendatangkan sebarang dosa. Mereka sewenang-wenangnya memberi alasan penat atau sebagainya. Amaran dan ancaman laknat ALLAH dan malaikat terhadap perbuatan itu langsung tidak berbekas dalam hatinya.

Wanita solehah yang memahami kewajipan itu akan berusaha sebaik mungkin menjalankan tanggungjawabnya. Sepenat manapun, dia akan berusaha menunaikan segala permintaan suami. Ini kerana, redha ALLAH kepadanya terletak pada redha suami terhadap dirinya.

MENJAGA BATAS PERGAULAN

Isteri solehah sentiasa memelihara auratnya ketika berurusan dengan lelaki yang bukan mahram. Cara percakapan dan akhlak sentiasa diawasi agar tidak melanggar batasan syarak. Dia tidak bercakap melainkan perkara yang baik. Jauh sekali mengumpat dan mengeji orang lain. Larangan mengumpat, menghina dan mengejek orang lain yang dinyatakan dengan jelas oleh al-Quran dan sunnah sentiasa terpahat dalam hatinya.

Isteri solehah membimbing dan menasihati suami dalam melakukan apa yang terbaik untuk agama dan rumah tangga. Juga memberikan pandangan yang bernas terhadap dakwah dan kerjaya suami. Wanita pertama yang menjadi contoh terbaik dalam hal ini ialah Khadijah binti Khuwailid, isteri pertama Rasulullah s.a.w. Beliau merupakan orang pertama yang beriman, membenarkan, menyokong, berkoran jiwa dan raga serta sentiasa bersama baginda di saat-saat sukar baginda dalam menyampaikan dakwah.

Segala kebaikan, sokongan dan pengorbanan beliau ini mendapat pengiktirafan dan penghargaan daripada ALLAH S.W.T. Sehinggakan ALLAH dan Jibril berkirim salam kepada beliau dan menjanjikan sebuah mahligai untuknya di syurga kelak. Hal itu adalah penghargaan ALLAH terhadap segala kebaikan, layanan dan pengorbanannya buat suami tercinta.

Abu Hurairah menceritakan ketika saat wahyu mula-mula turun di mana baginda selalu bertahannuts di Gua Hirak:

Jibril mendatangi Nabi s.a.w lalu berkata: Wahai Rasulullah, ini Khadijah telah mendatangimu. Bersamanya ada bekas yang berisi lauk, makanan atau minuman. Apabila dia mendatangi kamu, maka sampaikanlah kepadanya salam TUHANnya dan daripadaku dan berilah khabar gembira kepadanya tentang sebuah mahligai di dalam syurga yang dibina daripada emas. Tidak ada kesusahan dan keletihan di dalamnya. Riwayat al-Bukhari dan Muslim.

SENTIASA KEMAS & BERSIH

Dia cintakan ilmu pengetahuan dan sentiasa bersedia menghadapi apa juga cabaran hidup. Dia akan sentiasa menguruskan rumah tangga mengikut apa yang dipelajari dan dididik kepadanya sejak kecil. Menjaga akidah, amal ibadah, solat, puasa dan memastikan seluruh anggota keluarganya mentaati perintah agama. Dia juga sentiasa berhias untuk suaminya dan memastikan dirinya sentiasa kemas, bersih dan harum ketika berada di hadapan suami.

Sabda Rasulullah s.a.w:

Antara punca kebahagiaan anak Adam ialah memiliki isteri yang solehah, tempat tinggal yang selesa dan kenderaan yang baik. Antara punca kecelakaan anak Adam ialah isteri yang jahat, rumah yang tidak selesa dan kenderaan yang tidak elok. Riwayat Ahmad melalui para perawi yang sahih.

Wanita solehah hanya berhias dan mempamirkan kecantikannya hanya untuk suaminya. Dia tidak mempamerkan di hadapan suami melainkan apa yang cantik dan wangi. Dalam sebuah riwayat diceritakan:

Rasulullah s.a.w ditanya tentang sebaik-baik wanita. Baginda menjawab: Yang menyukakan kamu apabila memandangnya. Apabila disuruh, dia patuh, menjaga rahsiamu dengan baik dan menjaga harta kamu. Riwayat Ahmad dan selainnya dan dihasankan oleh al-Albani.

Malang sekali ramai di kalangan wanita memandang remeh perkara ini. Mereka salah faham lalu mempamerkan diri di hadapan suami dalam keadaan kusut masai, berbau, pakaian compang-camping dan sebagainya. Lebih buruk lagi ada yang hanya berkemban sepanjang berada di rumah.

Sebaliknya apabila hendak keluar rumah, mereka berhias secantik mungkin untuk dipamirkan kepada lelaki yang tidak berhak melihatnya. Ini bukan sahaja tidak wajar, malah mengundang dosa besar dan musibah terhadap keharmonian rumah tangga muslim.

SEHARUSNYA..

Maka sekiranya kita dah tahu dan yakin akan kewajiban terhadap suami, maka hendaklah kita berusaha mendapatkan keredhaannya dengan pelbagai cara.Dan berusahalah untuk menjadi sebagaimana seorang wanita yang solehah iaitu Khadijah binti Khuwailid, isteri Rasulullah S.A.W.. Yang memanjakan suaminya, yang meringankan bebannya ketika menghadapi kerasnya kehidupan, yang memperhatikan kesukaan-kesukaannya kemudian mewujudkannya, dan memudahkan kesulitan-kesulitannya walaupun dengan mengorbankan dirinya sendiri.

Jadilah orang yang sedemikian mengagungkannya, maka dia akan menjadi orang yang sedemikian memuliakanmu. Dan juga jadilah orang yang sedemikian menurutinya, maka dia akan menjadi orang yang sedemikian lama dapat engkau dampingi.

Dan ketahuilah bahwasanya engkau tidak akan dapat meraih apa yang engkau sukai sebelum engkau mendahulukan keredhaannya di atas keredhaan dirimu sendiri dan mendahulukan keinginannya di atas keinginanmu sendiri dalam segala hal yang engkau sukai ataupun engkau benci. Dan semoga Allah menjadikan semuanya baik untukmu

Semoga perkongsian ni dapat memberi manfaat dan ingatan pada semua dan bersamalah kita berusaha memperbaiki diri.. Sebarang teguran amat dialu-alukan..

Lancome Miracle for Women Home > Women > Lancome > Lancome Miracle for Women Eau de Parfum Spray

Modern. Sophisticated. Light-filled. Serene. The zest of brilliant freesia, peppered with ginger. The splendor of magnolias, serenely balanced by warm, amber notes.

MIRACLE Eau de Parfum is second in to the perfume in fragrance intensity and ideal for all-day use. Ali ar-Ridha From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search

Al al-Ri, *Ri+ Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam A modern depiction by a Shi'a artist Rank Eighth *Twelve+ Imm Name Ali ibn Musa ibn Jafar Kunya Ab al-Hasan[1] Birth 11th Dhul Qidah 148 AH 29 December 765 C.E. Death 17th Safar 203 AH 23 August 818 C.E. Birthplace Madnah*1+ Buried Imm Ridh Mosque, Mashhad Life Duration Before Imamate: 35 years (148 - 183 AH) Imamate: 20 years (183 - 203 AH) - 17 years in Madnah - 3 years in Khorasan Titles ar-Ridh*1+ (Arabic for Pleasing) *Imm al-Dhmin*2+ (Arabic for Imm of Surety) *Sekizinci Ali (Turkish for Eighth Ali) Spouse(s) Sabkah a.k.a. Khayzurn*1+ Father Ms al-Kdhim Mother Ummul Bann Najmah*1+ Children Muhammad at-Taq (successor)

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim al-Rida al-Taqi al-Hadi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Al ibn Ms al-Ri (Arabic: ( ) commonly known as, Al ar-Ri, Ali Reza, or Ali Riza) (ca. December 29, 765 - August 23, 818)[1] was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Al ibn Ms ibn Jafar.

Quotations related to Al ar-Ridh at Wikiquote Contents [hide] 1 Birth and family life 2 His prayers 3 The shi'a views of Ali al-Ridha's morality 4 Ali al-Ridha admonishes his brother 5 Connection to Sufism 6 Death 7 Imam Ridha Mosque 8 Timeline 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit] Birth and family life Shrine of Imam Ali Ridha in Mashhad, IranOn the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH, a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Imam of Islam) in Medina, who took over the position of the Imamate, after his father. He was named Ali and titled al-Ridha. He was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sdiq. Like his father and grandfather, his education came at the hands of his father. The mother of Ali al-Ridha was Bibi Najmah, who was considered to be the most notable and distinguished lady in the realm of wisdom and faith. Najmah was originally an Berber (from the Maghreb i.e. Northwest Africa).[3] She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, and like Bibi Hamidah was also a notable Islamic scholar. Right from his childhood, Hazrat Imam Ali al-Ridha accompanied his father, Hazrat Imam Musa alKadhim, who repeatedly used to tell his friends, "Ali al-Ridha shall be the Imam after me." As such, Makhzumi says one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and said, "I invited you to be witnesses that this child (Ali al-Ridha) is my executor and successor."[citation needed] Since an extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kadhim, he added, "What I said must remain (restricted) up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions." Ali al-Ridha's father was martyred in 799, when Ali al-Ridha was 35, and he was given the responsibility of the Imamate. However, his Imamate was rejected by the Waqifite Shia. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hrn Rashd, and the people of Medina were disallowed from visiting Ali al-Ridha and learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful.

[edit] His prayers This section has no content. You can help Wikipedia by introducing information to it. (July 2010) [edit] The shi'a views of Ali al-Ridha's morality This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since April 2008. Its factual accuracy is disputed. Tagged since April 2008.

According to Shi'a tradition, the first Imams of Islam were infallible and became the practical example for others during their lives. They taught the lesson of life to the people. They did not segregate and separate themselves from them and did not lead their lives on the style and pattern of tyrants and oppressors. They did not overlook or show heedlessness and disrespect to anyone. Sheikh Saduk narrates through the words of Ibrahim ibn Abbas that, "I never saw Imam Ali al-Ridha committing excess over anyone in talking and interrupting anybody's speech before its coming to the end. He did not stretch his legs in the presence of others. When the meal table was laid he invited the servants to it, and took his meals with them. After taking rest in the nights he got up and made himself busy with the prayers to Allah. Similar to his fore fathers he carried food to the houses of the afflicted ones at the mid of nights." Muhammad ibn Abi Ibad says about Imam Ali al-Ridha, "He used mats of palm date leaves, straws and marsh reed in the summer season, and woolen carpets in the winter." He led a simple life in his home, but when he went out he used to decorate himself and put on new and clean dress. He respected and honored the guests to the extent that one night a lamp of the house went out of order, the guest got to his feet to put it right. Ali al-Ridha made him sit and he set the lamp right, and said, "We do not employ our guests (exploit) upon work." Yasir, the servant of Ali al-Ridha says, Imam Ali Ridha said to us, "Whenever you are busy taking your meal, if I call you, do not get up till you have finished up eating." Another friend of Ali al-Ridha says, "One day a stranger came Ali al-Ridha's house and said, I am one of your friends and I am also not a poor man but my money has finished up and I do not have the expenses to return. You give me an amount and when I return to my city I will give it out as alms on your behalf." Imam Ali al-Rida got up and went to another room, brought an amount of two hundred dirhams and gave it to him from behind the door and said, "Take this and go and it is not necessary to give it away as alms on my behalf." They asked the Imam Ali al-Ridha, "Why did you do it this way that he may not see you." He said, "So that he does not catch my sight and get ashamed (embarrassed)." Sulaiman, one of the friends of Ali al-Ridha says, "I went along with the Imam Ali Ridha to the house. The labors were busy at work. There was a stranger among them whom the Imam Ali al-Ridha did not recognize." He said, "Who is this man?" They said we have brought him from outside, so that he may help us. He said, "Have you concluded an agreement with him and fixed his wages?" They said, "No, he is a good man, whatever we pay him he accepts it and does not utter a word."

Ali al-Ridha was angry and annoyed and said, "I have always told you that when you employ someone for a job first of all fix his wages. Because, when his wages are fixed and you give more than that to him, he will become happy. But if you do not fix his wages and give him three times the amount, he thinks you have not given him the correct wages." [edit] Ali al-Ridha admonishes his brother Imam Ali Ridha's Shrine, IranOnce Ali al-Ridha was summoned to Khurasan and he forcibly accepted the special conditions of the succession of al-Ma'mun, al-Ma'mun summoned his brother, Zayd, who had revolted and brought about a riot in Medina to his court in Khurasan. Al-Ma'mun kept him free as a regard and honor to Ali al-Ridha and overlooked his punishment. One day, when Ali al-Ridha was delivering a speech in a grand assembly, he heard Zayd praising himself before the people, saying I am so and so. Ali al-Ridha shouted at him saying, "Oh Zayd, have you trusted upon the words of the grocers of Kufa and are conveying them to the people? What kind of things are you talking about? The sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah Zahra are worthy and outstanding only when they obey the command of Allah, and keep themselves away from sin and blunder. You think you are like Musa al-Kadhim, Ali ibn Husayn, and other Imams? Whereas, they took pains and bore hardships on the way to Allah and prayed to Allah day and night. Do you think you will gain without pain? Be aware, that if a person out of us the Ahl al-Bayt performs a good deed, he gets twice the reward. Because not only he performed good deeds like others but also that he has maintained the honor of Muhammad. If he practices something bad and does a sin, he has performed two sins. One is that he performed a bad act like the rest of the people and the other one is that he has negated the honor of Muhammad." Oh brother! The one who obeys Allah is from us the Ahl al-Bayt and the one who is a sinner is not ours. Allah Said about the son of Noah who cut the spiritual bondage with his father, "He is not out of your lineage; if he was out of your lineage, I would have (saved) and granted him salvation." [edit] Connection to Sufism Maruf Karkhi who was converted to Islam through Ali ar-Ridha is one of the foremost figures in the golden chain of most Sufi orders. He was a devoted student of Ali ar-Ridha and is an important figure for Sufism and Shi'ism. [edit] Death Ali al-Ridha did not outlive al-Ma'mun, martyred on May 26, 818, in Persia while accompanying alMa'mun at Tus. Most scholars agree he was poisoned by al-Ma'mun who poisoned Imam using grapes. Ali al-Ridha is buried within Imam Ridha Mosque, in Mashhad, Iran. After the death of Hrn Rashd, Hrn's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbsid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. Al-Ma'mun believed that Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites and asked for Ali al-Rida to meet him in Persia. Ali al-Ridha left his only son, Muammad atTaq, and his wife and set out for Merv.

Imam Ridha Mosque, which is visited by 12 to 15 million pilgrims every year.After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun named Ali al-Ridha his successor. He hoped to win Sh'a support through this move, but the

passage of caliphate would occur only if Ali al-Rida outlived al-Ma'mun (as with all promises of succession). Al-Ma'mun even changed the black Abbsid flags to green, the traditional color of the house of Al ibn Ab-Tlib, the first Sh'a imam. On the night of his death Ali al-Ridha saw his grandfather Muhammad in the dream saying, "Come to us tomorrow, what we have for you is better than the condition you are in." Harthama says, Ali al-Ridha got up in the mid of the night and called me so that I be present before him. I put on my dress and went to Ali al-Ridha. He said to me, "al-Ma'mun has decided to poison me through grapes tomorrow. Be aware, after my martyrdom he wishes to give me a bath. Tell him to refrain from it. If you do that Allah will not give you chance and respite (any-longer). At that time my son will arrive from Medina and give me a bath and coffin, without anyone seeing it or getting informed. Then, they will carry me to the tomb of Hrn al-Rashd. Al-Ma'mun wants to bury me behind him. But howsoever they work on the earth the pickaxe; they will fail to dig the soil. At that time tell al-Ma'mun to dig the earth in front of the grave so that a ready-made grave will appear. At that instance a white water boils out of the head-side (grave) and rises up. Small fish appear in that. Then a big fish appears which eats up the small fish. Thereafter, the water will settle down. After that lay me in the grave. Do not put the soil on my grave since; it will be filled up by itself. Oh Harthama, do what I have said and do not allow things to happen against what I told you, otherwise, Allah will torment you (people)." At last al-Ma'mun poisoned Ali al-Ridha through grapes in Tus, on the way back from Merv to Baghdad. Ali al-Ridha came to the house and said to his old friend Aba Salat, "Collect the carpets of the house and do not allow anyone to enter the house, as this is the time when my soul departs (dying) I want to die on the earth like my grandfather Husayn ibn Ali." Before the death of Ali ar-Ridha, al-Mamun stood next to his pillow (head side). Ali Rida opened his eyes and said to him, "have a good conduct with my son Muhammad al-Taqi for his death and yours are close to each other and do not have much distance in between." The body of Ali al-Ridha was buried in Mashhad. This occurred when Ali Ridha was 55 years of age. Following the death of Ali al-Ridha a revolt took place in Khorasan. Al-Mamun wept and beat upon his head to show that he was a mourner. But a large number of people knew that al-Mamun himself was the killer of Ali al-Ridha. A wave of despises and noise awn against al-Mamun. So that he did not allow the funeral to be carried out for a day and a night. Because, he was afraid that the disturbance may expand and the angry hostile and flared up masses may annihilate all the set ups and organizations. This is the reason why he sent a few men among the people to exhibit and shows the death of Ali al-Ridha as a natural one and tells them that al-Mamun did not have a hand in it. But for all he did, he could not get himself acquitted off and prove his innocence. At last, day-by-day he became more and more worthless and despicable in the eyes of the people, until he died in a very bad shape. [edit] Imam Ridha Mosque Main article: Imam Ridha Mosque See also: List of largest mosques Today the Imam Ridha Mosque in Mashhad occupies a total area of 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft) - the shrine area occupies 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards which surround it cover an area of 331,578m2.[4] Thus making it the largest mosque in the world, having an area greater than Masjid al-

Haram and Masjid al-Nabawi (which have area's of 356,800 m2[5] and 400,500 m2[citation needed] respectively). The courtyards also contain a total of 14 minarets, and 3 fountains. From the courtyards, external hallways named after scholars lead to the inner areas of the mosque. They are referred to as Bast (Sanctuary), since they were meant to be a safeguard for the shrine areas. The Bast hallways lead towards a total of 21 internal halls (Riwaq) which surround the burial chamber of Ali al-Ridha. Adjacent to the burial chamber is also a mosque dating back to the 10th century known as, Bala-e-Sar mosque. [edit] Timeline Ali ar-Ridha of the Ahl al-Bayt Banu Hashim Clan of the Banu Quraish Born: 11th Dhul Qidah 148 AH 29th December 765 CE Died: 17th Safar 203 AH 23rd August 818 CE Sha Islam titles Preceded by Musa al-Kadhim 8th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam 799 818 Succeeded by Muhammad at-Taq [edit] See also Biography portal Islamic Prophet Muhammad Ali ibn Abi Talib Hasan ibn Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali ibn Husayn Muhammad al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Muhammad al-Taqi Ali al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad al-Mahdi Hajar Khatoon Mosque [edit] References 1.^ a b c d e f A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. pp. 137. 2.^ al-Qummi, Shaykh Abbas (1998). "2". The Last Journey, Translation of Manazile Akherah. Aejazali Turabhusain Bhujwala. Qum: Imam Ali Foundation. pp. 6264. 3.^ Slavery in the History of Islam: Slaves' Children - Imams and Caliphs 4.^ "The Glory of the Islamic World". Imam Reza (A.S.) Network. http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=1073. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 5.^ Great Mosque of al-Haram at ArchNet [edit] External links

[1] About Imam Reza 'Ali ar-Rida an article of Encyclopdia Britannica online Ali al-Rida by Wilferd Madelung an article by Encyclopdia Iranica The Eighth Imm The life of Imm Al ibn-Ms ar-Ri by Bqir Sharf al-Qarash. Imam Ali ar-Rida Imam Ali ar-Rida : Official Site of Astane Quds Imam Ali Reza on Baabeilm.com A Glance at the Biography of Emam Reza Ali ibn Musa Rida biography and Hadith Imam Ali Reza (p) Holy Shrine in Mashad - Live Broadcast Ali ar-Ridha at Find a Grave Persondata Name al-Rida, Ali Alternative names Short description Date of birth Place of birth Madnah Date of death Place of death Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_ar-Ridha" Categories: 765 births | 818 deaths | Assassinated Shi'a imams | Deaths by poisoning | Shi'a imams | Twelvers | Family of Muhammad | Iranian Arab people | People of African descent | Twelver imams | People of Moroccan descent | Zaidi imams Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2007 | Articles to be expanded from July 2010 | All articles to be expanded | NPOV disputes from April 2008 | Accuracy disputes from April 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from November 2009Personal tools Log in / create accountNamespaces ArticleDiscussionVariantsViews ReadEditView historyActions Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonateInteraction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaToolbox What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AzrbaycancaCatalCymraegDanskDeutsch FranaisBahasa IndonesiaItaliano Bahasa MelayuNederlandsSvenskaTrkeThis page was last modified on 21 November 2010 at 15:10. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.

Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Sabda Rasul saw : "Semua ummatku layak masuk syurga kecuali mereka yang sengaja enggan masuk syurga." Sahabat bertanya : "Siapakah yang enggan masuk syurga itu ya Rasulullah?" Jawab Rasulullah saw : "Sesiapa yang taat kepadaku layak masuk syurga dan sesiapa yang menderhakaiku maka sesungguhnya ia lah orang yang enggan masuk syurga." Hadis ini menjelaskan kepada kita calon syurga ialah mereka yang taat kepada Allah swt dan melaksanakan sunnah Rasulullah saw sementara calon neraka pula ialah mereka yang melanggar perintah Allah swt, melakukan maksiat dan mungkar serta derhaka kepada Allah swt dan Rasul-Nya . Antara calon neraka ialah mereka yang melampaui batas agama. Tidak peduli dosa dan pahala. Mereka bertindak berasaskan nafsu dan syahwat. Memburu kepentingan duniawi tanpa peduli halal dan haram. Demikianlah firman Allah swt : "Maka adapun sesiapa yang melampaui batas (melakukan perbuatan yang ditaja oleh nafsu dan syaithan) dan terlalu kemaruk dengan kehidupan dunia sehingga mengabaikan akhirat maka sesungguhnya neraka jahannam lah tempat tinggal yang layak buat mereka." Sementara calon syurga pula ialah mereka yang takut kepada Allah swt Tuhan yang Maha Agong. Tidak berani mengangkat muka untuk derhaka dan melanggar hukum Allah swt. Juga orang yang mencegah dirinya dari perangkap nafsu dan syahwah serta bebas dari melakukan perbuatan terlarang seperti rasuah, judi, arak, zina, pecah amanah, zalim dan sebagainya. Firman Allah swt : ".. dan adapun mereka yang takut kepada Tuhannya yang Maha Tinggi dan mencegah dirinya dari nafsu dan syahwah maka sesungguhnya syurga adalah tempat tinggalnya yang paling layak." (Surah an Naazia't : 38 - 41) Tegasnya syurga tidaklah mudah untuk dimasuki melainkan mereka yang bertaqwa kepada Allah swt, justeru syurga hanyalah diwariskan kepada mereka yang bertaqwa. Taqwa dengan maksud tunduk dan patuh kepada perintah Allah swt dan meninggalkan semua perkara yang dilarang oleh Allah swt. "Demikian syurga yang kami wariskan dari kalangan hamba-hamba kami akan mereka yang benar-benar bertaqwa." (Surah Maryam : 63) Sebahagian dari penegasan Al Quran sebagai kalamullah dalam menetapkan calon neraka dan calon syurga dapat kita lihat dari ayat ini : ".. bahkan mereka yang melakukan kejahatan (rasuah, judi, arak, zina, pecah amanah, zalim dan sebagainya) dan ia terus hanyut tenggelam dalam kejahatannya maka mereka adalah penghuni neraka, mereka pula kekal di dalamnya sementara orang-orang yang beriman dan beramal dengan amalan yang soleh, merekalah penghuni syurga, mereka pula kekal di dalamnya." (Surah Al Baqarah : 81) Ayat-ayat di atas, bolehlah dinilai oleh setiap individu, bagaimana keadaan kita. Ia pasti sahaja melewati batas sempadan parti politik dan kepentingan suku kaum.

Siapa jua yang tidak melandasi hidup berasaskan manhaj rabbani dan sunnah an nabawi maka ia sendiri tahu bagaimana nasib dan masa depannya di akhirat kelak. Selebihnya menjadi milik mutlak Allah swt untuk menetapkan keputusannya berkait syurga dan neraka. Namun tidaklah salah jika kita menyebut kalau kamu buat begini jawabnya neraka dan kalau kamu buat begini tentunya syurga balasan ke atas kamu. Seperti kita menyebut kepada anak kita, "Hei Awang! Jangan mencuri nanti kamu masuk neraka" atau sebaliknya "Hei Awang! Sembahyanglah kalau kamu nak masuk syurga." Tentu tidak salah perkataan-perkataan tersebut justeru ia bermaksud untuk mendidik anak bukan menentu syurga atau neraka buat sang anak. - Artikel iluvislam.com Biodata Kolumnis Ustaz Nasrudin Hassan merupakan graduan Usuluddin dari Universiti Al-Azhar, Mesir. Selain aktif dalam aktiviti kemasyarakatan, beliau kini merupakan Pengarah Akademi Ar-Rasyidin yang berpusat di Kuantan, Pahang. Blog episodeperjuangan.blogspot.com menjadi medium untuk beliau menulis di alam maya. Sumber gambar: Koleksi iluvislam.com Untuk menghantar sebarang artikel, karya atau berita sila klik di sini! Tags + dosa + maksiat + nasrudin hassan + neraka + pahala + syurga + taqwa Artikel Berkaitan * Kehebatan Syurga Berdasarkan Al-Quran * Epilog Noda Semalam, Kemanisan Taubat * Promosi Maksiat Dan Buka Aib Sendiri * Salah Siapa * Alasan Untuk Berdosa Abridgments and commentaries of Minhaj al-Talibin BismiLlahir Rahmanir Rahim,

Abridgments; 1. Sheikh Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Andulusi (d.740 a.h)- al-Wahhaj fi Ikhtisar al-Minhaj. 2. Sheikh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari - Manhaj al-Tullab. Zakariyya al-Ansari also wrote a commentary upon his abridgment (Manhaj al-Tullab) providing Dalil and Ta'lil and named it Fath al-Wahhab bi-Sharh Manhaj al-Tullab. Sheikhs Sulaiman al-Bujayrmi and Sulaiman al-Jamal wrote marginalia (Hawashi) upon Fath al-Wahhab. Sheikh Ahmad Shumailah mentions another Hashiyah by the name of Miftah al-Bab from Sheikh Muhammad bin Ahmad 'Abd al-Bari al-Ahdal. Several other Hawashi have been written but remain in manuscript only.

Furthermore, Sheikh al-Islam's Manhaj was abridged by Sheikh al-Jawhari in his Nahj al-Talab.

Lastly, Imam al-Suyuti versified Minhaj al-Talibin in his poem entitled al-Ibtihaj ila Nadhm al-Minhaj, other versification exist by 'Abd al-Karim al-Mawsuli and other. Commentaries;

1. Imam ibn 'Imad al-Aqfahsi - al-Bahr al-'Ajjaj ila Sharh al-Minhaj 2. Imam al-Zarkashi - al-Dibag fi Tawdhih al-Minhaj 3. Imam Siraj al-Din al-Bilqini - Tashih al-Minhaj 4. Imam al-Suyuti - Durr al-Tajj fi 'Irab Muskhil al-Minhaj 5. Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Maradini - al-Bahr al-Mawwaj (14 volumes) 6. 'Allamah Jamal al-Din al-Damiri - al-Najm al-Wahhaj fi Sharh al-Minhaj (4 volumes, published by Dar al-Minhaj) 7. Sheikh Taqi al-Din bin Qadhi Shuhbah- (title not mentioned) 8. The son of the aforementioned Taqi al-Din, Badr al -Din, known as Ibn Shuhbah al-Asadi - Bidayat alMuhtaj and Irshad al-Muhtaj 9. Sheikh al-Islam Abu al-Fadhl 'Ajlun - Hadi al-Raghibin ila Sharh Minhaj al-Talibin 10. Imam ibn Hajar al-Haytami - Tuhfat al-Muhtaj bi-Sharh al-Minhaj. The Mufta bihi work of Hadramawt, Hijaz, Sham Kurdistan, and Daghestan. Widely available, typically printed with the Hashiyahs of 'Abd al-Hamid al-Sharwani and Ibn Qasim al-'Abbadi. 11. Imam Jamal al-Din al-Ramli - Nihayat al-Muhtaj ila Sharh al-Minhaj. The Mufta bihi work of Egypt, easier than Tuhfat al-Muhtaj to a certain degree. Widely available with it's indispensable Hashiyah by Imam Nur al-Din al-Shabramilisi. Both Tuhfah and Nihayah are the most reliable works for Fatwa in the Shafi'i Madhhab. 12. Imam al-Khatib al-Shirbini - Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma'rifat Ma'ani Alfadh al- Minhaj. Available through multiple publishers, considered to be the easiest commentary of Minhaj al-Talibin and ranks just under Fath al-Wahhab as the most reliable work for Fatwa in the Shafi'i Madhhab. 13. Imam Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli - Kanz al-Raghibin Sharh Minhaj al-Talibin 14. Imam Shihab al-Din al-Adhra' - Qut al-Muhtaj 15. Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki - al-Ibtihaj fi Sharh al-Minhaj

16. Imam Jamal al-Din al-Asnawi - (title not mentioned) 17. Imam Badr al-Din al-Ardibili - (not mentioned) 18. Sheikh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari - (not mentioned) 19. Sheikh Muhammad bin Ahmad 'Abd al-Bari al-Ahdal - I'anat al-Muhtaj ila Sharh al-Minhaj. The author reached the chapter dealing with divorce before passing away.

Sheikh Ahmad Shumailah mentions as a beneficial note; Among the best commentaries mentioned are, Tuhfat al-Muhtaj, for it is said that it encompasses knowledge, both implicitly and explicitly and Nihayat al-Muhtaj. Thereafter, Mughni al-Muhtaj.

Based upon Sullam al-Muta'llim al-Muhtaj by Sheikh Ahmad Shumailah al-Ahdal. Posted by Ahmad Adams at 11:30 PM 0 comments: Post a Comment Newer Post Older Post Home Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) Followers Blog Archive * 2010 (23) o September (1) + Sheikh Mahfudh al-Tirmisi o August (3) + Important works in the Shafi'i school + Audio explanation of al-Iqna' & Sharh Ibn Qasim by... + Muqaddimah of Ibn Salah explained-Shaykh Abd al-Fa... o July (1) + The Fiqh of Fasting (Matn Tahrir) o May (1) + The prayer's preliminaries o April (1) + Manhaj al-Tullab (2) The book of purification/wate... o March (3) + Manhaj al-Tullab (1) introduction + Abridgments and commentaries of Minhaj al-Talibin + The life of Imam ibn Rislan al-Ramli (author of Sa... o February (4) + Daily program at Ribat Tarim

+ al-Zarkashi's commentary of Minhaj published by DK... + 'Ilm and Dhikr + Times when the prayer is forbidden o January (9) + audio lessons by Sheikh Hasan Hitou + links to some of Sheikh al-Islam's works + Re-print of al-Kurdi's al-Fawa'id al-Madaniyyah + Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman al-Kurdi + Works highlighting the differences between Imam Ib... + curriculum of Ribat Tarim + Biography of Imam Shihab al Din al-Ramli + Fath al-Ghaffar, Ibn Qasim al-Abbadi's commentary ... + The purpose of this blog About Me My Photo Ahmad Adams View my complete profile The Four Imams: Their lives,works and their Schools of Thought [1p1,M Abu Zahra,518pp,HB, Aisha Bewley, Dar Al Taqwa {4 Sunni Madhabs:Hanifah,Malik,Hanbali,Shafi'i] 30.00 The Four Imams: Their lives,works and their Schools of Thought Click to enlarge Muhammad Abu Zahra Translated by Aisha Bewley 530 Pages Hardback Published in UK

This book is a compilation of four books which deal with the lives and works of the four imams who founded the four great canonical schools of thought of Islamic fiqh. The book was originally written in Arabic by the great Egyptian scholar and theologian Muhammad Abu Zahra and is presented in English for the first time. In this book, there is a comprehensive, in depth analysis of the four Sunni madhabs and their founders, giving details of their biography and the methods they used in reaching their legal conclusions. This is particularly important important in the world today when many thousands of Muslims find themselves in a situation where there is not enough knowledge and therefore, no traditional allegiance to a particular madhab. As a result of this ignorance, there is also a great deal of futile disagreements amongst the Muslims. This work therefore has been long overdue in the English language and will be a milestone in bridging the gap amongst the Muslims and uniting them. It makes a stimulating and enriching read for all who are interested in deepening their knowledge of Islam. Brief Biographies of the Four Imams

Imam Malik - the first of the four great imams and founder of the Maliki school of thought. He lived his whole life in Madina where much of the Quran was revealed and most of the legal practices of Islam established. He spent his life studying, recording and clarifying the legal parameters and precedents which was passed down to him by the first two generations of Muslims who were the direct inheritors of the perfected form of Islam left by the Prophet (saw). This book not only gives the biographical details of the Imam's life but also puts it in its historical context and most importantly, shows us the methods he used in reaching his legal conclusions which played a vital part in preserving exactly the legacy of the pure Divine Guidance left by the Prophet and his Companions. Imam Al Shafi - founder of the Shafi'i school of thought. He was remarkable in that he resolved the differences of opinion that arose in the still evolving Muslim community and brought them together in the most outstanding legal system in the whole history of mankind. This book looks at his life and traces the development of his thought. It talks of his teachers and his followers and shows how the system he devised grew out of the intellectual and political currents of his time. It also gives an in-depth historical analysis of the various movements and sects which formed the background to the Islamic world in which he lived. Imam Abu Hanifa - died in 150 AH/767CE. He met the companions of the Prophet (saw) and is counted amongst the Tabi'un (followers). He is renowned for his piercing intellect as faqih, his scrupulousness, integrity of character and his resoluteness in the face of oppression. His school is historically associated with the rule in India and is the most widely followed school of thought. This makes his study particularly important for the English speaking readers since it gives them an in-depth appreciation of the school followed by the majority of the Muslims in the world. Imam Ahmad Abn Hambal - chronologically the last of the four imams and lived just after the first three generations of exemplary Muslims, thus confronting a slightly different situation from that faced by his three predecessors. This necessitated a fresh approach to the legal issues arising out of the situation of the rapidly expanding urban development and imperial government which had started to engulf much of the Muslim community. The book shows how Imam Ahmad through his incredible personal integrity and scrupulous adherence to sound tradition was able to chart a course through a story period in which he lived. His example provided his followers with the legal bases of what later became the Hanbali madhab. This book is a compilation of four books which deal with the lives and works of the four imams who founded the four great canonical schools of thoughts of Islamic fiqh. The book was originally written in Arabic by the great Egyptian scholar and theologian Muhammad Abu Zahra and is presented in English for the first time. In this book there is a comprehensive, in depth analysis of the four Sunni madhabs and their founders, giving details of their biography and the methods they used in reaching their legal conclusions. This is particularly important in the world today when many thousands of Muslims find themselves in a situation where there is not enough knowledge therefore no traditional allegiance to a particular madhab. As a result of this ignorance there is also a great deal of futile disagreements amongst the Muslims. This work therefor has been long overdue in the English language and will be a milestone in bridging the gap amongst the Muslims and uniting them. It makes a stimulating and enriching read for all who are interested in deepening their knowledge of Islam

CARA MENGGUNAKAN MALAM (dipetik dari Ihya` Ulumuddin karangan Imam Al-Ghazali) Author: salmanfirdaus 24 Jun Menghidupkan waktu malam yakni mengerjakan ibadat sewaktu malam dengan bersolat dan lain-lain ada tujuh peringkat iaitu : Pertama : Menghidupkan seluruh malam yakni semalaman suntuk. Ini adalah orang yang benar-benar kuat dan pekerjaannya semata-mata untuk beribadat kepada Allah SWT sahaja. Mereka itu merasakan nikmat yang luar biasa di waktu bermunajat kepada Allah SWT. Kelakuan sedemikian itu dianggapnya sebagai makanan untuk menghidupkan hatinya. Oleh sebab itu mereka tidak berasa penat sama sekali sepanjang malam. Sebagai gantinya, maka di waktu siang mereka akan tidur seberapa perlu. Cara yang sedemikian ini tersohor sekali dari amalan 40 kaum tobi`in. Kedua : Bangun untuk melakukan ibadat selama separuh malam. Ketiga : Melakukan ibadat selama satu pertiga malam dari separuh malam yang terakhir. Keempat : Melakukan ibadat selama satu perenam malam yang terakhir atau satu perlima darinya. Kelima : Tdak mengikut cara-cara yang di atas tetapi ia tidur lalu menetapkan ia akan bangun malam pad satu masa yang tidak akan ditentukan. Keenam : Ia bangun hanya sekadar cukup untuk melakukan empat atau dua rakaat sahaja. Ketujuh : Sekiranya uzur untuk bangun ditengah malam, maka ia tidak melalaikan untuk bangun sebelum solat Subuh atau sewaktu menjelangnya waktu sahur dan ia tidak tidur pada waktu Subuh. Adapun cara Rasulullah SAW jika dilihat pada kadarnya, baginda tidak menetapkan satu cara yang khusus dalam melaksanakannya, tetapi kadangkala baginda mengerjakan ibadat separuh malam, kadangkala satu pertiga malam, kadangkala dua pertiga malam dan kadangkala satu perenam malam. Perkara itu berbeza-beza antara satu malam dengan malam yang lainnya. Peristiwa ini juga diperkuatkan oleh firman Allah SWT dalam dua keadaan iaitu : Sesungguhnya Tuhanmu mengetahui (wahai Muhammad) bahawasanya engkau bangun (solat Tahajjud) selama kurang dari dua pertiga malam dan selama satu perduanya, dan selama satu pertiganya (Al-Muzammil : 20) Perkataan kurang dari dua pertiga malam itu seolah-olah menunjukkan separuh atau separuh dari satu perenam. Juga perkataan nisf dan thuluts (rujuk surah Al-Muzammil : 20) apabila diletakkan baris bawah (kasrah) akan membawa erti separuh dua pertiga dan satu pertiga dari dua pertiga yakni hampir mendekati satu pertiga dan satu perempat.

Tetapi, jika diletakkan baris atas (nasab), ia akan membawa erti separuh malam dan satu pertiga malam. Aisyah ra berkata Rasulullah SAW bangun apabila telah mendengar suara berkokok yakni ayam jantan. Keterangan ini menunjukkan bahawa baginda saw mengerjakan ibadat malam selama satu perenam malam atau kurang sedikit dari itu. Hari ini, makin ramai nampaknya golongan yang ingin berlagak pandai. Lagaknya seperti lebih pandai dan bestari dari para ulama terdahulu yang memang sah lebih alim, warak dan kukuh imannya dari mereka semua. Hari ini, wujud generasi yang hanya sekadar graduate dari Al-Azhar, UIA, dan sebagainya yang tak habis-habis mempersoalkan isu-isu yang tidak membawa kemajuan kepada ummah seperti mempertikaikan kewajiban bermazhab, mengkritik umat Islam yang bertaklid, membida'ahkan sana-sini, memperdebatkan perkara fiqh yang furu' dan sebagainya. Saudara saudari seIslamku! Itu semua tidak membawa faedah yang besar kepada ummah. Ia hanya membawa kepada perpecahan. Salah satu isu yang tak relevan untuk diketengahkan ialah berkenaan kitab Ihya 'Ulumuddin yang dikarang oleh Imam Al-Ghazali.

Antara cebisan manuskrip asli Kitab Ihya 'Ulumuddin. Ihsan dari al-Ghazali's Website.

Pernah saya mendengar kritik dan 'suara-suara' yang bencikan kitab tersebut. Pernah saya mendengar ada golongan yang ingin menghumban kitab tersebut jauh-jauh. Ada orang tak mahu sentuh langsung kitab itu. Ada dakwaan mengatakan kitab Ihya mengandungi banyak hadith-hadith daif dan maudhuk. Maka kitab tersebut adalah sangat berbahaya!!! Saya adalah dari kalangan yang amat menitikberatkan kedudukan sesuatu hadith. Memandang sepintas lalu pada dakwaan tersebut, maka saya pun nampaknya perlu menjauhi kitab tersebut. Tapi perlukah saya? Pernahkah kalian terfikir mengapa kitab Ihya ini tetap bertahan walaupun ia dikatakan ada mengandungi hadith-hadith maudhuk (iaitu hadith palsu)? Untuk menjawab soalan ini, saya akan menterjemahkan artikel yang dijawab oleh Sheikh Amjad Rasheed. Jawapan beliau adalah dalam bentuk audio yang kemudian ditranskripkan oleh Saudari Huma Shah yang merupakan salah seorang staf di SunniPath. Transkrip tersebut yang berbahasa Arab kemudiannya diterjemahkan dalam Bahasa Inggeris oleh Sheikh Faraz Rabbani yang merupakan seorang tenaga pengajar di SunniPath. Saya berharap terjemahan saya dari Bahasa Inggeris ke Bahasa Malaysia tidak akan lari jauh dari isi artikel yang sebenar. Sebelum membaca terjemahan yang akan siap tidak lama lagi itu (InsyaAllah) ingin saya nasihatkan kepada sesiapa yang baru ingin berjinak-jinak dengan kitab Ihya 'Ulumuddin itu supaya meneruskan usaha anda itu. Jangan termakan hasutan puak-puak yang membenci ilmu tasawwuf dan kitab Ihya tersebut. Kepada yang sudah berjinak pula, teruskan pembacaan anda. Kepada yang sudah khatam berjinak, pasti kalian dapat melihat betapa unggulnya kitab masterpiece Imam Al-Ghazali tersebut. Jangan takut untuk membacanya. Keempat-empat mazhab yang ada mengiktiraf kitab tersebut. Mustahil para ulama terbilang dari keempat-empat mazhab itu terlepas pandang bahaya (iaitu bahaya ancaman api neraka) akibat membaca kitab tersebut.

After all, Ihya deals with your heart. Diseased heart will face great troubles in the Day of Judgement and Ihya tries to prevent it. Bersambung di BAHAGIAN 2, iaitu terjemahan artikel tersebut. --Berikut adalah 2 lagi manuskrip asal kitab Ihya. Sila klik untuk melihat dalam resolusi yang lebih besar. Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.usFree Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us Label: al-ghazali ihya ulumuddin wahhabi Untuk mendapatkan entri-entri terkini pada masa akan datang secara automatik, langgan blog ini secara e-mel atau pun RSS. Atau boleh juga melanggan melalui fungsi Blogspot itu sendiri. 14 Komen Tambah Komen Syeikh al-Akbar, Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, when he passed away, had Ihya on his lap. 22/1/06 9:29 AM Anak Alam That must be a very good indication of khusnul khatimah =) 22/1/06 9:29 AM Tawel Sensei i love Ihya Ulumuddin and Imam al-Ghazali 7/3/06 6:46 PM nailofar saya kurang bersetuju jika saudara menkritik mehasiswa al-azhar sedemikian rupa, marilah lihat al-azhar dari dalam, bagi saya al-azhar adalah benting kukuh akidah ahli sunnah wal jamaah ( asyai'roh dan makturi) juga keempat-empat mazhab.. :) apapun selamat memperjuangkan kebenaran 20/10/06 9:19 PM Tanpa Nama Salam, izin dilinkkan blog dan entri ini. 22/12/08 5:48 AM al-aman assalamualaikum....emmmm... saya sokong jugak dengan perjuangan saudara... saya jugak pernah membaca kitab itu, bagi saya, kitab tu memang ada memberi kesan yang mendalam pada diri saya bukan kepada zahir saya tetapi pada batin saya... insyaallah... walaupun saya tak brape pandai dalam cabang-cabang agama ni tapi saya suka untuk mempelajari suatu perkara yang baru dan ingin memperbaiki solat saya.... saya ada terpandang dalam kitab tu mengenai cara solat yang betul dan alhamdulillah, saya ada mengamalkannya... apa yang saya dapati, kelakuan saya yang teruk, beransuransur baik walaupun kadang-kadang keimanan ni diuji namun walaupun saya jatuh, saya akan tetap mengingati diri saya yang sebenar.... semuanya disebabkan kitab tersebut.... justeru, saya harapkan, jika kita nak membantah suatu perkara yang kita tidak tahu dan takde pengetahuan dalam hal itu, saya harapkan kita gunalah neraca akal untuk menimbang yang mana baik dan yang mana buruk... kita fikirlah sendiri apa yang terbaik untuk diri kita.... ingat, Allah tidak mengubah nasib sesuatu kaum itu melainkan kaum itu mengubah nasibnya sendiri, dan barang kali apa yang kita fikir baik untuk kita

barang kali ia memberi mudarat dan keburukan bagi kita dan barangkali apa yang kita fikir ia buruk untuk kita namun ia mungkin akan memberi kebaikkan untuk kita...insyaAllah....wallahu'alam...fikirfikirkanlah..... jangan kita asyik bantah sana sini sampai kerja pun tak jalan..... jika ada tersilap kata, saya mohon maaf ye....emmmm... jika nak contact saya, send email ke halaqas@gmail.com... ok... terima kasih.... 4/3/09 3:07 PM muhammad kepada saudara tanpa nama, jgnla tersalah tafsir.... jika diamati bnr2, btl kata sudara kita ni...dia tidak bermaksud mngatakan mahasiswa atau spa yg pernah belajar di Al-Azhar itu semuanya begitu, dan cetek ilmu dan sbgainya...memg benar didikan dan ilmu yg di terap dari Al-Azhar sgt bagus spt yg dikatakan..cuma ada segelintir dari mereka atau saudara kita serndiri...tidak dinafikan perkara itu..memg ada... dimana silapnya? ada diantara mereka yg tidak mahir dengn ilmunya tentg agama, cuba myuarakan pndpat yang tanpa disedari terkeluar dari landasan sebenar atau mungkin dia sendiri xykin...inilah jadinya sekrnya urusan hal agama bkn dtg dari glgn yg btul ahlinya...tidak bermaksud apa2 melainkn pendapat semata..marilah sama2 kita mendalami agama kita yg teramatlah luas lingkungan ilmunya...salam ukhwah dari saudara seislam kalian... 16/4/10 1:16 PM Tanpa Nama puak yang membenci kitab ihya itu tidak mampu menulis kitab sebagaimana ihya . mungkin hanya http://ghuroba.blogsome.com/2007/07/16/kitab-ihya-ulumuddin salam saya dah baca link yang di beri dan ternyata pengulas di sana tidak mengerti maksud yang di sampaikan Al ghazali kerana mengambil hanya separuh penerangan / hujjah ghazali. untuk membaca ihya , perlu baca sampai selesai sesuatu bab 7/10/10 3:56 PM Tanpa Nama saya dah membaca dengan seksama kitab ulumuddin, memang banyak dituangkan padanya hadith dhoih dan maudu,. untuk itu saran dalam menyikapi kitab itu : 1. memandang bahwa kitab itu adalah suatu karya luar biasa yang sampai saat ini dari penjelasan yang ada pada imam ghazali belum pernah saya akui ada kesalahan. mungkin saya yang bodoh. 2. apa yang ditulis itu memuat bahan kajian keilmuan-keimuan. dan keilmuan tak berarti apa-apa sebelum menjadi suatu amalan. tulisan itu hanya pada area keilmuan semata yang masih mendapat kajian lanjut untuk mengamalkannya. jadi tak usah kwawatir bahwa akan dilaknat ALLOH hanya sekedar telah membacanya. tapi kitab itu banyak memberikan keterangan, pencerahan, dan penjelasan akurat untuk lebih mengenal ALLH dan diri kita sebagai manusia yang banyak dosa dan khilaf. sebagai kita untuk memperbaiki akhlak diri ini menjadi kitab yang bleh dibaca diantara kitab yang lain. + Gambar Sambutan Ramadhan Serata Dunia + Anwar Ibrahim dan FDI 1 Trilion + Makin Panjang, Makin Banyak Ikan Emas + Belajar Membaca al-Quran Dalam Masa 23 Jam o Ogos (2) + 7 Font Islamik yang Anda (Mungkin) Tak Tahu

+ Di Keheningan Malam o Julai (5) + Halangan #3: Bahana Individualisme & Konsumerisme + 4 Tips Memberi Nama Blog + Dugaan Allah Buat Inul Daratista + Surat Terbuka & Pak Anwar + 6 - Kehandalan Para Imam Mujtahid II + Artikel 121 (1A) + Qasida Burda + Cinta Noraimi & Tuan Azman + Wahhabi 5 - Mengapa Ihya 'Ulumuddin Tetap Bertahan... + Islamic Reformation or Islamic Renaissance? + 5 - Kehandalan Para Imam Mujtahid

* Firus Fansuri: Tentang Wahabi * TAJDID SEGAR TAJDID SEBENAR: FITNAH WAHABBI * The Four Madhabs * What is a Madhab? * Understanding the Four Madhabs and the problem with anti-madhhabism * Why Muslims Follow Madhabs * What is the distinction between hadith and sunna? * Differences of Opinion are a Mercy * Unity Through Schools of Thoughts * Would you advise individuals to study hadith from al-Bukhari and Muslim on their own? * Debate: Why Does One have to follow a madhab? * Shaykh Murabtal Haajs Fatwa on Following One of the Four Accepted Madhabs * Who or what is a Salafi and is his approach valid? * Book: The Four Imams - Their lives, works and their Schools of Thought A Wise Young Muslim Boy Many years ago, during the time of the Tbi'n (the generation of Muslims after the Sahbah), Baghdd was a great city of Islam. In fact, it was the capital of the Islamic Empire and, because of the great number of scholars who lived there, it was the center of Islamic knowledge. One day, the ruler of Rome at the time sent an envoy to Baghdad with three challenges for the Muslims. When the messenger reached the city, he informed the khalfah that he had three questions which he challenged the Muslims to answer. The khalfah gathered together all the scholars of the city and the Roman messenger climbed upon a high platform and said, "I have come with three questions. If you answer them, then I will leave with you a great amount of wealth which I have brought from the king of Rome." As for the questions, they were: "What was there before Allh?" "In which direction does Allh face?" "What is Allh engaged in at this moment?"

The great assembly of people were silent. (Can you think of answers to these questions?) In the midst of these brilliant scholars and students of Islam was a man looking on with his young son. "O my dear father! I will answer him and silence him!" said the youth. So the boy sought the permission of the khalfah to give the answers and he was given the permission to do so. The Roman addressed the young Muslim and repeated his first question, "What was there before Allh?" The boy asked, "Do you know how to count?" "Yes," said the man. "Then count down from ten!" So the Roman counted down, "ten, nine, eight, ..." until he reached "one" and he stopped counting "But what comes before 'one'?" asked the boy. "There is nothing before one- that is it!" said the man. "Well then, if there obviously is nothing before the arithmetic 'one', then how do you expect that there should be anything before the 'One' who is Absolute Truth, All-Eternal, Everlasting the First, the Last, the Manifest, the Hidden?" Now the man was surprised by this direct answer which he could not dispute. So he asked, "Then tell me, in which direction is Allh facing?" "Bring a candle and light it," said the boy, "and tell me in which direction the flame is facing." "But the flame is just light- it spreads in each of the four directions, North, South, East and West. It does not face any one direction only," said the man in wonderment. The boy cried, "Then if this physical light spreads in all four directions such that you cannot tell me which way it faces, then what do you expect of the Nr-us-Samwti-wal-'Ard: Allh - the Light of the Heavens and the Earth!? Light upon Light, Allh faces all directions at all times." The Roman was stupified and astounded that here was a young child answering his challenges in such a way that he could not argue against the proofs. So, he desperately wanted to try his final question. But before doing so, the boy said, "Wait! You are the one who is asking the questions and I am the one who is giving the answer to these challenges. It is only fair that you should come down to where I am standing and that I should go up where you are right now, in order that the answers may be heard as clearly as the questions." This seemed reasonable to the Roman, so he came down from where he was standing and the boy ascended the platform. Then the man repeated his final challenge, "Tell me, what is Allh doing at this moment?"

The boy proudly answered, "At this moment, when Allh found upon this high platform a liar and mocker of Islam, He caused him to descend and brought him low. And as for the one who believed in the Oneness of Allh, He raised him up and established the Truth. Every day He exercises (universal) power (Surah 55 ar-Rahmn, Verse 29)." The Roman had nothing to say except to leave and return back to his country, defeated. Meanwhile, this young boy grew up to become one of the most famous scholars of Islam. Allh, the Exalted, blessed him with special wisdom and knowledge of the deen. His name was Abu Hanfah (rahmatullh 'alayhiAllh have mercy on him) and he is known today as Imm-e-A'dham, the Great Imm and scholar of Islam. [Adapted into English from "Manqib Ab Hanfah" written by Imm Muwaffaq Ibn Ahmad al-Makki (d. 568 Hijri). Dar al - Kitb al-'Arabiy, Beirut, 1981/1401H.] Biography of Imam Abu Hanifa - by Dr. G.F. Haddad Life of Imam Abu Hanifa Return to Biographies Ali ar-Ridha From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search

Al al-Ri, *Ri+ Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam A modern depiction by a Shi'a artist Rank Eighth *Twelve+ Imm Name Ali ibn Musa ibn Jafar Kunya Ab al-Hasan[1] Birth 11th Dhul Qidah 148 AH 29 December 765 C.E. Death 17th Safar 203 AH 23 August 818 C.E. Birthplace Madnah*1+ Buried Imm Ridh Mosque, Mashhad Life Duration Before Imamate: 35 years (148 - 183 AH) Imamate: 20 years (183 - 203 AH) - 17 years in Madnah - 3 years in Khorasan Titles ar-Ridh*1+ (Arabic for Pleasing) *Imm al-Dhmin*2+ (Arabic for Imm of Surety)

*Sekizinci Ali (Turkish for Eighth Ali) Spouse(s) Sabkah a.k.a. Khayzurn*1+ Father Ms al-Kdhim Mother Ummul Bann Najmah*1+ Children Muhammad at-Taq (successor)

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim al-Rida al-Taqi al-Hadi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Al ibn Ms al-Ri (Arabic: ( ) commonly known as, Al ar-Ri, Ali Reza, or Ali Riza) (ca. December 29, 765 - August 23, 818)[1] was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams. His given name was Al ibn Ms ibn Jafar.

Quotations related to Al ar-Ridh at Wikiquote Contents [hide] 1 Birth and family life 2 His prayers 3 The shi'a views of Ali al-Ridha's morality 4 Ali al-Ridha admonishes his brother 5 Connection to Sufism 6 Death 7 Imam Ridha Mosque 8 Timeline 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit] Birth and family life Shrine of Imam Ali Ridha in Mashhad, IranOn the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH, a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Imam of Islam) in Medina, who took over the position of the Imamate, after his father. He was named Ali and titled al-Ridha. He was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sdiq. Like his father and grandfather, his education came at the hands of his father. The mother of Ali al-Ridha was Bibi Najmah, who was considered to be the most notable and distinguished lady in the realm of wisdom and faith. Najmah was originally an Berber (from

the Maghreb i.e. Northwest Africa).[3] She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, and like Bibi Hamidah was also a notable Islamic scholar. Right from his childhood, Hazrat Imam Ali al-Ridha accompanied his father, Hazrat Imam Musa alKadhim, who repeatedly used to tell his friends, "Ali al-Ridha shall be the Imam after me." As such, Makhzumi says one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and said, "I invited you to be witnesses that this child (Ali al-Ridha) is my executor and successor."[citation needed] Since an extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kadhim, he added, "What I said must remain (restricted) up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions." Ali al-Ridha's father was martyred in 799, when Ali al-Ridha was 35, and he was given the responsibility of the Imamate. However, his Imamate was rejected by the Waqifite Shia. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hrn Rashd, and the people of Medina were disallowed from visiting Ali al-Ridha and learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful. [edit] His prayers This section has no content. You can help Wikipedia by introducing information to it. (July 2010) [edit] The shi'a views of Ali al-Ridha's morality This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since April 2008. Its factual accuracy is disputed. Tagged since April 2008.

According to Shi'a tradition, the first Imams of Islam were infallible and became the practical example for others during their lives. They taught the lesson of life to the people. They did not segregate and separate themselves from them and did not lead their lives on the style and pattern of tyrants and oppressors. They did not overlook or show heedlessness and disrespect to anyone. Sheikh Saduk narrates through the words of Ibrahim ibn Abbas that, "I never saw Imam Ali al-Ridha committing excess over anyone in talking and interrupting anybody's speech before its coming to the end. He did not stretch his legs in the presence of others. When the meal table was laid he invited the servants to it, and took his meals with them. After taking rest in the nights he got up and made himself busy with the prayers to Allah. Similar to his fore fathers he carried food to the houses of the afflicted ones at the mid of nights." Muhammad ibn Abi Ibad says about Imam Ali al-Ridha, "He used mats of palm date leaves, straws and marsh reed in the summer season, and woolen carpets in the winter." He led a simple life in his home, but when he went out he used to decorate himself and put on new and clean dress. He respected and honored the guests to the extent that one night a lamp of the house went out of order, the guest got to his feet to put it right. Ali al-Ridha made him sit and he set the lamp right, and said, "We do not employ our guests (exploit) upon work." Yasir, the servant of Ali al-Ridha says, Imam Ali Ridha said to us, "Whenever you are busy taking your meal, if I call you, do not get up till you have finished up eating." Another friend of Ali al-Ridha says,

"One day a stranger came Ali al-Ridha's house and said, I am one of your friends and I am also not a poor man but my money has finished up and I do not have the expenses to return. You give me an amount and when I return to my city I will give it out as alms on your behalf." Imam Ali al-Rida got up and went to another room, brought an amount of two hundred dirhams and gave it to him from behind the door and said, "Take this and go and it is not necessary to give it away as alms on my behalf." They asked the Imam Ali al-Ridha, "Why did you do it this way that he may not see you." He said, "So that he does not catch my sight and get ashamed (embarrassed)." Sulaiman, one of the friends of Ali al-Ridha says, "I went along with the Imam Ali Ridha to the house. The labors were busy at work. There was a stranger among them whom the Imam Ali al-Ridha did not recognize." He said, "Who is this man?" They said we have brought him from outside, so that he may help us. He said, "Have you concluded an agreement with him and fixed his wages?" They said, "No, he is a good man, whatever we pay him he accepts it and does not utter a word." Ali al-Ridha was angry and annoyed and said, "I have always told you that when you employ someone for a job first of all fix his wages. Because, when his wages are fixed and you give more than that to him, he will become happy. But if you do not fix his wages and give him three times the amount, he thinks you have not given him the correct wages." [edit] Ali al-Ridha admonishes his brother Imam Ali Ridha's Shrine, IranOnce Ali al-Ridha was summoned to Khurasan and he forcibly accepted the special conditions of the succession of al-Ma'mun, al-Ma'mun summoned his brother, Zayd, who had revolted and brought about a riot in Medina to his court in Khurasan. Al-Ma'mun kept him free as a regard and honor to Ali al-Ridha and overlooked his punishment. One day, when Ali al-Ridha was delivering a speech in a grand assembly, he heard Zayd praising himself before the people, saying I am so and so. Ali al-Ridha shouted at him saying, "Oh Zayd, have you trusted upon the words of the grocers of Kufa and are conveying them to the people? What kind of things are you talking about? The sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah Zahra are worthy and outstanding only when they obey the command of Allah, and keep themselves away from sin and blunder. You think you are like Musa al-Kadhim, Ali ibn Husayn, and other Imams? Whereas, they took pains and bore hardships on the way to Allah and prayed to Allah day and night. Do you think you will gain without pain? Be aware, that if a person out of us the Ahl al-Bayt performs a good deed, he gets twice the reward. Because not only he performed good deeds like others but also that he has maintained the honor of Muhammad. If he practices something bad and does a sin, he has performed two sins. One is that he performed a bad act like the rest of the people and the other one is that he has negated the honor of Muhammad." Oh brother! The one who obeys Allah is from us the Ahl al-Bayt and the one who is a sinner is not ours. Allah Said about the son of Noah who cut the spiritual bondage with his father, "He is not out of your lineage; if he was out of your lineage, I would have (saved) and granted him salvation." [edit] Connection to Sufism

Maruf Karkhi who was converted to Islam through Ali ar-Ridha is one of the foremost figures in the golden chain of most Sufi orders. He was a devoted student of Ali ar-Ridha and is an important figure for Sufism and Shi'ism. [edit] Death Ali al-Ridha did not outlive al-Ma'mun, martyred on May 26, 818, in Persia while accompanying alMa'mun at Tus. Most scholars agree he was poisoned by al-Ma'mun who poisoned Imam using grapes. Ali al-Ridha is buried within Imam Ridha Mosque, in Mashhad, Iran. After the death of Hrn Rashd, Hrn's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbsid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. Al-Ma'mun believed that Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites and asked for Ali al-Rida to meet him in Persia. Ali al-Ridha left his only son, Muammad atTaq, and his wife and set out for Merv.

Imam Ridha Mosque, which is visited by 12 to 15 million pilgrims every year.After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun named Ali al-Ridha his successor. He hoped to win Sh'a support through this move, but the passage of caliphate would occur only if Ali al-Rida outlived al-Ma'mun (as with all promises of succession). Al-Ma'mun even changed the black Abbsid flags to green, the traditional color of the house of Al ibn Ab-Tlib, the first Sh'a imam. On the night of his death Ali al-Ridha saw his grandfather Muhammad in the dream saying, "Come to us tomorrow, what we have for you is better than the condition you are in." Harthama says, Ali al-Ridha got up in the mid of the night and called me so that I be present before him. I put on my dress and went to Ali al-Ridha. He said to me, "al-Ma'mun has decided to poison me through grapes tomorrow. Be aware, after my martyrdom he wishes to give me a bath. Tell him to refrain from it. If you do that Allah will not give you chance and respite (any-longer). At that time my son will arrive from Medina and give me a bath and coffin, without anyone seeing it or getting informed. Then, they will carry me to the tomb of Hrn al-Rashd. Al-Ma'mun wants to bury me behind him. But howsoever they work on the earth the pickaxe; they will fail to dig the soil. At that time tell al-Ma'mun to dig the earth in front of the grave so that a ready-made grave will appear. At that instance a white water boils out of the head-side (grave) and rises up. Small fish appear in that. Then a big fish appears which eats up the small fish. Thereafter, the water will settle down. After that lay me in the grave. Do not put the soil on my grave since; it will be filled up by itself. Oh Harthama, do what I have said and do not allow things to happen against what I told you, otherwise, Allah will torment you (people)." At last al-Ma'mun poisoned Ali al-Ridha through grapes in Tus, on the way back from Merv to Baghdad. Ali al-Ridha came to the house and said to his old friend Aba Salat, "Collect the carpets of the house and do not allow anyone to enter the house, as this is the time when my soul departs (dying) I want to die on the earth like my grandfather Husayn ibn Ali." Before the death of Ali ar-Ridha, al-Mamun stood next to his pillow (head side). Ali Rida opened his eyes and said to him, "have a good conduct with my son Muhammad al-Taqi for his death and yours are close to each other and do not have much distance in between."

The body of Ali al-Ridha was buried in Mashhad. This occurred when Ali Ridha was 55 years of age. Following the death of Ali al-Ridha a revolt took place in Khorasan. Al-Mamun wept and beat upon his head to show that he was a mourner. But a large number of people knew that al-Mamun himself was the killer of Ali al-Ridha. A wave of despises and noise awn against al-Mamun. So that he did not allow the funeral to be carried out for a day and a night. Because, he was afraid that the disturbance may expand and the angry hostile and flared up masses may annihilate all the set ups and organizations. This is the reason why he sent a few men among the people to exhibit and shows the death of Ali al-Ridha as a natural one and tells them that al-Mamun did not have a hand in it. But for all he did, he could not get himself acquitted off and prove his innocence. At last, day-by-day he became more and more worthless and despicable in the eyes of the people, until he died in a very bad shape. [edit] Imam Ridha Mosque Main article: Imam Ridha Mosque See also: List of largest mosques Today the Imam Ridha Mosque in Mashhad occupies a total area of 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft) - the shrine area occupies 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards which surround it cover an area of 331,578m2.[4] Thus making it the largest mosque in the world, having an area greater than Masjid alHaram and Masjid al-Nabawi (which have area's of 356,800 m2[5] and 400,500 m2[citation needed] respectively). The courtyards also contain a total of 14 minarets, and 3 fountains. From the courtyards, external hallways named after scholars lead to the inner areas of the mosque. They are referred to as Bast (Sanctuary), since they were meant to be a safeguard for the shrine areas. The Bast hallways lead towards a total of 21 internal halls (Riwaq) which surround the burial chamber of Ali al-Ridha. Adjacent to the burial chamber is also a mosque dating back to the 10th century known as, Bala-e-Sar mosque. [edit] Timeline Ali ar-Ridha of the Ahl al-Bayt Banu Hashim Clan of the Banu Quraish Born: 11th Dhul Qidah 148 AH 29th December 765 CE Died: 17th Safar 203 AH 23rd August 818 CE Sha Islam titles Preceded by Musa al-Kadhim 8th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam 799 818 Succeeded by Muhammad at-Taq [edit] See also Biography portal Islamic Prophet Muhammad Ali ibn Abi Talib Hasan ibn Ali Husayn ibn Ali

Ali ibn Husayn Muhammad al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Muhammad al-Taqi Ali al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad al-Mahdi Hajar Khatoon Mosque [edit] References 1.^ a b c d e f A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. pp. 137. 2.^ al-Qummi, Shaykh Abbas (1998). "2". The Last Journey, Translation of Manazile Akherah. Aejazali Turabhusain Bhujwala. Qum: Imam Ali Foundation. pp. 6264. 3.^ Slavery in the History of Islam: Slaves' Children - Imams and Caliphs 4.^ "The Glory of the Islamic World". Imam Reza (A.S.) Network. http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=1073. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 5.^ Great Mosque of al-Haram at ArchNet [edit] External links [1] About Imam Reza 'Ali ar-Rida an article of Encyclopdia Britannica online Ali al-Rida by Wilferd Madelung an article by Encyclopdia Iranica The Eighth Imm The life of Imm Al ibn-Ms ar-Ri by Bqir Sharf al-Qarash. Imam Ali ar-Rida Imam Ali ar-Rida : Official Site of Astane Quds Imam Ali Reza on Baabeilm.com A Glance at the Biography of Emam Reza Ali ibn Musa Rida biography and Hadith Imam Ali Reza (p) Holy Shrine in Mashad - Live Broadcast Ali ar-Ridha at Find a Grave Al ar-Ri, in full Ab Al-asan Ibn Ms Ibn Jafar al Ar-ri (b. 765/768/770, Medina, Arabia *now in Saudi Arabia]d. 818, s, Iran), eighth imam of the Twelver Shites, noted for his piety and learning until 817, when the caliph al-Mamn, in an attempt to heal the division between the majority Sunnites and the Shites, appointed him his successor. The appointment aroused varying reactionsfew of them, even among the Shites, wholly favourableand Iraq, already irritated by al-Mamns transfer of the capital from Baghdad to Merv and by other offenses, rose up in rebellion. Al-Mamn gradually changed his policy. The court party set out from Merv for Baghdad, and on the way Al ar-Ri died, after a brief illness, at s. Shite historians attribute his death to poison, possibly administered by the caliph himself. His shrine (mashhad) at s became a pilgrimage place and gave its name to the city (Mashhad, or Meshed, in Iran). Many miracles are attributed to Al ar-Ri by the Shites.

LINKSRelated ArticlesAspects of the topic Al ar-Ri are discussed in the following places at Britannica. Assorted ReferencesIthn Asharyah (in Ithn Asharyah (Islamic sect)) reign of al-Mamn (in al-Mamn (Abbsid caliph): Caliphate.) shrine in Mashhad (in Mashhad (Iran); in Iran: Shah Abbs I )

PeopleThe following are some people associated with "Al ar-Ri" Al ar-Ri (Shite imam) PlacesThe following are some places associated with "Al ar-Ri" Medina (Saudi Arabia) OtherThe following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "Al ar-Ri" imam (Islam) Ithn Asharyah (Islamic sect) LINKSExternal Web SitesThe topic Al ar-Ri is discussed at the following external Web sites. LookLex Encyclopaedia - Biography of Ali ar-Rida Citations MLA Style: "Al ar-Ri." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 24 Nov. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/15269/Ali-ar-Rida>. APA Style: Al ar-Ri. (2010). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/15269/Ali-ar-Rida Sheikh Ma'ruf Al Kurkhi Kelahiran Beliau dilahirkan di kota Karkh kemudian pindah ke Bagdad ibu kota negara Bani Abbasiyah. Karkh yang menurut sebagian pakar sejarah merupakan bagian dari kota Baghdad dan menurut sebagian lagi Karkh berada di luar kota Baghdad di sebelah Timur. Kisah dan Teladan Menurut ahli sejarah, kedua orang tuanya memeluk agama Kristen dan menurut yang lain menganut agama Sabiah. Diriwayatkan katika Maruf al-Kurkhi pada usia meningkat remaja ia sangat menentang ajaran gurunya yang mengatakan bahwa Allah merupakan salah satu oknum Tuhan. Maruf al-Karkhi menentang pendapat ini katanya Tuhan hanya satu. Karena pendapatnya yang berbeda dengan pendapat gurunya, ia dipukul oleh gurunya dan ia melarikan diri dan bersembunyi. Karena kedua orang tuanya telah kehilangan anak yang dicintainya dan mengharap kepulangan anaknya dan orang tuanya berjanji kalau anaknya mau pulang, agama apa saja yang dipeluk anaknya akan dianut juga oleh kedua orang tuanya. Setelah sekian lama ia memeluk agama Islam di bawah bimbingan Ali bin Musa al-Ridha, setelah ia pulang dengan mengatakan bahwa ia telah memeluk agama Islam maka kemudian disusul oleh kedua orang tuanya.Maruf al-Karkhi mempelajari agama Islam melalui sejumlah ulama di Bagdad yang di antaranya Daud al-Thai. Bakar bin Humais dan Farqad as-Subkhi. Karena ketekunannya dan ketabahannya dalam menuntut ilmu pengetahuan dan khususnya ilmu tasawuf, ia berhasil menjadi seorang sufi yang terkemuka di Bagdad. Ia membuka halaqah pengajian dan di antara murid-muridnya yang terkenal di kemudian hari adalah Sari as-Saqati. Sebagai seorang sufi ia juga dikenal di kalangan fuqaha sebagai seorang faqih. Diriwayatkan ada dua orang faqih Bagdad yang terkemuka; Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal dan Imam Ibnu Ma'in berdiskusi tentang sujud sahwi dan keduanya belum sepakat. Kemudian lebih lanjut mereka berdua ingin menanyakan tentang pendapat Maruf al-Karkhi. Maruf al-

Karkhi menjawab dari sudut pendang tasawuf katanya: "sujud sahwi merupakan hukuman kepada hati karena lalai mengingat Allah."Maruf al-Karkhi menurut pada peneliti tasawuf sebagai tokoh yang memperkembangkan ajaran tasawuf. Ia menambah hasil perolehan jiwa dari cinta yang telah ditemukan oleh Rabiatul Adawiyah. Menurutnya cinta harus dilanjutkan sampai ke titik thumaninah (ketenangan) jiwa. Karena cinta dan ketenangan itulah yang menjadi tujuan tasawuf. Kebahagiaan yang sebenarnya dan yang kekal, bukan harta benda tetapi kekayaan yang sebenarnya adalah kekayaan hati. Kekayaan hati hanya dapat dicapai melalui marifah (pengenalan) akan yang dicintai. Apabila yang dicintai telah dikenal, terwujudlah kebahagiaan dan ketenteraman dalam hati dan kecillah segala urusan kebendaan dalam penglihatan hati. Maruf alKakhi dipandang oleh para peneliti tasawuf sebagai tokoh penting yang merupakan pengembang ajaran tasawuf yakni memunculkan teori baru dalam tasawuf ialah melalui mencari marifah sebagai inti ajaran tasawufnya. Kalau dahulu ajaran tasawuf baru berkisar berupa ajaran zuhud dan tekun beribadah untuk memperoleh keridhaan Allah. Pandangan ini berdasarkan penelitian kepada makna tasawuf itu sendiri. Di antara makna tasawuf yang dibawakan Maruf al-Karkhi ialah tasawuf adalah memperoleh hakikat (marifat) dan tidak mengharap sama sekali apa yang berada di tangan makhluk. Mencari hakikat tidaklah berbeda dengan mencari marifat itu sendiri karena marifat adalah ujung ilmu pengetahuan yang dikembangkan sufi yaitu ilmu syariat, ilmu thareqat, ilmu hakikat, dan ilmu marifat. Tausiyah Maruf al-Karkhi menurut para ahli sufi sebagai seorang sufi yang dikuasai oleh perasaan cinta yang membara kepada Allah SWT seperti halnya Rabiatul Adawiyah. Berkenaan dengan cinta kepada Allah Maruf al-Karkhi mengatakan:"Cinta kepada-Nya bukanlah diperoleh melalui pengajaran, ia merupakan pemberian atau Karunia Tuhan". Pernyataan ini yakni cinta kepada Allah SWT menurutnya bukan termasuk maqam (posisi yang didapat melalui usaha) tetapi termasuk haal (keadaan jiwa) yang dikaruniakan Allah SWT. Menurut para peneliti Barat yang di antaranya Nicholson yang mencoba menghubungkan antara timbulnya ide memperoleh hakikat (marifat) dengan latar belakang keagamaan Maruf al-Karkhi di masa kecilnya. Menurut Nicholson ide itu berasal dari ajaran agama yang dipeluknya yang dahulu ialah Kristen atau Sabiah. Pendapat yang seperti ini hanya merupakan dugaan alasannya pada masa kecil Maruf al-Karkhi belum tentu mengenal ajaran tentang hakikat bahkan dugaan besar ia belum mengenalnya karena usianya yang masih muda. Muncul ide mencapai hakikat itu, mungkin saja hasil dari tafakur atau renungannya dalam tasawuf. Keutamaan dan Karamah Menurut ahli sufi martabat yang tinggi yang dicapai oleh Maruf al-Karkhi tidak disangsikan lagi. Mereka beralasan dengan mimpi Ahmad bin Fath yang bertemu dengan Bisyir bin Haris yang telah wafat lebih dahulu. Ahmad bin Fath menyatakan tentang keadaan yang dialami Maruf al-Karkhi dirinya diampuni Allah SWT." Kulihat Ahmad bin Hanbal berdiri sedang antara mereka terdapat pembatas. Karena Maruf al-Karkhi menyembah Tuhan bukan mengharap surga, tidak pula karena takut kepada neraka," karena itu ia diangkat ke tempat yang tinggi yang tidak ada pembatas antaranya dengan Tuhan. Begitulah pengakuan seorang sufi tentang martabat dan kedudukan Maruf al-Karkhi. Menurut sufi bahwa Maruf al-Karkhi seperti halnya para zahid dan sufi lainnya. Maruf al-Karkhi terkenal di kalangan sufi memiliki banyak karamah yang di antaranya ketika terjadi kemarau panjang ia berdoa dalam shalat istisqa' meminta hujan, sebelum doanya selesai hujan sudah turun.

Wafatnya Sheikh Ma'ruf Al Kurkhi Beliau meninggalkan dunia dengan tenang pada tahun 200 H bertepatan dengan tahun 815 M pada usia 78 tahun.Semoga Allah SWT selalu meridhoinya dan memberi kita semua manfaat dengannya. Allahumma Amin. Ya Allah, curahkan dan limpahkanlah keridhoan atasnya dan anugerahilah kami dengan rahasia-rahasia yang Engkau simpan padanya, Amin Pendapat Syeikh Maruf Al Karkhi Soal Maulid (wafat 200H) Suatu hari ketika sedang berpuasa Sunah, Maruf Al Karkhi rahimahullah berjalan melewati seorang yang membagi bagikan air secara gratis. Dengan suara lantang lelaki itu berkata : Semoga Allah merahmati orang yang mau minum air ini Mendengar ucapannya, Maruf Al-Karkhi rahimahullah berhenti dan meminum air tersebut. Bukankah engkau sedang berpuasa? Tanya seseorang kepadanya. Benar, tetapi aku berharap mendapat rahmat Allah sebagaimana doa lelaki tersebut. (Abul Qashim Abdul Karim Bin Hawazin, Ar Risallatul Qusyairiyah, Darul Khair hal 427-428) Syeikh Maruf Al Karkhi rahimahullah sangat memperhatikan majelis Maulid Nabi. Dalam salah satu nasihatnya, beliau radhiyallahu anhu berkata : Barang siapa mempersiapkan makanan, mengumpulkan teman teman, menyalakan lampu, mengenakan pakaian baru , memakan parfum dan menghias dirinya untuk membaca dan mengagungkan mauled rasul, maka kelak di hari kiamat Allah akan mengumpulkan bersama para Nabi, orang orang yang berada dalam barisan pertama. Dia kan ditempatkan di Illiyyin yang tertinggi (Abu Bakar Bin Muhammad Syatha Ad-Dimyathi, I anathuth Thalibin Darul Fikr, juz3, hal 255)

Maruf Karkhi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Maruf Karkhi (Persian: ( ) d. circa 815 C.E.) whose full name Abu Mahfuz Maruf Ibn Firuz alKarkhi is a pivotal figure in Sufism. He is also connected to Shi'i Islam through the eighth Shi'a Imam, Ali ibn Musa Ar-Rida, who converted him to Islam. Contents [hide] * 1 Biography * 2 Sufi tradition * 3 See also * 4 Notes [edit] Biography

Maruf was born in the district of Wasit or Karkh in Baghdad. His father's name Firuz or Firuzan suggests that he was of Persian origin[1]. His original religion is not clear but it is possible that it was Zoroastrianism, Christianity or Mandeanism. It is noted that an Armenian Islamic preacher, Farqad asSabakhi, may have mentored Maruf Karkhi.[2] [edit] Sufi tradition In Sufism, Marufi orders are those connected to Maruf Karkhi. The overwhelming majority of Sufi spiritual orders claim him as part of their golden chain. He forms a penultimate link in what is known as the golden chain (silsilah) of Sufism, the initiation line which forms an unbroken chain to the Prophet of Islam. [edit] See also * Qari Muhammad Muslehuddin Siddiqui * Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi [edit] Notes Abu Hanifah (ra) - His Life, Legal Method and Legacy EXCLUSIVE BOOK LAUNCH ON Abu Hanifa(ra)!!! An excellent addition and must read for anyone wanting to truly understand Abu Hanifa(ra) and his legal framework ... Abu Hanifah Nu'man ibn Thabit (d. 150/767) is one of the great pioneers in the history of Islamic Law. He was among the first to deploy the recognized methods of legal reasoning consistently, and to gather the judgments and rulings of his time into a systematic corpus. The Fiqh that evolved from his style of reasoning, carried on by his brilliant students, became associated with his name. The Hanafi School is the one most widely followed among the world's Sunni Muslims. This study of Abu Hanifah's life and legacy is based on the traditional sources. It includes a short survey of how Hanafi fiqh evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. It offers a clear reminder of the criteria and conditions traditionally applied before any ruling gained general acceptance. This new book written and delivered by the author, Shaykh Muhamamd Akram Nadwi offers the chance for students and readers to explore the book and ideas with the noble author. The Course contents will include: An Introduction to the development of the law The life of Abu Hanifa (ra)-Early education, teachers in fiqh/hadith, livelihood, views of contemporaries and peers. Fiqh of Abu Hanifa (ra)- Kufan school of fiqh, sources and principles of his fiqh, characteristics of Abu Hanifas(ra) fiqh. Works and Students of Abu Hanifa (ra)- dogmatics and theology, hadith, his students. Achievement and Legacy- regional spread, developments of the works of his school, development of usul-ul-fiqh in the Hanafi school. Sources and further reading- sources, further reading, Abu Hanifas(ra) life.

Date: Saturday 22nd January 2011 Time: 10:00am- 18:00pm Price: 20 includes new Book (148 pages) Venue: Khalili Lecture Theatre, SOAS University Address: Russel Square (Piccadilly Line-2mins from SOAS) Tube Lines: District, Northern, Hammersmith. Buses: 25, 205 Online Payment: www.alburujpress.com For more information, contact our team on: Email: alburujpress@gmail.com Phone [Brothers only]: 07983590490/ 07960637474 [Sisters Only]: 07904956166/ 07595457223

SPEAKER PROFILE Shaykh Mohammad Akram Nadwi from the Indian city of Jaunpur. Shaykh Mohammad Akram Nadwi studied and taught Shari'a at the prestigious Nadwatul 'Ulama (India). He is a Muhaddith who has specialised in 'Ilm ul Rijal or the study of the narrators of Hadith. He has Ijaza (licenses) from numerous scholars including Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Al-Nadwi, Shaykh Abdul-Fattah Abu Ghuddah and Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi. He has a doctorate in Arabic Language from Lucknow University, India, Mohammad Akram Nadwi studied Islamic sciences at the prestigious Nadwat al-Ulama in Lucknow, specializing in Hadith and Fiqh, subjects which he also taught at that madrasah. He did his doctorate at the University of Lucknow. He has written over 25 books, in Arabic, in the fields of hadith, fiqh, Islamic biography, and Arabic grammar and Syntax. He has recently completed a 44-volume biographical dictionary of the Muhaddithat, the Women scholars of Hadith. He is amongst the course instructors for Al Buruj Press Ihya Ulumuddin Ubatilah orang-orang yang sakit dengan sedekah, bentengilah harta kalian dengan zakat dan tolaklah bencana dengan berdoa (HR. Baihaqi). "Kalian adalah satu Ruh al-Jadid yang mengalir dalam urat nadi umat, lalu kalian menghidupkannya dengan cahaya al-Qur'an...

Kalian adalah satu sinar baru yang bergemerlapan, lalu kalian menghapuskan kegelapan fikrah maddiyyah dengan ma'rifatullah... Kalian adalah suara-suara lantang, yang melaungkan kembali dakwah Rasulullah s.a.w...." (Al-Imam al-Syahid Hasan al-Banna Rahmatullah `alayh) Narrated 'Aisha (Radi-Allahu 'anha): The Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) died when he was sixty three years old. Bukhari Vol. 4 : No. 736 Obat Harap dan Jalan kepada Harap Ditulis oleh Ashari di/pada Mei 18, 2007

madinah1.jpg Penjelasan tentang obat harap, dan jalan yang menghasilkan dari keadaan harap dan menguatkan pada harap Ketahuilah bahwasanya obat harap ini yang membutuhkannya adalah salah satu dari dua macam orang yaitu 1. diperuntukkan bagi seseorang yang telah bersangatan keputus asaaannya dari rahmat Allah sehinga menyebabkan ia meninggalkan ibadah. 2. Diperuntukkan bagi oraang yang bersangatan rasa takutnya kepada Allah dan membuat ia berlebihlebihan dalam beribadah sehingga dapat merusakkan keadaan dirinya dan keluarganya. Kedua macam orang tersebut termasuk orang yang menyimpang dari keseimbangan mengarah pada penyia-nyiaan keadaan dirinya. Maka mereka berdua membutuhkan obat untuk menghilangkan mengembalikannya pada keadaan seimbang. Adapun bagi orang yang bermaksiyat, yang tergelincir dan berangan-angan akan rahmat Allah sedang ia berpaling dari beribadah kepadaNya dan terus berbuat maksiyat, maka obat berupa harap akan berubah menjadi racun yang mematikan, seperti jua keadaannya bagaikan madu yang berguna untuk menyembuhkan penyakit yang mengerasi baginya dingin, maka ia / madu tersebut akan menjadi racun yang merusakkan bagi orang yang mengerasi baginya akan panasnya keadaannya. Bahkan orang yang tertipu tiada menggunakan untuk dirinya selain obat-obat takut dan sebab-sebab yang membangkitkan ketakutan.

Maka karena itulah harus ada orang yang memberi nasihat kepada orang banyak, yang lemah-lembut, yang memperhatikan kepada sebab-sebab terjadinya penyakit, yang memberi obat kepada setiap penyakit dengan sesuatu yang melawannya, tidak dengan menambah penyakit itu-dengan racunnya. Sesungguhnya yang idcari adalah keseimbangan atau sederhana dalam sifat dan akhlak. Dan sebaikbaik perkara adalah yang di tengah-tengah (sedang/seimbang). Maka apabila melampaii dari keseimbangan yang di tengah-tengah ke salah satu tepi, niscaya harus diobati dengan mengembalikannya kepada keadaan di tengah, tidak dengan sesujatu menambah kecondongannya dariposisi di tengah-tengah. Zaman sekarang ini adalah zaman yang tidak seyognyanya dipakaikan sebab-sebab harap ke hadapan orang banyak. Akan tetapi perlu sekali kepada sesuatu yang menakutkan juga, agar mengembalikan mereka kepada kebenaran yang sesungguhnya. Adapun mengutarakan sebab-sebab harap, maka yang demikian ini akan membinasakan mereka dan menjatuhkan mereka secara keseluruhan ke dalam jurang. Apabila sebab-sebab harap itu lebih meresuk ke dalam hati dan lezat di rasa, dan tidaklah maksud dari pemberi nasihat selain untuk menarik mereka dan menuturkan kepada orang banyak dengan pujian di manapun mereka berada, niscaya mereka akan cenderung kepada harap sehingga bertambahlah kerusakan itu. Dan bertambahlah kejerumusan mereka dalam kedurhakaan. Aliali ra. Berkata, sesungguhnya orang yang berilmu adalah orang yang tidak mendatangkan keputus asaan kepada manusia dari rahmat Allah, dan tidak menjamin keamanan mereka dari ujian Allah. Kami akan menyebtkan sebab-sebab harap agar dapat digunakan bagi orang yang putus asa. Atau pada orang yang disangatkan oleh adanya ketakutan, karena mengikuti kitab Allah Taala dan sunah Rasul SAW, karena pada keduanya ini melengkapi akan takut dan harap. Juga karena keduanya mengumpulkan sebab-sebab yang menyembuhkan terhadap jenis-jenis orang sakit. Agar yang demikian ini dipakain oleh para ulama, yang menjadi pewaris para Nabi, menurut kebtuhan, sebagaimana yang dipakai oleh para dokter yang ahli, tidak sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh orang yang dungu yang menyangka bahwa setiap penyakit obatnya sama bagaimanapun keadaan penyakit itu. Kondisi harap akan menguat dengan dua hal Pertama dengan jalan mengambil ibarat (itibar) Kedua dengan penyelidikan ayat-ayat, hadits dan atsar. Adapun dengan jalan itibar yaitu dengan memperhatikan semua yang disebutkan tentang jenis-jenis nikmat pada kitab Syukur. Sehingga ia tahu akan nikmat yang halus-halus dari nikmat Allah yang diberikan kepada hambaNya di dunia. Dan keajaiban-keajaiban hikmaNya yang dipeliharaNya pada penciptaan insan. Sehingga tersedialah bagi insan segala yang penting baginya untuk kelangsungannya hidup di dunia, seperti alat-alat makanan dan apa yang diperlukan seperti anak jari dan kuku. Dan yang menjadi hiasanbaginya seperti lengkungan alis, berlainannya warna bola mata, merahnya kedua bibir dengan tidak sumbing padanya bibir- tersebut. Maka dengan bantuan ke-Tuhan-an, apabila tidak berhenti dari hamba-hambaNya pada contoh yang halus tersebut, sehingga Ia tidak ridho bagi hambanya bahwa akan hilang dari mereka kelebihan-

kelebihan dan tambahan-tambahan pada hiasan dan hajat keperluan, maka bagaimana Ia ridho mereka dibawa kepada kebinasaan yang abadi ? Bahkan apabila insan memeperhatikan dengan perhatian yang menyenangkan, maka akna tahulah ia bahwa kebanyakan makhluk telah disiapkan untuknya sebab-sebab kebahagiaannya di dunia. Sehingga ia tidak suka berpindah dari dunia itu dengan kematian, walaupun diberitahukan kepadanya bahwa tiadalah ia akna di azab sesudah kematian selama-lamanya umpamanya. Atau sekali-kali tiada dibangkitkan setelah kematian itu. Maka kebencian mereka itu bukanlah karena tidak lagi mereka di dunia, melainkan kaena sebab-sebab kenikmatan yang membanyak. Dan sesungguhnya yang mengangan-angan akan kematian itu tidaklah banyak. Jadi keadaan kebanyakan makhluk di dunia itu yang banyak kepadanya adalah keadaan baik dan selamat. Dan tidak engkau jumpai dalam sunnah allah suatu pergantian. Maka dalam hal urusan akhirat akan begitu juga keadaannya, karena yang mengatur dunia dan akhirat itu hanyalah Satu , yaitu Yang Maha Pengampun, Yag Maha Pengasih, Maha kasih Sayang kepada hamba-hambaNya, yang Maha belas Kasih kepada mereka. Maka apabila diperhatikan dengan sebenar-benarnya, maka akan menjadi kuatlah sebab-sebab harap. Dan juga dari itibar dapat diperhatikan tentang hikmah syariat dan sunah-sunahNya, tentang kemuslihatan dunia dan dair segi rahmat bagi seluruh hambaNya. Sehingga sebagian Arifiin melihat ayat tentang utang piutang pada surah Al Baqarah adalah diantara sebab-sebab harap yang terkuat. Maka ditanyaken kepada orang Arifiin tersebut, apakah yang ada padanya-ayat tersebut- itu harap ? Beliau menjawab, Dunia semuanya itu sedikit, Rizki insan padanya sedikit. Adn hutang itu lebih sedikit daripada rizkinya. Maka perhatikanlah bagaimana Allah menurunkan ayat terpanjang supaya hambanya mendapat petunjuk kepada jalan menjaga diri dalam menjaga agamanya. Maka bagaimana ia tidak menjaga agamanya yang tiada tukaran baginya. Kedua : penyelidikan dari ayat-ayat dan hadits-hadits. Maka ayat dan hadits yang menerangkan tentang harap itu tak terhingga banyaknya. Adapun ayat-ayat yang menerangkan diantaranya adalah Firmn Allah yang berbunyi : Qul Yaa Ibaadiyalladziina asrafuu alaa anfusihim Laa taqnuthuu min rahmatiLlaahi InnaLlooha yaghfirudzzunuuba jamiiaa, InnaHuu Huwal Ghafuururrahiin (QS. Azzumar53) Yang artinya, Katakanlah wahai hamba-hambaKu yang melampaui batas dalam mencelakakan diri sendiri, janganlah kau sekalian putus asa dari rahmat Allah, sesungguhnya Allah akan mengampuni semua dosa, dan sesungguhnya Dia adalah Maha memberi ampun dan Maha Pengasih. Menurut pembacaan RasuluLlah SAW adalah : Walaa yubalii InnaHuu Huwal Ghafuururrahiim, yang artinya, Dan tiada peduli bahwasanya Dia-Allah adalah Maha Memberi Maaf dan Maha Pengasih. Allah Taala berfirman, Wal Malaaikatu yusabbihuuna bihamdi Robbihim wayastaghfiruuna liman fil ardhi. Yang artinya, Dan para malaikat itu bertasbih/memuji Tuhannya dan memintakan ampunan kepada penduduk bumi. (QS. Asy-Syura 5)

Allah Taala menerangkan bahwa neraka itu disediakan bagi musuh-musuhNya dan neraka itu ditakutkanNya kepada para wali-waliNya. Allah berfirman, lahun min fauqihim dhulalun minannaari wamin tahtihim dhulalun. Dzaalika yukhowwifuLlaahu bihii ibaadaHu yang atinya, dan bagi mereka ada naungan api dari atas mereka demikian juga dari bawah mereka-(ada api). Dengan Yang demikian itu Allah memberi ancaman kepada hambanya. (QS. Az-Zumar 16) Allah Taala berfirman, Wattaquunnaarollatii uiddat lil kaafiriin yang artinya, dan takutlah kamu sekalian akan neraka yang disediakan bagi orang-orang yang ingkar. (QS. Ali Imran 31) Dan Allah Taala berfirman, Fa andzarTukum naaron taladhdhoo, laa yashlaahaa illal asyqalladzii kadzaba watawalla. Yang artinya, sebab itu Aku memperingatkanmu dari api yang emnyala-nyala. Tidaklah masuk ke dalamnya selain orang-orang yang celaka, yaitu orang yang mendustakan-kebenarandan membelakang. (QS. Al-Lail 14-16) Allah Azza waJalla berfirman, Wa inna Robbaka ladzuu maghfirotin linnaasi alaa dhulmihim yang artinya, dan sesungguhnya Tuhanmu memiliki ampunan bagi manusia atas perbiatan aniayanya. (QS. Ar-Rad 6) Dikatakan bahwa Nabi SAW senantiasa menanyakan tentang ummatnya. Sehingga dikatakan kepadanya SAW, Apakah engKau tidak ridho dan telah diturunkan kepada engKau ayat ini, Wa inna Robbaka ladzuu maghfirotin linnaasi alaa dhulmihim Dan tentang penafsiran firman Allah Taala walasaufa yuthiiKa RobbuKa fatardho yang artinyaDan nanti Tuhanmu akan memberikan kepadamu, maka engKau akan bersenang hati / ridho. (QS. AdhDhuha 5) Bahwa kata Ibnu Abbas, bahwasanya RasuluLlah SAW tiada senang seorangpun dari umatnya masuk neraka. Adalah Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali mengatakan, Tuan-tuan penduduk Iraq mengatakan, Ayat yang paling mengandung harapan dari kitab Allah adalah firmanNya Qul Yaa Ibaadiyalladziina asrafuu alaa anfusihim Laa taqnuthuu min rahmatiLlaahi InnaLlooha yaghfirudzzunuuba jamiiaa, InnaHuu Huwal Ghafuururrahiin (QS. Azzumar53)- di atas sudah ada.terjemahannya. Dan kami keluarga RasuluLlah SAW mengatakan yang paling mengandung harapan adalah firmanNya walasaufa yuthiiKa RobbuKa fatardho yang artinyaDan nanti Tuhanmu akan memberikan kepadamu, maka engKau akan bersenang hati / ridho. (QS. Adh-Dhuha 5) Adapun hadits, maka diriwayatkan dari Abu Musa dari NabiSAW bahwasanya beliau bersabda, Ummatyy Ummatun marhuumah laa adzaaba alaihaa fil aakhirah ajjalaLlaahu iqaabahaa fiddunyaa al zalaazila wal fatana . faidzaa kaana yaumul kiyaamah dufia olaa kulli rojulin min ummaty, rajulun ,im ahlil kitaabi faqiila, hadzaa fidaauka minannaar. Yang artinya, UmatKu adalah umat yang diberikah rahmat. Tidak ada adzab bagi mereka di akhirat. Allah akan mnenyegerakan siksanya di dunia dengan gempa bumi dan kekacauan/beberapa fitnah. Maka apabila hari kiyamat nanti niscaya akan ditolakkan pada setiap orang dari umatKu akan seorang dari ahli kitab (yahudi dan nasrani) lalu dikatakan, ini adalah tebusan engkau dari api neraka. Menurut susunan kata yang lain ialah, Yati kullu rojulin min hadzihil ummah biyahuudiyyin au nashrooniyyin ilaa jahannama fayaquulu, hadzaa fidaaiy minannaari fayulqaa fiihaa. Yang artinya, Setiap orang dri umat ini akan dtang dengan seorang yahudi atau nasrani ke neraka jahanam, lalu ia

berkata, inilah tebusanku dari api neraka, maka orang yahudi atau nasrani itu dicampakkan ke dalam api neraka Nabi SAW bersabda, Al humma min faihij jahannam wahiya hadhul mumini minannaar. Yanga artinya, Demam itu dari panasnya jahannam, dan itu adalah keuntungan orang beriman dari api neraka. Diriwayatkan tentang penafsiran firman Allah Taala, Yauma laa yukhziiLlaahuNnabiyya walladziina Aamanuu yang artinya, Pada hari dimana Allah tiada menghinakan Nabi dan orang-orang beriman yang bersama Dia. (QS. At-Tahrim 8) bahwa Allah Taala menurunkan wahyunya kepada Nabi SAW, bahwa Aku jadikan perhitungan amal ummat Engkau kepada Engkau SAW. Nabi SAW menjawab, Tidak wahai Tuuhanku, Engkau lebih mengasihani mereka daripadaku. Maka Allah Taala berfirman, Jdai, Kami tidak akan memberikan kehinaan akan Engkau mengenai mereka. Diirwayatkan dari Anas bin Malik bahwa RasuluLlah SAW menanyakan Tuhannya tentang dosa-dosa umatnya, maka Nabi bersabda, Yaa Robbijal hisaabuhum ilaYya liallaa yattholia alaa masaawihim ghairYi. Yang artinya, Yaa allah jadikanlah hisab mereka kepadaku, supaya tidak terlihat keburukan mereka, selain aku. Maka Allah Taala menurunkan wahyu kepada Nabi SAW, Mereka itu umatmu dan mereka itu hambahambaKu. Aku lebih sayang kepada mereka daripada engkau. Aku tidak akan menjadikanperhitungan amal mereka kepada selainKu. Agar tidak dilihat oleh engkau dan selain engkau kepada keburukan mereka. Nabi SAW berasbda, HayaatY khoirullakkum wamautY khoirullakum. Ammaa hayatY fa Asunnu lakum sunana wa Usyarriu lakumussyaraaia. Wa ammaa mautY fainna amaalakum turadhu alaYya famaa ra aiTu minhaa hasanan hamidTuLlaaha alaihi, wamaa ra aiTu minhaa sayyian istaghfarTuLlaaha Taalalakum. Yang artinya, HidupKu adalah kebaikan bagi kamu sekalian. Dan matiKu juga kebaikan bagi kamu. Adapun dengan hidupKu, maka aku sunnahkan bagi kamu sunnah-sunnah dan aku syariatkan bagi kamu beberapa syariat (hukum agama). Adapun matiKu, maka semua amalmu dihadapkan kepadaku. Maka apa yang aku lihat dari amal itu suatu kebajikan, maka aku memuji Allah sebab yang demikian. Dan apa yang aku lihat itu sesuatu yang buruk, maka aku memohonkan ampun kepada Allah bagi kamu sekalian. Pada suatu hari Nabi SAW mengucapkan, Yaa Kariimal afwi Yang artinya, Wahai Dzaat Yang Maha Memberi maaf. Lalu Jibril AS bertanya, adakah Engkau tahu apa penafsiran Yaa Karimal Afwi ?Yaitu jikalau Iamemaafkan dari kejahatan-kejahatan dengan rahmatNya, niscaya digantikanNya kejahatan itu dengan kebaikan, dengan kemurahanNya. Nabi SAW mendengar seseorang berdoa, Wahai Allah Tuhanku, aku bermohon kepadaMu kesempurnaan nimat.

Kemudian Nabi bersabda, Hal tadry maa tamaamunnimat Artinya, Apakah engkau tahu apa itu kesempurnaan nimat ? Laki-laki itu menjawab, Tidak. Kemudian Nabi SAW bersabda, Dukhuulul Jannah Artinya, masuk surga. Para ulama berkata bahwa Allah Taala telah menyempurnakan nimatnya kepada kita, dengan diridhoinya agama Islam sebagai agama kita, karena Allah telah berfirman, Wa atmamTu alaikum nimaTy waradhiiTu lakumul Islaama diinaa (QS. Al Maaidah 3). Yang artinya, dan telah Aku sempurnakan nimatKu bagi kamu semua, dan Aku ridho Islam menjadi agamamu. Dan disebutkan di dalam hadits, Idzaa adznabal abdu dzanban fastaghfaraLlaaha, yaquuluLlaaha AzzawaJalla slimalaaikatiHi undzuruu ilaa abdy adznaba dzanban faalima anna lahu Rabban yaghfiruudzzunuuba wayakhudzu bidzzanbi Usyhiduukum AnNy qad ghafartu lahu. Yang artinya, apabila seorang hamba melakukan dosa, kemudian meminta ampun kepada Allah, maka Allah Azza waJalla berfirman kepada malaikatNya, lihatlah kepada hambaKu yang melakukan perbuatan dosa, dan ia mengetahui bahwa ia memiliki Tuhan yang dapat menerima taubatnya dan menuntutdosa itu. Maka Aku persaksikan kepada kamu sekalian, bahwa Aku tlah mengampuni dosanya, Pada Hadits disebutkan, Lau Adznabal abdu hatta tablugha dzunuubuhuu anaanassamaai, ghafarTuhaa lahu mastaghfaraaNy warojaaNyy. Yang artinya, Jika seorang hamba berdosa hingga sampai ke langit (banyaknya)maka Aku akan mengampuninya selama ia mau meminta ampun kepadaKu dan mengharapkan rahmatKu. Pada Hadirts diterangkan, Lau alqiyaNy abDy biqiraabil ardhi dzunuuban, laqaiTuhu biqiraabil ardhi maghfiratan. Yang artinya, Jika hambaKu menjumpaiKu dengan dosa sebesar bumi, maka Aku akan menjumpainya dengan ampunan sebesar bumi pula. Disebutkan dalam hadits, Innal malaka layarfaul qalama anil abdi idzaa adznaba sitta saaatin, fa in taba wastahgfara lam yaktubhu alaihi, wa illa katabahaa sayyiatan. Yang artinya, Sesungguhnya malaikat mengangkat pena dari hamba apabila ia melakukan perbuatan dosa enam jam. Maka jika ia betobat dan meminta ampun niscaya malaikat itu tidak menuliskannya. Dan jikalau tidak maka malaikat itu menuliskannya sebagai kejahatan. Dan pada kata-kata yang lain yang artinya, Maka apabila malaikat itu menuliskannya atas orang itu dan orag etrsebut berbuat baik, niscaya malaikat yang disebelah kanan mengatakan kepada yang di sebelah kiri dimana malaikat yang sebelah kanan itu sebagai amir atas malaikat yang sebelah kiri. campakkanlah kejahatan itu, sehaingga aku jumpai dari kebaikannya ituy satu dengan penggandaan sepuluh. Dan aku angkatkan baginya akan sembilan kebaikan. Maka dicampakkanlah kejahatan itu dari padanya. Diriwayatkan dari Anas bin Malik RA. Bahwa Nabi SAW bersabda, Apabila hamba itu berbuat dosa, niscaya akan dituliskan atas diri hamba itu. Kemudian seorang arab desa bertanya, dan jikalau ia bertobat ?

Nabi SAW mnejawab, niscaya dihapuslah dosa itu. Arab desa bertanya lagi, Jikalau diulanginya. Nabi SAW menjawab, dituliskan lagi dosa atas orang itu. Arab desa bertanya lagi,Jikalau ia bertobat. Nabi SAW menjawab, Akan dihapuskan dari halaman amalnya. Arab desa bertanya, hingga kapan? Nabi SAW menjawab, Sampai ia memohon ampun kepada Allah SWT dan bertobat keadanya. Sesunguhnya Allah tidak akan bosan memberi ampunan sampai hamba itu merasa bosan memohon ampun kepadaNya. Apabila hamba itu bercita-cita akan kebaikan, niscaya ditulis oleh malaikat yang di sebelah kanan sebagai kebaikan sebelum dikerjakannya. Maka bila niat tersebut dikerjakannya, maka akan ditulis sebagai sepuluh kebaikan. Kemudian dilipatkangandakan oleh Allah sampai tujuh ratus kali lipat. Kemudian apabila seorang hamba bercita-cita melakukan kejahatan, niscaya tidak dituliskannya.dan apabila kejahatan itu dikerjakan, niscaya dituliskan sebagai satu kejahatan. Dan apabila ditinggalkan, maka akan ditulis sebagai satu kebaikan. Dan dibelakangnya terdapat kebaikan dan kemaafan Allah Azza Wa Jalla. Seorang laki-laki datang kepada RasuluLlah SAW lalu berkata, Wahai RasuluLlah sesungguhnya aku tidak berpuasa selain satu bulan. Tidak aku tambahkan daripadanya. Dan aku tidak mengerjakan salay selain hanya yang lima waktu dan tidak aku tambahkan. Dan tidak ada dari hartaku amalan untuk Allah baik dari sedekah, hajji dan amalan sunat. Dimanakah aku bila aku mati ?. RasuluLLah SAW tersenyum dan berkata, Ya..bersama aku apabila engkau nenjaga hati engkau dari dua perkara, : iri hati dan dengki. Engkau menjaga lidah engkau dari dua perkara, : umpat dan dusta. Dan dua mata enkau dari dua perkara : memandfang ari apa yang diharamkan oleh Allah dan bahwasanya engkau mengejek orang islam dengan menggunakan mata itu. Engkau akan masuk surga bersama aku atas dua tapak tanganku yang ini. Dalam hadits yang panjang yang diirwayatkan Anas bin Malik bahwa seorang arab desa bertanya, Wahai RasuluLlah, siapa yang mengurus hitungan amal makhluk ?. RasuluLlah SAW menjawab, Allah Yang Maha suci dan Maha tinggi. Arab desa bertanya lagi, Dia sendiri ? RasuluLlah SAW menjawab, Ya. Maka arab desa tiu tersenyum. Lalu RasuluLlah SAW bertanya,Mengapa engkau tertawa hai arab desa ? Ia menjawab, Sesungguhnya Yang Maha Pemurah itu apabila mentaqdirkan niscaya memaafkan. Dan apabila mengadakan hitungan amal niscaya penuh dengan kelapangan.

Lalu RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, Benarlah arab desa ini. Ketahuilah kiranya bahwa tiada yang pemurah yang lebih pemurah dari Allah Taala. Dia lah yang Maha pemurah dari orang-orang yang pemurah. Kemudian Nabi SAW bersabda, orang desa tersebut telah mengerti. Dan pada hadis ini disebutkan pula, Sesungguhnya Allah Taala memuliakan kabah dan mengagungkannya. Jikalau ada seoranag hamba yang merobohkannya batu demi batu, kemudian ia membakarnya, maka yang demikian ini belumlah sampai seperti doa orang yang merendahkan wali Allah dari para wali-wali Allah Taala. Orang arab desa bertanya, Siapakah para wali Allah itu ? Nabi SAW menjawab, Semua orang mukmin adalah wali Allah Taala. Apakah kamu belum mendengar firman Allah Taala, Allah itu wali bagi orang-orang yang beriman yang mengeluarkan mereka dari kegelapan kepada cahaya yang terang benderang. Dan diterangkan pada sebagian hadits, Orang mukmin itu lebih utama daripada Kabah. Orang Mukmin itu baik lagi suci . Orang mukmin itu lebih mulia bagi Allah dari pada malaikat. Dan di dalah hadits diterangkan, Allah Taala sesungguhynya menciptakan neraka jahanam karena rasa kasih sayangNya yang dengan neraka tersebut Ia menggiring hambanya agar masuk ke dalam surga. Diterangkan dalam sebuah hadits, Allah Taala berfirman, Sesungguhnya Aku menciptakan makhluk agar merreka berharap kepadaKu dan Aku tidak menciptakan mereka agar Aku mendapatkan keuntungan dari mereka. Dan Hadits Abi Said Al-Khudhry, dari Rasulillaahi SAW, Allah Taala tidak menjadikan sesuatu melainkan dijadikanNya apa yang dapat mengalahkannya. Dan dijadikanNya rahmatNya mengalahkan amarahNya. Tersebut dalam hadits yang terkenal, sesungguhnyaAllah Taala menuliskan atas diriNya rahmat, sebelum Ia menjadikan makhluk. Sesungguhnya rahmatKu itu mengalahkan kemarahanKu. Diriwaaytkan dari Muadz bin Jabbal RA, dan Anas bin Malik bahwa Nabi SAW bersabda, Barang siapa yang mengucapkan Laa ilaaha illaLlaah maka ia masuk surga. Dan barangsiapa yang akhir kalamnya Laa ilaaha illaLlah maka tidak akan tersentuh api neraka. dan barang siapa yang berjumpa denagn Allah dan tidak menyekutukanNya dengan sesuatu maka haram neraka baginya. Dan tidak akanmasuk kedalamnya orang yang di dalam hatinya ada sebutir biji dari iman. Dan dalam hadits diterangkan, Jika saja orang kafir mengetahui luasnya rahmat Allah niscaya tiada seorangpun yang putus asa dari surgaNya. Dan ketika Rasulillaahi SAW membaca firman Allah, Dan sesungguhnya kegoncangan kiyamat adalah sesuatu yang sangat dahsyat, Lalu beliau SAW bersabda, Tahukah engkau hari apakah ini ?, ini adalah hari dimana dikatakan kepada Adam AS, Bangunlah dan carilah akan kecaria nerakan dari anak cucumu.

Maka Adam AS bertanya, berapa ?. Maka dijawab, dari seribu, maka yang 999 orang ke neraka dan seorang ke dalam surga. Maka kaum / sahabat penuh keheranan. Maka mereka itu menangis seharian dan mereka juga tidak mau berbuat maupun bekerja. Maka datanglah kepada mereka RasuluLlah SAW dan bersabda, Mengapa kamu tidak mau bekerja ?. Mereka menjawab, Bagaimana kami akan beramal setelah mendengarkan berita yang demikian ini ? Nabi bersabda, berapa banyak kaumdalam umat-umat itu. Dimana Tawil, Tsaris, Yajuj dan majuj, mereka adalah umat-umat yang tak terhingga banyaknya sehingga hanya Alah yang mengetahuinya. Sesungguhnya kamu semua di antara umat-umat tersebut hanyalah laksana sehelai rambut putih pada kulit sapi jantan yang hitam, dan seperti gurisan pada lengan kaki depan binatang kendaraan. Maka perhatikanlah bagaimana umat manusia dihalau dengan cemeti ketakutan dan dituntun dengan tali harapan kepada Allah Taala. Manakala mereka digiring dengan cemeti ketakutan pada kali pertama, kemudian apabila mereka mulai melewati batas keseimbangan hingga sampai kepada rasa putus asa dari rahmat Allah, maka diberi obatlah mereka dengan obat harap dan mengembalikan mereka pada posisi seimbang. Dan poin yang terakhir tadi tidaklah bertentangan dengan poin pertama / takut , akan tetapi disebutkan pada permulaan apa yang dilihatnya menjadi sebab bagi kesembuhan. Dan disingkatkan pada yang demikian. Maka apabila mereka membutuhkan kepada pengobatan dengan jalan harap, niscaya disebutkan kesempurnaan urusan. Maka wajib bagi orang yang ahli memberi nasihat untuk mencontoh Pemimpin pemberi nasihat yaitu RasuluLlah SAW maka berlemah lembuh dalam mempergunakan berita /hadits tentang khouf atau masalah takut keapda Allah, dan harap, menurut kebutuhan setelah menelaah sakit-sakit bathiniah. Apabila hal ini tidak dijaga, maka kerusakan yang ditimbulkan bagi orang yang diberi nasihat akan lebih banyak dari pada perbaikannya. Di dalam khabar disabdakan, Jikalau kamu tidak berdosa, maka Allah akan menciptakan makhluk yang mana mereka melakukan dosa kemudian Allah memberi ampunan kepada mereka. Dan dalam alfal yang lain, Niscaya Allah akan pergi dari kamu dan datang kepada kaum yang lain yang melakukan dosa kemudian Allah mengampuni mereka sesungguhna Dia Dzat Yang Maha pemaaf dan Maha Pengasih. Dalam hadits yang lain, Jika kamu semua tidak memiliki dosa, maka Aku lebih khawatir akan sesuatu yang lebih buruk dari pada dosa. Para ashabat bertanya, Apakah itu ?. RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, Ujub. Dan RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, Demi Dzat yang jiwaku berada di tanganNya sesungguhnya Allah lebih menyayangi hambaNya yang beriman daripada seorang ibu yang mengasihi anaknya. Dan di dalam hadits diterangkan, Allah akan memberi ampun kelak di ahri kiyamat akan ampunan yang tiada terguris di hati seseorang. Sampai iblispun menyombongkan diri akan ampunan itu karena mengharap akan diperolehnya. Tersebut pada hadits, sesungguhnya Allah Taala memiliki 100 rahmat, dimana disembunyikanNya rahmat yang 99 dan diperlihatkanNya rahmat yang satu di dunia, yang berdesak-desakanlah semua makhluk pada rahmat yang satu tersebut. Maka ibu kasih sayang kepada anaknya, dan berlemah

lembutlah hewan kepada anaknya. Dan apabila telah datang hari kiyamat, maka Allah mengumpulkan rahmat yang satu ini kepada rahmat yang 99 kemudian dihamparkannya kepada makhlukNya. Dan setiap rahmat darnya adalah sebesar lapisan langit dan bumi. Nabi SAW kemudian bersabda, Maka tiada binasalah pada hari itu kecuali orang-orang yang binasa. Diterangkan dalam sebuah hadits, Tidak ada diantara kamu sekalian yang amalnya dapat memasukkannya ke dalam surga. Para sahabat bertanya, Termasuk juga engkau Yaa RasuluLlah ? RasuluLlah SAW menjawab, Termasuk juga aku, selain bahwa aku diselubungkan oleh Allah dengan rahmatNya. Dan RasuluLlah SAW bersabda,Beramalah kalian semua dan berilah kabar gembira. Dan ketahuilah bahwa seseorang tidak akan diselamatkan oleh amalnya. Nabi SAW bersabda, sesungguhnya aku sembunyikan syafaatku kepada orang-orang yangberbuat dosa besar dari umatku. Adakah engkau lihat syafaat itu bagi orang-orang yang taat, yang taqwa saja ?, Tidak. Bahkan syafaat itu bagi orang-orang yang berlumuran dosa, yang mencampur adukkan antara dosa dan bukan dosa. 19/04/2007 0:26:30 Dan Nabi SAW bersabda, Aku diutus membaw agama yang benar,yang penuh kelapangan/samhah, dan penuh kemudahan. Dan RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, Aku senang agar diketahui oleh dua golongan ahli kitab bahwa di dalam agama kami adalah penuh kelapangan. Dan masih menunjukkan makna yang demikian yaitu tentang keterkabulannya doa orang mumin pada doanya, Janganlah engkau bebankan kepada kami sesuatu yang berat QS. AL Baqarah 276. Dan Allah Taala telah berfirman, dan meringankan beban mereka dan belenggu yang menyusahkan mereka. Dan telah meriwayatkan Muhammad bin Hanafiyah dari Aly RA sesungguhnya ia berkata, ketika turun firman Allah Taala. Fashfahishafhassjamiil yang artinya maka berimaaflah dengan pemberian maaf yang baik , maka Nabi SAW bertanya, Yaa Jibriil, apa itu Safhasjamiil ?. maka Jibril menjawab, jika engkau memebri maaf kepada orang yang menganiaya engkau, maka janganlah engkau mencelanya. Maka RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, Wahai Jibril, maka sesungguhnya Allah Taala itu lebih pemurah dari pada Ia mencela orang yang dimaafkanNya. Maka menangislah Jibril, dan menangislah Nabi SAW, maka Allah Taala mengutus Mikail Alaihissalam kepada keduanya dan berkata, Sesungguhnya Tuhan menyampaikan salam kepada kalian dan berfirman, bagaimana Aku mencela orang yang telah Aku maafkan ?. yang demikian ini adalah sesuatu yang tidak menyerupai kemurahanKu. Dan hadits yang menerangkan tentang raja atau harap banyak sekali dan tidak terbilang. Adapun atsar atau perkataan sahabat, maka telah berkata Aly KarramaLlaahu Wajhah,Barang siapa yang berbuat dosa dan Allah menutupinya di dunia, maka Maha Mulia Allah jika Ia membukanya dosa tersebut di

akhirat. Dan barang siapa yang berbuat dosa dan Allah telah membalasnya di dunia, maka Allah Taala Maha Adil untuk mengulangi siksaan kepada hambaNya di akhirat. Imam Atsauri telah berkata, Aku ridak suka jika dijadikan perhitungan amalku kepada kedua orang tuaku karena aku mengetahui sesungguhnya Al;ah Taala lebih belas kasih terhadapku daripada keduanya. Dan sebagian ulama salaf berkata, Orang mumin apabila bermasiyat kepada Allah Taala maka Allah menutupinya dari penglihatan malaikat agar malaikat tidak melihatnya sehingga mereka dapat berdiri menjadi saksi. Dan Muhammad bin Shab menulis surat kepada Aswad bin Salim dengan tulisannya sendiri, Sesungguhnya seorang hamba apabila ia melampaui batas kepada dirinya sendiri kemudian ia mengangkat kedua tangannya seraya berdoa, Wahai Tuhanku Maka malaikat menutup/mendindingkan suara hamba tersebut, demikian untuk yang ke dua kalinya dan ke tiga kalinya, apabila sudah sampai yang ke empat kali ia berdoa wahai Tuhanku, maka Allah Taala berkata kepada para malaikatNya Sampai kapan kalian menghalangi Aku dari suara hambaKu? Sesungguhnya hambaKu itu mengetahui bahwa baginya tidak ada Tuhan yang dapat mengampuni dosa selain Aku. Aku persaksikan kepada kalian sesungguhnya Aku telah mengampuni dosanya. Telah berkata Ibrahim bin Adham RA, suatu malam aku tidak berkesempatan melakukan tawaf karena hari itu turun hujan dan malam sangat gelap gulita. Maka berdirilah aku di multazam di sisi pintu Ka;bah. Aku berdoa, Wahai Tuhanku, peliharalah aku sehingga aku tidak bermaksiyat kepadaMu selamanya. Maka terdengarlah hatif / suara tanpa wujud dari dalam baituLlah, Wahai Ibrahim engkau meminta pemeliharaan dariKu dan setiap hambaku meminta pemeliharaan dariKu. Jika Aku memelihara mereka, maka kepada siapa Aku memberikan karunia ? dan kepada siapa aku memberikan ampunan ?. Dan AL-Hasan telah berkata, Seandainya seorang mukmin tidak pernah melakukan dosa, niscaya ia akan terbang ke langit yang tinggi, akan tetapi Allah Taala mencegahnya dengan dosa. Dan telah berkata Al-Junaid RA. Jikalau nampaklah mata orang pemurah niscaya menghubungkanlah ia di antara orang jahat dengan orang yang berbuat baiik. Dan Malik bi Dinar telah bertemu dengan Abban, maka ia bekata kepadanya, Sudah berapa banyak engkau berbicara kepada manusia tentang keringanan/rukhshah ?. Maka Aban menjawab, Wahai Abu Yahya, sesungguhnya aku sangat mengharapkan jika engkau melihat kemaafan Allah di hari kiyamat akan apa yang engkau koyak dari pakaian engkau karena sangat gembiranya. Dan di dalam hadits Rabiy bin Harasy dari saudaranya, dan sungguh ia termasuk sebaik-baik tabiin. Dan ia / saudaranya itu termasuk oarng yang berkata-kata sesudah ia meninggal. Maka Rabiy berkata Ketika saudaraku meninggal maka ia ditutup dengan pakaiannyadan kami letakkan dia di atas keranda. Maka ia membukakan kain yang menutupinya dari arah wajahnya dan duduk lurus dan berkata, sesungguhnya aku telah bertemu dengan Tuhanku Azza wa Jalla maka Ia menyambutku dengan penuh suka cita. Dan Tuhanku tidak marah. Dan aku melihat segala urusan sangatlah mudah dari pada apa yang kalian persangkakan, maka janganlah kamu lesu. Dan sesungguhnya RasuluLlah SAW melihatku demikian pula para sahabat beliau hingga aku kembali kepada mereka.

Rabiy meneruskan ceritanya, Kemudian ia (saudaraku) mencampakkan dirinya seakan akan seperti sebuah batu yang jatuh pada tempat cuci tangan, maka kami pikul ia dan kami kebumikan. Dan tersebut di dalam hadits, Sesungguhnya ada dua orang laki-laki dari bani Israel mengikat persaudaraan karena Allah Taala. Maka salah satu dari keduanya adalah termasuk orang yang menganiaya diri sendiri dengan masiyat dan yang satunya lagi adalah ahli ibadah, dan ia menasehatinya dan menghardiknya pula. maka ia berkata kepada temannya yang menghardiknya, tinggalkanlah aku. Demi Tuhanku, apakah engkau diutus untuk memata-matai aku? hingga pada suatu hari ia mendapat temannya yang ahli masiyat sedang melakukan dosa besar maka marahlah ia dan berkata, Allah tidak akan mengampunimu. Maka dijawabnya, Kelak Allah pada hari kiyamat akan berkata Adakah seseorang mampu mencegah rahmatKu atas hambaKu ? pergilah kamu dan sungguh Aku telah mengampuni kamu. Kemudian Allah berkata kepada yang ahli ibadah, dan untukmu, sungguh engkau telah mengharuskan bagi dirimu neraka. Nabi SAW bersabda, Demi Dzat yang jiwaku berada di tanganNya, sungguh ia telah berbicara dengan perkataan yang membinasakan dunianya dan akhiratnya. Dan diriwayatkan pula sesungguhnya ada pencuri pada masa bani Israil, dan ia tealh merampok selama empat puluh tahun. Maka lewatlah Nabi Isa AS sedangkan dibelakang beliau ada pula seorang ahli ibadah di kalangan bani Israel dari golongan hawariyyin, Maka berkatalah pencuri itu dalam hatinya, Ini adalah Nabi Allah dan di samping beliau ada sahabatnya yang ahli ibadah. Jika aku turun bersama mereka, maka aku menjadi ketiganya dari mereka. Maka turunlah pencuri tersebut dan hendak menggabungkan diri dengan mendekati sang hawariyyin dengan cara menghina dirinya sendiri dan memuliakan sang hawariyyin dengan berkata pada dirinya sendiri, orang sepertiku tidaklah pantas berjalan berdampingan dengan orang yang ahli ibadah ini. Dan sang hawariyyin merasa sesuatu dalam dirinya dan ia berkata dalam hatinya, orang jelek ini berjalan disampingku.Maka ia merapatkan dirinya dengan Nabi Isa AS dan berjalan disamping Nabi Isa AS sedangkan si pencuri tetap berjalan di belakangnya. Maka Allah Taala memberikan wahyu kepada Nabi Isa AS, Katakan kepada keduanya agar mereka mengulang semua amal mereka karena sesungguhnya telah terhapuslah semua amal mereka sebelumnya. Adapun hawariyyin telah terhapuslah amal baiknya disebabkan ia ujub kepada dirinya sendiri. dan adapun yang satunya lagi, juga telah terhapuslah keburukannya disebabkan ia telah menghinakan dirinya sendiri. Maka Nabi Isa AS mengabarkan kepada keduanya hal akan tersebut dan pencuri itu menggabungkan diri dengan beliau AS dan dijadikannya menjadi sahabatnya. Dan diriwayatkan dari Masruq sesungguhnya ada seorang Nabi diantara para Nabi AS sedang bersujud. Kemudian seorang ahli maksiyat menginjak lehernya dan lengketlah antara batu dengan dahinya. Maka Nabi AS tersebut mengangkat kepala beliau seraya marah dan berkata, Pergilah, Allah tidak akan mengampunimu. Maka Allah menurunkan wahyu kepadanya Engkau telah bersumpah atasKu pada hambaku, sesungguhnya Aku telah mengampuninya. Dan mendekati dari yang demikian, apa yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibni Abbas RA, Sesungguhnya RasuluLlah SAW berdoa untuk orang-orang musyrik dan melaknatin mereka di dalam shalat beliau SAW. Maka turunlah kepada beliau firman Allah Taala, Laisa laka minal amri syai-un, au yatuuba alaihim au yuadzzibahum Yang artinya, Tiadalah engkau mempunyai kepentingan dalam perkara itu sedikitpun , Allah menerima taubat mereka atau menyiksa mereka (QS. Ali Imran 128). Kemudian Beliau SAW meninggalkan tidak berdoa untuk mereka dan Allah telah memberikan hidayahNya kepada kebanyakan mereka dengan agama Islam.

Diriwayatkan dalam sebuah atsar, bahwasanya ada dua orang yang sama-sama ahli ibadah dan satu level ibadahnya. Maka apabila keduanya telah dimasukkan surga, diangkatlah salah satu dari keduanya kepada derajat yang tinggi mengalahkan temannya yang satu lagi. Maka berkatalah ahli ibadah yang satunya, Wahai Tuhanku, tidaklah dia di dunia lebih banyak ibadahnya dari pada aku.sehingga engkau tinggikan derajadnya di surga dari pada aku ? Maka Allah berfirman, Sesungguhnya ia meminta kepadaku derajat yang tinggi di surga sedangkan engkau memintaku agar engkau selamat dari api neraka. Maka Aku berikan kepada setiap hamba akan apa yang ia minta kaepdaKu. Dan yang demikian ini menunjukkan bahwasanya beribadah atas dasar harap itu lebih utama daripada beribadah atas dasar takut / khouf, karena sesungguhnya kecintaan itu lebih keras bagi orang yang berharap daripada orang yang takut. Maka berapa banyak perbedaannya pada raja-raja antara orang yang melayani karena takut akan siksanya dan antara orang yang melayaninya karena mengharapkan kebaikan dari raja dan kemurahannya. Karena itu Allah Taala memerintahkan untuk selalu berperasanka baik , dank arena demikian maka RasuluLlah SAW bersabda, SaluuLlaahad darajaatil ulaa fa innamaa tasaluuna kariimaa yang artinya , mintalah kepada Allah derajad yang tinggi karena sesungguhnya engkau meminta kepada Zat Yang Maha pemurah. Dan bersabda, idzaa sa-altumuLlaaha fa-adhimuurraghbata was aluul firdausai alaa fa-innalLaaha Taala laa yataadhamuHu syai-un. Yang artinya Apabila kamu semua meminta kepada Allah maka besarkanlah keinginan dan mintalah surga firdaus yang tertinggi, karena sesungguhnya Allah Taala tiadalah sesuatu yang besar bagiNya. Dan telah berkata Bakr bin Salim Ash-Shawaaf, Kami memasuki rumah Malik bin Anas pada waktu sore hari dimana ia wafat pada sore itu. Maka kami bertanya, Wahai aba AbdilLah, bagaimana engkau mendapati dirimu ?. Ia menjawab, aku tidak tahu, apa yang aku katakan kepadamu selain engkau akan melihat dari kemaafan Allah apa yang tidak ada bagimu pada penghitungan amal (hisab). Kemudian kami tetap di situ hingga kami tidak mengetahui lagi maksud perkataannya. Telah berkata Yahya bin Muadz di dalam munajahnya, Harapku kepadaMu dalam kesalahanku, hampir mengalahkan harapanku kepadaMu dalam taatku. Karena sesungguhnya aku berpegangan dalam amal dengan ikhlash, dan bagaimana pula aku dapat menjaganya ? sedangkan aku berada dalam bahaya. Dan aku mendapati diriku ketika berdosa, maka aku berpegangan kepada kemaafanMu. Maka bagaimana Engkau tidak memaafkanku sedangkan Engkau bersifat Maha Pemurah ? Diriwayatkan bahwasanya ada seorang majusi bertamu kepada Ibrahim Al-Khalil AS, Maka beliau berkata, Apabila kamu mau masuk Islam maka aku akan menjamu kamu sebagai tamu. Orang Majusi itu lalu pergi, kemudian Allah Taala memberikan wahyu kepada Nabi Ibrahim AS, Engkau tidak memberi makan kepada majusi kecuali ia mau merobah agamanya. Dan Aku selalu memberinya makan selama 70 tahun dalam kekafirannya. Jika saja engkau menjamunya semalam, maka apa yang ada atas engkau ? Maka pergilah Nabi Ibrahim AS menyusul majusi itu dan memintanya kembali dan menerimanya sebagai tamu. Maka Majusi itu bertanya kepada Nabi Ibrahim AS, apa yang terjadi padamu akan semua ini ?. Maka Nabi Ibrahim menceritakan semua kejadiannya. Maka berkatalah orang majusi, apakah karena ini

engkau menghubungiku ?. dan dilanjutkannya ,kemukakanlah kepadaku tentang Islam. Maka masuk islam lah majusi itu. ustadz Abu Sahl Ash-Shaluki Telah melihat Abu Sahl Az-Zujaji di dalam mimpi. Dan beliau Abu Sahl AzZujaji telah berkata tentang janji azab selama-lamanya. Lalu Abu Sahl Ash-Shaluki bertanya, bagai mana keadaanmu ?. beliau menjawab, kami mendapati urusan lebih mudah adripada yang kami perkirakan. Kemudian sebahagian dari mereka bermimpi bertemu dengan Abu Sahl Ash-Shaluki dalam keadaan yang sangat bagus yang tidak dapat disifatkan. Maka ditanyakan kepada beliau, wahai ustadz, dengan apa engkau memperoleh derajad ini ? maka dijawab, dengan berbaik sangka kepada Tuhanku. Dikisahkan sesungguhnya Abul Abbas bin Suraij RA semoga Allah merahmati beliau bermimpi dalam sakit dimana beliau meninggal pada sakitnya itu, seakan kiyamat sudah terjadi. Tiba-tiba Allah Yang Maha Perkasa berfirman, Dimanakah para Ulama ?. Maka datanglah para Ulama, kemudian Allah berfirman, Apa yang kamu amalkan dengan ilmumu ?. kamipun menjawab, Wahai TUhanku, kami teledor dan kami berbuat jahat. Maka Allahpun mengulangi pertanyaan seakan Dia tidak berkenan dengan jawabantadi dan menghendaki jawaban yang lain. Maka aku menjawab, Adapun aku yaa Allah tiadalah terdapat pada catatan amalku sesuatu syirik dan sungguh Engkau telah berjanji bahwa Engkau akan mengampuni yang kurang dari itu. Maka Allah berfirman, pergilah kalian semua dengan dia / Abul Abas dan telah Akuampuni kalian semua. Dan wafatlah Abul Abbas setelah tiga hari darimimpi itu. Diceritakan adalah seorang laki-laki peminum khamr, mengumpulkan teman-temannya, dan memberikan 4 dirham kepada budaknya dan memerintahkannya untuk membelikan sesuatu dari buahbuahan untuk hidangan. Maka lewatlah budak tadi di pintu majli Manshur bin Ammar, dan beliau meminta sesuatu untuk pafa fakir miskin, dengan berkata, Barang siapayang memberinya uang 4 dirham, maka aku akan mendoakannya dengan 4 macam doa. Selanjutnya diceritakan, maka budak tersebut menyerahkan uangnya yang 4 dirham , maka berkatalah Manshur, Apa yang engkau inginkan agar aku mendoakanmu ?. Orang itu menjawab, Aku mempunyai tuan, dan aku ingin agar aku terbebas/merdeka darinya. Maka berdoalah Manshur yang demikian. Kemudian bertanya lagi, yang lain ?. Kemudian budak itu berkata lagi, Aku mohon didoakan agar Allah SWT mengganti dirham-dirhamku. Lalu Manshur mendoakannya, kemudian bertanya lagi yang lain ? Budak itu menjawab Kiranya Allah mengampuniku dan juga tuanku dan juga engkau serta rombongan teman-temanku. Maka berdoalah Manshur yang demikian. Kemudian kembalilah budak tadi kepada tuannya maka tuannya bertanya mengapa terlambat. Maka budak ltu menceritakan kisah yang dialaminya di perjalanan dengan Manshur, dan tuannya bertanya, apa yang engkau mohonkan

BUdak itu menjawab, Aku mohon agar aku terbebas / merdeka . Tuannya berkata , Pergilah sekarang engkau merdeka. Tuannya bertanya lagi, dan apa permintaanmu yang ke dua ?. Budak itu menjawab, Aku meminta agar Allah SWT mengganti dirham-dirhamku. Tuannya berkata, Bagimu aku beri 4000 dirham.. Tuannya bertanya lagi KEmudian apa permintaanmu yang ke tiga ? Budak itu menjawab, Aku mohon agar Allah SWT membuat engkau mau bertobat. Tuan itu menjawab, Sekarang aku bertobat kepada Allah SWT. Tuannya bertanyalagi, Kemudian apa permintaanmu yang ke empat ?. Budak itu mrenjawab, Aku mohon agar Allah SWT mengampuniku dan engkau, dan teman-temanmu. Tuannya menjawab, Yang satu ini tidak ada pada diriku . Maka ketika terrtidur malam itu, bermimpilah ia seakan akan ada yang berkata kepadanya, Engkau telah berbuat apa yang ada padamu, apakah engkau akan melihat bahwa Aku tidak melakukan apa yang ada padaKu ? Sungguh telah Aku ampuni engkau, dan juga budak engkau , dan kepada Manshur ibnu Ammar, dan juga teman-temanmu semua Dan diriwayatkan dari Abdul Wahab bin Abdul Hamid, Ats-Tsaqafi, berkata, Aku melihat tiga orang lakilaki dan seorang perempuan sedang mengusung jenasah, maka aku ambil alih posisi wanita itu dan kami mengusungnya ke kuburan, dan kami menshalatkannya di sana kemudian kamu menguburkannya. Aku bertanya kepada wanita tadi, Siapakah mayit ini dari pihak engkau? Wanita itu mwnjawab, Dia adalah anakku Aku bertanyan ,Apakah engkau tidak memiliki tetangga ? Wanita itu menjawab, Aku mempunyai tetangga akan tetapi mereka semua meremehkan dia. Aku bertanya, Mengapa demikian ? Wanita itu menjawab, Dia /a anakku adalah banci Abdul Wahab meneruskan ceritanya, Maka aku merasa kasihan kepadanya, selanjutnya aku ajaklah wanita itu ke rumahku, dan aku berikan beberapa dirham serta gandum dan beberapa helai kain. Pada malam harinya ketika tidur aku bermimpi, ada seseorang yang dating kepadaku, dimana wajahnya bersinar bak bulan purnama dengan mengenakan pakaian putih dan berterimakasih kepadaku. Maka aku bertanya, Siapakah kamu ? Dia menjawab, aku adalah banci yang telah engkau kuburkan. Tuhanku telah mengampuniku disebabkan karena manusia telah menghinaku.

Telah berkata Ibrahim Al Athruusyi Suatu ketika kami duduk-duduk di Baghdad bersama Maruuf AlKharqi RA di tepi sungai Dajlah, tiba-tiba lewatlah anak anak muda dengan menaiki perahu dan menabuh rebana seraya minum khamr dan bersenang-senang. Orang-orang berkata kepada Maruuf, Bukankah engkau lihat mereka bermaksiyat kepada Allah SWT secara terang-terangan ? Maka berdoalah bagi mereka. Maka Syaikh Maruuf Al-Kharqi mengangkat tangan beliau dan berdoa, Wahasi Tuhanku, sebagaimana Engkau gembirakan mereka di dunia, maka gembirakanlah mereka di akhirat. Orang-orang bertanya kepada Syaikh Maruuf, Sesungguhnya kami memohon engkau agar engkau mendoakan bagi kebinasaan mereka. Syaikh Maruuf menjawab, jika Allah SWT memberikan mereka kebahagiaan di akhirat niscaya Allah SWT membuat mereka bertobat. Dan sesungguhnya sebagian ulama salaf berkata dalam doanya, Wahai Tuhanku, penduduk mana yang tidak pernah bermaksiyat kepadaMu ? kemudian nimatmu Engkau berikan kepada mereka ? dan rizki tetap Engkau edarkan kepada mereka ? Maha suci Engkau, alangkah kasihnya Engkau, Demi keagungan Engkau, sesungguhnya Engkau menghinggakan, kemudian Engkau menyempurnakan nimat dan engkau cuurahkan, dan Engkau peredarkan rizki. Seakakn-akan Engkau Wahai Tuhanku tiada akan marah. Maka demikian ini beberapa sebab yang menarik ruuh harap pada hati orang-orang tang takut dan putus asa. Adapun orang yang dungu dan tertipu, tidak seharusnya mendengarkan sesuatu dari semua ini (yang menarik harap) akan tetapi sebaiknya mendengarkan Inasihat yang dapat mengambalikannya kepada rasa takut karena sesungguhnya kebanyakan manusia tidak akan menjadi baikkecuali dengan pentakutan seperti budak yang buruk dan anak kecil yang jorok, tidak dapat berlaku benar kecuali dengan cambuk dan tongkat dan melahirkan kata-kata kotor. Adapun kebalikan dari yang demikian, maka akan menyumbat mereka pintu perbaikan pada agama dan dunia mereka

Ditulis dalam Uncategorized | Tinggalkan sebuah komentar Kitab Takut dan Harap Pesanan al-Imam al-Syahid Hasan al-Banna: 1. Apabila mendengar azan, maka bangunlah solat serta-merta walau dalam keadaan apa jua sekali pun. 2. Bacalah al-Quran, tatapilah buku ilmu, pergilah ke majlis ilmu, dan amalkan zikrullah serta jangan membuang masa dalam perkara yang tiada memberi faedah. 3. Berusahalah untuk bertutur dalam bahasa Arab kerana bahasa Arab yang betul (fusha) itu adalah satu-satunya syiar Islam. 4. Janganlah bertengkar dalam apa-apa perkara sekali pun kerana pertengkaran yang kosong tiada memberi sebarang kebaikan. 5. Janganlah banyak ketawa kerana hati yang sentiasa berhubung dengan Allah itu sentiasa tenang lagi tenteram. 6. Janganlah banyak bergurau kerana umat yang sedang berjuang itu tidak mengerti melainkan bersungguh-sungguh dalam setiap perkara.

7. Janganlah bercakap lebih nyaring daripada kadar yang dikehendaki oleh pendengar kerana percakapan yang nyaring itu adalah perkara yang sia-sia, malah ia akan menyakiti hati orang lain. 8. Jauhilah daripada mengumpat peribadi orang dan janganlah bercakap melainkan yang memberi kebajikan. 9. Berkenal-kenalanlah dengan setiap muslimin yang ditemui kerana asas gerakan dakwah ialah berkenal-kenalan dan berkasih-sayang. 10. Kewajipan lebih banyak daripada masa yang ada pada kita. Oleh itu, gunakan masa dengan sebaikbaiknya dan ringkaskanlah perlaksanaannya.

"Sebuah

buku yang dibayar mahal oleh penulisnya dengan mati di jalan Allah."

(Syaikh Abdullah bin Hassan al-Qu'ud, anggota Komisi Fatwa Al-Lajnah Al-Daimah Li al-Buhuth al-'Ilmiyah wa al-Ifta', Saudi Arabia)

"Buku ini memberi semangat yang tinggi untuk berjuang membela Islam." (Adian Husaini, Cendikiawan Islam, MUI)

Allah commanded the believers as He commanded the Messengers by saying: "O Messengers, eat of the good things, and do good deeds; verily I am aware of what you do" [The Qur'an 23:51] & "0 those who believe, eat of the good things that We gave you" [The Qur'an 2:172]

A. Samad Said
Kekata hanya bererti jika isinya berinti. Dr Aidh al-Qarni dalam Hada`iq Zat Bahjah menulis: "Dalam satu minit seseorang boleh melakukan kebaikan yang banyak!"

Fathul Baari - Syarah Shahih Bukhari - HC - 36 Jilid Karya Ibnu Hajar Al-Asqalani
Eman Foundation, 2A Ashgrove Road, Goodmayes IG3 9XE

Created QURAN STUDY GROUP By

More Info

This session is part of the FREE weekly Qur'an Course on Sunday mornings in Goodmayes (East London) and open to all men, women and children. Masha Allah, we regularly have 60-80 brothers and sisters each week from all over London and as far as Cambridge and Northampton. Attence at previous sessions not necessary. Contents: In this class, we will undertake a detailed study of the structure, themes and guidance provided in Surah al-...

Tafsir Ibnu Kathir 10 JLD Sedang - HC - RM. 400.00 6 JLD Besar - HC - RM. 450.00

Kebangkitan Gerakan Islam: Dari Masa Transisi Menuju Kematangan


H
oleh Sasteri Nadar pada pada 31hb Oktober 2010 pukul 11.41 pagi

Tajuk: Kebangkitan Gerakan Islam: Dari Masa Transisi Menuju Kematangan.Tajuk asal: alShahwah al-Islamiyyah min al-Murahiqah ila al-Rusyd.Penulis: Syaikh Yusuf alQaradhawi.Penerbit: Pustaka al-Kautsar, Jakarta 2003Pengedar: Pustaka Indonesia (03-2692 3940, 03-2698 1742)Harga: RM 43.80 (6.25 by 9.5 inci, 430 ms). Setiap insan di dalam perjalanan mereka menuju kedewasaan pasti akan melalui beberapa peringkat hidup bermula daripada bayi kepada kanak-kanak, remaja sehinggalah dewasa. Setiap peringkat ini memiliki ciri-cirinya yang tersendiri. Bayi sentiasa perlukan penjagaan, kanakkanak asyik bermain, remaja sentiasa bersemangat manakala dewasa bersifat matang lagi cermat.

Demikianlah juga dengan gerakan kebangkitan Islam mutakhir ini. Alhamdulillah, gerakan ini kini sudah mula kelihatan dan dirasai di seluruh pelusuk dunia, sama ada di negara yang majoritinya Islam atau bukan Islam. Akan tetapi jika dianalisa dengan mendalam, boleh dikatakan bahawa gerakan kebangkitan ini lebih memiliki ciri-ciri bersemangat daripada berilmu, bersifat terburu-buru daripada bertenang, bersifat cuai daripada cermat dan bersifat baru daripada matang. Dalam ertikata lain, gerakan kebangkitan Islam mutakhir ini lebih mirip kepada ciri-ciri remaja yang dalam perjalanan menuju kedewasaan.

Inilah analisa Syaikh Yusuf al-Qaradhawi dan di atas analisa inilah beliau menulis buku yang khas bertujuan membimbing gerakan kebangkitan yang bersifat remaja ini ke arah kedewasaan yang sepenuhnya. Dalam bimbingannya ini Syaikh al-Qaradhawi telah menggariskan sepuluh poin utama, iaitu:

Pertama: Beralih daripada format dan simbol kepada hakikat dan kandungan. Pada zahirnya kelihatan gerakan kebangkitan Islam hanya menumpukan perhatian kepada perkara-perkara yang mencorakkan simbol dan meninggalkan isi kandungannya yang jauh lebih penting. Umpama seseorang yang selalu membesar-besarkan kedudukan jari telunjuk di dalam bacaan tasyahud solat tetapi di waktu yang sama meninggalkan perbincangan tentang sebab, tujuan dan kepentingan tuntutan solat itu sendiri secara keseluruhannya.

Kedua: Beralih daripada perdebatan kepada perbuatan. Sebahagian gerakan Islam gemar membakar tenaga mengungkit kesalahan dan kelemahan gerakan yang lain. Di waktu yang sama gerakan itu sendiri tidak berbuat apa-apa yang bermanfaat secara menyeluruh kepada Islam dan umatnya. Sikap sebegini perlu berubah. Tenaga dan masa seharusnya dibakar demi manfaat Islam dan umatnya manakala apa-apa kelemahan atau kesalahan gerakan lain seharusnya dibetulkan secara positif.

Ketiga: Beralih daripada sikap emosional kepada sikap ilmiah. Kerana semangat yang berlandaskan emosi tanpa kematangan yang berlandaskan ilmu, didapati sebahagian gerakan Islam cenderungkan mengkritik, melabel dan menghukum sesama umat Islam tanpa berlandaskan ilmu yang sebenar. Bahkan di dalam tindakan itu sendiri jelas terserlah sifat-sifat kejahilan yang keamatan. Sikap sebegini perlu berubah, seharusnya semangat itu didirikan di atas ilmu atau sekurang-kurangnya selari dengan tahap ilmu.

Keempat: Beralih daripada sikap menumpukan perhatian dalam masalah cabang kepada masalah pokok. Seringkali gerakan Islam menumpukan perhatian hanya kepada masalah cabang, seperti membaca Basmalah dengan kuat atau perlahan di dalam solat berjamaah tetapi diwaktu yang sama meninggalkan masalah pokok, seperti orang yang yang tidak bersolat jamaah langsung. Seharusnya gerakan Islam memberi tumpuan yang mendalam kepada masalah pokok dan bersikap toleran dalam masalah cabang. Apa guna mengukuhkan cabang jika pokoknya sendiri amat lemah ?

Kelima: Beralih daripada sikap menyulitkan kepada sikap memudahkan. Islam adalah agama yang sentiasa berciri-cirikan kemudahan. Akan tetapi sayang sekali sebahagian gerakan Islam memiliki ciri-ciri menyulitkan sehingga menyebabkan banyak orang menjauhi Islam, umpama mereka ada yang memaksa seseorang yang baru hendak memeluk Islam dengan amalan bersunat padahal amalan ini bukanlah sepatutnya menjadi agenda pertama di dalam dakwah kepada kaum bukan Islam.

Keenam: Beralih daripada sikap jumud dan taklid kepada sikap ijtihad dan pembaharuan. Di antara gerakan Islam masih ada yang berpendapat bahawa pintu-pintu ijtihad telah ditutup dan pembaharuan hukum Islam adalah tidak perlu. Mereka memaksa umat Islam untuk bertaklid kepada mazhab-mazhab tertentu sahaja dan apa-apa perkembangan terbaru dalam tamadun manusia adalah sesuatu yang harus ditinggalkan kerana ia, kononnya, tidak dirangkumi oleh syariat Islam. Sikap negatif seperti ini perlu diubah, pertama kerana para imam mazhab sendiri tidak memaksa umat Islam untuk bertaklid kepada mazhab mereka dan kedua, para imam mazhab sendiri berubah-ubah fatwa mereka selari dengan peredaran zaman dan tamadun semasa kehidupan mereka sendiri.

Ketujuh: Beralih daripada sikap Eksklusif kepada sikap Inklusif. Eksklusif ialah sikap mengunggulkan diri sendiri dan menyisihkan orang lain manakala Inklusif ialah sikap merendahkan diri sendiri agar sama rata mencakupi semua orang. Malang sekali sikap eksklusif, yang mirip kepada sifat Iblis yang enggan bersujud kepada Adam alaihi salam, telah menjadi ciri-ciri sebahagian gerakan Islam. Masing-masing mengunggulkan gerakan sendiri sehingga akhirnya menjadilah gerakan Islam sesuatu yang berpisah-pisah. Seharusnya sifat eksklusif ini dikikis dan diterapkan sikap inklusif yang berciri-cirikan jamaah dan kerjasama.

Kelapan: Beralih daripada sikap berlebih-lebihan kepada sikap bersederhana. Islam adalah agama pertengahan, apa yang berpisah daripada pertengahan ini disebut sebagai berlebih-lebihan (Ghuluw). Agama pertengahan ini tidak condong ke sikap remeh dan tidak juga condong kepada sikap fanatik. Sayang sekali ada di antara gerakan Islam yang condong ke arah meremehkan syariat Islam sepertimana aliran liberalisme. Ada juga yang condong ke arah berlebih-lebihan seperti aliran fanatisme. Yang benar gerakan Islam harus berada di antara kedua-duannya kerana ini jalan yang lurus yang akan menghasilkan kejayaan sebenar.

Kesembilan: Beralih daripada sikap berkeras kepada sikap berhikmah. Sebahagian gerakan Islam, kerana sikap putus asa telah beralih daripada manhaj dakwah dengan hikmah kepada manhaj kekerasan dengan senjata. Mereka membunuh jiwa dan melakukan kerosakan harta benda yang akhirnya hanya akan menggagalkan secara keseluruhan usaha kebangkitan Islam.

Seharusnya gerakan Islam memiliki sifat sabar dan bertahap-tahap. Tidak boleh menanam benih di pagi hari dan mengharapkan buahnya di petang hari.

Kesepuluh: Beralih daripada pertelingkahan kepada persatuan. Antara faktor utama yang menghalang kejayaan gerakan Islam mutakhir ialah pertelingkahan sesama gerakan atas hal-hal khilaf dan dzanni (hukum yang samar-samar). Padahal syariat Islam mewajibkan umatnya sesuatu yang disebaliknya, iaitu bersatu dan jangan berpecah. Selagi gerakan Islam berpecah dan bertelingkah, selagi itulah kejayaan menjauhi tangan umat Islam.

Demikian sepuluh poin utama yang digariskan oleh Syaikh al-Qaradhawi kepada gerakan Islam mutakhir tanpa khusus kepada mana-mana aliran tertentu. Di dalam memberi poin-poin di atas, Syaikh al-Qaradhawi telah menegur secara positif beberapa aliran Islam mutakhir yang masyhur seperti Jamaah Hizbut Tahrir, Jamaah Tabligh, Jamaah Jihadi, Jamaah Wahabiyyah, Jamaah alAlbaniyyun, Jamaah al-Jamiyyun (pengikut Syaikh Rabi al-Madkhali), Jamaah Syururiyyun, Jamaah Ikhwan al-Muslimun, Jamaah Sufisme dan tareqat-tereqat mereka dan pelbagai lagi.

Buku ini sangat dianjurkan kerana gerakan kebangkitan Islam di Malaysia juga tidak lepas daripada pelbagai kelemahan dan kekurangan sepertimana yang digariskan oleh Syaikh alQaradhawi. Gerakan kebangkitan Islam di Malaysia masih berada di tahap remaja dan sangatsangat memerlukan bimbingan untuk mencapai tahap dewasa secepat agar segala misi perjuangan mereka dapat membuahkan hasil sebaik mungkin.

-sheikh

Abdullah al-Harari RM 1700.00

Al-Haafidh Shihabuddin Abu'l-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad, better known as Ibn Hajar due to the fame of his forefathers, al-Asqalani due to his origin (February 18, 1372 February 2, 1448, 852 A.H.), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni scholar of Islam who represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith.

Early life
He was born in Cairo in 1372, the son of the Shafi'i scholar and poet Nur al-Din 'Ali. Both of his parents died in his infancy, and he and his sister, Sitt al-Rakb, became wards of his father's first wife's brother, Zaki al-Din al-Kharrubi, who enrolled Ibn Hajar in Qur'anic studies when he was five. Here he excelled, learning Surah Maryam in a single day, and progressing to the memorization of texts such as the Quran, then the abridged version of Ibn al-Hajib's work on the foundations of fiqh.

Education
When he accompanied al-Kharrubi to Mecca at the age of 12, he was considered competent to lead the Tarawih prayers during Ramadan. When his guardian died in 1386, Ibn Hajar's education in Egypt was entrusted to hadith scholar Shams al-Din ibn al-Qattan, who entered him in the courses given by al-Bulqini (d. 1404) and Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d. 1402) in Shafi'i fiqh, and Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-'Iraqi (d. 1404) in hadith, after which he travelled to Damascus and Jerusalem, to study under Shams al-Din al-Qalqashandi (d. 1407), Badr al-Din al-Balisi (d. 1401), and Fatima bint al-Manja al-Tanukhiyya (d. 1401). After a further visit to Mecca, Medina, and Yemen, he returned to Egypt.
BERIMANNYA SEMUA MANUSIA DARI KEKAFIRAN DAN BERSEGERA MENGUCAPKAN DUA KALIMAT SYAHADAT, NAMUN SUDAH TIDAK BERARTI LAGI.
Satu peristwa yang telah diisyaratkan Rasulullah SAW sejak dahulu, yakni akan tiba masa dimana matahari akan terbit dari arah sebelah barat. Dan tanda-tanda inilah yang akan menjelaskan kepada manusia bahwa KIAMAT SUDAH DI AMBANG PINTU! Namun, sebelum terbitnya matahari dari barat, ia akan didahului oleh waktu malam yang sangat panjang, hingga disebutkan bahwa seorang muslim telah mengerjakan shalat malam hingga letih dan telah tidur hingga pulas, namun subuh belum juga menjelang. Jika ini telah dirasakan, pertanda bahwa esok pagi matahari akan terbit dari barat. Peristiwa ini hanya terjadi satu hari, keesokannya matahari akan terbit sebagaimana biasanya. (Fathul Bari, Kitabur Riqaq juz II) "Kiamat takkan terjadi sebelum matahari terbit dari barat. Apabila manusia telah melihatnya (terbit dari barat), maka berimanlah seluruh penduduk bumi. Tetapi pada saat itu tidak bermanfaat lagi iman seseorang bagi dirinya, yang sebelumnya tidak beriman." (Bukhari-Dari Abu Hurairah RA) Dan peristiwa ini menjadi rantai urutan-urutan waktu: Setelah matahari terbit dari barat, juga munculnya binatang melata yang dapat berbicara, dan keluarnya asap yang memenuhi seluruh bumi. Asap ini akan menyebabkan seorang mukmin seperti demam, sedang kepada orang kafir akan menyebabkan seperti melepuh dan keluar asap dari telinganya. ( Tafsir Ath Thabari : 25/114 ). Asap ini muncul sebagai peringatan awal bagi orang-orang kafir. Ia akan berjalan selama 40 hari dan meliputi seluruh manusia. Setelah kemunculan asap ini, akan datang angin yang lembut dari arah Yaman yang akan mencabut nyawa setiap orang mukmin. Rasulullah SAW bersabda, "Tiba-tiba Allah mengirimkan angin yang lembut dan menerpa lewat ketiak mereka, kemudian mengambil ruh tiap-tiap orang mukmin dan muslim, dan tinggallah manusia-manusia jahat yang keadaannya kacau balau seperti himar, maka pada zaman mereka itulah kiamat terjadi. (HR.Muslim ). "Sesungguhnya pertanda yang pertama-tama muncul (menjelang kiamat) ialah terbitnya matahari dari barat dan munculnya binatang melata yang menemui manusia pada waktu Dhuha. Mana saja dari keduanya yang lebih dulu terjadi, maka tidak lama sesudah itu, yang lainnya pun segera terjadi." (HR. Muslim) Dan ini juga dijelaskan dalam firman Allah SWT dalam surah Ad- Dukhan (10-12):

"Maka tunggulah hari ketika langit membawa asap yang nyata. Yang meliputi manusia. Inilah azab yang pedih. (Mereka berdo'a): "Ya Tuhan kami, lenyapkanlah dari kami azab itu. Sesungguhnya kami akan beriman". "Maka tatkala mereka melihat adzab kami, mereka berkata, 'Kami beriman hanya kepada Allah semata, dan kami kafir kepada sembahan-sembahan yang telah kami persekutukan dengan Allah.' maka iman mereka tiada berguna bagi mereka, tatkala mereka telah melihat siksa Kami. Itulah sunnah Allah yang telah berlaku terhadap hamba-hamba-Nya. Dan di waktu itu binasalah orang-orang kafir." (QS. Ghafir: 84-85) " Mereka tidak menunggu selain datangya hari kiamat kepada mereka dengan tiba-tiba, sedang mereka tidak menyadarinya." (QS. Az-Zukhruf: 66) Allahu Akbar...!

The arabesque is an artistic motif that is characterized by the application of repeating geometric forms and fancifully combined patterns; these forms often echo those of plants and animals. Arabesques are, as their name indicates, elements of Islamic art often found decorating the walls of mosques. The choice of which geometric forms are to be used and how they are to be formatted is based upon the Islamic view of the world. To Muslims, these forms, taken together, constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world. To many in the Islamic world, they concretely symbolize the infinite, and therefore uncentralized, nature of the creation of the one God (Allah). Furthermore, the Islamic Arabesque artist conveys a spirituality without the iconography of Christian art. Mistakes in repetitions may be intentionally introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only Allah can produce perfection, although this theory is disputed.

lapar membaca surah Yaasin, ia boleh menjadi kenyang. 2. Jika orang tiada pakaian boleh mendapat ... See more

History
Geometric artwork in the form of the Arabesques was not widely used in the Middle East or Mediterranean Basin until the golden age of Islam came into full bloom. During this time, ancient texts on Greek and Hellenistic mathematics as well as Indian mathematics were translated into Arabic at the House of Wisdom, an academic research institution in Baghdad. Like the later European Renaissance that followed, mathematics, science, literature and history were infused into the Muslim Islamic world with great, mostly positive repercussions.
Imam SyeikhSayyid Ahmad Zaini Dahlan, antara ulamak yang mendedahkan sejarah hitam golongan Wahhabi Sheikh Sayyid Ahmad Zaini Dahlan Mufti Syafi`yyah di Makkah telah menceritakan sejarah hitam gerakan Wahhabiyah di dalam kitabnya Khulasah al-Kalam Fi Bayan Umara al Balad al-Haram. Kisah Kekejaman Wahhabi ini berlaku pada akhir bulan Syawal, tahun 1217h (1809M) iaitu dua tahun selepas mereka menyerang kota Mekah pada 1215H (1807M). Pada tarikh tersebut, kaum Wahhabi telah menyerang Kota Taif dengan ganas sekali. Mereka telah melakukan penyembelihan dan pembunuhan terhadap ramai umat Islam dari kalangan lelaki, wanita mahupun kanak-kanak atas alasan mereka telah melakukan syirik semata-mata.

Shariah, Tariqah, Adherence to the Sunnah and Love of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) Daripada Anas bin Malik RA katanya Rasulullah SAW melarang minum dalam keadaan berdiri. (HR Muslim)
Rasulullah s.a.w juga mengajar kita agar berdoa apabila hendak keluar daripada rumah , sebagaimana hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Saidina Anas Bin Malik r.a , doanya ialah : (" BISMILLAHI TAWAKKALTU 'ALALLAH , LA HAULA WA LA QUWATA , ILLA BILLAH"), Erti doa : " Dengan Nama Allah , saya berserah diri kepada Allah , Tiadalah Daya Upaya dan Tiadalah sebarang kekuatan , melainkan dengan izin Allah" .(HR Imam Abu Daud)

Home

Qur'an
o o

Qur'an Commentary Sciences of the Qur'an Principles of Hadith Rulings on Hadith Hadith Commentary Allah and His Attributes Prophets, Angels and Companions Qiyamah and the Hereafter Faith and Destiny Deviant Beliefs

Hadith
o o o

Aqidah
o o o o o

Fiqh Salah Zakah Women's Issues Miscellaneous Bid'ah Dress Tasawwuf o Spiritual Advices o Dhikr o Shari'ah and Tariqah o Spiritual Discourses History o Biographies of Scholars o Letters o Distortions and Lies General o Principles of Fiqh o Miracles o Announcements o Guidance o Politics About Contact Links Subscribe
o o o o o o

The Severity of Narrating Fabricated Reports on the Praise of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)
An original Deoband.org article By 'Allamah 'Abd al-Hayy al-Lakhnawi Translated by Zameelur Rahman

Know that the fuqaha and the muhaddithun in their entirety have clarified in their books that it is prohibited to narrate, cite and transmit fabricated (mawdu) [hadiths], and act upon its purport while believing it to be established, except with a warning that it is fabricated. Leniency (tasahul) in this [matter] is prohibited, whether [the fabricated hadith is] in regards to laws (ahkam), stories (qisas), inducing hope and fear (al-targhib wa l-tarhib) or anything else. Imitating (taqlid) [others] in mentioning and transmitting it is prohibited unless followed by an explanation of its fabrication, as opposed to a daif hadith, since if that is not in regards to laws, there is leniency therein, and it is acceptable with numerous conditions which I have elaborated in my footnotes to my treatise Tuhfat al-Talabah fi Mash al-Raqabah called Tuhfat al-Kamulah and in my treatise Al-Ajwibat al-Fadilah li l-Asilat al-Asharat al-Kamilah. They [the fuqaha and the muhaddithun] have also explained that to lie about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is one of the greatest of the major sins, rather some of the Shafiis exaggerated and ruled it to be kufr. That is because sahih hadiths have been narrated with various wordings indicating what we mentioned. The most well-known of them has the wording: Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. It has many routes such that it was said that it is from the mutawatir hadiths. I have expanded on this discussion in [a manner] not [requiring] further [explanation] to it in Zafar al-Amani fi lMukhtasar al-Mansub ila l-Jurjani in the discussion on mutawatir, Allah enable us to complete it as He enabled us to start it, and if Allah gives expanse in my life and assists in my ability, I will complete it after finishing writing up this treatise, if Allah (Exalted is He) wills. Ali al-Qari al-Makki said in Kitab al-Mawduat: Moreover, the meaning of that which the two shaykhs [i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim] and AlHakim transmitted from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire, is mutawatir and this form is almost mutawatir. In [another] version from them and from al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasai, Ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni, [they narrated] from Anas (Allah be pleased with him) that he said, That the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said Whoever deliberately lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire prevents me from narrating many hadiths to you.

They have also [narrated] from Ali (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, Do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him enter the Fire. The two shaykhs and al-Tirmidhi [narrated] from al-Mughirah ibn Shubah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, Lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, al-Nasai, ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah be pleased with them) [that] he said: I said to Zubayr [ibn 'Awwam], I do not hear you narrating from Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) as so-and-so and so-and-so narrate. He said, Certainly, I did not part from him since I accepted Islam, but I heard him say, Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Daraqutni added, By Allah he did not say deliberately and you say deliberately. Al-Bukhari and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Salamah ibn al-Akwa (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi who authenticated it and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Ibn Masud (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Jabir (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, Beware of excessive narration; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Qatadah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say on this pulpit, Beware of excessive narration; nothing should be said about me but reality and truth, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Said al-Khudri (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said in marfu form, Write not from me [anything] besides the Quran, and whoever wrote anything besides the Quran should erase it. Narrate from the Israelites and there is no harm. Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Abu Yala, al-Uqayli and al-Tabrani in Al-Awsat [narrated] from Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, or rejects something I commanded, let him occupy a house in Hell.

Ahmad and Abu Yala [narrated] from Umar (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me, he is in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Yala, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal [narrated] from Uthman (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he would say, That I am not the most retentive from the Companions of Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) regarding him does not prevent me from narrating from him, but [because] I bear witness that I heard him say, Whoever ascribes a lie to me, let him occupy a house in the Fire. Abu Yala and Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Talhah ibn Ubayd Allah in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Bazzar, Abu Yala, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal [narrated] from Said ibn Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nufayl (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, Verily, lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, Hannad in al-Zuhd, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu form, Verily, a house in the Fire will be built for the one who lies upon me. Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah in his Musnad and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Yala and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Khalid ibn Arfatah in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately and in [another] narration Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Yahya ibn Maymun al-Hadrami that Abu Musa al-Ghafiqi heard Uqbah ibn Amir alJuhani (Allah be pleased with him) narrating hadiths from Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) on the pulpit, and Abu Musa (Allah be pleased with him) said, Verily, this companion of yours has preserved [the hadiths] or is destroyed; indeed the last thing he (upon him blessings and peace) entrusted unto us was that he said, Hold to the Book of Allah, and you will refer to a people who love to narrate from me, so whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire, and whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it. Ahmad, Abu Yala and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Uqbah ibn Amir (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ahmad, al-Bazzar and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.

Ahmad [narrated] from Qays ibn Sad ibn Ubadah al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take [his] resting place in the Fire or a house in Hell. Al-Bazzar and al-Uqayli in al-Duafa [narrated] from Imran ibn Husayn (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] in al-Awsat from Abdullah ibn Amr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that a man wore a dress resembling the dress of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then he came to a household in Madinah and said, Verily, he (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to survey whichever household I wish from the residents of Madinah. They then prepared accommodation for him and sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him. He said to Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), Go to him and if you find him, kill him, then burn him with fire, and if you find him and you have been spared this [task] [because he is already dead], and I do not believe but the two of you will be spared this [task], then burn him with Fire. Thereupon, they came to him and found him having come out in the night to urinate, when a snake bit him and he died, so they burned him with fire. Then they returned to him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him and he (upon him blessings and peace) said, Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Adi in al-Kamil [narrated] from Buraydah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: A suburb of Banu Layth was [situated] two miles away from Madinah. A man had proposed to one of them in Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times) and they did not marry him [to her], so he came to them [putting] on a dress, saying, Indeed Allahs Messenger garbed me this [dress] and commanded me to rule over your properties and your blood. Then he set forth and fell on that woman he proposed to [i.e. fornicated with her]. Thereupon, the people sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he said, He lied, the enemy of Allah! Then he sent a man and said, If you find him alive, strike his neck, and if you find him dead, burn him. Then he found him, a snake having bit him and he died, so he burned him with fire. That is [a consequence of] his (upon him blessings and peace) statement, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I went with my father to an in-law of ours from the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) who accepted Islam, and I heard him say: I head Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say Give us rest by it, i.e. prayer, O Bilal. I said, Did you hear that from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)? He then became angry and began narrating to them that he (upon him blessings and peace) sent a man to an Arab suburb and when he came to them, he said, He (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to rule over your women however I wish. Thereupon they said, [We] hear and [we] obey the command of Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and they sent a man to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said, Indeed soand-so came to us and said that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded me to rule over your women, so if it is from your command then [we] hear and [we] obey and if it is other than that, we wished to let you know. Then he (upon him blessings and

peace) became angry and sent a man from the Ansar, saying, Go and kill him or burn him with fire. He reached him and he had [already] died and was buried, so he ordered that [his body] be exhumed, then he burned him with fire. Then he [the in-law of 'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn alHanafiyyah] said: Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire and he said, Do you think that I will lie upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) after this? Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam and al-Bara ibn Azib (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), elevating it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Abu Musa al-Ashari (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Muadh ibn Jabal in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Amr ibn Murrah al-Juhani with this wording; Al-Tabrani in al-Saghir [narrated] from Nabit ibn Sharit like so; alTabrani [narrated] from Ammar ibn Yasir like so; he [narrated] from Amr ibn Abasah like so and [he narrated] from Amr ibn Hurayth like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from Utaybah ibn Ghazwan like so; he and Ibn Adi [narrated] from al-Urs ibn Amirah like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Yala ibn Murrah like so; he and al-Bazzar [narrated] from Abu Malik al-Ashjai from his father whose name was Tariq ibn Aysham like so; and he, Abu Nuaym and al-Ismaili in his Mujam [narrated] from Salman ibn Khalid al-Khuzai in marfu form with the wording, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him occupy a house in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Amr ibn Dinar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that the children of Suhayb said to Suhayb, O our father! The children of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are narrating from their fathers, and he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Saib ibn Yazid with this wording and he [narrated] from Abu Umamah al-Bahili with the wording: Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire between the eyes of Hell. He [narrated] from Abu Qursafah that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, Narrate from me whatever you hear, and it is not permitted for a man to lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me or he said ascribes to me what I have not said, a house in Hell will be built for him, in which he will be thrown. He [narrated] from Rafi ibn Khudayj in marfu form, Do not lie upon me, for indeed lying upon me is not like lying upon another. He [narrated] from Aws ibn Aws al-Thaqafi in marfu form, Whoever lies upon his Prophet or his eyes [i.e. he invents a dream] or his parents [i.e. he falsely identifies his parents], he will never smell the fragrance of Paradise. He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, Do not lie upon me; indeed, the one who lies upon me is reckless. He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Abu Khaldah [that] he said: I heard Maymun al-Kurdi while he was with Malik ibn Dinar (Allah be pleased with him), then Malik ibn Dinar said to him, Why is it that the shaykh does not narrate from his father, for indeed your father saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and heard from him? Thereupon, he said, Our father would not narrate from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) out of

fear that he would add or subtract from his speech, and he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. He [narrated] from Sad ibn al-Midhas from him (upon him blessings and peace), Whoever knows something must not conceal it, and whoever lies upon me let him occupy a house in Hell. Abu Muhammad al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] in Kitab al-Muhaddith al-Fasil from Malik ibn Atahiyyah that he (upon him blessings and peace) instructed us in the Farewell Hajj, saying, Hold to the Quran, and you will refer to groups who narrate from me, so whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani and al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] from Rafi ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed by us one day while we were talking and he said, What are you discussing? They said, That which we heard from you, O Messenger of Allah. He said, Talk, but whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Sad and al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Muqanna al-Tamimi [that] he said: I brought the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) the sadaqah of our camels when he ordered to [receive] it and take it [to the treasury]. I said, Two she-camels amongst them are a gift for you, so he ordered to separate the gift from the sadaqah. I stayed [some] days, and the people plunged [into talk] that he (upon him blessings and peace) will delegate Khalid ibn al-Walid to the slaves of Mudar to give sadaqah to them. I said, By Allah our people have no money, so I came to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said to him, Indeed the people are plunged in such and such [talk], so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) raised his hands until the whiteness of his armpits could be seen, saying, O Allah I never permitted them to lie upon me. Al-Muqanna said, Thereafter, I did not narrate from him (upon him blessings and peace) a hadith, except a tradition articulated in the Book or applied in the Sunnah. [That was the case of he who] lies upon him in [his] lifetime, so how [would it be] after his death? Al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Rafi ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and a man came to him saying, O Messenger of Allah! The people are narrating from you in such and such [a manner], and he said, I do not say except that which descends from heaven. Woe unto you! Do not lie upon me, for indeed a lie upon me is not like lying upon another. Al-Bazzar [narrated] from Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu form, From the greatest of falsehoods is he who attributes to his eyes what they did not see, and from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said. Al-Uqayli [narrated] in Kitab al-Duafa from Abu Kabshah al-Anmari (Allah be pleased with him), with the wording, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Uqayli [narrated] from Ghazwan (Allah be pleased with him) with this wording, and he and al-Tabrani in al-Afrad [narrated] from Abu Rafi, Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in Hell.

Ibn Asakir [narrated] in his Tarikh from Wathilah ibn al-Asqa (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him): I heard Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, Verily, from the greatest of major sins is that a man ascribes [to me] what I have not said. Ibn Adi and alHakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] through another route from Wathilah ibn al-Asqa in marfu form, Verily, from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said or attributes to his eyes in sleep what it had not seen. Al-Khatib in his Tarikh [narrated] from al-Numan ibn Bashir, and its wording is: Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Jabir ibn Abdillah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), The anger of Allah (Exalted is He) is severe on he who lies upon me deliberately. Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Bahaz ibn Hakim, from his father, from his grandfather in marfu form, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all humankind, and compulsory acts and voluntary acts will not be accepted from him. Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Hudhayfah (Allah be pleased with him), Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording, Whoever narrates from me a lie, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Bazzar and Ibn Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu form, Three [men] will not smell the fragrance of Paradise: a man claiming another as his father, a man who lies upon his Prophet, and a man who lies upon his eyes. Ahmad, Hannad and al-Hakim in his Mustadrak [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire and in a wording a house in Hell. Ibn Said in his collection of the routes of this hadith [narrated] from Sad ibn Abi Waqqas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Khatib [narrated] in al-Tarikh from Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Adi [narrated] from Suhayb (Allah be pleased with him) and its wording is: Whoever lies upon me, he will be charged on the Day of Resurrection with weaving together two barleycorns, and that is what prevents me from narrating.

Al-Daraqutni [narrated it] in al-Afrad like so and al-Khatib in al-Tarikh [narrated] from Salman al-Farisi (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him); Ibn al-Jawzi and Hafiz Yusuf ibn Khalil in his collection of the paths of this hadith [narrated] from Abu Dharr like so, and Ibn Said and others [narrated] from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd (Allah be pleased with him) like so. Ibn Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), Whoever innovates a thing or shelters an innovator, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all of humankind, and [also] upon whoever lies upon me deliberately. Ibn Qani in his Mujam [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire and that was [said] because he sent a man for a need and he lied upon him, whereupon he cursed him, and he was found dead, his insides split open, and the earth did not accept him. Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn alJawzi [narrated] through another route from Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them) that he said one day to his companions, Do you know what is the meaning of this hadith: Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire? A man was passionately in love with a woman, so he came to her people in the evening and said, I am the emissary of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace). He sent me to you that I may be hosted in whichever house I wish. He waited while passing the night, and a man from amongst them came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, So-and-so came to us claiming that you commanded him to stay in whichever of our houses he wished. Thereupon, he said He lied! Oh so-and-so, go with him and if Allah enables you, strike his neck and burn him with fire, and I do not believe but you will be spared this [task]. Then, he [i.e. the man who lied] came out to perform wudu and a snake bit him and he died. When this [news] reached the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he said, He is in the Fire. Ibn Qani in Mujam al-Sahabah and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. They [narrated] from Yazid ibn Asad like so; al-Hakim [narrated] from Affan ibn Habib (Allah be pleased with him) like so; and al-Jawzaqani and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from a man from the Companions (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording, Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him occupy [his place] between the eyes of Hell. Ibn Said and others [narrated] from Aishah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with her) with the wording: Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Umm Ayman (Allah be pleased with her) and its wording is, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Ali (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) and its wording is: Whoever lies upon Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he has indeed prepared his seat in the Fire.

Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Ibn Abbas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them): Al-Abbas said, O Messenger of Allah! If only we could make an elevated place for you from above which you speak to the people, so they can hear [you]. He said, I will remain like this: their dust afflicting me, while they tread on my heels, until Allah relieves me from them, so whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Adi [narrated] from Shubah, Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire. Ibn Khalil [narrated] from Zayd ibn Thabit (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from Kab ibn Qutbah like so; he [narrated] from the father of Abu l-Ashra like so; he and Abu Nuaym [narrated] from Abdullah ibn Zaghb like so. Abu Nuaym [narrated] from Jabir ibn Habis (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Hafiz al-Suyuti said: More than a hundred Companions narrated this hadith and a multitude of the people of excellence gathered its paths to them. Ibn al-Jawzi transmitted from Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Isfaraini that there is no hadith in the world that the ten promised paradise agreed upon besides the hadith, Whoever lies upon me Ibn al-Jawzi said: the narration of Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf (Allah be pleased with him) [one of the ten promised Paradise] has not occurred to me till now. End One of the subtleties that was mentioned in this regard is that which Allamah Abu l-Qasim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Ghurani, the author of many works, said: Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali al-Muaddib narrated to us: Abu l-Muzaffar Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Husam al-Samarqandi narrated to us: he said: I heard al-Khadir and Ilyas say: We heard Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire. Al-Dhahabi said: Abu Amr ibn al-Salah dictated this hadith and said, This occurred to us in a transcript from Al-Khadir and Ilyas. Al-Dhahabi said, I do not know who compiled this transcript. [Here] ends the speech of Al-Qari in its entirety. I say: it is established from these narrations that fabricating [something] about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and attributing to him what he did not say is absolutely haram and a cause for being punished in the Fire, whether it is in regards to Halal and Haram or inducing hope and fear or anything else. Hence, the belief of some ignorant fabricators that lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to induce hope and fear is permissible because it is a lie for him not against him, is unacceptable. Furthermore, it is established from the aforementioned narrations that just as lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) verbally and practically by attributing to him a statement he did not say and an action he did not perform is from the greatest of the major sins, similarly attributing a virtue or a rank to his purified essence whose existence is not established in the holy prophetic essence by verses or reliable hadiths is also from the greatest of the major sins. The admonishing preachers should, therefore, pay attention, and the story-tellers and the exhorting and reproving sermonisers should beware, since they attribute many things to the holy person

whose existence has not been established therein and they think that in this is a great reward due to establishing a virtue for the holy essence and elevating its stature, yet they are unaware that the prophetic virtues established in the sahih hadiths dispose of the need for those flimsy falsehoods. By my life, his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) virtues are outside the limit of encompassment and enumeration, and his merits, by which he excels all creation, are very many without end, so what is the need to extol him using falsehoods? Rather, this is a cause for great sin and deviation from the Straight Path. We ought to mention here some of the stories which are commonly narrated by most of the preachers of our age in their sermonic gatherings while believing them to be established facts, in spite of them being manufactured and fabricated: From them is what they mention that when the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was taken by night in the Night of Miraj (Ascension) to the high heavens and reached the Lofty Throne, he intended to take off his shoes, considering His (Exalted is He) statement to our master Musa when He spoke to him, So remove your shoes; verily, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa (Quran 20:12). He was then called from the Lofty Court: O Muhammad! Do not remove your shoes as the Throne will take honour in your advent wearing shoes and will take it as pride and blessings before others. So the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ascended the Throne while the shoes were on his feet, and thus he was granted honour and loftiness. This story was narrated by many composers of eulogistic poems while others incorporated [it] in their writings on the Sunnah. Most of the preachers in our age mention it in detail as well as in summary in their sermonic functions. Ahmad al-Muqri al-Maliki in his book Fath al-Mutaal fi Madhi Khayr al-Nial, and Allamah Radi al-Din al-Qazwini and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Baqi al-Zurqani in Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, clarified that this story is fabricated in its entirety. May Allah uglify its fabricator! It is not established in a [single] narration from the [various] narrations of the Prophetic Miraj, despite the abundance of its paths, that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grand him peace) was in that [time] wearing shoes, and it is not established that he ascended the Throne, although he reached a place [where] he drew nigh to his Lord and came down and was at a distance of two bow-lengths or nearer, and He revealed to His servant what He revealed. (Quran 53:8-10). I have a detailed discussion on this point in my treatise Ghayat al-Maqal fima yataallaqu bi l-Nial, so that should be studied. From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet was given knowledge of the first and the last (al-awwalin wa l-akhirin) in detail, and he was granted knowledge of all that has passed and all that is to come, universally (kulliyyan) and particularly (juziyyan), and that there is no difference between his knowledge and the knowledge of his Lord from the perspective of encompassment and inclusion, and the only difference is that the knowledge of Allah is everlasting and eternal in His very Essence without having been taught by another, as opposed to the knowledge of the Messenger, since he acquired it through being taught by his Lord. This is flowery speech and falsehood as clarified by Ibn Hajar al-Makki in al-Minah al-Makkiyyah Sharh al-Qasidat al-Hamziyyah and [by] other scholars of poetry. That which is established from the Quranic verses and the Prophetic hadiths is that encompassment, inclusion and knowledge of all ghayb is specific to the Honourable Truth [i.e. Allah], and this quality was not granted

from the part of the Truth to any of creation. Yes, the sciences of our Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are more excessive and abundant than the sciences of the rest of the Prophets and Messengers, and the teaching of his Lord to him of the unseen matters is more perfect relative to [His] teaching to others, so he is most perfect in knowledge and practice, and the chief of creation in rank and virtue. From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) knew the whole Quran and recited it from the moment of his birth, and that the meaning of his statement I am not a reader in response to Jibril saying to him when revelation began, Recite! as was narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari and others, is: I will not read by your command, as I know it and read it from before. This is no doubt a fabrication, falsified by Quranic verses and Prophetic reports. From them is what they mention that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was not unlettered (ummi), rather he was able to write and recite by nature. This is a statement contravening the Quran and Sunnah and even the consensus (ijma) of the ummah. It has no consideration, therefore, for the perspicacious. From them is what they mention of the story of Ukashah when commemorating the beauty of the Muhammadan character. This was transmitted by Abu Nuaym in Hilyat al-Awliya from Ibn Abbas [that] he said: When When comes the Help of Allah, and Victory (110:1) to the end of the surah, was revealed, Muhammad said, O Jibril! My death has been announced. Jibril said, The Hereafter will be better for you than the present and verily your Lord will give unto you until you are content. (93:4-5) Then Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded Bilal to make a call for congregational prayer. The Muhajirun and Ansar then congregated in the mosque and he prayed with the people. He then ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified Allah, and he delivered a sermon that made the hearts fearful and the eyes tearful. Then he said: O people! What [kind] of prophet have I been to you? They said, Allah reward you greatly for the Prophet [you have been], for verily, you were to us like a compassionate father and a well-wishing kind brother. You transmitted the messages of Allah and you conveyed to us His revelation, and you called to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching. So, Allah reward you on our behalf the best that He rewards a prophet on behalf of his people. Then he said: Assemblies of Muslims! I adjure you by Allah and by my right over you, whoever has a complaint against me, let him stand and take retaliation from me before the retaliation on the Day of Resurrection. An old man called Ukashah [who was] amongst the Muslims stood and walked passed the Muslims until he stood before the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! Had you not adjured us more than once, I would not be one to offer any [complaint] against you. I was with you in battle, and when Allah gave us an opening and gave victory to His Prophet and we turned back, my she-camel drew parallel to your she-camel, so I descended from the shecamel and came close to you to kiss your thigh, but then you lifted a cane and hit my flank. I do not know if that was intentional on your part or you wanted to hit the she-camel.

Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, I seek refuge for you in the glory of Allah, that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) intentionally struck [you]. O Bilal! Go to the house of Fatimah and bring a long cane. Bilal left the mosque with his hands on his head, saying aloud, This is the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) offering retaliation upon himself! Then he knocked on the door of Fatimah and said, O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! Give me a long cane. Fatimah said, O Bilal! What will my father do with the cane? This is not the season of Hajj or war. He said, How unaware you are of the plight of your father! Verily, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is entrusting the religion and departing the world and offering retaliation upon himself. So Fatimah said, And who is it that his soul has agreed to retaliating upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), O Bilal? Say to al-Hasan and al-Husayn to stand to this man and not let him take retaliation from the Messenger of Allah. Then, the Messenger of Allah gave the cane to Ukashah. When Abu Bakr and Umar saw that they said, We are in front of you so take retaliation from us and do not take retaliation from Allahs Messenger, and the Messenger of Allah said to them, Leave O Abu Bakr and you, O Umar, for indeed Allah knows your place and your station. Ali stood and said, O Ukashah, in the life of this world, I was before Allahs Messenger [i.e. in his service], and my soul does not agree with you hitting the Messenger of Allah; so this is my back and my belly, take retaliation from me and strike me a hundred strikes, and do not take retaliation from Allahs Messenger. Allahs Messenger said, O Ali! Sit, for indeed Allah knows your station and your intention. Then al-Hasan and al-Husayn stood and said, O Ukashah do you not know that we are the grandchildren of the Messenger of Allah so retaliation upon us is like retaliation upon the Messenger of Allah? He said to them, Sit down O coolness of my eyes, Allah has not forgotten this station for you. Then, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, O Ukashah! Strike if you are going to strike. He said, O Messenger of Allah! You struck me while I was uncovered. Thereupon, he exposed his belly and the Muslims screamed out, crying, and said, Do you believe Ukasha is hitting the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)? When Ukashah saw the whiteness of his belly, he said, My father and mother be sacrificed for you! My soul does not agree to retaliate upon you. The Prophet said to him, Either you strike or you pardon. He said I pardon you, hoping that Allah will pardon me on the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet said, Whoever wishes to see my companion in the Garden, let him look at this [man]. The Muslims stood and began kissing between the eyes of Ukashah and they said, Blessed are you! Blessed are you! You have reached the Highest Ranks and the companionship of Allahs Messenger. The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in Kitab al-Mawduat by Ibn al-Jawzi. Ibn al-Jawzi said, This is mawdu and its inventor was Abd al-Munim, meaning, Abd al-Munim ibn Idris ibn Sinan, the narrator from his father from Wahb from Ibn Abbas and from him Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Bara and from him Sulayman ibn Ahmad al-Tabrani and from him Abu Nuaym. Al-Suyuti agreed with him in al-Laali al-Masnuah fi l-Ahadith al-Mawduah and Ibn Arraq in Tanzih al-Shariah an al-Ahadith al-Mawduah and others.

Al-Dhahabi said in Mizan al-Itidal fi Naqd al-Rijal: Abd al-Munim ibn Idris al-Yamani, the famous story-teller, is not relied upon. More than one have abandoned his [narrations] and Ahmad ibn Hanbal clarified [this], saying, He would lie upon Wahb ibn Munabbih; Al-Bukhari said, [He is] wasted in hadith (dhahib al-hadith); AlUqayli said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Anmati narrated to us: Abd al-Munim ibn Idris narrated to us from his father from Wahb from Ibn Abbas from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), A fly does not fly between two [people] except by fate and he [narrated] from his father from Wahb from Jabir and Ibn Abbas a long account regarding the death of Allahs Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and that he gave a cane to Ukashah to retaliate upon him. Ibn Hibban said, He would fabricate hadiths upon his father and on others and he died in 228 H in Baghdad. End [It is] also [mentioned] therein [i.e. Mizan al-I'tidal]: Idris ibn Sinan al-Sanani, the grandson of Wahb ibn Munabbih, was weakened by Ibn Adi, and al-Daraqutni said [about him], [He is] abandoned and his son Abd al-Munim ibn Idris [narrated] from him. He was mentioned by Ibn Hibban in his Tarikh. End [It is mentioned] in Lisan al-Mizan by Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in the biography of Abd alMunim: Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Ismail ibn Abd al-Karim: Idris died while Abd al-Munim was an infant, and the same was said by Ahmad when asked about him: he did not hear a thing from his father. Abd al-Khaliq ibn Mansur said [narrating] from Ibn Main that he is a wicked liar (kadhdhab khabith) and according to Abu Zurah [he is] weak in hadith and al-Fallas said, [He is] abandoned; he took the books of his father and narrated them and did not hear a thing from his father. Abu Ahmad al-Hakim said, [He is] wasted in hadith and Ibn al-Madini said, He is not trustworthy; he took books and narrated them and al-Nasai said, He is not trustworthy and al-Saji said, He would buy biographical works (kutub al-sirah) and narrate them; he did not hear them from his father, not even a part of it. End From them is what they mention at the commemoration of the Prophetic birth that the light of Muhammad (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was created from the light of Allah in the sense that His Holy Essence became a substance for his illuminated soul, and that He (Exalted is He) took a handful of His light and created from it his light. This is sophistic talk since the essence of our Lord (Glorified and Blessed is He) is transcendent beyond being a substance of [any] besides Him. Taking a handful of His light does not mean that a part of him was cut off and made into the light of His Prophet because the concomitant of that is divisibility (tajazzi) and other things that follow from that in His essence (Exalted is Him), Transcendent is Allah beyond that. That which brought them into this dark quandary is the outward [meaning] of the narration of Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf from Jabir [that] he said: I said O Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! My father and mother be sacrificed for you! Tell me of the first thing Allah created before all things. He said, O Jabir! Verily, Allah created the light of your Prophet from His light before all things, and He made that light turn by [His] Power wherever Allah wished, and at that time there was no Tablet and no Pen, no Garden and no Fire,

no Angel and no Heaven, no earth and no sun and no moon, no jinni and no man. The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in al-Mawahib al-Ludaniyyah and other [works]. They erred in understanding the Prophetic meaning and they do not know that the ascription (idafah) in his statement from His light is like the ascription in His (Exalted is He) statement in the story of the creation of Adam, I breathed into him of My spirit (15:29) and like His statement in the story of our master Isa a spirit from Him (4:171) and like their statement, The house of Allah for the Kabah and mosques, and their statement, The spirit of Allah for Isa, etc. Al-Zurqani said in Sharh al-Mawahib in the commentary of his statement, from His light: [This is] an ascription of ennoblement (idafat al-tashrif) and to notify that he is a wonderful creation and that he has a rank which has a certain relationship with the esteemed lordship according to the meaning of His (Exalted is He) statement and He breathed into him from His spirit. This is a rhetorical (bayaniyyah) [sentence], meaning: from the light of His essence, not in the sense that it is a substance for the creation of his light, rather in the sense of the [Divine] Will pertained to it without the mediation of anything when bringing it into existence. End. He also said some pages before this: As for what is mentioned that Allah took a handful of the light of His Face and cast a look at it so it perspired and dropped, so Allah created out of every drop a prophet, and that the handful was the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and he was like a brilliant star, and that the entire world was created out of it and he was existent before his parents were created and he memorised the Quran before Jibril came to him and things like these, Hafiz Abu l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Taymiyah said in his Fatawa and Hafiz ibn Kathir quoted it in his Tarikh and agreed with him that all these things are fabricated lies about his speech by agreement of the people of knowledge. End Note: The primacy and the definite priority of the creation of the Muhammadan light are established in the narration of Abd al-Razzaq. The hadith, The first of what Allah created is my light is famous amongst the story-tellers, although it is a hadith not established in this form, even though other [narrations] were narrated that agree with it in meaning. Al-Suyuti said in his commentary on Jami al-Tirmidhi called Qut al-Mughtadhi when commenting on the hadith, Verily the first that Allah created is the Pen: Zayn al-Arab said in Sharh al-Masabih: This hadith is contradicted by that which was narrated that the first that Allah created was the Intellect, and the first that Allah created was my light, and the first that Allah created was the Spirit, and the first that Allah created was the Throne. Its response is that the primacy of things is relative, so it is understood that each of what was mentioned was first in its [own] genus. Hence, the pen was created before all bodies, his (upon him blessings and peace) light was created before all lights, and the hadith of the Intellect is understood as the first that Allah created of subtle bodies is the Intellect, and from the dense

[bodies] is the Throne, so there is no contradiction between any of them. [Here] ends the statement of Zayn al-Arab. I say: the hadith of Intellect is fabricated and the other three were not narrated with this wording so the interpretation is dispensable. I say: similar to the first that Allah created is my light in not being established textually but having been transmitted in meaning, is that which is famous on the tongues of the story-tellers and the general and the elite of the hadith, Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies. Ali al-Qari said in Tadhkirat al-Mawduat: [Regarding] the hadith, Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies, alAsqalani said, [It is] mawdu, as [mentioned] in al-Khulasah. However, its meaning is correct, since al-Daylami narrated from Ibn Abbas in marfu form: Jibril came to me and said: Allah said, O Muhammad! Were it not for you, I would not have created the Garden and were it not for you I would not have created the Fire. End Al-Qastallani mentioned in al-Mawahib al-Laduniya and al-Zurqani in its commentary that alHakim transmitted in his Mustadrak from Umar in marfu form that Adam saw the name Muhammad written on the throne and Allah said to Adam, Were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created you. Abu l-Shaykh in Tabaqat al-Asfahaniyyin and al-Hakim narrated from Ibn Abbas: Allah revealed to Isa, Believe in Muhammad and command your people to believe in him for were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam or the Garden or the Fire and indeed I created the Throne on water and it shook, so I wrote on it: No deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Amr ibn Aws is in its sanad and he is unknown. Al-Dhahabi said: According to al-Daylami from Ibn Abbas who elevated it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], Jibril came to me and said: Indeed Allah says Were it not for you, I would not create the Garden and were it not for you, I would not create the Fire. Similar [is the narration] that has become famous on the tongues of story-tellers of the hadith, I was a Prophet while Adam was between water and clay and in a narration, I was a Prophet and there was no Adam, no water and no clay, because al-Sakhawi in al-Maqasid al-Hasanah, while explaining many of the hadiths which are common on the tongues, and al-Suyuti in alDurar al-Muntashirah fi l-Akhbar al-Mushtahirah and others clarified that it is mawdu with this wording. Yes, it is established from al-Hakim in his Mustadrak and authenticated by Abu Nuaym in Hilyat al-Awliya and al-Bukhari in his Tarikh and Ahmad in his Musnad from Maysarah al-Dabbi: I said, O Messenger of Allah! When were you a Prophet? He said, While Adam was between spirit and body. According to al-Bayhaqi and Ahmad, [they narrated] from the hadith of al-Irbad ibn Sariyah in marfu form, Verily I was the Seal of the Prophets by Allah while Adam was still in clay and according to al-Tirmidhi, [he narrated] from Abu Hurayrah that they [i.e. the Companions] said, O Messenger of Allah! When was prophethood incumbent upon you? He said, While Adam was between spirit and body. From them is what the preachers mention while commemorating the Muhammadan beauty that one night a needle dropped from the hand of Aishah and she lost it, and she searched for it and could not find it, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) laughed and the radiance of his teeth appeared, illuminating the chamber, and Aishah saw the needle with that light.

Although this is mentioned in Maarij al-Nubuwwah and other biographical works that combine both wet and dry [i.e. sound and unsound reports] so none relies on everything that is in them besides a sleepy or drowsy person, it is, nonetheless, not established by narration or meaning. From them is what they mention when commemorating the Muhammadan hearing that he hears the blessings of one who sends blessings on him without any mediation, though he is far. This is false and not established by any narration. Rather, its opposite is established. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, One who sends blessings on me near my grave I hear it, and one who sends blessings on me from a distance, Allah appointed an Angel who conveys it me. It will suffice him for his world and hereafter [and] I will intercede for him on the Day of Judgment. Al-Bayhaqi in Shuab al-Iman, Abu l-Shaykh in Kitab al-Thawab and Al-Uqayli in Kitab al-Duafa transmitted it, and it has corroborative reports (shawahid) which were elaborated by Al-Suyuti in Al-Laali al-Masnuah and Ibn Arraq in Tanzih al-Shariah. From them is what they mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attends personally the gatherings commemorating his birth upon the mention of his birth, and they built on this [the practice of] standing (qiyam) when mentioning the birth in respect and honour. This is also a falsehood from the falsehoods, which is not established by any proof. The mere supposition and possibility [of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attending] is outside the limit of this explanation. Such stories as we mentioned are many. The preachers of the Muhammadan excellence and the Ahmadi birth (Allah bless him and grant him peace) evoke them, despite their fabrication and [despite] not being established, with the belief on their part that in mentioning the eminence of the Muhammadan stature is a great reward and an immense virtue, ignorant of the great sin due on one who lies upon the Prophet (upon him prayer and peace) in regards to a statement, an action or a beautiful or perfect description, as clear reports and authentic narrations prove. In sum, it is necessary for every Muslim to be careful in these matters, and not mention anything except after revising it and verifying it from the reliable books of the reliable scholars, and not dare mention all that his nature concocts or is mentioned by all those who have passed before him if they are from those who gather the bad and the good (al-ghathth wa l-samin), and do not differentiate between north and south, because it is a great sin and immense treachery. Al-Athar al-Marfuah fi l-Akhbar al-Mawduah, pp.16-35 (From Majmuah Rasail al-Lakhnawi, volume 5, Edited by: Naim Ashraf Nur Ahmad, Published by: Intisharat Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad Jami)
Tags: angels convey durood, angels take the durood, durood, Durud, fabricated hadith, first thing created, hearing from far, ilm ghayb, lakhnawi, light of Muhammad, mawdu hadith, mawlid, milad, miraj, needle of aisha, noor, nur, nur-i-Muhammadi, present and watching, presenting of durood, qiyam, standing in qiyam, Ukashah, ummi, unlettered This entry was posted by Zameel on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010 at 7:52 pm and is filed under Principles of Hadith. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.

01 Browse entire site 02 Copyright notice 03 Subscribe for updates 04 Feedback?

Recent Posts

The Objective, Benefit and Pre-requisites of the Pledge The Reality of Shirk, its Manifestations and its Types Istighathah: Seeking aid from other than Allah Ranks of the Books on Hadith The Truth about the Number of Rakahs in Tarawih The Severity of Narrating Fabricated Reports on the Praise of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) Repelling the Deceits of Al-Barelwi surrounding the Issue of Imkan al-Kadhib Reprimanding Men for Denying the Athar of Ibn Abbas A Query Regarding the Barelwis

http://www.ithacapress.co.uk/Foreign-Rights/Great-Booksof-Islamic-Civilization http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=Trevor+ Le+Gassick&wc=on&acc=on Recent Comments


MuslimIndian on Istighathah: Seeking aid from other than Allah Saad Khan on Shattering the Wahhabi Myths surrounding Shah Ismail Shahid rabani on Repelling the Deceits of Al-Barelwi surrounding the Issue of Imkan al-Kadhib Muhammad on A Wondrous Miracle

Saad Khan on The Reality of Shirk, its Manifestations and its Types Dr aziz ul Qadir on A Query Regarding the Barelwis Ibn Abd on Repelling the Deceits of Al-Barelwi surrounding the Issue of Imkan al-Kadhib SeekerOfGuidance on The Reality of Shirk, its Manifestations and its Types Ibn Abd on Mawlid, Deoband and Hanafi fiqh Abdul Rehman on Tashahhud with Sighah al-Khitab

Copyright 2010 Deoband.org. All Rights Reserved. Developed and maintained by Straight Path Media. http://www.jstor.org/action/doBasicSearch?Query=Trevor+Le+Gassick&wc=on&acc=on
07/04/2008 11:06 WIB

Bangunan Khusus Buya Hamka Dibangun di Masjid Al Azhar


Gagah Wijoseno - detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/07/time/110655/idnews/919299/idkanal/10
(Foto: Uhamka)

Jakarta - Buya Hamka, sastrawan dan ulama, sudah lama wafat. Namun, karya-karya tokoh sederhana ini masih bisa dinikmati oleh generasi sekarang. Untuk memperingati 100 Tahun Buya Hamka, sebuah bangunan bernama 'Buya Hamka Center' akan dibangun di samping Masjid Al Azhar, Jakarta. Maket bangunan Buya Hamka Center ini sudah dipersiapkan. Bangunan khusus ini akan dibangun untuk menghormati warisan ilmu dari Buya Hamka. Bangunan itu akan dibuat empat lantai dan dibangun di atas luas tanah sekitar 2.000 meter persegi di kompleks masjid bersejarah ini. "Yang akan dibangun sebelah utara masjid. Bangunan akan berisi perpustakaan, convention hall, ruang kajian ilmiah, dan food court," kata Direktur Eksekutif Al Azhar Peduli Umat Anwar Sani, di Masjid Al Azhar di sela-sela peringatan 100 tahun Buya Hamka, Senin (7/4/2008). Anwar Sani masih belum mengetahui kapan proyek yang dananya berasal dari Yayasan Perguruan Islam (YPI) Al Azhar dan umat itu akan segera dimulai. Rencananya, peletakan batu pertama akan dilakukan hari ini, namun dengan alasan tertentu, dibatalkan. Selain pembangunan gedung khusus, untuk memperingati tokoh kharismatik yang bernama asli H Abdul Malik Karim Amrullaj itu, juga telah digelar sejumlah acara. Sejak tanggal 15 Februari hingga 7 April 2008, telah dilangsungkan kegiatan-kegiatan yang melibatkan masyarakat umum. Antara lain lomba membuat sketsa wajah Hamka, lomba mading, jalan santai keluarga, dan MTQ. Puncak peringatan hari ini, yang diisi dengan dialog dengan sejumlah tokoh membedah tokoh Buya

Hamka. Dialog ini menghadirkan sejumlah narasumber seperti budayawan Emha Ainun Najid, Ketua PBNU Said Agil Siradj, dan Ketua MPR Hidayat Nurwahid. Dialog ini diikuti oleh ratusan orang. Di lokasi dialog yang berada di dalam masjid Al Azhar dipasang pula hasil-hasil karya perlombaan, seperti sketsa wajah Hamka yang terbuat dari arsiran pensil, mading karya siswa Al Azhar, dan beberapa kaligrafi. ( asy / nrl )

07/04/2008 12:33 WIB

Hamka, dari Tasawuf Hingga Perayaan


Gagah Wijoseno - detikcom

Buya Natal

http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/07/time/123327/idnews/919388/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Buya Hamka adalah salah satu tokoh ulama besar yang pernah dimiliki Indonesia. Pengagumnya berasal dari berbagai kalangan, baik NU maupun Muhammadiyah. Hal tersebut diakui oleh salah satu ketua PBNU Said Aqil Siradj. Ia mengaku sudah membaca habis hampir semua bukunya. "Saya baca buku semua, mulai dari Di Bawah Lindungan Kabah, Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijk, hanya Al Azhar (buku tafsir) saja yang tidak selesai karena banyak," kata Said Aqil dalam acara dialog Peringatan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka di Masjid Al-Azhar, Jl Sisingamangaraja, Jakarta Selatan, Senin (7/4/2008). Said Aqil mengatakan, awalnya dia diwanti-wanti ayahnya agar tidak terpengaruh pemikiran Hamka. Namun, hal tersebut justru membuat Said Aqil termotivasi membacanya. Bagi Said Aqil, Hamka adalah tokoh yang membawa ajaran tasawuf ke tingkat nasional. Hamka telah mengubah cara pandang orang terhadap tasawuf. "Dulu orang mengerti pengikut tasawuf itu kumuh, kemproh, jarang mandi, suka di pojokan masjid. Itu Mutasawwi, pura-pura tasawuf," ujarnya. Sementara itu, Ketua DDII Adian Husaini,mengisahkan sikap Hamka yang sangat memegang teguh prinsipnya. Salah satunya adalah fatwa haram mengucapkan selamat Natal. Akan tetapi, walau mengharamkan ikut Natalan, Hamka tetap berhubungan baik dengan umat Kristen. Tegas dalam berprinsip, tapi tetap bisa menjaga hubungan baik.

"Beliau tidak mau hadir kalau diundang Natal sama tetangganya. Nggak mau ucapkan selamat Natal. Tapi hubungannya dengan tetangga itu tetap baik," tutur dia. ( gah / asy )

08/04/2008 09:17 WIB

Anwar Ibrahim Ramaikan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/08/time/091737/idnews/919942/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Keilmuan dan ketokohan Buya Hamka tidak hanya bergaung di dalam negeri saja tetapi juga tersohor sampai ke luar negeri termasuk Malaysia. Pemimpin oposisi Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim adalah salah satu pengagumnya. Tidak heran jika Anwar Ibrahim lantas menjadi pembicara kunci dalam peringatan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka, Selasa (8/4/2008). Dalam jadwal acara yang diterima detikcom, Anwar Ibrahim akan berbicara soal transmisi keilmuan, pemaknaan agama, dan peran keulamaan dalam masyarakat madani di Asia Tenggara. Rencananya acara akan dimulai pukul 09.15 WIB di Hotel Athlet Century Park, Senayan, Jakarta. Anwar akan memberikan keynote speech dalam acara itu. Dalam acara itu dihadiri juga sejumlah cendekiawan muslim seperti Azyumardi Azra dan Syafii Ma'arif. Mereka akan menjadi pembicara pula dalam seminar tersebut. ( nvt / aba )

08/04/2008 12:25 WIB

Anwar Ibrahim Ditemani 'Hamka' dalam Penjara


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/08/time/122507/idnews/920119/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Buya Hamka menempati posisi khusus di hati tokoh oposisi Malaysia, Anwar Ibrahim. Semasa di penjara, Anwar mengaku ditemani karya Buya Hamka yang terkenal, Tafsir Al-Azhar. "Al-Azhar bagaikan bintang utara bagi saya," katanya dalam sambutan pembukaan Seminar Nasional Peringatan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka di Hotel Century Park, Senayan, Jakarta Pusat, Selasa (8/4/2008). Dengan Al-Azhar, Anwar mengaku tahu tujuan hidupnya. Hal itu sesuai dengan peran bintang utara sebagai petunjuk arah bagi nelayan di tengah laut. Anwar mengaku kenal dekat dengan sosok Hamka. Ia bersama Buya pernah pergi bersama ke Iran sebelum revolusi berlangsung. "Setelah 3 hari di sana, Buya bilang ada tambah kasih ke saya," kenangnya.

Sosok Hamka, di mata Anwar, merupakan figur ulama yang lengkap. Selain ulama, Hamka adalah seorang novelis yang menelurkan karya Di Bawah Lindungan Kabah dan Tenggelamnya Kapal van Der Wijk. Oleh karena itu, Anwar mengkritisi ulama saat ini yang tidak kreatif mencari media dakwah alternatif. "Sekarang tidak ramai ulama menganjurkan kita membaca novel," sindirnya. Selain mengkritik, Anwar tak lupa memuji ulama Indonesia. Menurutnya ulama Indonesia toleran dan inklusif. "Cara mereka menyangkal tidak memunculkan polemik atau wacana berkelanjutan. Misalnya antara M Natsir dengan Soekarno dulu," ujarnya. Hal ini berbeda dengan di Mesir atau Malaysia. "Di Mesir selalu berpolemik. Kalau di Malaysia tidak berpolemik sama sekali," pungkasnya. ( gah / ana )

08/04/2008 16:29 WIB

'Menghijaukan' PDIP Lewat Hamka


Rafiqa Qurrata A detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/08/time/162953/idnews/920289/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Sayap Ormas Islam PDIP, Baitul Muslimin (BM), akan menggelar simposium 100 tahun Buya Hamka pada 10 April 2008. BM tidak memungkiri simposium digelar untuk mendulang suara bagi PDIP dari kalangan Islam. "Di mana pun partai politik ingin menjaring sebanyak mungkin konstituen. Tetapi itu bukan alasan utama kami menggelar simposium ini," kata Ketua Bidang Hubungan Internasional PP Baitul Muslimim Indonesia, Helmi Hidayat. Hal ini disampaikan Helmi dalam jumpa pers di Sekretariat BMI, Jalan Tebet Barat Dalam, Jakarta Selatan, Selasa (8/4/2008). Helmi menjelaskan PDIP memang berbasis nasionalis. Namun 80 persen konstituennya adalah penganut agama Islam. "Bahwa implikasi yang kami lakukan itu persuasif terhadap umat Islam tentu itu tidak terhindarkan," ujarnya. Dikatakan dia, landasan formal digelarnya simposium yang mengenang ketokohan ulama dan sastrawan besar itu adalah mengangkat figur Hamka agar tetap menjadi bagian dari masyarakat Indonesia. Menurut Helmi, semasa hidupnya Hamka secara politis berseberangan dengan mantan Presiden Soekarno. Namun hal itu dinilai sebagai konsekuensi keberadaan Hamka sebagai tokoh nasional.

"Yang juga jadi menarik ketika PDIP yang membawa misi Soekarno justru mengangkat tokoh Hamka. Ini semacam rekonsiliasi sejarah, rekonsiliasi politik yang baik untuk bangsa Indonesia," kata dia. Helmi berjanji tokoh nasional lainnya juga akan diusung BMI. "Hamka hanya starting point saja. Nanti pasti akan ada tokoh nasional lainnya yang akan kami angkat asalkan momentumnya pas. Kami tidak pandang bulu apakah Kristen, Hindu, maupun Budha," ujar Helmi. Simposium 100 Tahun Buya Hamka yang bertajuk 'Membina pluralisme, membangun peradaban demokratis' akan digelar Kamis 10 April 2008 di Hotel Bumikarsa, Kompleks Bidakara, Pancoran, Jakarta. Acara ini akan dibuka Sekjen DPP PDIP Pramono Anung dan Taufiq Kiemas. ( aan / aba )

10/04/2008 08:08 WIB

PDIP Peringati 100 Tahun Lawan Politik Soekarno, Buya Hamka


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/10/time/080810/idnews/921095/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Pengaruh dan keilmuan Buya Hamka telah menyentuh segala kalangan. Tidak hanya kelompok religius saja, namun kaum nasionalis. Buktinya, hari ini, Kamis (10/4/2008), PDIP ikut memperingati 100 tahun Buya Hamka di Hotel Bumikarsa, Bidakara, Jl Gatot Subroto, Jakarta. Lewat sayap organisasi PP Baitul Muslimin, PDIP akan mengisi peringatan tersebut dengan simposium. Sejumlah pengurus DPP PDIP seperti Ketua Dewan Pertimbangan Pusat Taufiq Kiemas dan Sekjen Pramono Anung dijadwalkan akan hadir. Simposium bertajuk 'Membina Pluralisme, Membangun Peradaban Demokratis,' akan diisi sejumlah pembicara. Syafii Maarif, Sukardi Rinakit, dan Yudi latif adalah di antaranya. Peringatan ini sangatlah menarik karena Hamka adalah lawan politik Soekarno, yang notabene tokoh panutan PDIP. Hamka bahkan pernah dipenjara pada era Soekarno tanpa pengadilan. Tidak diketahui alasan pemenjaraan itu. Tetapi kala itu, Hamka menjadi salah satu orang yang menentang prinsip Demokrasi Terpimpin Soekarno. Namun penjara tidak membuat hati mantan Ketua MUI itu mati. Tatkala Soekarno wafat, Hamka menjadi imam salat jenazahnya. ( gah / aba )

10/04/2008 10:58 WIB

Kiemas: Hamka Lawan Sekaligus Sahabat Soekarno


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/10/time/105826/idnews/921250/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Buya Hamka pernah dipenjara Soekarno tanpa alasan yang jelas. Tetapi, tidak benar jika Hamka adalah musuh Soekarno. "Buya Hamka adalah lawan sekaligus sahabatnya," kata Ketua Dewan Pertimbangan Pusat DPP PDIP Taufiq Kiemas dalam sambutan di acara Simposium 100 Tahun Buya Hamka di Hotel Bumikarsa, Jl Gatot Subroto, Jakarta, Kamis (10/4/2008). Menurut Kiemas, bukti perkawanan Soekarno-Hamka bisa dilihat tatkala Presiden pertama RI itu wafat. Hamka mengimami salat jenazahnya dan ikut mengantarkannya. Hubungan Hamka dengan keluarga Soekarno, lanjut Kiemas, terjalin baik. Ada persamaan pemikiran antara keduanya dalam hal pluralisme. "Soal pluralisme mereka tidak jauh berbeda," katanya. Kiemas mengatakan, cerminan Hamka sebagai pluralis muncul dalam sifatnya yang pemaaf. Sebagai tokoh umat mayoritas di Indonesia, sifatnya tersebut sangat mengayomi. "Sehingga umat kain merasa dilindungi. Sebagai kakak besar," pungkasnya. ( gah / ana )

10/04/2008 11:26 WIB

PDIP Bantah Acara Hamka Untuk Cari Simpati Massa Muslim


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/10/time/112619/idnews/921283/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Gelaran peringatan 100 tahun Hamka oleh PDIP memunculkan spekulasi si moncong putih ini hendak menggaet kaum religius. Namun hal tersebut dibantah Sekjen DPP PDIP Pramono Anung. "Kegiatan ini bukan untuk menarik minat kelompok agama tertentu. Tapi untuk menggali keragaman pikiran di Indonesia," ujarnya dalam sambutan Simposium 100 Tahun Buya Hamka di Hotel Bumikarsa, Jl Gatot Subroto, Jakarta, Kamis (10/4/2008). Hubungan Soekarno-Hamka, menurut Pramono dekat secara emosional. Hal itu terlihat dari sifat saling memaafkan tatkala Hamka mengimami salat jenazah Soekarno. Pramono mengatakan PP Baitul Muslimin tidak bisa terlepas dari pengaruh Hamka. Baitul Muslimin, menurutnya, bertujuan untuk mensintesiskan pemikiran Soekarno dengan Hamka. "Baitul Muslimin mencoba mensintesiskan pemikiran Soekarno dengan Buya Hamka," jelasnya. Terakhir, kedekatan Hamka dengan Baitul Muslimin juga terlukis dalam struktur kepemimpinannya. "Ketua Baitul Muslimin kan juga Hamka, Hamka Haq," kelakarnya. ( gah / mly )

10/04/2008 13:02 WIB

Fatwa Natal Haram untuk Muslim Bukan Keluaran Hamka


Gagah Wijoseno detikcom
http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/04/tgl/10/time/130254/idnews/921380/idkanal/10

Jakarta - Salah satu fatwa Buya Hamka saat menjabat Ketua MUI yang terkenal adalah soal natal. Ia mengharamkan muslim mengucapkan atau merayakan natal bersama umat Nasrani. Fatwa itu menimbulkan kontroversi. Hamka lalu memilih mundur dari kursi ketua MUI untuk memperhatikan prinsipnya. Begitulah kisah yang umum didengar tentang Hamka. Tetapi ketua PP Baitul Muslimin Hamka Haq punya pandangan berbeda. Menurutnya, bisa saja Hamka mundur karena tidak setuju dengan fatwa itu. Fatwa tersebut dikeluarkan MUI tanpa berkoordinasi dengan dirinya sebagai ketua. "Mundur karena tidak ada koordinasi. Fatwa bukan karena lewat rapat pleno yang berada di bawahnya," kata Haq dalam sambutan Peringatan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka di Hotel Bumikarsa, Bidakara, Jl Gatot Subroto, Jakarta, Kamis (10/4/2008). Fatwa semacam itu, menurut Haq, hampir tidak mungkin ditelurkan Hamka. Bagi Haq, Hamka adalah seorang pluralis. "Dia berpendapat semua manusia akan masuk surga. Semua agama punya kebenarannya masingmasing," terangnya. ( gah / ana )

Sufism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Sufi) Jump to: navigation, search


This article is part of the series:

Islam
Beliefs
Allah Oneness of God Prophets Revealed books Angels

Practices
Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Charity Pilgrimage

Texts and laws


Qur'an Sunnah Hadith Fiqh Sharia Kalam Sufism

History and leadership


Timeline Spread of Islam Ahl al-Bayt Sahaba Sunni Shi'a Others Rashidun Caliphate Imamate

Culture and society


Academics Animals Art Calendar Children Demographics Festivals

Mosques Philosophy Science Women Politics Dawah

Islam and other religions


Christianity Judaism Hinduism Sikhism Jainism Mormonism

See also
Criticism Glossary of Islamic terms Islam portal
vde

Sufism or taawwuf (Arabic: ) is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam.[1][2][3] A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a f ( ). Another name for a Sufi is Dervish. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God."[4] Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify ones inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits."[5] Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr (a practice of repeating the names of God) and asceticism. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE[6]). The Sufi movement has spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, at first expressed through Arabic, then through Persian, Turkish and a dozen other languages.[7] "Orders" (uruq), which are either Sunn or Sh in doctrine, trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad through his cousin Al, with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi who trace their origins through the first Caliph, Abu Bakr.[8] Other exclusive schools of Sufism describe themselves as distinctly Sufi.[9] According to Idries Shah, the Sufi philosophy is universal in nature, its roots predating the arising of Islam and the other modern-day religions; likewise, some Muslims consider Sufism outside the sphere of Islam.[1][10] Mainstream scholars of Islam, however, contend that it is simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam.[1]

Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology 2 Basic views o 2.1 Teaching 3 History of Sufism o 3.1 Origins o 3.2 Formalization of doctrine o 3.3 Growth of Sufi influence in Islamic cultures o 3.4 Contemporary Sufism 4 Theoretical perspectives in Sufism o 4.1 Contributions to other domains of scholarship 5 Sufi practices o 5.1 Dhikr o 5.2 Muraqaba o 5.3 Visitation 6 Islam and Sufism o 6.1 Sufism and Islamic law o 6.2 Traditional Islamic thought and Sufism o 6.3 Traditional and non-traditional Sufi groups o 6.4 Islamic positions on non-Islamic Sufi groups 7 Preeminent Sufis o 7.1 Mansur al-Hallaj o 7.2 Abul Hasan al-Shadhili o 7.3 Ibn Arabi o 7.4 Junayd Baghdadi o 7.5 Bayazid Bastami 8 Reception o 8.1 Perception outside Islam o 8.2 Influence of Sufism on Judaism 9 Popular culture o 9.1 Films o 9.2 Music 10 Sufi structures 11 See also 12 References 13 Additional reading 14 External links

[edit] Etymology

The lexical root of Sufi is variously traced to sf "wool", referring either to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore, or possibly to saf "purity". The two were combined by al-Rudhabari who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity."[11] The wool cloaks were sometimes a designation of their initiation into the Sufi order. Sufism is known as "Islamic Mysticism," in which Muslims seek to find divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God.[12] Mysticism is defined as the experience of mystical union or direct communion with ultimate reality, and the belief that direct knowledge of God, spiritual truth, or ultimate reality can be attained through subjective experience (as intuition or insight).[13] Others[who?] suggest the origin of the word sufi is from Ashab as-suffa "Companions of the Porch", who were a group of impoverished Muslims during the time of Muhammad who spent much of their time on the veranda of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, devoted to prayer and eager to memorize each new increment of the Qur'an as it was revealed.

[edit] Basic views

Mawln Rumi's tomb, Konya, Turkey. While all Muslims believe that they are on the pathway to God and hope to become close to God in Paradise after death and after the "Final Judgment" Sufis also believe that it is possible to draw closer to God and to more fully embrace the Divine Presence in this life.[14] The chief aim of all Sufis is to seek the pleasing of God by working to restore within themselves the primordial state of fitra,[15] described in the Qur'an. In this state nothing one does defies God, and all is undertaken by the single motivation of love of God. A secondary consequence of this is that the seeker may be led to abandon all notions of dualism or multiplicity, including a conception of an individual self, and to realize the Divine Unity.[citation needed] Thus Sufism has been characterized[by whom?] as the science of the states of the lower self (the ego), and the way of purifying this lower self of its reprehensible traits, while adorning it instead with what is praiseworthy, whether or not this process of cleansing and purifying the heart is in time rewarded by esoteric knowledge of God. This can be conceived in terms of two basic types of law (fiqh), an outer law concerned with actions, and an inner law concerned with the human heart.[citation needed] The outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law what is often referred to, a bit too broadly, as qanun. The inner law of Sufism consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.[16]

Sufism, which is a general term for Muslim mysticism, sprang up largely in reaction against the worldliness which infected Islam when its leaders became the powerful and wealthy rulers of multitudes of people and were influenced by foreign cultures. Harun al-Rashid, eating off gold and silver, toying with a harem of scented beauties, surrounded by an impenetrable retinue of officials, eunuchs and slaves, was a far cry from the stern simplicity of the Prophet, who lived in a modest house, wore faded clothes and could be approached by any of his followers. The typical early Sufi lived in a cell of a mosque and taught a small band of disciples. The extent to which Sufism was influenced by Buddhist and Hindu mysticism, and by the example of Christian hermits and monks, is disputed, but self-discipline and concentration on God quickly led to the belief that by quelling the self and through loving ardour for God it was possible to maintain a union with the divine in which the human self melted away.[17]

[edit] Teaching
To enter the way of Sufism, the seeker begins by finding a teacher, as the connection to the teacher is considered necessary for the growth of the pupil. The teacher, to be genuine, must have received the authorization to teach (ijazah) of another Master of the Way, in an unbroken succession (silsilah) leading back to Sufism's origin with Muhammad. It is the transmission of the divine light from the teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than of worldly knowledge transmitted from mouth to ear, that allows the adept to progress. In addition, the genuine teacher will be utterly strict in his adherence to the Divine Law.[18] Scholars and adherents of Sufism are unanimous in agreeing that Sufism cannot be learned through books.[dubious discuss] To reach the highest levels of success in Sufism typically requires that the disciple live with and serve the teacher for many, many years.[citation needed] For instance, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, considered founder of the Naqshbandi Order, served his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad Baba As-Samasi, for 20 years, until as-Samasi died. He subsequently served several other teachers for lengthy periods of time. The extreme arduousness of his spiritual preparation is illustrated by his service, as directed by his teacher, to the weak and needy members of his community in a state of complete humility and tolerance for many years. When he believed this mission to be concluded, his teacher next directed him to care for animals, curing their sicknesses, cleaning their wounds, and assisting them in finding provision. After many years of this he was next instructed to spend many years in the care of dogs in a state of humility, and to ask them for support.[19] As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the poor for 1,001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction, and a further 1,001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of completing that instruction.[20] Some teachers, especially when addressing more general audiences, or mixed groups of Muslims and non-Muslims, make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor.[21] Although approaches to teaching vary among different Sufi orders, Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such has sometimes been compared to other, non-Islamic forms of mysticism (e.g., as in the books of Seyyed Hossein Nasr).

[edit] History of Sufism


Main article: History of Sufism

[edit] Origins
In its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam.[22] According to one perspective, it is directly from the Quran, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development.[23] Others have held that Sufism is the strict emulation of the way of Muhammad, through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened.[24] From the traditional Sufi point of view, the esoteric teachings of Sufism were transmitted from Muhammad to those who had the capacity to acquire the direct experiential gnosis of God, which was passed on from teacher to student through the centuries. Some of this transmission is summarized in texts, but most is not. Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarni, Harrm bin Hian, Hasan Basri and Sayid ibn al-Mussib, who are regarded as the first Sufis in the earliest generations of Islam. Harith al-Muhasibi was the first one to write about moral psychology. Rabia Basri was a Sufi known for her love and passion for God, expressed through her poetry. Bayazid Bastami was among the first theorists of Sufism; he concerned himself with fan and baq, the state of annihilating the self in the presence of the divine, accompanied by clarity concerning worldly phenomena derived from that perspective.[25] Sufism had a long history already before the subsequent institutionalization of Sufi teachings into devotional orders (tarqt) in the early Middle Ages.[26] Almost all extant Sufi orders trace their chains of transmission (silsila) back to Muhammad via his cousin and son-in-law Ali. The Naqshbandi order is a notable exception to this rule, as it traces the origin of its teachings from Muhammad to the first Islamic Caliph Abu Bakr.[8] Different devotional styles and traditions developed over time, reflecting the perspectives of different masters and the accumulated cultural wisdom of the orders. Typically all of these concerned themselves with the understanding of subtle knowledge (gnosis), education of the heart to purify it of baser instincts, the love of God, and approaching God through a welldescribed hierarchy of enduring spiritual stations (maqmt) and more transient spiritual states (ahwl).

[edit] Formalization of doctrine


Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of manuals began to be written summarizing the doctrines of Sufism and describing some typical Sufi practices. Two of the most famous of these are now available in English translation: the Kashf al-Mahjb of Hujwiri, and the Risla of Qushayri.[27] Two of Imam Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law

being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. This became the mainstream position among Islamic scholars for centuries, challenged only recently on the basis of selective use of a limited body of texts. Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Imam Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time,[28] allowing readers to judge for themselves the compatibility between Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine.

The tomb of Khoja Afq, near Kashgar, China.

[edit] Growth of Sufi influence in Islamic cultures


The spread of Sufism has been considered a definitive factor in the spread of Islam, and in the creation of integrally Islamic cultures, especially in Africa[29] and Asia. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world,[30] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia.[31] Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts are still present. In many places, a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) would be endowed through a pious foundation in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The same system of endowments could also be used to pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Sleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in the civilization of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period.[32]

[edit] Contemporary Sufism


Currently active Sufi academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Hamza Yusuf, and Abdal Hakim Murad. In South Asia, Sufi orders include the Chishti, the Naqshbandi, the Qadiriyyah, the Sarwari Qadiri, the Shadhliyya and the Suhrawardiyya.[33]

Sufism is popular in such African countries as Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam.[34] Mbacke suggests that one reason Sufism has taken hold in Senegal is because it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the mystical.[35] Sufism suffered many setbacks in the modern era, particularly (though not exclusively) at the hands of European imperialists in the colonized nations of Asia and Africa. The life of the Algerian Sufi master Emir Abd al-Qadir is instructive in this regard.[36] Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba and Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa, and Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region. In the twentieth century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.[37] For a more complete summary of currently active groups and teachers, readers are referred to links in the site of Dr. Alan Godlas of the University of Georgia.[38][39] A number of Westerners have embarked with varying degrees of success on the path of Sufism. One of the first to return to Europe as an official representative of a Sufi order, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism in Western Europe, was the Swedish-born wandering Sufi Abd al-Hadi Aqhili (also known as Ivan Aguli). The ideas propagated by such spiritualists may or may not conform to the tenets of Sufism as understood by orthodox Muslims, as for instance with G. I. Gurdjieff. Other noteworthy Sufi teachers who were active in the West in recent years include Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, Nader Angha, Sheikh Abdullah Sirr-Dan Al-Jamal, Inayat Khan, Javad Nurbakhsh, Bulent Rauf, Irina Tweedie, Idries Shah and Muzaffer Ozak.

[edit] Theoretical perspectives in Sufism


Traditional Islamic scholars have recognized two major branches within the practice of Sufism, and use this as one key to differentiating among the approaches of different masters and devotional lineages.[40] On the one hand there is the order from the signs to the Signifier (or from the arts to the Artisan). In this branch, the seeker begins by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's active Selfdisclosure or theophany.[41] This is the way of Imam Al-Ghazali and of the majority of the Sufi orders. On the other hand there is the order from the Signifier to His signs, from the Artisan to His works. In this branch the seeker experiences divine attraction (jadhba), and is able to enter the order with a glimpse of its endpoint, of direct apprehension of the Divine Presence towards which all spiritual striving is directed. This does not replace the striving to purify the heart, as in the other branch; it simply stems from a different point of entry into the path. This is the way primarily of the masters of the Naqshbandi and Shadhili orders.[42]

Contemporary scholars may also recognize a third branch, attributed to the late Ottoman scholar Said Nursi and explicated in his vast Qur'n commentary called the Risale-i Nur. This approach entails strict adherence to the way of Muhammad, in the understanding that this wont, or sunnah, proposes a complete devotional spirituality adequate to those without access to a master of the Sufi way.[43]

[edit] Contributions to other domains of scholarship


Sufism has contributed significantly to the elaboration of theoretical perspectives in many domains of intellectual endeavor. For instance, the doctrine of "subtle centers" or centers of subtle cognition (known as Lataif-e-sitta) addresses the matter of the awakening of spiritual intuition[44] in ways that some consider similar to certain models of chakra in Hinduism. In general, these subtle centers or lat'if are thought of as faculties that are to be purified sequentially in order to bring the seeker's wayfaring to completion. A concise and useful summary of this system from a living exponent of this tradition has been published by Muhammad Emin Er.[40] Sufi psychology has influenced many areas of thinking both within and outside of Islam, drawing primarily upon three concepts. Ja'far al-Sadiq (both an imam in the Shia tradition and a respected scholar and link in chains of Sufi transmission in all Islamic sects) held that human beings are dominated by a lower self called the nafs, a faculty of spiritual intuition called the qalb or spiritual heart, and a spirit or soul called ruh. These interact in various ways, producing the spiritual types of the tyrant (dominated by nafs), the person of faith and moderation (dominated by the spiritual heart), and the person lost in love for God (dominated by the ruh).[45] Of note with regard to the spread of Sufi psychology in the West is Robert Frager, a Sufi teacher authorized in the Halveti Jerrahi order. Frager was a trained psychologist, born in the United States, who converted to Islam in the course of his practice of Sufism and wrote extensively on Sufism and psychology.[46] Sufi cosmology and Sufi metaphysics are also noteworthy areas of intellectual accomplishment.

[edit] Sufi practices

Sufi gathering engaged in Dhikr

The devotional practices of Sufis vary widely. This is because an acknowledged and authorized master of the Sufi path is in effect a physician of the heart, able to diagnose the seeker's impediments to knowledge and pure intention in serving God, and to prescribe to the seeker a course of treatment appropriate to his or her maladies. The consensus among Sufi scholars is that the seeker cannot self-diagnose, and that it can be extremely harmful to undertake any of these practices alone and without formal authorization.[47] Prerequisites to practice include rigorous adherence to Islamic norms (ritual prayer in its five prescribed times each day, the fast of Ramadan, and so forth). Additionally, the seeker ought to be firmly grounded in supererogatory practices known from the life of Muhammad (such as the "sunna prayers"). This is in accordance with the words, attributed to God, of the following, a famous Hadith Qudsi: My servant draws near to Me through nothing I love more than that which I have made obligatory for him. My servant never ceases drawing near to Me through supererogatory works until I love him. Then, when I love him, I am his hearing through which he hears, his sight through which he sees, his hand through which he grasps, and his foot through which he walks. It is also necessary for the seeker to have a correct creed (Aqidah),[48] and to embrace with certainty its tenets.[49] The seeker must also, of necessity, turn away from sins, love of this world, the love of company and renown, obedience to satanic impulse, and the promptings of the lower self. (The way in which this purification of the heart is achieved is outlined in certain books, but must be prescribed in detail by a Sufi master.) The seeker must also be trained to prevent the corruption of those good deeds which have accrued to his or her credit by overcoming the traps of ostentation, pride, arrogance, envy, and long hopes (meaning the hope for a long life allowing us to mend our ways later, rather than immediately, here and now). Sufi practices, while attractive to some, are not a means for gaining knowledge. The traditional scholars of Sufism hold it as absolutely axiomatic that knowledge of God is not a psychological state generated through breath control. Thus, practice of "techniques" is not the cause, but instead the occasion for such knowledge to be obtained (if at all), given proper prerequisites and proper guidance by a master of the way. Furthermore, the emphasis on practices may obscure a far more important fact: The seeker is, in a sense, to become a broken person, stripped of all habits through the practice of (in the words of Imam Al-Ghazali words) solitude, silence, sleeplessness, and hunger.[50]

[edit] Dhikr
Main article: Dhikr

Allah as having been written on the disciple's heart according to Qadiri Al-Muntahi order Dhikr is the remembrance of God commanded in the Qur'an for all Muslims through a specific devotional act, such as the repetition of divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature and the Qur'an. More generally, dhikr takes a wide range and various layers of meaning.[51] This includes dhikr as any activity in which the Muslim maintains awareness of God. To engage in dhikr is to practice consciousness of the Divine Presence and love, or "to seek a state of godwariness". The Qur'an refers to Muhammad as the very embodiment of dhikr of God (65:10-11). Some types of dhikr are prescribed for all Muslims, and do not require Sufi initiation or the prescription of a Sufi master because they are deemed to be good for every seeker under every circumstance.[52] Some Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, or sema. Sema includes various forms of worship such as: recitation, singing (the most well known being the Qawwali music of the Indian subcontinent), instrumental music, dance (most famously the Sufi whirling of the Mevlevi order), incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance.[53] Some Sufi orders stress and place extensive reliance upon Dhikr, and likewise in Qadri AlMuntahi Sufi tariqa, which was originated by Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi. This practice of Dhikr is called Dhikr-e-Qulb (remembrance of Allah by Heartbeats). The basic idea in this practice is to visualize the Arabic name of God, Allah, as having been written on the disciple's heart.[54]

[edit] Muraqaba
Main article: Muraqaba The practice of muraqaba can be likened to the practices of meditation attested in many faith communities. The word muraqaba is derived from the same root (r-q-b) occurring as one of the 99 Names of God in the Qur'an, al-Raqb, meaning "the Vigilant" and attested in verse 4: 1 of the Qur'an. Through muraqaba, a person watches over or takes care of the spiritual heart, acquires knowledge about it, and becomes attuned to the Divine Presence, which is ever vigilant. While variation exists, one description of the practice within a Naqshbandi lineage reads as follows: He is to collect all of his bodily senses in concentration, and to cut himself off from all preoccupation and notions that inflict themselves upon the heart. And thus he is to turn his full consciousness towards God Most High while saying three times: Ilah anta maqsd wa-ridka

matlbmy God, you are my Goal and Your good pleasure is what I seek. Then he brings to his heart the Name of the EssenceAllhand as it courses through his heart he remains attentive to its meaning, which is Essence without likeness. The seeker remains aware that He is Present, Watchful, Encompassing of all, thereby exemplifying the meaning of his saying (may God bless him and grant him peace): Worship God as though you see Him, for if you do not see Him, He sees you. And likewise the prophetic tradition: The most favored level of faith is to know that God is witness over you, wherever you may be.[55]

[edit] Visitation
In popular Sufism (i.e., devotional practices that have achieved currency in world cultures through Sufi influence), one common practice is to visit the tombs of saints, great scholars, and righteous people. This is a particularly common practice in South Asia, where famous tombs include those of Khoja Afq, near Kashgar, in China; Lal Shahbaz Qalander, in Sindh, Pakistan; Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India. Likewise, in Fez, Morocco, a popular destination for such pious visitation is the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II and the yearly visitation to see the current Sheikh of the Qadiri Boutchichi Tariqah, Sheikh Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichi to celebrate the Mawlid (which is usually televised on Morrocan National television).

[edit] Islam and Sufism


[edit] Sufism and Islamic law

Tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti, Uttar Pradesh, India. Scholars and adherents of Sufism sometimes describe Sufism in terms of a threefold approach to God as explained by a tradition (hadth) attributed to Muhammad,"The Canon is my word, the order is my deed, and the truth is my interior state". Sufis believe the canon, order and truth are mutually interdependent.[56] The order, the path on which the mystics walk, has been defined as the path which comes out of the Canon, for the main road is called branch, the path, tariq. No mystical experience can be realized if the binding injunctions of the Canon are not followed faithfully first. The path, order, however, is narrower and more difficult to walk. It leads the adept, called slik (wayfarer), in his sulk (wayfaring), through different stations (maqmt) until he reaches his goal, the perfect tawhd, the existential confession that God is One.[57] Shaykh al-Akbar Muhiuddeen Ibn Arabi mentions," When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to God, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law -

even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind - asserting that his shortcoming is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of God Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved. (Jami' karamat al-awliya')".[58] The Amman Message, a detailed statement issued by 200 leading Islamic scholars in 2005 in Amman, and adopted by the Islamic world's political and temporal leaderships at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005, and by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies including the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006, specifically recognized the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam.[59]

[edit] Traditional Islamic thought and Sufism


The literature of Sufism emphasizes highly subjective matters that resist outside observation, such as the subtle states of the heart. Often these resist direct reference or description, with the consequence that the authors of various Sufi treatises took recourse to allegorical language. For instance, much Sufi poetry refers to intoxication, which Islam expressly forbids. This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam or Sufism led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that considered themselves above the Sharia and discussed Sufism as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam in order to attain salvation directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars. For these and other reasons, the relationship between traditional Islamic scholars and Sufism is complex and a range of scholarly opinion on Sufism in Islam has been the norm. Some scholars, such as Al-Ghazali, helped its propagation while other scholars opposed it. W. Chittick explains the position of Sufism and Sufis this way: In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most Muslims who devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of the human person came to be known as Sufis.

[edit] Traditional and non-traditional Sufi groups

The mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia City, China. The traditional Sufi orders, which are in majority, emphasize the role of Sufism as a spiritual discipline within Islam. Therefore, the Sharia (traditional Islamic law) and the Sunnah are seen as crucial for any Sufi aspirant. One proof traditional orders assert is that almost all the famous Sufi masters of the past Caliphates were experts in Sharia and were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and excellent practice. Many were also Qadis (Sharia law judges) in courts. They held that Sufism was never distinct from Islam and to fully comprehend and practice Sufism one must be an observant Muslim. In recent decades there has been a growth of non-traditional Sufi movements in the West. Examples include the Universal Sufism movement, the Golden Sufi Center, the Sufi Foundation of America, the neo-sufism of Idries Shah, Sufism Reoriented and the International Association of Sufism. Rumi has become one of the most widely read poets in the United States, thanks largely to the translations published by Coleman Barks. Primary Contributor: Seyyed Hossein Nasr ARTICLE from Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

in full Ab al-Qsim Muammad ibn Abd Allh ibn Abd al-Mualib ibn Hshim (b. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]d. June 8, 632, Medina), Arab prophet who established the religion of Islam.

The son of a merchant of the ruling tribe, he was orphaned at age six. He married a rich widow, Khadjah, with whom he had six children, including Fimah, a daughter. According to tradition, in 610 he was visited by the angel Gabriel, who informed Muhammad that he was the messenger of God. His revelations and teachings, recorded in the Qurn, are the ... (100 of 11118 words) LINKS Related Articles

Aspects of the topic Muhammad are discussed in the following places at Britannica. Assorted References

* major reference (in Islamic world: New social patterns among the Meccans and their neighbours; in Islamic world: Islam at Muhammads death ) * biography written by Ibn Isq (in Ibn Isq (Arab author)) * establishment of hajj (in hajj (Islam)) * foundations of adth (in Allh (Qurn)) * prophetic role (in prophecy: The centrality of prophecy in Islm)

attitude toward

* dream divination (in dream (sleep experience): Dreams as a source of divination) * Kabah (in Kabah (shrine, Mecca, Saudi Arabia)) * miracles (in miracle: Islm) * rahbnyah (in rahbnyah (Islam)) * rajm (in rajm (Islam))

* saints (in saint: Islam) * salvation (in salvation (religion): Islam)

marriage to

* ishah (in ishah (wife of Muammad)) * Khadjah (in Khadjah (wife of Muhammad))

recipient of

* divine revelation (in revelation (religion): Islm) * Qurn (in Arabic literature: Revelation, compilation, and structure; in Arabic literature: Message and impact; in Qurn (sacred text) )

relationship to

* Ab Bakr (in Ab Bakr (Muslim caliph)) * Al (in Al (Muslim caliph)) * Companions of the Prophet (in Companions of the Prophet (Islamic history)) * Hshimite (in Hshimite (Islamic history)) * Ishmael (in Hagar (biblical figure)) * Jibrl (in Jibrl (archangel)) * Khlid ibn al-Wald (in Khlid ibn al-Wald (Arab Muslim general)) * Mecca and Ssnian Iran (in Iran: The advent of Islam (640829))

* Salmn al-Fris (in Salmn al-Fris (companion of Muammad)) * Umar I (in Umar I (Muslim caliph)) * Uthmn ibn Affn (in Uthmn ibn Affn (Muslim caliph))

role in

* Arabia (in history of Arabia: The life of Muhammad) * Battle of Badr (in Battle of Badr (Islamic history)) * Battle of the Ditch (in Battle of the Ditch (Islamic history)) * Byzantine Empire (in Byzantine Empire (historical empire, Eurasia): The successors of Heraclius: Islm and the Bulgars) * dietary laws establishment (in dietary law (religion): Islam) * Hijrah (in Hijrah (Islam)) * Isr (in Isr (Islam)) * Mecca (in Mecca (Saudi Arabia): History) * Medina (in ancient Egypt: Egypts role in the Byzantine Empire; in Medina (Saudi Arabia): History ) * mirj (in Mirj (Islam)) * Pact of Al-udaybiyah (in Pact of Al-udaybiyah (Islamic history))

People The following are some people associated with "Muhammad"

* ishah (wife of Muammad)

* Abd al-Qdir Badn (Indo-Persian historian) * Ab Bakr (Muslim caliph) * Fimah (daughter of Muammad) * Ibn Isq (Arab author) * Khadjah (wife of Muhammad) * Muhammad (prophet of Islam) * Umar I (Muslim caliph)

Places The following are some places associated with "Muhammad"

* Arabia (peninsula, Asia) * Mecca (Saudi Arabia) * Medina (Saudi Arabia)

Other The following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "Muhammad"

* Ahl al-Bayt (Islam) * Battle of Badr (Islamic history) * Battle of the Ditch (Islamic history) * Constitution of Medina (622) * government

* Hshimite (Islamic history) * Hijrah (Islam) * Islm (religion) * Isr (Islam) * Jibrl (archangel) * Pact of Al-udaybiyah (Islamic history) * prophecy * Qurn (sacred text) * scripture (religious literature)

LINKS External Web Sites The topic Muhammad is discussed at the following external Web sites.

Washington State University - Muhammad, Messenger of God USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts - Prophet of Islam - His Biography Discover Islam

Citations

MLA Style: "Muhammad." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 24 Nov. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/396226/Muhammad>.

APA Style: Muhammad. (2010). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/396226/Muhammad Seyyed Hossein Nasr Biographical Information Primary Contributor: Seyyed Hossein Nasr ARTICLE from the Encyclopdia Britannica

Al, in full Al ibn Ab lib (b. c. 600, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]d. January 661, Kfah, Iraq), cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the rightly guided (rshidn) caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate (the political-religious structure comprising the community of Muslims and its territories that emerged after the death of Muhammad) resulted in the only major split in Islam, into the ... (100 of 3524 words) LINKS Related Articles

Aspects of the topic Al are discussed in the following places at Britannica. Assorted References

* acquisition of Dh al-faqr (in Dh al-faqr (weapon)) * burial in an-Najaf (in Al-Najaf (Iraq)) * establishment of capital at Kfah (in Kfah (medieval city, Iraq))

* sayings in Nahj al-balghah (in Islamic arts: Age of the caliphs) * shrine in Mazr-e Sharf (in Mazr-e Sharf (Afghanistan)) * significance of Battle of iffn (in Battle of iffn (Islamic history)) * support by Shite (in Shite (Islam): Early development)

fitnah conflict (in Islamic world: The first fitnah)

* ishah (in ishah (wife of Muammad)) * Khrijites (in Khrijite (Islamic sect); in Islm (religion): The Khawrij ) * Muwiyah I (in fitnah (Islamic history); in Muwiyah I (Umayyad caliph): Early years )

relationship to

* Fimah (in Fimah (daughter of Muammad)) * asan (in asan (grandson of Muammad)) * usayn (in al-usayn ibn Al (Muslim leader and martyr)) * Jafar ibn Muammad (in Jafar ibn Muammad (Shite imam)) * Muammad (in Muhammad (prophet of Islam): Genealogical roots and early life; in Muhammad (prophet of Islam): The advent of the revelation and the Meccan period; in Muhammad (prophet of Islam): The early battles ) * Muammad ibn al-anafyah (in Muammad ibn al-anafyah (Shite imam))

role in

* Arabian history (in history of Arabia: Struggle for leadership) * imam tradition (in imam (Islam)) * Iranian Islamic history (in Iran: Ab Muslims revolution) * Ithn Asharyah movement (in Ithn Asharyah (Islamic sect)) * Rashidun caliphate (in Rashidun (caliphs))

People The following are some people associated with "Al"

* ishah (wife of Muammad) * Al (Muslim caliph) * Fimah (daughter of Muammad) * Muammad ibn al-anafyah (Shite imam)

Places The following are some places associated with "Al"

* Kfah (medieval city, Iraq) * Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

Other The following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "Al"

* army * Battle of iffn (Islamic history) * caliph (Islamic title) * Caliphate (Islamic history) * Islm (religion)

LINKS External Web Sites The topic Al is discussed at the following external Web sites.

Washington State University - Shia

Citations

MLA Style: "Al." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 24 Nov. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/15223/Ali>.

APA Style: Al. (2010). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/15223/Ali University Professor of Islamic Studies, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Author of Three Muslim Sages. Bilakah Nabi menikahi Aisyah?

perkahwinan Baginda Rasulullah SAW terbina di atas landasan iman dan Islam. -Gambar hiasan

Soalan: BarU-BARU ini saya terbaca kisah sirah dalam Utusan Malaysia yang memetik umur Saidatina Siti Aishah dikatakan enam tahun semasa berkahwin dengan Nabi SAW. Benarkah demikian kerana ada pandangan mengatakan umur itu terlalu muda dan dijadikan bahan oleh golongan kuffar membidas Nabi SAW?

Jawapan:

Sebahagian besar riwayat yang menceritakan hal ini terdapat dalam hadis di mana keseluruhannya hanya diriwayatkan oleh Hisham bin Urwah.

Asal periwayatan ini adalah daripada orang Iraq, di mana Hisham tinggal di sana dan pindah dari Madinah ke Iraq pada usia tua iaitu 71 tahun.

Menurut Yaqub bin Syaibah: Hisham seorang perawi yang dipercayai, riwayatn ya dapat diterima, kecuali apa-apa yang dia ceritakan setelah dia berpindah ke Iraq.

Dalam pernyataan yang lebih lanjut dinyatakan bahawa Malik bin Anas menolak riwayat Hisham yang dicatat daripada orang Iraq: Saya pernah diberitahu bahawa Malik menolak riwayat Hisham yang dicatat dari orang-orang Iraq. (Tahzib al-Tahzib, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Islami jil.2 hlm. 50).

Ketika mencapai usia tua, ingatan Hisham semakin berkurangan. (Mizan al-Itidal, Al-Zahabi, Al-Maktabah al-Athriyyah, Pakistan, Jil. 4, hlm. 301).

Justeru, berdasarkan pernyataan dan sumber di atas, Hisyam mengalami masalah ingatan atau ingatannya kurang baik setelah dia berpindah ke Iraq dan periwayatannya diragui.

Sehingga riwayatnya mengenai umur pernikahan Aisyah adalah tidak tepat. Adapun pandangan mengatakan umur itu terlalu muda dan ia sebenarnya dijadikan bahan oleh golongan kuffar sebagai propaganda menjauhkan umat Islam kepada Rasulullah SAW.

Pertanyaan seperti ini akan mudah menipu bagi orang-orang yang awam mempercayainya. Sehingga, orang yang lemah imannya akan mudah goyah keimanannya dan kecintaannya kepada Rasulullah SAW.

Dalam sejarah hidup Rasulullah disebutkan bahawa Aisyah dan Hafsah adalah puteri-puteri dua orang pembantu karibnya, Abu Bakar dan Umar.

Faktor inilah yang membuat Rasulullah memeterai ikatan dengan kedua-dua puteri Abu Bakar dan Umar.

Rasulullah meminang Aisyah melalui Abu Bakar tatkala Aisyah berusia sembilan tahun dan dibiarkannya selama dua tahun sebelum perkahwinan dilangsungkan (11 tahun).

Hal ini diperkuat lagi melalui perkahwinan Rasulullah dengan Hafsah binti Umar yang juga bukan kerana dorongan nafsu, dengan ayahnya sendiri sebagai saksi.

Peristiwa ini jelas menunjukkan kepada kita bahawa Rasulullah mengahwini Aisyah atau mengahwini Hafsah bukan kerana cintanya atau kerana dorongan berahi, tetapi bertujuan memperkukuhkan tali persaudaraan Islam yang baru terbina dalam diri dua orang pembantu dekatnya (Abu Bakar dan Umar).

Justeru pendapat yang mengatakan bahawa Rasulullah mengahwini Aisyah pada umur enam tahun adalah pendapat yang tidak benar dan tidak tepat.

Menurut Tabari (juga menurut riwayat Hisham bin Urwah, Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Saad), Aisyah dipinang pada usia tujuh tahun dan mulai berumah tangga pada usia sembilan tahun. Tetapi, di bahagian lain, Al-Tabari mengatakan: Semua anak Abu Bakar (empat orang) dilahirkan pada zaman Jahiliah daripada dua isterinya. (Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Mamluk, Al-Tabari jil. 4 hlm. 50, Dar al-fikr, Beirut, 1979).

Jika Aisyah dipinang 620M (Aisyah berumur tujuh tahun) dan berumah tangga tahun 623/624 M pada usia sembilan tahun, ini menunjukkan bahawa Aisyah dilahirkan pada tahun 613 M.

Berdasarkan tulisan Al-Tabari, Aisyah seharusnya dilahirkan pada 613M, iaitu tiga tahun sesudah zaman jahiliah (610M).

Al-Tabari juga menyatakan, Aisyah dilahirkan pada zaman jahiliah. Jika Aisyah dilahirkan pada zaman jahiliah, sewajarnya Aisyah berumur sekurang-kurangnya 14 tahun sewaktu dinikahkan. Tetapi al-Tabari turut mengalami pertentangan dalam riwayatannya.

Menurut Ibn Hajar: Fatimah dilahirkan ketika Kaabah dibangunkan semula, ketika Nabi SAW berusia 35 tahun. Usia Fatimah lima tahun lebih tua daripada Aisyah. (Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz alSahabah, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, jil.4,hlm. 377, Maktabat al-Riyadh al-Haditha: 1978).

Jika pendapat Ibn Hajar adalah yang tepat, Aisyah dilahirkan ketika Nabi berusia 40 tahun. Jika Aisyah dinikahkan oleh bapanya pada saat usia baginda 52 tahun, usia Fatimah sekurangkurangnya 17 tahun, maka usia Aisyah ketika berkahwin adalah 12 tahun.

Melalui pernyataan Ibn Hajar, Tabari, Ibn Hisham, dan Ibn Hanbal menunjukkan riwayat mengatakan bahawa Aisyah berkahwin dengan Rasulullah ketika berusia enam tahun adalah tidak benar. Ia adalah fitnah dan tuduhan tidak berasas yang sengaja dilontarkan golongan yang hendak mengganggu-gugat kredibiliti Rasulullah sebagai insan terbaik pilihan Allah di dunia ini.

Menurut Abdul Rahman bin Abu al-Zinad: Asma lebih tua 10 tahun berbanding Aisyah. (Siyar Alam al-Nubala, Al-Zahabi, Jil. 2, hlm. 289, Muassasat al-Risalah, Beirut, 1992).

Menurut Ibn Kathir: Asma lebih tua 10 tahun daripada adiknya Aisyah. (Al-Bidayah wa alNihayah, Ibn Kathir, Jil.8, hlm. 371,Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1933).

Menurut Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani: Asma hidup sehingga usia 100 tahun dan meninggal pada 73 atau 74 H. (Taqrib al-Tahzib, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, hlm. 654, Bab Fi al-Nisa, al-Harf al-Alif, Lucknow) Menurut sebahagian besar ahli sejarah, Asma, saudara tertua daripada Aisyah berbeza usia sebanyak 10 tahun. Jika Asma wafat pada usia 100 tahun pada tahun 73 H, Asma seharusnya berusia 27 atau 28 tahun ketika hijrah (622M).

Jika Asma berusia 27 atau 28 tahun ketika hijrah (ketika Aisyah berumah tangga), Aisyah seharusnya berusia 17 atau 18 tahun. Jadi, Aisyah, berusia 17 atau 18 tahun ketika hijrah pada tahun di mana Aisyah berkahwin. Berdasarkan pendapat Ibn Hajar, Ibn Katir, dan Abdul Rahman bin Abu al-Zinad, usia Aisyah ketika berkahwin dengan Rasulullah adalah 19 atau 20 tahun.

Justeru, melalui pendapat ini juga menolak pendapat yang mengatakan bahawa Aisyah bernikah dengan Rasulullah ketika berusia enam tahun.

Kesimpulannya, riwayat (Hisham bin Urwah) yang mengatakan bahawa Aisyah berkahwin dengan Rasulullah ketika berusia enam tahun tidak benar dan bertentangan dengan riwayatriwayat lain.

Selain itu, tiada alasan kuat untuk menerima riwayat Hisham bin Urwah sebagai riwayat yang boleh dipercayai kerana Hisyam mengalami masalah ingatan atau ingatannya kurang baik setelah dia berpindah ke Iraq dan periwayatannya diragui.

Seterusnya bertentangan dengan pernyataan-pernyataan ulama lain seperti yang telah dikemukakan. Golongan kuffar dan seumpama mereka sentiasa mencari ruang-ruang kosong dalam agama Islam sebagai bahan fitnah dan propaganda mereka.

Sebagai umat Islam yang sentiasa memandang dan mempertahankan baginda sebagai ikon dan insan teladan, kita perlu bangkit menepis fitnah daripada golongan kuffar dan terpengaruh dengan tipu helah mereka.

Sesungguhnya perkahwinan Rasulullah bersama-sama para isterinya merupakan sebuah perkahwinan yang suci yang tidak berasaskan hawa nafsu dan perkara duniawi.

Malah perkahwinan baginda terbina di atas landasan iman dan Islam sebagai suri tauladan buat umat Islam sejagat.

Wallahu alam. Qalun perawi pertama Imam Nafei'

Oleh Khairul Anuar Mohamad

Libya adalah satu-satunya negara yang mengamalkan bacaan al-Quran mengikut riwayat Qalun dari Imam Nafei'. Pernah satu ketika, Prof. Madya di Fakulti Pengajian Quran dan Sunnah, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Dr. Adel Abdul Aziz al-Ghiryani menghadiahkan penulis Mushaf riwayat Qalun yang dicetak di negaranya Libya.

Selain Libya, al-Quran riwayat Qalun juga dicetak di Percetakan Malik Fahd, di Madinah alMunawwarah.

Nama Imam Qalun ialah Isa Ibn Mina al-Madani. Qalun dalam bahasa Rom bermaksud bacaan yang menarik dan berkualiti.

Gelaran tersebut diberikan oleh gurunya Imam Nafei' bersesuaian dengan ilmu dan bakatnya dalam bidang bacaan al-Quran.

Qalun lahir pada tahun 120 hijrah dan meninggal dunia pada tahun 220 hijrah di Madinah alMunawwarah.

Kelebihan dan kemuliaan yang Allah SWT kurniakan kepada Qalun ialah beliau tidak dapat mendengar kecuali bacaan al-Quran sahaja. Ada sebahagian ulama menyatakan bahawa beliau adalah seorang yang pekak di akhir usianya.

Namun, kesebatian hidupnya dengan al-Quran, membolehkan beliau mengesan kesalahan bacaan al-Quran melalui pemerhatian kepada gerakan bibir pembaca al-Quran. Seterusnya, membetulkanya dengan bacaan yang sahih.

Mengikut sejarah, Qalun belajar al-Quran daripada gurunya seorang tokoh al-Quran di Madinah al-Munawarah iaitu Imam Nafei'.

Beliau sangat tekun dalam menimba ilmu tanpa mengira penat dan lelah. Pernah satu ketika ditanya kepadanya, sudah berapa kali kamu khatam al-Quran di hadapan Imam Nafei'?

Qalun menjawab, tidak terkira bilangan khatam tetapi yang pastinya aku masih membaca di hadapannya meskipun sudah lebih 20 tahun.

Sebagai renungan bersama adat kebiasaan masyarakat Melayu amat bermegah apabila anaknya khatam al-Quran di usia masih kecil.

Mereka akan mengadakan majlis khatam al-Quran bagi meraikan usaha dan pencapaian anak tersebut. Malangnya khatam al-Quran menjadi lesen kepada anak-anak untuk tidak lagi membaca al-Quran di usia menengah dan dewasa.

Sebaliknya di negara arab, belajar al-Quran tidak berhenti dengan sekali khatam di hadapan guru. Selepas khatam al-Quran mereka mencari guru yang lain.

Bermula dengan menekuni riwayat Hafs dan selepas khatam riwayat tersebut mereka membaca Qiraat tujuh atau mendalami riwayat-riwayat lain.

Khatam al-Quran ketika usia masih muda adalah permulaan untuk mengenal al-Quran. Masih banyak sebutan huruf, sifat huruf dan hukum tajwid yang perlu diberi penekanan.

Pengajaran daripada kisah Qalun yang membaca al-Quran di hadapan gurunya selama lebih dua puluh tahun memberi isyarat bahawa ilmu bacaan al-Quran memerlukan tempoh yang panjang dan tidak hanya memadai dengan sekali khatam sahaja.

Justeru pembelajaran al-Quran perlu ada kesinambungan dan dilangsungkan dalam kehidupan muslim dan jadikan bacaannya sebagai rutin harian. Siti Aishah perawi hadis

Susunan SITI AINIZA KAMSARI

APABILA bercakap soal penguasaan ilmu dan sanggup berjuang demi menegakkan Islam dan kebenaran, Ummul Mukminin Saidatina Siti Aishah Abu Bakar adalah seri kandi yang tidak sekadar isteri kepada Rasulullah.

Sehingga ada disebutkan: "Sekiranya ilmu Siti Aishah dikumpulkan dan dibandingkan dengan ilmu seluruh ibu kaum Muslimin dan ilmu seluruh kaum wanita maka ilmu yang dimiliki oleh Siti Aishah adalah lebih utama."

Tiada tandingannya penguasaan ilmu yang dimiliki oleh Siti Aishah berbanding para sahabat besar Rasulullah sendiri.

Ini sebagaimana yang diceritakan oleh Masruq: "Aku melihat orang tua dan para sahabat besar Rasulullah bertanya kepada Siti Aishah mengenai harta warisan (ilmu faraid)".

Sebagaimana juga Atha bin Abu Rabah yang menjadi saksi bahawa Siti Aishah adalah orang yang paling mengerti di antara manusia dan paling baik pendapatnya di antara mereka.

Seorang lagi, Abu Marwah pula berkata: "Aku tidak melihat seorang pun yang lebih mengerti mengenai ilmu fiqh, ubat-ubatan dan syair kecuali Siti Aishah."

Ketokohan Siti Aishah benar-benar tiada tandingannya berbanding tokoh wanita lain yang ada di dunia ini ditambah kecekalan beliau dalam menghadapi saat-saat difitnah dan pergelutan politik selepas kewafatan baginda Rasulullah.

Lalu terukir di dalam al-Quran, bagaimana pertolongan daripada Allah membebaskan Siti Aishah dari api fitnah yang disebarkan oleh kalangan munafik bagi merosakkan nama baik beliau dan Islam.

Ayat tersebut adalah firman Allah yang bermaksud: Sesungguhnya orang yang membawa berita bohong itu adalah daripada golongan kamu juga. Janganlah kamu kira bahawa berita bohong itu buruk bagi kamu. Tiap-tiap orang daripada mereka mendapat batasan atas dosa yang dikerjakannya. Dan siapa di antara mereka yang ambil bahagian terbesar dalam penyiaran berita bohong itu, baginya azab yang pedih. (an-Nur: 11)

Justeru, dapatkan fadilat yang besar apabila kita berpeluang menziarahi dan seterusnya beriktikaf di Masjid Nabawi di Madinah.

Kita dianjurkan supaya solat berhampiran sebuah tiang yang dikenali sebagai Tiang Saidatina Aishah.

Seperti yang dipetik daripada buku Madinah Munawarrah - Kelebihan dan Sejarah oleh Dr. Abdul Basit Abdul Rahman (Telaga Biru, 2010), Tiang tersebut adalah yang ketiga (kedudukan) daripada mimbar (dalam Masjid Nabawi), yang ketiga daripada makam Rasulullah dan yang ketiga daripada kedudukan kiblat di dalam masjid itu. (Dalam kedudukan ketiga selepas Tiang Mukhalaqqah - Tiang Wangi, Mihrab Nabawi dan Mimbar Masjid Nabawi).

Tiang itu juga dikenali sebagai Tiang al Muhajirin kerana golongan Muhajirin selalu berkumpul berdekatan dengan tiang itu.

Menurut Dr. Abdul Basit lagi, Tiang Undi juga adalah nama lain bagi Tiang Saidatina Siti Aishah ini kerana menurut Tabarani di dalam kitabnya, Al Awsat, Siti Aishah berkata, Rasulullah telah bersabda yang bermaksud: "Di dalam masjidku ini ada satu tempat yang jika manusia mengetahui mengenai kelebihannya nescaya mereka akan berkerumun di situ sehingga terpaksa cabut undi untuk mendapatkan tempat untuk bersolat di situ".

Apabila para sahabat bertanya tempat yang dimaksudkan oleh Rasulullah itu, Siti Aishah keberatan memberitahunya tetapi dipercayai beliau memberitahu anak saudaranya, Abdullah Ibnu Az Zubair mengenainya.

Juga dipercayai bahawa Rasulullah pernah menjadi imam solat fardu berhampiran tiang ini selama dua atau tiga bulan sebelum berpindah ke tempat solatnya selepas pertukaran kiblat.

Para sahabat seperti Abu Bakar As Siddiq, Usman bin Affan, Abdullah bin Az Zubair, Amir bin Abdullah sentiasa dilihat menunaikan solat berhampiran Tiang Saidatina Siti Aishah itu.

Namun sebagaimana disebut oleh Dr. Abdul Basit, tiang-tiang (lapan tiang utama kesemuanya termasuk Tiang Saidatina Siti Aishah) yang berada dalam kawasan Raudhah Masjid Nabawi disebut kelebihannya secara umum kerana tidak terdapat kelebihan atau fadilat khusus bagi setiap tiang itu.

Oleh itu bersolatlah tanpa mengira bahagian manapun di Raudhah itu.

Isteri kesayangan Rasulullah ini menghembuskan nafas yang terakhir pada 17 Ramadan, Tahun 58 Hijrah bersamaan 13 Julai, 678 Masihi pada usia 66 tahun. Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas Abu Yusuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-Khindi [AL KHINDI] by on Thursday, 18 November 2010 at 15:35

Tokoh Abu Yusuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-Khindi atau juga dikenali sebagai Al-Khindi (801-873). al-Kindi dilahirkan di Kufa, pusat pengajian dunia belajar di suatu masa. Bapanya adalah gabenor Kufa, sebagaimana datuknya sebelumnya. al-Kindi merupakan keturunan suku kaum Kinda yang telah berpindah dari Yemen. Puak ini telah menyatukan sebilangan suku-suku dan mencapai kedudukan yang berkuasa pada abad-abad Kelima dan Keenam, tetapi kehilangan kuasa pada pertengahan abad Keenam.

Pendidikan al-Kindi bermula di Kufa, kemudiannya di Basrah, dan akhirnya di Baghdad. Pengetahuan tentang pembelajaran yang hebatnya tidak lama kemudian merebak, dan Khalifah al Ma'mun melantiknya di Rumah Kebijaksanaan di Baghdad, yang merupakan pusat yang baru sahaja ditubuhkan bagi penterjemahan teks-teks falsafah dan saintifik orang Yunani. (Beliau juga terkenal kerana penulisan seni khatnya yang cantik, dan pada suatu ketika pernah bekerja sebagai jurutulis kepada al Mutawakkil.)

Al-Kindi

Apabila al Ma'mun meninggal, abangnya (al Mu'tasim) menjadi Khalifah, dan al-Kindi dikekalkan dalam jawatannya, serta mengajar anak al Mu'tasim. Bagaimanapun, ketika pemerintahan al Wathiq, dan terutamanya al Mutawakkil, peluang al-Kindi' surut. Terdapat pelbagai teori-teori mengenai ini: sesetengah orang mengatakan kejatuhan al-Kindi akibat persaingan di Rumah Kebijaksanaan, yang lain pula merujuk kepada penyeksaan yang ganas oleh al Mutawakkil terhadap orang Islam yang tidak ortodoks (serta bagi bukan muslim). Malah, pada suatu ketika, al-Kindi pernah di pukul dan perpustakaannya disita buat sementara. Beliau meninggal dalam semasa pemerintahan 873 CE bagi al M'utamid.

al-Kindi merupakan seorang pakar dari pelbagai bidang pemikiran yang berbeza. Beliau merupakan pakar dalam muzik, falsafah, astronomi, perubatan, geografi, dan matematik. Selama hayat beliau (dan untuk kira-kira seabad selepas itu) beliau dianggap sebagai ahli falsafah Muslim dan paling besar, ada akhirnya hanya diatasi oleh nama nama hebat seperti sebagai Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) dan Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Beliau adalah dianggap sebagai ahli falsafah Arab keturunan paling agung, walaupun; sesungguhnya, beliau sering dirujuk hanyalah sebagai "ahli falsafah Arab".

Satu dari matlamat utama falsafahnya adalah untuk mengabung kesesuaian antara falsafah dan teologi alam di sebelah dan teologi spekulatif dan diwahyukan di tangan yang lain (bagaimanapun sebenarnya beliau menolak teologi spekulatif). Beliau menekankan, bagaimanapun, wahyu adalah sumber pengetahuan lebih hebat dalam sekurang-kurangnya sesetengah bidang, dan ia menjamin perkara-perkara mengenai kepercayaan yang akal pemikiran tidak boleh mendedahkannya.

Pendekatannya kepada bidang falsafah bukanlah hasil pemikiran yang asal, tetapi merangkumi penulisan Aristotelian dan (terutama) Plato baru (neo Plato). Bagaimanapun hasil kerjanya amat penting kerana ia memperkenalkan dan mempopularkan falsafah Yunani dikalangan cendikiawan Muslim. Kebanyakan apa yang kanan menjadi perbendaharaan kata falsafah piawaian Arab berasal dari al-Kindi; sesungguhnya, jika tidak kerananya, hasil ahli falsafah seperti al Farabi, Avicenna, dan al Ghazali mungkin tidak tercapai.

Muammad ibn Isaq ibn Yasr (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. xv)) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer. He collected oral traditions that formed the basis of the first biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. This biography is usually called Sirat Rasul Allah ("Life of God's Messenger"). Life

According to Guillaume (pp. xiiixiv), Ibn Isaq was born circa AH 85, or roughly 704 CE, in Medina. He was the grandson of a man, Yasr, who had been captured in one of Khalid ibn alWalid's campaigns and taken to Medina as a slave. He became the slave of ays b. Makhrama b. al-Mualib b. Abd Manf b. u ayy and, having accepted Islam, was manumitted and became his mawl, thus acquiring the nisba al-Mualib. Yasr's three sons, Ms, Abd al-Ramn, and Isq, were all known as transmitters of akhbr, who collected and recounted tales of the past. Isq married the daughter of another mawl and from this marriage Ibn Is was born. There

are no details of his early life, but in view of the family nature of early akhbr and adth transmission, it was natural that he should follow in the footsteps of his father and uncles and become specialized in these branches of knowledge. In 119 AH/737 CE around the age of 30, he arrived in Alexandria and studied under Yazd b. Ab abb has suggested that Ibn Is returned to Medina from Egypt, before finally travelling eastwards towards what is now Irq. There, the new Abbasid dynasty, having overthrown the Umayyad caliphs, was establishing a new capital at Baghdad. Ibn Isaq moved to the capital and likely found patrons in the new regime. (Robinson 2003, p. 27) He died in Baghdad around 150 AH /767 CE. These three brothers arrived Horn Africa, Somalia and many Somali clans have believed that they trace their ancestor from them, Muse, Isaq and Abd al-Rahman.

al-Wqid, in full Ab Abd Allh Muammad ibn Umar al-Wqid (b. 747, Medina, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]d. 823, Baghdad, Iraq), Arab historian, author of the Kitb al-maghz, a well-known work on the military campaigns (al-maghz) of the Prophet Muhammad.

As a youth al-Wqid is said to have been such an authority on the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina that he was guide to the Abbsid caliph Hrn ar-Rashd during the latters pilgrimage. Al-Wqid became a grain dealer but eventually fled to Baghdad to escape his creditors. Yay ibn Khalid, the vizier there, gave him money and, some reports say, made him q (religious judge) of the western district of the city. In 819 al-Wqid was appointed q of Rusafah on the east side by the caliph al-Mamn, who was his close friend and later his executor.

Al-Wqid is said to have written about 21 books, largely historical, including histories of the cities of Mecca and Medina. Some works also dealt with the Qurn (Islamic sacred scripture), fiqh (jurisprudence), and adth (tradition). Only the Kitb al-maghz, a monumental chronology, survives. LINKS Related Articles

Aspects of the topic al-Wqid are discussed in the following places at Britannica. Assorted References

* history of Muhammads life (in Muhammad (prophet of Islam): Sources for the study of the Prophet)

People The following are some people associated with "al-Wqid"

* al-Wqid (Arabian historian)

Places The following are some places associated with "al-Wqid"

* Baghdad (Iraq) * Medina (Saudi Arabia)

Other The following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "alWqid"

* history

Citations

MLA Style: "al-Wqid." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 24 Nov. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/635530/al-Waqidi>.

APA Style: al-Wqid. (2010). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved November 24, 2010, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/635530/al-Waqidi [edit] Islamic positions on non-Islamic Sufi groups
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2008)

This article may be inaccurate in or unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (May 2009) The use of the title Sufi by non-traditional groups to refer to themselves, and their appropriation of traditional Sufi masters (most notably Jalaluddin Rumi) as sources of authority or inspiration, is not accepted by some Muslims who are Sufi adherents. Many of the great Sufi masters of the present and the past instruct that: one needs the form of the religious practices and the outer dimension of the religion to fulfill the goals of the inner dimension of Sufism (Proximity to God). The exoteric practices prescribed by God contain inner meanings and provide the means for transformation with the proper spiritual guidance of a master. It is thought that through the forms of the ritual and prescribed Islamic practices (prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, charity and affirmation of Divine Unity) the soul may be purified and one may then begin to embark on the mystical quest. In fact it is considered psychologically dangerous by some Sufi masters to participate in Sufi practices, such as "dhikr", without adhering to the outer aspects of the religion which add spiritual balance and grounding to the practice. Some traditional Sufis also object to interpretations of classical Sufis texts by writers who have no grounding in the traditional Islamic sciences and therefore no prerequisites for understanding such texts. These are considered by certain conventional Islamic scholars as beyond the pale of the religion. However, there are Islamic Sufi groups that are open to non-Muslim participation,[60] Sufi-Buddhism being one such group.[61]

[edit] Preeminent Sufis


[edit] Mansur al-Hallaj
Mansur al-Hallaj (d. 922 CE) is renowned for his claim "Ana-l-Haqq" (I am The Truth). His refusal to recant this utterance, which was regarded as apostasy, led to a long trial. He was imprisoned for 11 years in a Baghdad prison, before being tortured and publicly crucified on March 26, 922. He is still revered by Sufis for his willingness to embrace torture and death rather than recant. It is said that during his prayers, he would say "O Lord! You are the guide of those who are passing through the Valley of Bewilderment. If I am a heretic, enlarge my heresy." [62]

[edit] Abul Hasan al-Shadhili


Abul Hasan al-Shadhili (d. 1258 CE), the founder of the Shadhiliyya Sufi order, introduced dhikr jahri (The method of remembering Allah through loud means). Sufi orders generally preach to deny oneself and to destroy the ego-self (nafs) and its worldly desires. This is sometimes characterized as the "Order of Patience-Tariqus Sabr". In contrary Imam Shadhili taught that his followers need not abstain from what Islam has not forbidden, but to be grateful for what God has bestowed upon them.[63] This notion known as the "Order of Gratitude-Tariqush Shukr" was espoused by Imam Shadhili. Imam Shadhili gave eighteen valuable hizbs (litanies) to his followers out of which the notable Hizbul Bahr is recited worldwide even today.

[edit] Ibn Arabi


Muhyiddin Muhammad b. 'Ali Ibn 'Arabi (or Ibn al-'Arabi) is considered to be one of the most important Sufi masters, although he never founded any order (tariqa). His writings, especially alFutuhat al-Makkiyya and Fusus al-hikam, have been studied within all the Sufi orders as the clearest expression of tawhid (Divine Unity), though because of their recondite nature they were often only given to initiates. Later those who followed his teaching became known as the school of wahdat al-wujud (the Oneness of Being). He himself considered his writings to have been divinely inspired. As he expressed the Way to one of his close disciples, his legacy is that 'you should never ever abandon your servanthood ('ubudiyya), and that there may never be in your soul a longing for any existing thing'.[64]

[edit] Junayd Baghdadi


Junayd Baghdadi (830-910 CE) was one of the great early Sufis, and is a central figure in the golden chain of many Sufi orders. He laid the groundwork for sober mysticism in contrast to that of God-intoxicated Sufis like al-Hallaj, Bayazid Bastami and Abusaeid Abolkheir. During the trial of al-Hallaj, his former disciple, the Caliph of the time demanded his fatwa. In response, he issued this fatwa: "From the outward appearance he is to die and we judge according to the outward appearance and God knows better". He is referred to by Sufis as Sayyid-ut Taifa, i.e. the leader of the group. He lived and died in the city of Baghdad.

[edit] Bayazid Bastami

Bayazid Bastami (d. 874 CE) is considered to be "of the six bright stars in the firmament of the Prophet", and a link in the Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi Tariqah. He is regarded as the first mystic to openly speak of the annihilation (fan') of the base self in the Divine, whereby the mystic becomes fully absorbed to the point of becoming unaware of himself or the objects around him. Every existing thing seems to vanish, and he feels free of every barrier that could stand in the way of his viewing the Remembered One. In one of these states, Bastami cried out: "Praise to Me, for My greatest Glory!" His belief in the unity of all religions became apparent when asked the question: "How does Islam view other religions?" His reply was "All are vehicles and a path to God's Divine Presence."

[edit] Reception
[edit] Perception outside Islam

Dhikr in Omdurman, Sudan. A choreographed Sufi performance on Friday at Qadiriyya event. Sufi mysticism has long exercised a fascination upon the Western world, and especially its orientalist scholars.[65] Figures like Rumi have become household names in the United States, where Sufism is perceived as quietist and less political.[65] The Islamic Institute in Mannheim, Germany, which works towards the integration of Europe and Muslims, sees Sufism as particularly suited for interreligious dialogue and intercultural harmonisation in democratic and pluralist societies; it has described Sufism as a symbol of tolerance and humanism nondogmatic, flexible and non-violent.[66]

[edit] Influence of Sufism on Judaism


A great influence was exercised by Sufism upon the ethical writings of Jews in the Middle Ages. In the first writing of this kind, we see "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'i al- ulub", Duties of the Heart, of Bahya ibn Pakuda. This book was translated by Judah ibn Tibbon into Hebrew under the title "ovot ha-Levavot".[67] The precepts prescribed by the Torah number 613 only; those dictated by the intellect are innumerable.

This was precisely the argument used by the Sufis against their adversaries, the Ulamas. The arrangement of the book seems to have been inspired by Sufism. Its ten sections correspond to the ten stages through which the Sufi had to pass in order to attain that true and passionate love of God which is the aim and goal of all ethical self-discipline. A considerable amount of Sufi ideas entered the Jewish mainstream through Bahya ibn Paquda's work, which remains one of the most popular ethical treatises in Judaism. It is noteworthy that in the ethical writings of the Sufis Al-Kusajri and Al-Harawi there are sections which treat of the same subjects as those treated in the "obot ha-Lebabot" and which bear the same titles: e.g., "Bab al-Tawakkul"; "Bab al-Taubah"; "Bab al-Muasabah"; "Bab alTawau'"; "Bab al-Zuhd". In the ninth gate, Baya directly quotes sayings of the Sufis, whom he calls Perushim. However, the author of the ovot ha-Levavot did not go so far as to approve of the asceticism of the Sufis, although he showed a marked predilection for their ethical principles. The Jewish writer Abraham bar iyya teaches the asceticism of the Sufis. His distinction with regard to the observance of Jewish law by various classes of men is essentially a Sufic theory. According to it there are four principal degrees of human perfection or sanctity; namely: (1) of "Shari'ah," i.e., of strict obedience to all ritual laws of Islam, such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, ablution, etc., which is the lowest degree of worship, and is attainable by all (2) of ariqah, which is accessible only to a higher class of men who, while strictly adhering to the outward or ceremonial injunctions of religion, rise to an inward perception of mental power and virtue necessary for the nearer approach to the Divinity (3) of "a ikah," the degree attained by those who, through continuous contemplation and inward devotion, have risen to the true perception of the nature of the visible and invisible; who, in fact, have recognized the Godhead, and through this knowledge have succeeded in establishing an ecstatic relation to it; and (4) of the "Ma'arifah," in which state man communicates directly with the Deity. Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, the son of the great Jewish philosopher Maimonides, believed that Sufi practices and doctrines continue the tradition of the Biblical prophets. He introduced into the Jewish prayer such practices as reciting Gods names (dhikr), prostration , stretching out hands, kneeling, ablution of the feet. Some of these Sufi-Jewish practices are still observed in a few Oriental synagogues. Abraham Maimini's principal work is originally composed in Judeo-Arabic and entitled " " Kitb Kifyah al-`bidn ("A Comprehensive Guide for the Servants of God"). From the extant surviving portion it is conjectured that Maimuni's treatise was three times as long as his father's Guide for the Perplexed. In the book, Maimuni evidences a great appreciation and affinity to Sufism (Islamic mysticism). Followers of his path continued to foster a JewishSufi form of pietism for at least a century, and he is rightly considered the founder of this pietistic school, which was centered in Egypt. The followers of this path, which they called, interchangably, Hasidism (not to confuse with the latter Jewish Hasidic movement) or Sufism (Tasawwuf), practiced spiritual retreats, solitude,

fasting and sleep deprivation.The Jewish Sufis maintained their own brotherhood, guided by a religious leader - like a Sufi sheikh.[68] Abraham Maimuni's two sons, Obadyah and David, continued to lead this Jewish-Sufi brotherhood. Obadyah Maimonides wrote Al-Mawala Al Hawdiyya ("The Treatise of the Pool") an ethico-mystical manual based on the typically Sufi comparison of the heart to a pool that must be cleansed before it can experience the Divine. The Maimonidean legacy extended right through to the 15th century with the 5th generation of Maimonidean Sufis, David ben Joshua Maimonides, who wrote Al-Mursid ila al-Tafarrud (The Guide to Detachment), which includes numerous extracts of Suhrawardi[disambiguation needed]s Kalimat at-Tasawwuf.[69]

[edit] Popular culture


[edit] Films
The movie Bab'Aziz (2005), directed by Nacer Khemir, tells the story of an old and blind dervish who must cross the desert with his little granddaughter during many days and nights to get to his last dervish reunion celebrated every 30 years. The movie is full of Sufi mysticism, containing quotes of Sufi poets like Rumi and showing an ecstatic Sufi dance. In Monsieur Ibrahim (2003), Omar Sharif's character professes to be a Muslim in the Sufi tradition. The 2007 short film 'Vishwaas Ki Goonj/The Echo Of Faith', highlights the universal message of Sufism and conveys mankind's ability to practice and uphold the notion of 'oneness of beings'. Directed and presented by Basant P. Tolani, the film received first prize in the Global Festival of Films on Peace and Spirituality 2008 by IFTC (International Films & Television Club) and AAFT (Asian Academy Of Films and Television). Newer production companies and directors are beginning to populate the media landscape with films that emphasize a Sufi sensibility. Most notably Sufi Films with Director James McConnell, and Simon Broughton (Director of Sufi Soul The Mystic Music of Islam), to name a few in a growing field. The University of North Carolina provides a partial list of some other Films on Sufism and Saints.

[edit] Music
Madonna, on her 1994 record Bedtime Stories, sings a song called "Bedtime Story" that discusses achieving a high unconsciousness level. The video for the song shows an ecstatic Sufi ritual with many dervishes dancing, Arabic calligraphy and some other Sufi elements. In her 1998 song "Bittersweet", she recites Rumi's poem by the same name. In her 2001 Drowned World Tour, Madonna sang the song "Secret" showing rituals from many religions, including a Sufi dance.

Singer/songwriter Loreena McKennitt's record The Mask and Mirror (1994) has a song called "The Mystic's Dream" that is influenced by Sufi music and poetry. The band MewithoutYou has made references to Sufi parables, including the name of their album It's All Crazy! It's All False! It's All a Dream! It's Alright (2009). Lead singer Aaron Weiss claims this influence comes from his parents, who are both Sufi converts. Lalan Fakir and Kazi Nazrul Islam scored several Sufi songs. Famous Sufi singers from the Indian subcontinent include Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Kailash Kher, Alam Lohar and Abida Parveen. A. R. Rahman, the Oscar-winning Indian musician has several compositions which draw inspiration from the Sufi genre; one example is the filmi qawwali, "Khwaja Mere Khwaja" in the 2008 Bollywood film Jodhaa Akbar. Junoon, a band from Pakistan, is famous for creating the genre of Sufi rock by combining elements of modern hard rock and traditional folk music with Sufi poetry. Richard Thompson is a practicing Sufi and once lived in a Sufi commune in East Anglia with his first wife and young family.

[edit] Sufi structures

Sufi Mosque

Sufi mosque Sufi tomb

Sufi tomb

Sufi shrine

Sufi Mausoleum Sufi museum

Sufi frame

Sufi statue

[edit] See also


Sufism portal

Hazrat Babajan Islam List of Sufism related topics Tawassul, a religious practice in which a Muslim seeks nearness to God

[edit] References
1. ^ a b c Dr. Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of Georgia 2. ^ Nuh Ha Mim Keller, "How would you respond to the claim that Sufism is Bid'a?", 1995. Fatwa accessible at: Masud.co.uk 3. ^ Dr. Zubair Fattani, 'The meaning of Tasawwuf', Islamic Academy. Islamicacademy.org 4. ^ Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson"The Principles of Sufism." Amal Press. 2008. 5. ^ An English translation of Ahmad ibn Ajiba's biography has been published by Fons Vitae. 6. ^ Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750. Routledge. ISBN 0415240735. The title of the book establishes this fact. See Google book search. 7. ^ Michael Sells, Early Islamic Mysticism, pg. 1 8. ^ a b Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham (2004). Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition. Islamic Supreme Council of America. p. 557. ISBN 1930409230. 9. ^ http://www.uga.edu/islam/sufismwest.html 10. ^ Idries Shah, The Sufis, ISBN 0-385-07966-4 11. ^ Haddad, Gibril Fouad: Sufism in Islam LivingIslam.org 12. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 13. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary 14. ^ Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths 15. ^ Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 9770018309 16. ^ Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6 17. ^ Cavendish, Richard. Great Religions. New York: Arco Publishing, 1980. 18. ^ Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons; see also Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 9781930409231, which reproduces the spiritual lineage (silsila) of a living Sufi master. 19. ^ Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 9781930409231 20. ^ See Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, for a detailed description of the practices and preconditions of this sort of spiritual retreat. 21. ^ See examples provided by Muzaffar Ozak in Irshad: Wisdom of a Sufi Master, addressed to a general audience rather than specifically to his own students. 22. ^ IslamOnline.net 23. ^ Massignon, Louis. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104. 24. ^ Imam Birgivi, The Path of Muhammad, WorldWisdom, ISBN 0941532682

25. ^ For an introduction to these and other early exemplars of the Sufi approach, see Michael Sells (ed.), Early Islamic Mysticism: Sufi, Qur'an, Mi'raj, Poetic and Theological Writings, ISBN 9780809136193. 26. ^ J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195120585. 27. ^ The most recent version of the Risla is the translation of Alexander Knysh, Al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: Al-risala Al-qushayriyya Fi 'ilm Al-tasawwuf (ISBN 978-1859641866). Earlier translations include a partial version by Rabia Terri Harris (Sufi Book of Spiritual Ascent) and complete versions by Harris, and Barbara R. Von Schlegell. 28. ^ Several sections of the Revival of Religious Sciences have been published in translation by the Islamic Texts Society; see http://www.fonsvitae.com/sufism.html. The Alchemy of Happiness has been published in a complete translation by Claud Field (ISBN 978-0935782288), and presents the argument of the much larger Revival of Religious Sciences in summary form. 29. ^ For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell, Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism, ISBN 978-0292712096; and for the colonial era, Knut Vikyr, Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad B. Oali Al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood, ISBN 978-0810112261. 30. ^ Dina Le Gall, A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450-1700 , ISBN 9780791462454. 31. ^ Arthur F. Buehler, Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh, ISBN 978-1570037832. 32. ^ Victor Danner - "The Islamic Tradition: An introduction." Amity House. February 1988. 33. ^ The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis by Sajid Abdul Kayum, Chapter 1: Overview and Background. 34. ^ "Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal," Babou, Cheikh Anta, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, v. 40 no1 (2007) p. 184-6 35. ^ Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, Khadim Mbacke, translated from the French by Eric Ross and edited by John Hunwick. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, 2005. 36. ^ See in particular the biographical introduction to Michel Chodkiewicz, The Spiritual Writings of Amir Abd Al-Kader, ISBN 978-0791424469. 37. ^ From the article on Sufism in Oxford Islamic Studies Online 38. ^ University of Georgia 39. ^ Sulthaniya.com 40. ^ a b Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Order, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6 41. ^ For a systematic description of the diseases of the heart that are to be overcome in order for this perspective to take root, see Hamza Yusuf, Purification of the Heart: Signs, Symptoms and Cures of the Spiritual Diseases of the Heart, ISBN 978-1929694150. 42. ^ Concerning this, and for an excellent discussion of the concept of attraction (jadhba), see especially the Introduction to Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 9770018309. 43. ^ Muhammad Emin Er, al-Wasilat al-Fasila, unpublished MS. 44. ^ Realities of The Heart Lataif 45. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam, ISBN 978-0807812716 . 46. ^ See especially Robert Frager, Heart, Self & Soul: The Sufi Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony, ISBN 978-0835607780. 47. ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti, The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0892810437 48. ^ For an introduction to the normative creed of Islam as espoused by the consensus of scholars, see Hamza Yusuf, The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi, ISBN 978-0970284396, and Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Maghnisawi, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained, ISBN 9781933764030.

49. ^ The meaning of certainty in this context is emphasized in Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9. 50. ^ See in particular the introduction by T. J. Winter to Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, AlGhazali on Disciplining the Soul and on Breaking the Two Desires: Books XXII and XXIII of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, ISBN 978-0946621439. 51. ^ Abdullah Jawadi Amuli, "Dhikr and the Wisdom Behind It" 52. ^ Hakim Moinuddin Chisti The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0892810437 53. ^ Touma 1996, p.162 54. ^ What is Remembrance and what is Contemplation? 55. ^ Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, ISBN 9780-9815196-1-6, p. 77. 56. ^ Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9. 57. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975) pg. 99 58. ^ (source: [p. 778-795 of "The Reliance of the Traveller", by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller]) 59. ^ The Amman Message Summary. Retrieved on Feb 2, 2010. 60. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufi_Nashinu 61. ^ Sufi-Buddhism and Sufi-Nashinism 62. ^ Memoirs of the Saints, p.108 63. ^ http://www.shazuli.com/thareeqush-shukr/ 64. ^ K. al-Wasa'il, quoted in The Unlimited Mercifier, Stephen Hirtenstein, p. 246 65. ^ a b Ron Geaves, Theodore Gabriel, Yvonne Haddad, Jane Idleman Smith: Islam and the West Post 9/11, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., p. 67 66. ^ Jamal Malik, John R. Hinnells: Sufism in the West, Routledge, p. 25 67. ^ A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Bahya ibn Paquda's Duties of the Heart, Diana Lobel 68. ^ Jewish pietism of the Sufi type, Mireille Loubet 69. ^ http://www.tomblock.com/published/shalom_maimonides.php

[edit] Additional reading


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sufism

Al-Badawi, Mostafa. Sufi Sage of Arabia. Louisville: Fons Vitae, 2005. Ali-Shah, Omar. The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order, Tractus Publishers, 1992, ISBN 978-2-909347-09-7. Angha, Nader. "Sufism: A Bridge Between Religions". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-910735-55-7 Angha, Nader. "Sufism: The Lecture Series". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1997, ISBN 978-0910735742. Angha, Nader. "Peace". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1994, ISBN 9780910735995. Arberry, A.J.. Mystical Poems of Rumi, Vols. 1&2. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1991. Austin, R.W.J.. Sufis of Andalusia, Gloustershire: Beshara Publications, 1988. Azeemi,Khwaja Shamsuddin. Muraqaba: Art and Science of Sufi Meditation, Houston:Plato Publishing,Inc., 2005, ISBN 0975887548.

Bewley, Aisha. The Darqawi Way. London: Diwan Press, 1981. Burckhardt, Titus. An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. Lahore: 1963. Colby, Frederick. The Subtleties of the Ascension: Lata'if Al-Miraj: Early Mystical Sayings on Muhammad's Heavenly Journey. City: Fons Vitae, 2006. Dahlen, Ashk. Female Sufi Saints and Disciples: Women in the life of Jalal al-din Rumi, Orientalia Suecana, vol. 57, Uppsala, 2008. Dahlen, Ashk. Sufi Islam, The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations, ed. Peter B. Clarke & Peter Beyer, New York, 2009. Emin Er, Muhammad. Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 9780981519616. Emin Er, Muhammad. The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shif Publishers, 2008, ISBN 9780981519609. Ernst, Carl. The Shambhala Guide to Sufism. HarperOne, 1999. Fadiman, James and Frager, Robert. Essential Sufism. Boulder: Shambhala, 1997. Farzan, Massud. The Tale of the Reed Pipe. New York: Dutton, 1974. Gowins, Phillip. SufismA Path for Today: The Sovereign Soul. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd., 2008. ISBN 9788189973490 Gupta, R.K. The Science and Philosophy of Spirituality, 2006, ISBN 8176465453 Gupta, R.K. Sufism Beyond Religion, 2004, ISBN 8176464112 Gupta, R.K. Yogis in Silence-The Great Sufi Masters, 2001 ISBN 8176461997 Khan, Hazrat Inayat. The Sufi message, Volume IXThe Unity of Religious Ideals, Part VI, SUFISM Wahiduddin.net Koc, Dogan, "Gulen's Interpretation Of Sufism", Second International Conference on Islam in the Contemporary World: The Fethullah Glen Movement in Thought and Practice, December 2008 Lewinsohn (ed.), The Heritage of Sufism, Volume I: Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi (700-1300). Michon, Jean-Louis. The Autobiography (Fahrasa) of a Moroccan Soufi: Ahmad Ibn `Ajiba (17471809). Louisville: Fons Vitae, 1999. Nurbakhsh, Javad, What is Sufism? electronic text derived from The Path, Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications, London, 2003 ISBN 0-933546-70-X. Rahimi, Sadeq (2007). Intimate Exteriority: Sufi Space as Sanctuary for Injured Subjectivities in Turkey., Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 46, No. 3, September 2007; pp. 409422 Schimmel, Annemarie, Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8078-1223-4 Schmidle, Nicholas, "Pakistan's Sufis Preach Faith and Ecstasy", Smithsonian magazine, December 2008 Shah, Idries. The Sufis. New York: Anchor Books, 1971, ISBN 0385079664. Shaikh Sharfuddin Maneri. "Letters from a Sufi Teacher". Mountain View, CA: Golden Elixir Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9843082-4-8. Seker, Nimet. Jewish and Muslim Mysticism: Jewish Mystics on the Sufi Path Qantara.de April 2010 Wilcox, Lynn. "Women and the Holy Qur'an: a Sufi Perspective". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1998, ISBN 0-910735-65-4

[edit] External links


Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Sufism

Sufism Oxford Islamic Studies Online Sufism-Culture and Politics - TCN News Sufism at the Open Directory Project Sufism's Many Paths Articles on Sufism When mothers rule: The right to choose from a Sufi perspective, Ruba Saqr, Forward Magazine Information on Naqshbandi Sufi Order & many other Sufi Saints & Sufism M.T.O. Shahmaghsoudi School of Islamic Sufism Sufism in a Nutshell: Introduction & Stations of Progress About Sufism and Sufis The Sufi Way Re-Search
Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas

Hafiz Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, FRSL (14 April 1872 10 December 1953) was a South Asian Islamic scholar who translated the Qur'an into English. His translation of the Qur'an ranks alongside the translation of Marmaduke Pickthall as the most widely-known and used in the world. Ali was born in Surat, Gujarat in British India to a wealthy merchant family with a Dawoodi Bohra father. As a child, Ali received a religious education and, eventually, could recite the entire Qur'an from memory. He spoke both Arabic and English fluently. He studied English literature and studied at several European universities, including the University of Leeds. He concentrated his efforts on the Qur'an and studied the Qur'anic commentaries beginning with those written in the early days of Islamic history. Yusuf Ali's best-known work is his book The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, begun in 1934 and published in 1938 by Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers Lahore in India (later Pakistan). While on tour to promote his translation, Ali helped to open the AlRashid Mosque, the first mosque in North America, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, in December 1938.

Sufism
Islamic mysticism, often referred to as the internalization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice. Sufis strive to constantly be aware of God's presence, stressing contemplation over action, spiritual development over legalism, and cultivation of the soul over social interaction. In contrast to the academic exercises of theology and jurisprudence, which depend on reason, Sufism depends on emotion and imagination in the divine-human relationship. Sufism is unrelated to the Sunni/Shii split, schools of jurisprudence, social class, gender, geography, or family connections. It is closely associated with both

popular religion and orthodox expressions of Islamic teachings. It has been both opposed and supported by the state.

Sufi rituals typically consist of the recitation of prayers, poems, and selections from the Quran, and methodical repetitions of divine names (dhikr) or Quranic formulas, such as the shahadah. In communal gatherings, Sufis perform dhikr aloud, often with musical accompaniment. The specific structure and format of the daily devotional exercises and activities were set by each order's founder as a special spiritual path. The founder was the spiritual guide for all followers, who swore a special oath of obedience to him as their shaykh (teacher). The record of the transmission of the ritual was preserved in a formal chain of spiritual descent (silsilah) extending back to the founder and then usually to Muhammad . Leadership was passed down either within a family line or on the basis of spiritual seniority within the tariqah (order). The typical initiation rite transmits a blessing (barakah) to the disciple, transforming his or her soul.

Tariqahs had become major social organizations by the twelfth century and enjoyed mass popularity by the fifteenth or sixteenth century. Orders range in form from simple preservation of the tariqah as a set of devotional exercises to vast interregional organizations with carefully defined structures. Historically, Sufi orders have facilitated interregional interaction, education, and travel, and have supported reform, spiritual revival, and missionary activities. They have also provided organization and support for movements resisting foreign rule throughout the Islamic world.

Written expressions of Sufism include hagiographies, poetry, and literature describing the stations (maqamat) of spiritual ascent on the path to God and their accompanying psychological transformations. Sufis use terms such as sukr (intoxication) and sahu (sobriety) to describe their experiences. Intoxicated expressions of Sufism predominate in Sufi poetry, expressing joy and ecstacy. Sober Sufism offers methodical, specialized discussions of ritual, behavior, morality, Quranic exegesis, and the nature of God and the world. Intoxicated Sufism is popular among Muslims of all classes and persuasions. Sober Sufism tends to appeal to intellectuals.

Some modern observers have proclaimed the effective end of the Sufi orders, claiming that mystical religious experience and modernity are incompatible. Politically minded Muslims have made Sufism the scapegoat for Islam's alleged backwardness in comparison with the West, claiming that Sufism, as the religion of the common people, embodied superstition and un-Islamic elements adopted from local cultures. Eradication of Sufism was believed necessary in order for Islam to reclaim its birthright, including modern science and technology. However, by the end of the twentieth century, it was clear that Sufi orders remained a dynamic part of the religious life of the Islamic world and were active in the expansion of Islam in both rural areas and modern societies in the West and among the modernized intellectual elites within the Muslim world. Sufi organizations provide social cohesion in an increasingly mobile society, emphasizing communal activities such as dhikr. They have helped to shape responses to the challenges to Muslim faith in the modern era by providing organizational bases for activist reformist programs and modern-style political parties. They have assisted in developing modernization programs and providing a framework for Islamic

communal identity in the face of official efforts to suppress religion. Popular participation in Sufi gatherings and support for various types of tariqahs remain high throughout the Muslim world. Estimates of membership in Sufi orders in Egypt alone are in the millions, in contrast to the hundreds or thousands in the more militant Islamic revivalist organizations.

Buya Hamka, Ulama Intelektual yang Merakyat


Sunday, 13 April 2008 14:45 Written by admin

(Jakarta, MADINA): Rektor Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Hamka (Uhamka) Dr H Suyatno MPd menegaskan bahwa Buya Hamka adalah sosok yang multidimensional dari berbagai sudut pandang baik dari keilmuan, keulamaan, sastrawan, sejarawan, novelis bahkan juga politisi dan orator yang handal, serta seorang pendidik yang sangat di kagumi.

Mungkin saya akan stressing pada pendidikan bahwa Buya Hamka ini seorang yang otodidak tidak selesai dalam pendidikan pormal sekolah dasar, tetapi keilmuannya sangat dalam dan cerdas karena prinsip yang dipegang oleh beliau adalah jangan pernah berhenti untuk belajar dan belajar dari mana saja harus digunakan tetapi mmempunyai prinsip, jelasnya pada momentum seminar internasional bertema Transmisi Keilmuan, Pemaknaan Agama, dan Peran Ulama Buya Hamka di Hotel Atlet Century Park Jakarta, Selasa lalu.

Seminar yang diselenggarakan oleh Pusat Kajian Buya Hamka Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Hamka itu dihadiri sekitar 250 orang yang terdiri atas kalangan ulama, agamawan, artis, intelektual, budayawan, politisi, birokrat, aktivis, organisasi masyarakat dan kalangan perguruan tinggi di Jakarta. Hadir pula utusan dari kedutaan besar negara-negara ASEAN, Belanda, dan Australia.

Ditambahkan lagi olehnya bahwa mengapa Prof Dr Hamka cerdas, karena ketulusan hatinya sehingga belajar

dengan penuh kesadaran yang tinggi, mempunyai pikiran yang jernih .

Semua itulah yang mendorong beliau memjadi seorang filosop dan sufi. Nilai pendidikan yang dapat kita petik dari Buya Hamka adalah bahwa kemauan dan kerja keras dalam beajar itu yang penting dan coba kita bandingkan dengan pendidikan sekarang apakah sudah timbul motipasi yang timbul dari dalam diri siswa sendiri yang utuh, kan belum? jelas Dr H Suyatno MPd.

Sementara itu dalam kesempatan yang sama Mantan Wakil Perdana Menteri Malaysia Datuk Anwar Ibrahim mengakaui bahwa Buya Hamka seorang ulama dan intelektual, tapi dia tetap berbicara pada rakyat.

Dia menulis untuk rakyat, maka itu wacananya berakar kepada persoalan rakyat, ujarnya seraya menambahkan bahwa Buya Hamka seorang ulama dan intelektual yang tangguh serta mempunyai prinsip. Karyanya yang tidak tertandingi, seperti Tafsir Al-Azhar, Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijck dan sederet karya sastra lainnya mengharumkan nama bangsa dan agama. Karyanya yang agung tersebut sangat merakyat.

Selain Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim juga tampil sebagai pembicara antara lain Prof Dr Azyumardi Azra dari Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN), Dr Julia Day Howell dari Graffith University, dan Prof Dr A Syafii Maarif dari Maarif Institute Jakarta. Ikut meramaikan acara Ratih Sanggarwati, model terkenal untuk membacakan puisi-puisi Buya Hamka.

Anwar Ibrahim menyatakan sangat mengagumi ulama besar Indonesia Profesor Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah alias Buya Hamka. Karya sastra berupa novel yang ditulis Hamka, sangat diminati. Buku Buya Hamka, Tafsir Al Azhar menemani saya selama dua kali di penjara, ujar Anwar. Karena kekagumannya itu, mantan Deputi Perdana Menteri Malaysia itu menyarankan agar anak-anak sejak dini dikenalkan dengan karya-karya sastra Buya Hamka. Sastra itu baik, dan harus dimulai dari kecil.

Menurut Anwar Ibrahim, Buya Hamka sebagai seorang novelis memiliki keunikan. Saya tahu beliau seorang ulama. Dan banyak ulama yang saya kenal tidak suka membaca novel. Tetapi Hamka bukan saja membaca novel, tetapi beliau menulis novel.

Banyak ulama yang menulis puisi, khususnya ulama sufi. Tokoh-tokoh sufi agung seperti Jalaluddin Rumi dan Umar al-Farid adalah juga penyair agung. Ulama sebagai novelis itu tidak pernah. Karena ulama itu tidak pernah menulis

novel. Di Malaysia, saya menyarankan pemerhati politik membaca novel-novel Hamka agar mereka tahu bahwa ulama bisa menulis novel.

Dia mengutip kata-kata hikmah Buya Hamka: Zaman bergilir, ada yang naik dan ada yang jatuh, dunia tiada kekal. Bagi diriku sendiri, di dalam hidup ini akupun datang dan akupun akan pergi. Kehidupan adalah pergiliran di antara senyum dan ratap.... Aku mengharap jika aku mendapat aniaya oleh suatu kekuasaan orang zalim, hanya sematamata karena mereka suatu waktu berkuasa, Pasti datang zamannya aku dan mereka sama-sama tidak ada lagi di dunia ini.... Adapun kepada mereka itu yang telah menyusun fitnah itu, atau yang telah menumpangkan hasadnya dalam fitnah orang lain, setinggi-tinggi yang dapat aku berikan hanya maaf saja.

Anawar Ibrahim juga menghimbau agar anak anak harus dikenali novel novel karya Hamka. Karena karya karya beliau menarik diolah dengan baik, termasuk topik tasawuf yang modern, yang harus dikupas dan diolah dengan bahasa yang mudah dan menarik. Tentunya karya karya beliau yang lain kalaupun sampai tafsir Al- Azhar salah satu karya fenomenal beliau, jelasnya.

Tokoh Fenomenal

Mantan Ketua Umum PP Muhammadiyah Prof Dr Syafi`i Maarif menyatakan, semakin lama kita ditinggalkan oleh Buya Hamka, bukannya namanya kian hilang tetapi malah makin kita mengenang kebesarannya. Buya Hamka merupakan tokoh fenomenal yang belum ada bandingannya sekarang ini. Dari mengenal karyanya, Buya Hamka dapat kita ketahui sebagai tokoh yang kental dengan sosok keulamaan dengan mengedepankan rasa kemanusiaan yang tinggi.

Nilai-nilai dan rasa kemanusiaan yang dikedepankan Buya Hamka dilandasi oleh kekuatan spiritual, kata Buya Syafi`i yang mengaku suka menetes air matannya manakala membaca karya-karya Buya Hamka. Syafi`i mengatakan, dia dulu mentertawakan seorang sastrawan yang sempat menilai Buya Hamka sebagai seorang yang serba tanggung, setengah ulama, setengah sastrawan, seten gah politisi. Bagaimana dapat menilai demikian, jika sastrawan Iwan Simatupang saja kala itu memuji dan mengagumi karya Buya Hamka? kata Syafi`i.

Sementara itu Rektor Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka, Suyatno menyatakan Buya Hamka merefleksikan sosok yang begitu kompleks. Ia bukan hanya sastrawan, tapi juga sejarawan, seniman, orator, politikus, dan

pendidik. Meski tidak tamat sekolah dasar, Buya Hamka tidak pernah berhenti belajar selama hidupnya, ujar dia.

Kelemahan sistem ajar saat ini yang mengharuskan peserta didik menelan semua kurikulum yang disediakan, tambah Suyatno, menyebabkan hilangnya sosok seperti Buya Hamka. Prinsip belajar orang Indonesia umumnya terhenti pada suatu masa, katanya. Motivasi belajar Buya Hamka, Suyatno me lanjutkan, juga sulit ditemukan pada orang Indonesia kebanyakan. Meski fasilitas berlimpah, motivasi tidak lantas ikut-ikutan berlimpah. Buktinya siswa pasti senang kalau guru tidak masuk ngajar, katanya.

Ketua Peringatan 100 Tahun Buya Hamka, H Pudjo Sumedi AS mengatakan, seminar internasional ini diadakan dalam rangkaian peringatan 100 tahun Buya Hamka yang bertepatan pada 17 Februari 2008. Kegiatan ini mempunyai tiga tujuan pokok, yaitu pertama memahami proses kelahiran Hamka sebagai ulama. Dalam hal ini kita bisa mempelajari dan meneladani proses pencarian dan pembentukan diri Hamka sebagai ulama besar yang diakui sampai kini.

Pudjo yang juga Wakil Rektor 1 Uhamka memaparkan, tujuan kedua seminar internasional ini adalah memahami corak pemaknaan agama Buya Hamka sebagaimana Hamka menafsirkan teks dalam konteks zamannya. Tujuan ketiga, memahami peran keulamaan Buya Hamka, terutama kaitannya peran Hamka sebagai ulama dalam relasinya dengan masyarakat dan negara. Jadi seminar internasional ini sebenarnya ingin mengenal sekaligus meneladani Buya Hamka sebagai tokoh bangsa yang disegani sampai kini. (zis)

MENGENANG 100 TAHUN PERJUANGAN BUYA HAMKA


Posted by Munirah Bahari Sunday, February 17, 2008

Orang yang berakal hanyalah merindui akan tiga perkara: Pertama, menyediakan bekal untuk pulang. Kedua, mencari kelazatan buat jiwa. Ketiga, menyelidiki erti hidup. Orang yang berakal tahu membedakan manusia, tiada canggungnya ke manapun dia bergaul. Manusia dibaginya dua. Pertama orang awam, perkataannya di sana dijaganya, tiap kalimat dibatasnya. Kerana hanya jauhari mengenal manikam. Kedua ialah orang khawas, di sanalah dia merasa lazat ilmu, kepada yang lebih darinya, dia menyauk. Kepada yang sama dengannya, dia membanding. Tempoh tidak ada yang terbuang

(FALSAFAH HIDUP)

Demikianlah antara kata-kata hikmah pemikir dan pujangga di rantau kita, Prof Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah, atau lebih dikenali sebagai Profesor Hamka yang dilahirkan pada tahun 1908 di Minangkabau Sumatera. Tanggal 17 Februari 2008, genaplah 100 tahun mengenang perjuangan Buya Hamka atau nama sebenarnya Prof Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah. Bila disebut tentang Hamka semua akan mengenalinya baik seorang ulama, sasterawan, wartawan, pendakwah, tokoh sejarah, dan banyak lagi. Keilmuannya sangat luas, merangkumi bidang sastera, sejarah, tasawwuf, tafsir, falsafah dan sebagainya. Ketokohannya sangat dikagumi walaupun berpendidikan di Madrasah Indonesia namun beliau berjaya mencapai kecemerlangan dengan keilmuannya. Ketokohannya diakui bukan sahaja di Indonesia malah di Asia Tenggara. Walaupun berperawatan sederhana, namun keperibadiannya cukup memberi kesan terutamanya generasi muda. Karya sasteranya berjaya menarik golongan muda untuk menghayatinya sehinggakan karyanya mampu membuat pembaca menitiskan airmata.

Alhamdulillah, saya sangat bertuah kerana dapat mengenali tokoh ini walaupun agak lewat, semasa di Pusat Matrikulasi UIAM. Pada waktu tersebut namanya hanya meniti dibibir namun tidak berkesempatan membaca karyanya dan syukur akhirnya apabila saya berkesempatan membaca karyanya iaitu Di Bawah Lindungan Kaabah. Terima kasih kepada Setiausaha Agung PKPIM ketika itu, Azwiralbukhairi yang telah memperkenalkan buku tersebut dan sekaligus memberikan buku tersebut kepada saya. Selepas membaca buku tersebut, saya terus ghairah mencari buku karangan Buya Hamka yang lain dan terus membuat koleksi. Sesungguhnya penulisan Buya Hamka sangat terkesan di hati pembacanya. Akhirnya marilah kita sama-sama menghayati karya penulisannya yang agung dan mencontohi keperibadian dan ketokohannya yang holistik.

Disertakan biografi Buya Hamka. Sumber rujukan Wikipedia Indonesia.

HAMKA (1908-1981), adalah akronim kepada nama sebenar Haji Abdul Malik bin Abdul Karim Amrullah. Beliau adalah seorang ulama, aktivis politik dan penulis Indonesia yang amat terkenal di alam Nusantara. Beliau lahir pada 17 Februari 1908 di kampung Molek, Maninjau, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia. Ayahnya ialah Syeikh Abdul Karim bin Amrullah atau dikenali sebagai Haji Rasul, seorang pelopor Gerakan Islah (tajdid) di Minangkabau, sekembalinya dari Makkah pada tahun 1906.

Hamka adalah seorang otodidiak dalam berbagai bidang ilmu pengetahuan seperti filsafat, sastra, sejarah, sosiologi dan politik, baik Islam maupun Barat. Dengan kemahiran bahasa Arabnya yang tinggi, beliau dapat menyelidiki karya ulama dan pujangga besar di Timur Tengah seperti Zaki Mubarak, Jurji Zaidan, Abbas al-Aqqad, Mustafa al-Manfaluti dan Hussain Haikal. Melalui bahasa Arab juga, beliau meneliti karya sarjana Perancis, Inggris dan Jerman seperti Albert Camus, William James, Sigmund Freud, Arnold Toynbee, Jean Paul Sartre, Karl Marx dan Pierre Loti.

Selain aktif dalam soal keagamaan dan politik, Hamka merupakan seorang wartawan, penulis, editor dan penerbit. Sejak tahun 1920-an, Hamka menjadi wartawan beberapa buah akhbar seperti Pelita Andalas, Seruan Islam, Bintang Islam dan Seruan Muhammadiyah. Pada tahun 1928, beliau menjadi editor majalah Kemajuan Masyarakat. Pada tahun 1932, beliau menjadi editor dan menerbitkan majalah al-Mahdi di Makasar. Hamka juga pernah menjadi editor majalah Pedoman Masyarakat, Panji Masyarakat dan Gema Islam.

Hamka juga menghasilkan karya ilmiah Islam dan karya kreatif seperti novel dan cerpen. Karya ilmiah terbesarnya ialah Tafsir alAzhar (5 jilid) dan antara novel-novelnya yang mendapat perhatian umum dan menjadi buku teks sastera di Malaysia dan Singapura termasuklah Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijck, Di Bawah Lindungan Kaabah dan Merantau ke Deli.

Hamka pernah menerima beberapa anugerah pada peringkat nasional dan antarabangsa seperti anugerah kehormatan Doctor Honoris Causa, Universitas al-Azhar, 1958; Doktor Honoris Causa, Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1974; dan gelar Datuk Indono dan Pengeran Wiroguno dari pemerintah Indonesia.

Hamka telah pulang ke rahmatullah pada 24 Juli 1981, namun jasa dan pengaruhnya masih terasa sehingga kini dalam memartabatkan agama Islam. Beliau bukan sahaja diterima sebagai seorang tokoh ulama dan sasterawan di negara kelahirannya, malah jasanya di seluruh alam Nusantara, termasuk Malaysia dan Singapura, turut dihargai

Pendahuluan
:

Perkataan Ahli Sunnah jika dilihat dari sudut istilah, bermaksud para pengikut Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Penggunaan istilah Ahli Sunnah dengan maksud ini bermula sejak dari zaman Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum, setelah berlakunya fitnah yang melahirkan pelbagai puak yang menyeleweng daripada ajaran Nabi

Shallallahu alaihi wasallam yang sebenar. Dalam sebuah athar[1] yang sahih, Ibn Sirin rahimahullah (110H) berkata:

: .
Maksudnya: Mereka (para perawi hadith) tidak pernah usul periksa tentang sanad, tetapi tatkala berlakunya fitnah, mereka berkata: "Beritahu kami siapakah lelaki-lelaki (perawi-perawi) kamu?" Maka diperhatikan kepada Ahli Sunnah lalu diambil hadith (riwayat) mereka, dan diperhatikan pula kepada Ahli Bidah lalu tidak diambil hadith (riwayat) mereka"[2]. Kata-kata Ibn Sirin ini selain daripada menunjukkan permulaan penggunaan istilah Ahli Sunnah, ia juga menunjukkan permulaan penggunaan istilah Ahli Bidah sebagai gelaran terhadap puak-puak yang menyalahi Sunnah. Istilah Ahli Sunnah dilihat lebih khusus daripada istilah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah, kerana istilah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah itu umum bagi seluruh umat Islam yang memperakui kekhilafahan Khulafa Rasyidin, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman dan Ali, meskipun mereka tidak mengikut Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dalam beberapa aspek yang lain[3]. Sedangkan istilah Ahli Sunnah itu pula menjurus kepada orang yang berpegang teguh dengan jalan pemikiran, pendekatan, perbuatan, perkataan, pembawaan dan pegangan Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dalam semua hal ehwal keagamaan.

Definisi Dan Pembahagian Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam


Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam bukan bermaksud hukum sunat yang menjadi lawan kepada hukum wajib, tetapi ia bermaksud: jalan pemikiran, pendekatan, perbuatan, perkataan, pembawaan dan pegangan Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dalam beribadat dan beragama. Secara umumnya, Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam terbahagi kepada dua bahagian:

Pertama, Sunnah Amaliyyah, Kedua, Sunnah Tarkiyyah.

Sunnah Amaliyyah bermaksud apa sahaja yang disuruh atau digalakkan oleh

Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam ke atas umatnya supaya mereka melakukannya, seperti qiyamullail, berpuasa dan berkahwin. Manakala Sunnah Tarkiyyah pula bermaksud apa sahaja yang ditinggalkan (tidak dilakukan) oleh Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dan Baginda tidak pernah menyuruh atau menggalakkannya. Dengan perkataan lain, jika melakukan amalan (keagamaan) yang dilakukan oleh Nabi itu dilihat sebagai mengikut Sunnah, maka tidak melakukan perkara yang tidak dilakukan oleh Nabi itu juga dilihat sebagai mengikut Sunnah. Asas bagi pemahaman Sunnah Tarkiyyah ini dapat diambil daripada beberapa dalil, antaranya ialah sabda Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam:

.
Maksudnya: Antara ciri keelokan Islam seseorang ialah dia meninggalkan apa yang tidak perlu baginya[4]. Segala bentuk amalan keagamaan yang ditinggalkan oleh Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam adalah termasuk dalam jenis perkara yang tidak diperlukan oleh seseorang muslim, kerana jika ia perlu nescaya Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam akan melakukannya sebagai ikutan bagi umatnya. Tetapi bila sesuatu amalan itu tidak dilakukan oleh Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, maka ia menunjukkan bahawa amalan tersebut tidak perlu, dan meninggalkan perkara yang tidak perlu itu dilihat sebagai mengikut Sunnah, manakala melakukannya pula dilihat sebagai tidak mengikut Sunnah. Antara contoh Sunnah tarkiyyah yang telah sedia dihayati oleh umat Islam ialah tidak mendahulukan khutbah ke atas solat hari raya, tidak melaungkan azan dan iqamah untuk solat Hari Raya, solat al-istisqa dan solat jenazah, tidak melakukan solat sunat rawatib secara berjamaah dan tidak berdoa secara berjamaah sebelum solat fardu. Umat Islam tidak melakukan semua perkara itu kerana Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam tidak pernah melakukannya. Justeru, prinsip ikutan terhadap Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam adalah sama ada dengan melakukan apa yang Baginda lakukan (dalam perkara keagamaan) atau meninggalkan (tidak melakukan) apa yang Baginda tinggalkan.

Kewajipan Dan Kepentingan Menghidupkan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi

wasallam Setiap muslim wajib berpegang teguh dengan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam kerana ia adalah manifestasi ajaran Islam yang sebenar, yang boleh menyelamatkan mereka daripada terpesong ke jalan kesesatan. Sabda Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam:

.
Maksudnya: Aku tinggalkan kepada kamu dua perkara yang kamu tidak sekali-kali akan sesat selama kamu berpegang dengan keduanya, iaitu Kitab Allah (Al-Quran) dan Sunnahku[5]. Setiap muslim juga semestinya menyedari bahawa menepati Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu adalah satu daripada dua syarat penerimaan amalan di sisi Allah Subhanahu wa Taala[6], sebagaimana sabdanya:

.
Maksudnya: Sesiapa yang mengerjakan sesuatu amalan (ibadat) bukan mengikut (spesifikasi) cara kami, maka ia adalah tertolak[7]. Bahkan setiap muslim juga semestinya menyedari bahawa Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam tidak mengaku umat bagi sesiapa yang tidak mengikuti Sunnahnya, sebagaimana sabdanya:

. ...
Maksudnya: Maka, sesiapa yang tidak ikut Sunnahku, dia bukan dari (kalangan umat) ku[8]. Dalam satu khutbah yang bersemangat, Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam bersabda:


Maksudnya: Maka, sesungguhnya sesiapa di antara kamu yang hidup selepasku dia akan melihat banyak perselisihan, maka hendaklah kamu berpegang dengan Sunnahku dan Sunnah Khulafa Rashidin

Mahdiyyin, gigitlah ia (sekuat hati) dengan gigi geraham, dan hendaklah kamu jauhi perkara yang diada-adakan (dalam urusan agama) kerana ia adalah bidah sedangkan setiap bidah itu adalah sesat[9]. Dari sudut bahasa, ungkapan yang bermaksud hendaklah kamu berpegang diistilahkan sebagai ism fil amar (katanama suruhan) yang membawa konsekuensi hukum wajib. Kedudukan maksud suruhan yang terkandung dalam hadith ini sama seperti kedudukan maksud suruhan yang terkandung dalam firman Allah Subhanahu wa Taala: yang bermaksud: Diwajibkan ke atas kamu berpuasa[10]. Oleh itu, perintah supaya berpegang teguh dengan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam seperti yang terkandung dalam hadith itu mesti difahami sebagai suatu tuntutan yang wajib dilaksanakan oleh seluruh umat Islam sama seperti kewajipan solat, puasa dan lain-lain. Khutbah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam ini dilihat mengandungi mukjizat ilmiah yang besar kerana ia menggambarkan suasana perselisihan yang akan berlaku kepada umat Islam selepas kewafatan Baginda. Justeru, Baginda dengan tegas mengingatkan kepada sesiapa yang hidup pada zaman perselisihan itu supaya menghadapinya dengan cara berpegang teguh dengan Sunnahnya dan juga Sunnah para Khalifah yang menggantinya. Selain daripada menggambarkan suasana perselisihan, khutbah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu juga mengisyaratkan kepada bahaya pemikiran dan amalan bidah sebagai faktor yang menyebabkan berlakunya perselisihan tersebut. Menjelaskan kepentingan berpegang teguh dengan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam ini, Ibn Taimiyyah rahimahullah (728H) berkata (maksudnya): Maka wajib ke atas setiap individu mencurahkan segala usaha dan tenaga untuk mengetahui apa yang dibawa olehnya (Rasulullah) serta mematuhinya, kerana inilah saja jalan pelepasan daripada azab yang pedih dan juga jalan kejayaan bagi mendapat nikmat syurga[11]. Kaedah usul telah menetapkan bahawa Ma La Yatim Al-Wajib Illa Bihi Fahuwa Wajib, maksudnya: "Perkara yang tidak sempurna perkara wajib melainkan dengannya, maka ia juga adalah wajib"[12]. Justeru, oleh kerana kewajipan berpegang dengan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu tidak akan terhasil melainkan dengan adanya usaha untuk menghidup dan menegakkannya, maka usaha menghidup dan menegakkan Sunnah itu juga mesti dilihat sebagai suatu kewajipan ke

atas setiap muslim. Usaha menghidupkan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dilihat sebagai amat penting kerana setiap Sunnah yang dihidupkan bererti mematikan satu amalan bidah manakala membiarkan hidupnya satu amalan bidah akan mengakibatkan matinya satu Sunnah. Sabda Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam:

.
Maksudnya: Urusan kamu selepasku akan dikuasai oleh kaum lelaki yang akan memadamkan Sunnah dan beramal dengan (amalan) bidah[13]. Dalam sebuah hadith lain, Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam memberitahu Huzaifah Ibn Al-Yaman radhiallahu 'anh bahawa kebaikan yang ada pada umat Islam menjadi pudar kerana adanya unsur dakhan di kalangan mereka. Bila Huzaifah bertanya apakah unsur dakhan itu, Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam menjawab:

.
Maksudnya: Golongan yang tidak beramal dengan Sunnahku dan yang tidak berhidayah dengan petunjukku, kamu mengetahui dan mengingkari mereka[14]. Seperti hadith sebelumnya, hadith ini juga mengandungi mukjizat ilmiah yang besar kerana ia menggambarkan kelemahan yang menimpa umat Islam disebabkan tindakan mereka meninggalkan Sunnah Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, kemudian menggantikannya dengan amalan bidah yang mereka ciptakan. Justeru untuk memastikan prinsip berpegang dengan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu benar-benar mantap, umat Islam tiada pilihan melainkan terlebih dahulu menjauhi segala amalan bidah, kerana rawatan bagi sesuatu penyakit bermula dengan mencegah faktor yang menyebabkan timbulnya penyakit tersebut.

Cabaran Menghidupkan Sunnah Usaha menghidupkan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam sering kali dipandang serong oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak memahami kepentingannya. Ada yang menganggap Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam sebagai perkara kecil, remeh

temeh, titik bengik yang tidak harus diberi perhatian dalam dunia yang serba moden ini. Ada pula yang menolak Sunnah Nabi kerana menganggapnya tidak sesuai dengan kehidupan moden, dan ada juga yang menolaknya bila didapati ia kontradik dengan budaya dan amalan rutin bangsanya. Penolakan sesetengah pihak terhadap Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam disebabkan kejahilan mereka tentang perkara itu bukanlah cabaran yang paling utama bagi Ahli Sunnah, kerana orang jahil yang jujur akan mudah menerima kebenaran setelah mendapat penjelasan yang tepat dan terperinci. Tetapi cabaran paling besar yang perlu dihadapi sebenarnya datang daripada Ahli Bidah yang sengaja melontarkan pelbagai tohmahan terhadap Ahli Sunnah secara jahat dan khianat, semata-mata untuk memburukkan usaha mereka, sehingga ada yang tergamak menggelarkan mereka (Ahli Sunnah) dengan pelbagai gelaran negatif[15]. Dalam konteks Malaysia, antara individu yang dilihat paling banyak dan paling lantang membuat tohmahan ke atas Ahli Sunnah ialah seorang yang bernama Zamihan Mat Zin Al-Ghari[16] (selepas ini dipanggil Al-Ghari sahaja), melalui beberapa buah tulisannya, seperti Kesahihan As-Salaf Dan Al-Khalaf[17], yang kemudiannya beliau terbitkan dengan judul As-Salafiyyah Al-WahhabiyyahSatu Penilaian[18].

Tohmahan Terhadap Sahabat Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam Dalam naskhah asal yang berjudul Kesahihan As-Salaf Dan Al-Khalaf (Hal: 34), Al-Ghari dalam memberi pandangannya terhadap para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum dengan berkata: Gejala murtad yang berlaku sebagaimana yang telah disenaraikan oleh Ibn Hajar dalam al-Isobah menggambarkan kepada kita bahawa hanya sebilangan Sahabat sahaja yang sah untuk dibuat ikutan. Kemudian, Al-Ghari berkata lagi: Hadis ini memberikan kita petunjuk bahawa tidak semua para Sahabat itu boleh dibuat ikutan. Kata-kata Al-Ghari ini jelas menggambarkan tohmahan, kecaman, celaan, pemfasikan dan malah suatu bentuk pengkafiran terhadap para Sahabat radhiallahu

'anhum kerana beliau mengaitkan faktor penafian daripada mengikuti para Sahabat itu dengan gejala murtad. Apabila penolakan terhadap sebahagian daripada para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum dikaitkan dengan faktor kemurtadan, bermakna beliau telah mentohmah sebahagian daripada para Sahabat dengan tohmahan murtad. Dengan kenyataan ini, maka Al-Ghari dilihat cenderung kepada prinsip pemikiran Rafidah (pelampau Syiah) atau Khawarij yang telah mengkafirkan sebahagian daripada Sahabat Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Kecenderungan Al-Ghari kepada ideologi pelampau Syiah atau Khawarij ini jelas bercanggah dengan pegangan golongan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang melihat semua Sahabat Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu sebagai adil (tidak melakukan perkara fasiq apatah lagi perkara kufur). Keadilan para Sahabat ini telah disahkan melalui banyak nas syara dan juga melalui kata-kata para ulama muktabar. Antaranya, firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

Maksudnya: Orang-orang yang terdahulu lagi yang pertama-tama (masuk Islam) di antara orang-orang Muhajirin dan Ansar dan orang-orang yang mengikuti mereka dengan baik, Allah redha kepada mereka dan mereka pun redha kepada Allah dan Allah menyediakan bagi mereka syurga-syurga yang mengalir sungai-sungai di dalamnya, mereka kekal di dalamnya selamalamanya, Itulah kemenangan yang besar[19]. Dalam surah yang sama, Allah Subhanahu wa Taala berfirman:

Maksudnya: Sesungguhnya Allah telah menerima taubat Nabi, orangorang Muhajirin dan orang-orang Ansar yang mengikuti Nabi dalam masa kesulitan, setelah hati segolongan dari mereka hampir berpaling, kemudian Allah menerima taubat mereka. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyayang kepada mereka[20]. Manakala Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wasallam pula bersabda:

.
Maksudnya: Jangan kamu kecam Sahabat-sahabat ku! Jangan kamu cela Sahabat-sahabat ku! Kerana demi (Allah) yang nyawaku di tanganNya, jika seseorang kamu menginfaqkan emas sebesar Bukit Uhud sekalipun nescaya tidak menyamai nilai secupak emas atau setengah cupak emas yang dibelanjakan oleh mereka[21]. Dalam menghuraikan maksud hadith ini, An-Nawawi rahimahullah (676H) berkata (maksudnya): Dan ketahuilah bahawa mencela Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum adalah haram, (bahkan) dari seburuk-buruk perkara haram, samada mereka yang terlibat dalam fitnah-fitnah atau pun tidak, kerana mereka adalah mujtahid[22]. Dalam kitabnya yang lain, An-Nawawi berkata (maksudnya): Sahabat secara keseluruhannya mempunyai keistimewaan, iaitu tidak perlu dipersoalkan tentang keadilan mereka, kerana mereka adalah adil secara mutlak berdasarkan nas-nas Al-Quran, As-Sunnah dan Ijma mereka (ulama) yang diiktiraf, bahawa mereka kesemuanya adalah adil, termasuklah yang terlibat di dalam fitnah-fitnah[23]. Selain daripada itu, An-Nawawi juga telah memetik kata-kata Al-Qadhi Iyadh al-Yahsubi (yang bermaksud): Dan mazhab kami (mazhab Maliki) dan mazhab jumhur ulama berpendapat bahawa orang yang mencela Sahabat mesti dijatuhkan hukum tazir (mengikut budibicara hakim), manakala sebahagian ulama Maliki berpendapat mesti dibunuh[24]. Abu Zurah Ar-Razi mengungkapkan katanya yang bermaksud: Apabila kamu melihat seorang lelaki mengkritik seseorang Sahabat Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam maka ketahuilah bahawa lelaki itu adalah seorang zindiq (anti Islam). Ini kerana Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam itu adalah benar, Al-Quran adalah benar, apa yang dibawa oleh Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam (As-Sunnah) adalah benar, sedangkan Al-Quran dan As-Sunnah itu kedua-duanya disampaikan kepada kita oleh para Sahabat Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Sesungguhnya mereka (pengkritik

Sahabat) ingin mentajrih (menilai buruk) saksi-saksi kita supaya mereka boleh menolak Al-Quran dan AsSunnah, sedangkan mereka lebih layak untuk ditajrihkan kerana mereka adalah zanadiqah (kata jamak bagi zindiq)[25]. Ibn Abd Al-Barr al-Qurtubi (463H) berkata (maksudnya): Kami tidak perlu lagi mengkaji tentang hal-ehwal mereka (Sahabat) kerana golongan yang benar dari kalangan umat Islam iaitu Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah telah bersepakat bahawa mereka adalah adil[26]. Al-Ghazali (505H) pula berkata (maksudnya): Generasi Salaf (tiga generasi terawal) dan jumhur Khalaf (generasi selepas Salaf) berpendapat bahawa keadilan mereka (Sahabat) telah dimaklumi dengan pentadilan (akuan baik) Allah dan pujianNya terhadap mereka. Maka inilah aqidah kami tentang mereka, kecuali telah sabit secara qatei ada yang melakukan perkara fasiq sedangkan dia mengetahuinya, tetapi yang demikian itu adalah sesuatu yang tidak pernah sabit. Justeru, mereka (Sahabat) tidak berhajat kepada pentadilan (daripada manusia)[27]. Al-Hafiz Ibn As-Solah (642H) pula berkata (maksudnya): Kemudian, sesungguhnya seluruh umat berijma (bersepakat) mentadilkan semua Sahabat termasuklah mereka yang terlibat dalam fitnahfitnah, maka yang demikian itu adalah ijma ulama yang boleh dipakai ijma mereka, kerana berbaik sangka terhadap mereka (Sahabat) dan kerana melihat kepada kesan terhadap mereka. Seolah-olah Allah Subhanahu wa Taala telah membuka peluang ijma untuk itu kerana mereka (Sahabat) adalah periwayat syariat, Wallahualam[28]. Manakala Ibn Taimiyyah pula mengungkapkan katanya yang bermaksud: Dan tidak syak lagi bahawa tujuan di sebalik mengkritik dan mengecam Sahabat ialah untuk melenyapkan Al-Kitab dan As-Sunnah[29]. Petikan kata-kata daripada para tokoh ulama Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah di atas jelas menunjukkan betapa besarnya kesalahan mengecam dan mencela para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum. Persoalannya di sini, jika tindakan mengecam Sahabat itu dilihat oleh para ulama sebagai haram, zindiq, menyalahi ijma, wajib ditazir atau dihukum bunuh, maka apa pula hukumnya mereka yang mentohmah para Sahabat sebagai murtad (kafir)? Sedangkan, mengkafir orang Islam biasa yang bukan dari kalangan

Sahabat pun sudah cukup untuk membalikkan hukum kafir itu kepada diri sendiri. Kejahatan Al-Ghari lebih ketara lagi apabila beliau cuba menegakkan ideologi sesatnya itu dengan memetik sebuah hadith sahih riwayat Muslim, dengan matan (lafaz):


Maksudnya: Pada sahabatku terdapat 12 orang munafiq, lapan daripada mereka tidak dapat memasuki syurga sehinggalah unta dapat memasuki lubang jarum[30]. Matan hadith ini sengaja dipilih khusus oleh Al-Ghari untuk menjustifikasikan pendapatnya bahawa sebahagian daripada Sahabat tidak boleh dijadikan ikutan. Sedangkan maksud sebenar perkataan ashabi (sahabatku) dalam hadith ini ialah sebagaimana yang dinyatakan oleh An-Nawawi di dalam syarahnya al-Minhaj ialah, iaitu: Mereka yang dinisbahkan kepada persahabatan dengan Baginda Shallallahu 'alaihi wasallam (dari kalangan Umat Baginda)[31]. Maksud ini dijelaskan oleh riwayat kedua yang juga diriwayatkan oleh Muslim selepas riwayat di atas dengan lafaz:


Maksudnya; Pada umatku terdapat 12 orang munafiq[32]. Perkataan umatku dalam riwayat kedua adalah tafsiran bagi maksud perkataan sahabatku dalam riwayat pertama, kerana kedua-duanya adalah daripada riwayat Huzaifah Ibn al-Yaman radhiallahu 'anh[33]. Dengan perkataan lain, ia bermaksud: Mereka yang dinisbahkan kepada persahabatan dengan Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dalam konteks bahasanya dan bukannya dalam konteks istilah para ulama. Kerana mengikut istilah para ulama, definisi Sahabat ialah: sesiapa yang sempat berjumpa Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wasallam (sewaktu Baginda masih hidup), beriman dengan Baginda, dan kemudiannya mati dalam Islam[34]. Oleh kerana syarat untuk diiktiraf sebagai Sahabat mengikut definisi ini ialah mesti beriman dengan Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, maka dengan syarat ini, bermakna golongan munafiqin awal-awal lagi terkeluar daripada definisi istilah, kerana

mereka pada hakikatnya adalah tidak beriman. Namun, dari segi bahasa, mereka masih lagi dinisbahkan kepada persahabatan dengan Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam kerana mereka memang hidup pada zaman Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dan bergaul dengan Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Penggunaan istilah Sahabat dengan maksud bahasa untuk golongan munafiqin telahpun berlaku pada zaman Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam lagi, sewaktu Umar Ibn al-Khattab radhiallahu 'anh meminta kebenaran Baginda untuk memancung kepala Ibn Ubai, Baginda melarang beliau dengan sabdanya:

.
Maksudnya: Biarkan dia! (supaya) Jangan ada mengatakan bahawa Muhammad membunuh sahabatnya[35]. orang

Hadith ini menunjukkan bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam memanggil Ibn Ubai dengan gelaran sahabat, sedangkan telah sedia dimaklumi bahawa beliau (Ibn Ubai) ialah ketua golongan munafiqin. Ini bermakna, penggunaan perkataan sahabat itu hanyalah dengan maksud bahasanya sahaja dan bukan dengan maksud istilah. Justeru, perkataan sahabat yang digunakan untuk 12 orang munafiqin dalam hadith berkenaan bukanlah bermaksud sahabat Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam yang sebenar, tetapi ia bermaksud: golongan Munafiqin dari kalangan Umat Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Di sini jelas betapa Al-Ghari telah mentahrifkan (memesongkan) hadith Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam daripada maksudnya yang sebenar sedangkan pemesongan seumpama ini sudah pasti tergolong dalam pembohongan ke atas Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, sebagaimana sabdanya:

.
Maksudnya: Sesiapa yang berdusta ke atasku dengan sengaja, maka dia telah menempah tempatnya dalam neraka[36].

Tohmahan Terhadap Ulama Seseorang yang tergamak mentohmah para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum dengan kemurtadan dan tergamak pula mentahrifkan maksud hadith Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, pasti tidak akan kekok untuk mentohmah para ulama. Justeru

sebahagian besar perbahasan buku Al-Ghari itu berkisar pada pembohongan dan pengkhianatan terhadap para ulama. Antara ulama yang paling teruk dizalimi oleh beliau ialah Al-Imam Al-Allamah Sheikh Al-Islam Abu Al-Abbas Taqiyyuddin Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Ibn Taimiyyah rahimahullah. Dalam kitabnya itu, Al-Ghari telah menyenaraikan sebanyak 14 isu-isu aqidah yang kononnya menjadi pegangan Ibn Taimiyyah secara sesat, antaranya beliau menyatakan bahawa Ibn Taimiyyah beritiqad dengan Qidamul Alam dengan nau. (alam itu sediakala dengan jenisnya)[37]. Al-Ghari menyertakan beberapa rujukan tentang isu tersebut, antaranya ialah Kitab Ibn Taimiyyah sendiri yang berjudul Minhaj As-Sunnah An-Nabawiyyah dan Muwafaqat Sahih Al-Manqul Li Sarih Al-Maqul (juga dikenali dengan judul Daru Taarud Al-Aql Bi An-Naql). Setelah dirujuk kepada kedua-dua kitab Ibn Taimiyyah yang asal, didapati Ibn Taimiyyah tidak pernah berkata dan beritiqad sedemikian, sebaliknya beliau hanya menjelaskan pendapat dan hujjah akal golongan Falasifah dan Ad-Dahriyyin yang mengatakan alam ini qadim bi an-nau, kemudian beliau menolak pendapat dan hujah-hujah tersebut dengan menggunakan hujah-hujah daripada lojik akal juga. Dalam kitab Daru Taarud Al-Aql Bi An-Naql, Ibn Taimiyyah berkata:

Maksudnya: Dan golongan Falasifah mengharuskan yang demikian itu dalam kes keberkekalan jenis alam dan bukan bahan-bahannya, tetapi golongan Ad-Dahriyyah dari kalangan mereka (Falasifah) menganggap bahawa pergerakan falak-falak itu termasuk dalam bab ini dan bahawa ia (falakfalak itu) qadim dari segi jenisnya. Maka (disebabkan anggapan itu) mereka (Ad-Dahriyyah) beritiqad bahawa ia (falak-falak) itu qadim, dan mereka langsung tidak mempunyai dalil untuk dakwaan itu [38]. Manakala dalam kitab Minhaj As-Sunnah pula ibaratnya lebih panjang, dimana Ibn Taimiyyah memulakannya dengan mengemukakan shubuhat dan hujah golongan Falasifah yang mengatakan alam itu qadim dengan jenisnya. Beliau berkata:

: ...

Maksudnya: Maka sekiranya dikatakan[39] (oleh Falasifah): Apa yang kamu (Ahli Sunnah) sebutkan itu menunjukkan ternafinya bahawa alam itu sunyi daripada benda-benda baru kemudian barulah berlaku (benda-benda baru) di dalamnya, tetapi kami (Falasifah) berpendapat bahawa alam itu masih merangkumi benda-benda baru manakala yang qadim itu adalah asal-usul alam iaitu falaq-falaq dan jenis benda-benda baru seperti bentuk pergerakan falaq-falaq itu, adapun bahan-bahan yang baru maka ia memang baru tanpa khilaf (antara Falasifah dengan Ahli Sunnah)[40]. Setelah memaparkan shubuhat dan hujah puak Falasifah dalam bentuk kalam iftiradhi sebanyak dua halaman, maka barulah beliau menolaknya dengan jawapan yang ringkas lagi padat (Hal: 217), dengan katanya:

... :
Maksudnya: (Sekiranya dikatakan sedemikian, maka) dikatakan[41] (kepada Falasifah) itu: Ini adalah suatu qias yang batil (salah) dan suatu perbandingan yang fasid (rosak)...[42]. Kata-kata ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa Ibn Taimiyyah tidak beritiqad (berpegang) dengan Qidamul Alam dengan nau seperti yang didakwa oleh Al-Ghari, tetapi beliau hanya memetik kata-kata segolongan Falasifah yang mengatakan sedemikian dan kemudian beliau menolaknya. Justeru, tuduhan yang dibuat oleh AlGhari ke atas Ibn Taimiyyah itu dilihat sebagai satu tohmahan dan pengkhianatan ke atas seorang tokoh ulama Islam. Sedangkan pengkhianatan terhadap ulama bermakna pengkhianatan terhadap ilmu, dan pengkhianatan terhadap ilmu bermakna pengkhianatan terhadap orang yang menyampaikan ilmu iaitu Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam, manakala pengkhianatan terhadap Rasulullah Shallallahu alaihi wasallam bermakna pengkhianatan terhadap yang menurunkan ilmu, iaitu Allah Subhanahu wa Taala. Maka, lalu bukankah ini satu daripada ciri-ciri ilhad (anti Islam)?

Demikianlah contoh dua tohmahan Al-Ghari, yang dilihat sangat berpotensi untuk mengheretnya ke lembah kekufuran dan ilhad. Pada mulanya penulis bercadang untuk mengkaji dan menjawab semua pengkhianatan yang terkandung dalam buku tersebut, tetapi kesempitan masa dan kelemahan logistik pada ketika itu telah menghalang penulis daripada meneruskan hasrat tersebut. Namun, tanpa diduga, Allah Yang Maha Besar telah mewujudkan seorang insan yang gigih dan jujur (pada penilaian penulis) bernama Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah untuk menjawab sebahagian besar daripada kandungan buku Al-Ghari itu dalam sebuah buku beliau yang berjudul Pembongkaran Jenayah Ilmiyah Buku Salafiyyah Wahhabiyyah[43]. Hanya Allah sahaja yang mengetahui betapa gembiranya hati para pendukung Sunnah dengan kemunculan buku yang mengandungi jawapan-jawapan ilmiah lagi konkrit itu. Penulis beranggapan sekiranya tiada harapan lagi untuk mengembalikan Al-Ghari ke pangkal jalan, maka sekurang-kurangnya buku jawapan itu sudah memadai bagi menyedarkan para pembaca yang mungkin terkeliru dengan tulisannya. Penulis menjangkakan sebaik sahaja penjelasan yang terkandung dalam buku saudara Hafiz Firdaus ini sampai ke pengetahuan orang ramai atau pihak berkuasa agama, maka riwayat pengkhianatan Al-Ghari akan berakhir. Masa terus berlalu dan keadaan nampak seakan-akan reda, tetapi ternyata keadaan yang nampak reda itu rupa-rupanya bagaikan api dalam sekam. Al-Ghari muncul lagi, tetapi kali ini dengan penampilan yang lebih berani setelah beliau dikatakan menjawat jawatan Penolong Pengarah di sebuah jabatan agama. Antara tugas terawal yang diberikan kepada beliau ialah menjelaskan bahaya pemikiran Wahabi di Malaysia melalui dua kertas kerjanya: 1. 2. Menjawab Kritikan Terhadap Fahaman Wahabiyah Di Malaysia[44]. Memahami Ancaman Terhadap Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah[45]. Sama seperti tulisan-tulisannya yang lain, kandungan kedua-dua kertas kerja itu juga sarat dengan tohmahan, pengkhianatan dan penyelewengan ilmiah. Pada mulanya penulis mengambil sikap tunggu dan lihat, dengan harapan ada di kalangan pihak berkuasa agama yang sedar tentang perkara ini lalu diusahakan jalan penyelesaian yang terbaik. Namun, penantian ini tidak menampakkan adanya

tindakan yang boleh menenangkan jiwa orang beriman. Kalau adapun, ia mungkin sudah terlambat untuk menyekat penyebaran idea jahat Al-Ghari itu daripada sampai kepada masyarakat awam, lebih-lebih lagi bila ada pula pihak yang sealiran dengannya mula mencanangkan isu berkenaan dalam media tempatan. Justeru, penulis mengambil keputusan untuk membuat sedikit penjelasan terhadap tohmahan-tohmahan yang dilontarkan oleh Al-Ghari. Usaha ini bukan untuk membela mana-mana pihak, tetapi untuk membela kesucian ilmu Islam daripada penyelewengan metodologi dan pengkhianatan ilmiah. Setelah meneliti semua fakta yang terkandung dalam kedua-dua kertas kerja itu, penulis menyedari bahawa semua hujah Al-Ghari itu meskipun nampak ilmiah, tetapi pada hakikatnya ia dibina di atas kebebalan minda dan kejahatan jiwa semata-mata (sebagaimana yang akan dibuktikan selepas ini). Jika tidak kerana bimbangkan kekeliruan masyarakat yang jahil tentang pengkhianatan itu, maka menghabiskan masa untuk menjawab hujah-hujah tersebut adalah suatu tindakan yang kurang berbaloi. Banyak fakta yang beliau kemukakan tidak dinyatakan butiran sumber rujukannya secara lengkap, sedangkan pendekatan seperti itu menafikan ciri-ciri asas sebuah kajian ilmiah. Kemungkinan beliau sengaja ghaibkan butiran sumber-sumber rujukan itu supaya orang sukar mengesan penyelewengannya atau kemungkinan juga beliau hanya memetik fakta-fakta itu daripada rujukan sekunder (tidak asli) tanpa merujuk kepada rujukan primer (asli). Namun begitu, penulis berjaya mengesan fakta-fakta yang disebut oleh Al-Ghari dan memetiknya daripada sumbernya yang asal untuk dinilai oleh para pembaca sekelian. Penulis berharap penjelasan ini dapat diikuti oleh para pembaca dengan semangat firman Allah Subhanahu wa Taala:

Maksudnya: Sampaikanlah berita gembira itu kepada hambahambaKu yang mendengar perkataan lalu dia mengikuti yang terbaik daripadanya[46]. Akhir kata, penulis merakamkan setinggi-tinggi penghargaan kepada semua para ikhwah yang telah memberikan sokongan moral untuk menyiapkan risalah ini. Dengan menyedari segala kekurangan yang ada, penulis mengharapkan pertolongan

Yang Maha Kuasa, semoga penjelasan ini nanti dapat memulihkan semangat para pendukung Sunnah untuk meneruskan usaha mereka dalam menegakkan Sunnah, dan penulis juga berharap semoga tulisan ini akan menjadi hujah bagi penulis bila berada di hadapan Allah Subhanahu wa Taala pada Hari Akhirat kelak.

Azwira Abdul Aziz Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan. 21 Feb 2006

Tohmahan Pertama: Ibn Taimiyyah Dan Ibn al-Qayyim Pencetus Fahaman Tajsim Dan
Tashbih.

[1]

Tabi ien.
[2] [3]

Istilah yang biasa digunakan untuk menunjukkan perkataan atau amalan para Sahabat dan Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar Ihya' At-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, Lubnan, 1991, 1: 15.

Ada yang berpendapat bahawa istilah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah berasal daripada athar Ibn Abbas ketika beliau mentafsirkan maksud ayat 106 surah Ali Imran, dengan katanya yang bermaksud: Maka adapun golongan yang putih berseri muka mereka ialah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah dan orang berilmu, manakala golongan yang hitam muka mereka pula ialah Ahli Bidah dan kesesatan. Tetapi ia adalah riwayat yang terlalu lemah kerana dalam sanadnya ada seorang perawi bernama Mujasyi Ibn Amr, yang dinilai oleh Ibn Main sebagai salah seorang pemalsu hadith, manakala Al-Bukhari pula menilainya sebagai mungkar majhul dan Al-Uqaili menilainya sebagai mungkar al-hadith. Lihat: AlLalakai, Hibatullah Ibn Al-Hasan, Syarh Usul I tiqad Ahl As-Sunnah Wa Al-Jamaah, Tahqiq: Ahmad Sad Hamdan, Dar At-Tayyibah, Riyadh, 1408H, 1: 71, No: 74. Az-Zahabi, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Uthman, Mizan Al-Itidal Fi Naqd Ar-Rijal, Tahqiq: Ali Muhammad Al-Bajawi dan Fathiyyah Ali Al-Bajawi, Dar Al-Fikr

Al-Arabi, t.th, 4: 356, No: 7066. At-Tarmizi, Muhammad Ibn Isa Ibn Saurah, Sunan at-Tarmizi, Dar Ihya At-Turath Al-Arabi, t.th, 4: 558, No: 2317, 2318 dan Ibn Majah, Muhammad Ibn Yazid Al-Qazwini, Sunan Ibn Majah, Dar AlFikr, Beirut, t.th, 2: 1315, No: 3976. Hadith ini telah dinilai hasan oleh An-Nawawi dalam Riyadh AsSalihin, tetapi dinilai sahih oleh Ibn Al-Qayyim dalam Al-Jawab Al-Kafi, juga oleh Muhammad Syakir dalam Musnad Ahmad dan juga oleh Al-Albani dalam Sharh At-Tahawiyyah, Sahih Sunan At-Tarmizi, Sahih Sunan Ibn Majah, Misykat Al-Masabih, Sahih At-Targhib dan kitab Al-Iman karya Ibn Taimiyyah. Lihat: Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, atas talian: http://www.dorar.net./mhadith.asp.
[4]

Malik Ibn Anas, Al-Muwatta (bersama Syarh Az-Zarqani), Dar Al-Fikr, Beirut, t.th, No: 1727. Hadith dinilai sebagai masyhur oleh Ibn Abd Al-Barr Al-Qurtubi dalam At-Tamhid dan dinilai sebagai hasan oleh Al-Albani dalam Misykat Al-Masabih, At-Tawassul dan Manzilah As-Sunnah. Lihat: Ad-Durar AsSaniyyah. atas talian: http://www.dorar.net./mhadith.asp.
[5] [6] [7] [8]

Syarat kedua ialah niat yang betul. Muslim Ibn al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar al-Ihya at-Turath al-Arabi, 1991, No: 1718.

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dar Ibn Kathir, Al-Yamamah, Beirut, 1987, No: 4776, dan Muslim Ibn al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar al-Ihya at-Turath al-Arabi, 1991, No: 1401. Abu Daud, Sulaiman Ibn Al-Asy-Ath, Sunan Abi Daud, Dar Al-Hadith, Beirut, 1974, No:4607 At-Tirmizi, Muhammad Ibn Isa, Sunan At-Tarmizi, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987, No: 2510 dan Ibn Majah, Muhammad Ibn Yazid Al-Qazwini, Sunan Ibn Majah, Dar Ihya Al-Kutub Al-Arabiyyah, Kaherah, t.th, No: 4036. Hadith ini telah dinilai sahih oleh Al-Albani, Muhammad Nasir Ad-Din, Silsilah AsSahihah, Maktabah Al-Maarif, Riyadh, 1996, 6: 526, No: 2735.
[9] [10] [11]

Al-Baqarah, 2: 183.

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Majmu al-Fatawa, Terbitan Waqaf, Arab Saudi, 1398H, 1:5-6.
[12] [13]

Wahbah Az-Zuhaili, Usul Al-Fiqh Al-Islami, Dar Al-Fikr, Damsyik, Syria, 1986, 2: 67-71.

Ibn Majah, Muhammad Ibn Yazid Al-Qazwini, Sunan Ibn Majah, Dar Ihya Al-Kutub AlArabiyyah, Kaherah, t.th, 2: 956, No: 2865. Hadith ini telah dinilai sahih oleh Al-Albani dalam Silsilah AlAhadith As-Sahihah, No: 2864 dan Sahih Sunan Ibn Majah, No: 2332. Lihat: Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, atas talian: http://www.dorar.net./mhadith.asp. Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail, 1987, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dar Ibn Kathir, Al-Yamamah, Beirut, 3: 1319, No: 3411 dan 6: 2595, No: 6673. Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj t.th, Sahih Muslim, Dar Ihya AtTurath Al-Arabiyy, Beirut, 3: 1475, No: 1847.
[14]

[15] [16]

Seperti 'jumud', 'kuno', 'ketinggalan zaman', ekstrimis, 'wahhabi', 'militan' dan pengganas.

Kalimah Ghar dalam bahasa arab bermaksud gua, kemungkinan beliau menisbahkan dirinya kepada perkataan tersebut sempena nama tempat kelahirannya iaitu Gua Musang, Kelantan. Penulis masih menyimpan naskhah asal tulisan ini, hasil bantuan seorang sahabat yang mendapatkannya.
[17]

Terbitan Terajaya Enterprise, Cheras, Selangor, 2001. Al-Ghari menerbitkan tulisannya itu dengan judul As-Salafiyyah Al-WahhabiyyahSatu Penilaian, setelah dia buang sebahagian daripada isi kandungan asalnya. Beliau berbuat demikian semata-mata untuk menyembunyikan ideologi sesatnya daripada pengetahuan umum, terutama daripada pihak berkuasa agama. Tindakan beliau membuang bahagian tersebut tidak boleh dianggap sebagai taubat kerana jika beliau benar-benar menyedari kesalahannya dan bertaubat, beliau bertanggungjawab untuk mengumumkan kesalahan dan taubatnya dalam buku yang beliau terbitkan dengan judul baru itu. Oleh kerana tiada sebarang pengumuman tentang perkara tersebut dalam buku yang beliau terbitkan dengan judul baru. Ini bermakna beliau masih kekal dengan kesesatan tersebut.
[18] [19] [20] [21]

At-Taubah, 9: 100. At-Taubah, 9: 117.

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dar al-Matbaah as-Salafiyyah, Kaherah, Mesir, 1407H, No: 3673 dan Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar Ihya at-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, Lubnan, 1991, No: 2540 & 2541. An-Nawawi, Yahya Ibn Syaraf, Al-Minhaj Fi Sharh Sahih Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Al-Matbaah Al-Misriyyah, Qaherah, Mesir, 1930, 16: 93. Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani membuat ulasan yang hampir sama dengan ulasan An-Nawawi ini, lihat: Fath al-Bari Bi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Dar al-Matbaah asSalafiyyah, Qaherah, Mesir, 1407H, 7: 44.
[22]

An-Nawawi, Yahya Ibn Syaraf, Irsyad Tullah al-Haqaiq Ila Marifat Sunan Khairi al-Khalaiq, Dar al-Basyair al-Islamiyyah, Beirut, Lubnan, 1987, 2: 591-592.
[23]

An-Nawawi, Yahya Ibn Syaraf, Al-Minhaj Fi Sharh Sahih Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Al-Matbaah Al-Misriyyah, Qaherah, Mesir, 1930, 16: 93.
[24]

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Thabit, Al-Kifayah Fi Ilm Ar-Riwayah, Beirut, Lubnan, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1988, Hal: 49.
[25]

Yusuf Ibn Abd Al-Barr Al-Qurtubi, Al-Istiab Fi Asma As-Sahabah, Beirut, Lubnan, Dar AlFikr, 1978, 1: 7-8.
[26] [27]

Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Al-Mustasfa Fi Ilm Al-Usul, Beirut, Lubnan, Dar Al-

Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1413H, Hal: 130. Uthman Ibn Abd Ar-Rahman Asy-Syahrazuri, Ulum al-Hadith, Beirut, Lubnan, Dar Al-Kutub Al- Ilmiyyah, 1978, Hal: 147.
[28]

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Minhaj As-Sunnah An-Nabawiyyah, Maktabah Ibn Taimiyyah, Amman, Jordan, 1409H, 8: 479.
[29] [30]

Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar Ihya At-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, Lubnan, 1991, No:

2779. An-Nawawi, Yahya Ibn Syaraf, Al-Minhaj Fi Sharh Sahih Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Al-Matbaah Al-Misriyyah, Qaherah, Mesir, 1930, 17: 125.
[31] [32]

Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim, Dar Ihya At-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, Lubnan, 1991, No:

2779. Inilah antara kepentingan ilmu Takhrij Hadith yang melibatkan pengumpulan riwayat, kerana sebahagian riwayat itu menjadi tafsiran bagi maksud sebahagian yang lain, tetapi sayangnya, tidak ramai yang mengaplikasikan disiplin ilmu ini lalu kesilapan sering terjadi.
[33]

Al-Asqalani, Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar, Al-Isobah Fi Tamyiz As-Sahabah, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, Lubnan, 1978, 1: 10.
[34]

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dar al-Matbaa as-Salafiyyah, Qaherah, Mesir, 1407H, No: 4907.
[35]

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ibn Ismail, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dar Ibn Kathir, Al-Yamamah, Beirut, 1987, No: 1229 & 3274.
[36]

Buku baru As-Salafiyyah Al-WahhabiyyahSatu Penilaian, Hal: 101, manakala buku asal Kesahihan As-Salaf Dan Al-Khalaf, Hal: 137.
[37]

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Daru Taarud Al-Aql Bi An-Naql, Dar alKunuz Al-Arabiyyah, Beirut, Lubnan, 1391H, 2: 148.
[38]

Dalam Bahasa Arab, ungkapan seperti ini diistilahkan sebagai Jumlah Syartiyyah yang perlu ada jawapannya.
[39]

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, Maktabah Ibn Taimiyyah, Amman, Jordan, 1409H, 1: 215-217.
[40] [41]

Ini adalah jawapan bagi Jumlah Syartiyyah tersebut.

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, Maktabah Ibn Taimiyyah, Amman, Jordan, 1409H, 1: 217.
[42]

Terbitan Jahabersa, Johor Bahru, Johor, 2003. Sesiapa yang terbaca buku Al-Ghari, maka dia perlu juga membaca buku saudara Hafiz Firdaus ini supaya sebarang kekeliruan dapat dihindarkan.
[43]

Kertas kerja ini dibentangkan oleh Al-Ghari dalam Seminar Penjelasan Ajaran Yang bertentangan Dengan Ajaran Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah, anjuran Jabatan Agama Islam Negeri Selangor (JAIS) pada bulan Oktober 2005. Al-Ghari juga memiliki sebuah buku kecil dengan judul yang sama tetapi dengan kandungan yang berbeza, diterbitkan oleh Syathariyah Niagajaya Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, 2002. Nampaknya Al-Ghari ketandusan idea untuk memberi judul kepada hasil-hasil karyanya. Apa pun, buku di tangan anda sekarang ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada kertas kerja Al-Ghari dan bukan buku kecil tersebut.
[44]

Kertas Kerja Bahagian Dakwah, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM). Meskipun judul dua kertas ini berlainan, tetapi isi kandungannya dilihat hampir sama.
[45] [46]

Az-Zumar, 39: 17-18.

TOHMAHAN PERTAMA: Ibn Taimiyyah Dan Ibn al-Qayyim Pencetus Fahaman Tajsim Dan Tashbih.

Dalam Menjawab Kritikan Terhadap Fahaman Wahabiyah Di Malaysia, Hal: 3-4 (Memahami Ancaman Terhadap Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah, Hal: 4-5) Al-Ghari mentohmah Ibn Taimiyyah[1] dan muridnya Ibn Al-Qayyim[2] sebagai pencetus fahaman tajsim (memvisualisasikan Tuhan) dan tashbih (menyerupakan Tuhan dengan makhluk). Beliau cuba membuktikan tohmahan itu berdasarkan kenyataan Ibn Taimiyyah yang dikatakan menolak takwilan terhadap ayat-ayat sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dalam kitab Munazarah Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah, manakala tuduhan ke atas Ibn AlQayyim pula didasarkan kepada kitab Mukhtasar As-Sawaiq Al-Mursalah. Kemudian, dalam Menjawab Kritikan Terhadap Fahaman Wahabiyah Di Malaysia, Hal: 6, Al-Ghari menuduh Ibn Taimiyyah ada menyatakan dalam

kitabnya At-Tasis Fi Ar-Radd Ala Asas At-Taqdis bahawa aqidah tajsim dan tasybih tidak dicela dalam Al-Quran dan tidak ada seorangpun dari kalangan ulama salaf yang mengkritik aqidah tersebut.

PENJELASAN:

Pertama: Antara Ciri Golongan Ahli Sunnah Adalah Mereka Dituduh Berfahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih Oleh Golongan Ahli Bidah. Kedua: Ibn Taimiyyah Sebenarnya Menolak Fahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih. Ketiga: Lima Kaedah Dalam Berinteraksi Dengan Sifat-Sifat Allah. Keempat: Ibn al-Qayyim Juga Menolak Fahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih. Kelima: Kata-Kata Sebenar Ibn Taimiyyah Dalam Kitab At-Tasis Fi Ar-Radd Ala Asas AtTaqdis.

Pertama: Antara Ciri Golongan Ahli Sunnah Adalah Mereka Dituduh Berfahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih Oleh Golongan Ahli Bidah.

Tuduhan ke atas tokoh ulama Ahli Sunnah sebagai mujassimah dan musyabbihah bukanlah suatu yang baru kerana ia telah berlaku sejak dari dulu lagi ketika kemunculan aliran-aliran pemikiran yang sesat[3]. Dalam konteks ini, Abu Hatim Ar-Razi rahimahullah (227H) berkata (maksudnya):

Tanda-tanda aliran Al-Jahmiyyah adalah mereka menggelar Ahli Sunnah sebagai musyabbihah[4]. Al-Barbahari rahimahullah (329H) pula berkata (maksudnya): Bila kamu mendengar seseorang berkata (kepada Ahli Sunnah): Si fulan adalah musyabbih (menyerupakan Sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dengan sifat makhluk) atau si fulan memperkatakan tentang tasybih, maka ketahuilah bahawa dia (orang yang berkata itu) ialah seorang Jahmiyyah [5]. Manakala Abu Uthman As-Sobuni rahimahullah (499H) pula berkata (maksudnya): Ciri-ciri ahli bidah adalah sangat jelas dan yang paling jelas adalah sikap mereka yang secara terang-terang memusuhi dan menghina Ahli Sunnah dan Ahli Athar serta menuduh mereka dengan tuduhan yang buruk seperti Al-Hasyawiyyah (orang yang mementingkan perkara remeh-temeh), Al-Jahalah (orang yang jahil) dan Al-Musyabbihah (orang yang menyerupakan Sifat Allah dengan sifat makhluk)[6]. Justeru segala tuduhan yang dilemparkan oleh Al-Ghari ke atas Ibn Taimiyyah dan Ibn Al-Qayyim mestilah dinilai dan dipastikan kebenarannya terlebih dahulu, kerana seseorang yang sanggup berbohong ke atas Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dan tergamak mengecam para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum akan lebih tergamak untuk berbohong dan mengecam para ulama selain mereka. Allah Subhanahu wa Taala berfirman:


Maksudnya: Wahai orang beriman! Jika datang kepadamu seorang fasiq membawa suatu berita, maka periksalah dengan teliti, agar kamu tidak menimpakan suatu musibah ke atas suatu kaum tanpa mengetahui keadaan sebenarnya, lalu kamu menyesal di atas perbuatanmu itu[7].

Kedua:

Ibn Taimiyyah Sebenarnya Menolak Fahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih.

Judul sebenar kitab yang dinisbahkan oleh Al-Ghari kepada Ibn Taimiyyah ialah Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah Wa Majlis Al-Munazarah Fiha Baina Syeikh Islam Ibn Taimiyyah Wa Ulama Asrih. Berdasarkan judul ini, dapat difahami secara mudah bahawa kitab itu sebenarnya bukan karya Ibn Taimiyyah, tetapi karya ulasan oleh ulama terkemudian. Karya Ibn Taimiyyah yang sebenar ialah Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah. Demikian juga bagi kitab Mukhtasar As-Sawaiq Al-Mursalah, ia adalah ringkasan daripada karya asal Ibn Al-Qayyim yang berjudul As-Sawaiq AlMursalah Fi Ar-Rad Ala Al-Jahmiyyah Wa Al-Muattilah. Bila dirujuk kepada kitab Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah dari awal sehingga akhir, maka didapati Ibn Taimiyyah langsung tidak menyebut ungkapan yang menunjukkan bahawa beliau berpegang dengan fahaman tajsim atau tasybih, sebaliknya keseluruhan kenyataan beliau berkenaan sifat-sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala menjurus kepada penolakan terhadap dua jenis fahaman sesat, iaitu tajsim (menjisimkan Allah Subhanahu wa Taala atau tasybih) dan tatil (menafikan sifat bagi Allah Subhanahu wa Taala). Bahkan, Ibn Taimiyyah sebenarnya langsung tidak menyebut perkataan takwil dalam kitabnya Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah seperti yang didakwa oleh Al-Ghari itu. Kata Ibn Taimiyyah:

... ...

Maksudnya: Maka ini adalah itiqad firqah najiah (puak yang selamat) Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang beroleh pertolongan sehingga hari Kiamat, iaitu beriman dengan Allah Dan di antara (cara) beriman dengan Allah ialah beriman dengan apa yang Dia telah sifatkan diriNya dengannya dalam kitabNya dan dengan apa yang telah RasulNya Muhammad Shallallahu alaihi wasallam menyifatkanNya dengannya, tanpa tahrif (mengubah atau menukar ganti makna)[8], tanpa tatil (menafikan sifat bagi Allah Subhanahu wa Taala), tanpa takyif (menggambarkan rupa bentuk sifat) dan tanpa tamthil (mengumpamakan makna dengan sesuatu). Bahkan, mereka (Ahli As-Sunnah Wal Jamaah) beriman sesungguhnya Allah Subhanahu wa Taala tidak sebanding (Zat, SifatSifat dan pentadbiran) Nya dengan sesuatu apapun, dan Dialah yang Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Melihat[9]. Mereka (Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah) tidak menafikan dariNya apa yang Dia telah sifatkan diriNya dengannya, mereka tidak mentahrifkan perkataan dari tempattempat (atau maksud)nya yang sebenar, mereka tidak mengilhadkan (menolak secara anti) nama-nama Allah serta ayat-ayatNya, mereka tidak membentukkan rupa makna dan mereka tidak mengumpamakan sifat-sifatNya dengan sifat-sifat makhlukNya, kerana sesungguhnya (Allah) Subhanahu wa Taala tidak ada yang menyamai namaNya, tidak ada yang menyetaraiNya, tidak ada yang menyekutuinya dan tidak boleh dikiaskanNya dengan makhlukNya, Subhanahu Wa Taala[10]. Di halaman yang lain, Ibn Taimiyyah berkata:

...
Maksudnya: Maka sesungguhnya firqah najiah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah beriman dengan yang demikian itu (nas-nas hadith berkenaan

sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala), sebagaimana mereka beriman dengan apa yang difirmankan oleh Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dengannya dalam kitabNya, tanpa tahrif, tanpa tatil, tanpa takyif dan tanpa tamthil. Bahkan merekalah yang sederhana di kalangan puak umat ini sebagaimana umat ini juga yang sederhana di kalangan umat-umat (yang lain), kerana mereka (Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah) sederhana dalam bab sifat-sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala di antara ahli Tatil Al-Jahmiyyah dan ahli Tamthil Al-Musyabbihah[11]. Berdasarkan kata-kata di atas, ternyata bahawa Ibn Taimiyyah berpegang dengan pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah dalam memahami nas-nas Sifat, iaitu tanpa tahrif (mengubah atau menukar ganti makna), tanpa tatil (menafikan sifat bagi Allah Subhanahu wa Taala), tanpa takyif (menggambarkan rupa bentuk sifat) dan tanpa tamthil (mengumpamakan makna dengan sesuatu). Ini jauh berbeza dengan golongan Al-Mujassimah dan Al-Musyabbihah yang berpegang dengan fahaman tajsim dan tasybih kerana mereka menyamakan kaifiyyat (bentuk dan ciri) sifat-sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dengan makhluknya. Dalam kata-katanya itu, Ibn Taimiyyah cuba menjelaskan kesederhanaan pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang berada antara dua jenis fahaman sesat yang melampau, iaitu fahaman tajsim (atau tasybih) dan fahaman tatil[12]. Dalam kitabnya yang lain Ibn Taimiyyah berkata:

: : .
Maksudnya: Maka tidak dapat tidak, mesti menetapkan apa yang telah Allah tetapkan bagi diriNya dan menafikan penyerupaanNya dengan makhlukNya. Sesiapa yang kata Allah tidak ada ilmu, tidak ada kekuatan, tidak ada kasihan belas, tidak ada percakapan, tidak ada kasih sayang, tidak

ada keredaan, tidak memanggil, tidak menyeru dan tidak meninggi, maka dia adalah seorang pembatal yang ingkar (terhadap sifat Allah) dan yang menyamakan Allah dengan benda yang tiada atau benda yang kaku. Manakala sesiapa yang kata ilmuNya seperti ilmuku, kekuatanNya seperti kekuatanku, kasih sayangNya seperti kasih sayangku, keredaanNya seperti keredaanku, tanganNya seperti tanganku dan meninggiNya seperti meninggiku, maka dia adalah seorang musyabbih yang menyamakan Allah dengan haiwan (makhluk). Justeru, tidak dapat tidak, mesti mengithbatkan (menetapkan) tanpa penyamaan dan mesti mensucikan tanpa pengingkaran [13]. Penjelasan Ibn Taimiyyah ini sudah tentu dilihat sebagai akuan dan penetapan beliau terhadap kebenaran pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang sederhana itu, dan bukan sebagai akuan terhadap fahaman tajsim. Adalah sangat tidak munasabah jika seorang tokoh ulama yang telah menjelaskan kesesatan fahaman tajsim tiba-tiba dituduh berpegang dengan fahaman tersebut.

Ketiga:

Lima Kaedah Dalam Berinteraksi Dengan Sifat-Sifat Allah.

Sesungguhnya pendekatan beriman dan menetapkan Sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala sebagaimana ia disebut di dalam Al-Quran dan AsSunnah tidak akan membawa kepada fahaman tajsim atau tashbih, selagi kefahaman itu diikat kukuh dengan kaedah-kaedah pemahaman nas Sifat yang mantap. Antara kaedah-kaedah tersebut ialah: Kaedah Pertama: Jika berlaku perkongsian nama antara Sifat Allah dan sifat makhluk, maka ia tidak boleh difahami dengan maksud penyamaan kedua-dua sifat tersebut, kerana persamaan nama sifat tidak semestinya menggambarkan persamaan hakikat sifat berkenaan[14]. Asas bagi kaedah ini diambil daripada firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

Maksudnya: Tiada sesuatupun yang sebanding dengan (Zat, Sifat-Sifat dan pentadbiran) Nya, dan Dialah yang Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Melihat[15]. Berdasarkan maksud ayat ini, jika berlaku perkongsian nama beberapa sifat tertentu antara Allah dan makhluk seperti sifat Al-Yad (Tangan), AlWajh (Wajah), Al-Ain (Mata), Al-Hayy (Maha Hidup), As-Sami (Maha Mendengar) dan Al-Basir (Maha Melihat), maka ia mesti difahami dalam konteks yang berbeza, bersesuaian dengan zat masing-masing. Dengan perkataan lain, sifat Tangan, Wajah, Mata, Maha Hidup, Maha Mendengar dan Maha Melihat yang ada pada Allah Subhanahu wa Taala mesti difahami dalam konteks yang bersesuaian dengan keagungan dan ketuhananNya, manakala sifat tangan, hidup, mendengar dan melihat yang ada pada makhluk pula mesti difahami dalam konteks yang bersesuaian dengan kejadian dan kemakhlukannya. Jika seseorang itu berpegang teguh dengan kaedah ini, maka tidak timbul unsur penyamaan dan penyifatan Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dengan sifat makhluk, kerana penafian terhadap persamaan yang terkandung dalam ayat itu tidak memungkinkan wujudnya sebarang bentuk persamaan.

Kaedah Kedua: Perbahasan tentang Sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala sama seperti perbahasan berkenaan ZatNya[16]. Jika Allah Subhanahu wa Taala memiliki Zat yang tidak menyerupai zat makhluk, maka demikian juga sifat dan perbuatanNya mesti difahami dalam konteks yang tidak menyerupai sifat dan perbuatan makhluk.

Kaedah Ketiga: Perbahasan tentang sebahagian daripada nas-nas Sifat sama seperti perbahasan berkenaan sebahagian yang lain[17]. Kaedah ini menolak pegangan sesetengah golongan yang menetapkan sebahagian sifat seperti sifat Hayah (Hidup), Ilm (Ilmu), Qudrat (Kuasa), Sam (Dengar), Basar (Lihat), Kalam (Berkata-kata) dan Iradah (Berkehendak), tetapi pada masa yang sama mereka menolak pula sebahagian sifat yang lain seperti sifat

Mahabbah (Kasih Sayang), Reda (Reda), Ghadab (Marah) dan Karahah (Benci) dengan menjadikan sifat-sifat itu hanya sebagai kiasan bagi maksud nimat dan pembalasan. Mereka berpegang dengan pegangan sedemikian kononnya untuk mengelakkan berlakunya tasybih (penyerupaan sifat Allah dengan sifat makhluk). Maka, dengan kaedah ini dikatakan kepada mereka bahawa sifatsifat yang kamu tetapkan bagi Allah Subhanahu wa Taala itu juga ada pada makhluk. Justeru, sebagaimana kamu menetapkan sifat-sifat yang kamu tetapkan itu mengikut kesesuaiannya dengan kebesaran dan keagungan Allah Subhanahu wa Taala, maka begitulah juga sifat-sifat yang kamu tolak itu juga mesti ditetapkan mengikut kebesaran dan keagunganNya bagi mengelakkan tasybih.

Kaedah Keempat: La Yajuz Takhir harus menangguhkan Berdasarkan kaedah ini, wasallam menangguhkan dalam persoalan akidah. Justeru sekiranya benar berpegang dengan zahir nas sifat akan membawa kepada kekufuran seperti yang didakwa oleh para pendukung takwil, maka kenapa Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam tidak mentakwilkan perkataan istiwa itu dengan perkataan istila seperti yang dilakukan oleh para pentakwil itu? Seandainya benar semua nas-nas sifat itu mesti ditakwil untuk mengelak tasybih, nescaya Baginda Shallallahu alaihi wasallam akan menjelaskan takwilan setiap nas itu kepada para Sahabat radhiallahu 'anhum kerana tidak harus menangguhkan penjelasan pada masa ia diperlukan, lebih-lebih lagi dalam perkara yang melibatkan iman dan kekufuran. Sekiranya ada penjelasan daripada Nabi Shallallahu alaihi wasallam berkenaan takwilan itu nescaya ia akan sampai kepada kita melalui riwayat yang sahih, sebagaimana nas-nas syara yang lain. Oleh kerana tidak ada satu riwayatpun, baik riwayat hadith maupun riwayat sejarah berkaitan hal ini, maka ia mengesahkan kebidahan konsep takwil itu sendiri. Tidak harus Al-Bayan An Waqt Al-Hajah, maksudnya: Tidak penjelasan pada masa ia diperlukan[18]. maka tidak harus bagi Nabi Shallallahu alaihi penjelasan pada masa ia diperlukan, terutama

diandaikan bahawa riwayatriwayat berkenaan penjelasan itu tidak sampai kepada kita kerana andaian sedemikian bercanggah dengan jaminan Allah Subhanahu wa Taala terhadap keselamatan ajaran agamaNya[19]. Kaedah Kelima: Faktor yang mendorong seseorang untuk menolak atau mentakwilkan sesuatu nas sifat bermula dengan tasybih. Kaedah ini bermaksud bahawa seseorang yang menolak atau mentakwilkan sesuatu nas sifat, dia sebenarnya telah terlebih dahulu mentasybihkan (menggambarkan penyerupaan) sifat Allah dengan sifat makhluk. Kemudian, setelah dia menggambarkan penyerupaan itu, dia merasa perlu untuk mentakwilkannya bagi mengelakkan gambaran tersebut. Dengan perkataan lain, seseorang yang mentakwilkan sesuatu nas sifat, dia sebenarnya telah melakukan dua kesesatan sekaligus, iaitu tasybih dan takwil. Dalam konteks ini Asy-Syanqiti rahimahullah berkata:

: ... ...

: ...
Maksudnya: Ketahuilah dahulu, bahawa sesungguhnya generasi terkemudian yang tersalah dalam perkara ini tidak terhitung ramainya kerana mereka menyangka makna zahir yang terlintas dan yang terlebih dahulu sampai kepada kefahaman terhadap perkataan seperti istiwa (meninggi) dan yad (tangan) yang ada dalam ayat-ayat AlQuran itu ialah musyabahah (penyerupaan) dengan sifat hawadith (makhluk). Mereka berkata: Wajib atas kita menukar (makna)nya dari zahirnya secara ijma (sepakat) kerana berpegang dengan zahirnya adalah suatu kekufuran dan sesiapa yang menyerupakan Al-Khaliq (Allah) dengan makhluk maka dia seorang kafir. Ternyata bahawa kata-kata ini dari (jenis) kesesatan dan pembohongan yang paling besar ke atas Allah Jalla Waala dan juga ke atas RasulNya Shallallahu alaihi wasallam. Orang yang ada sedikit akal tidak akan meragui kebenaran bahawa setiap sifat yang Allah sifatkan diriNya atau yang disifatkan oleh RasulNya Shallallahu alaihi wasallam dengannya, maka (makna) zahir yang terlintas dan yang telah terlebih dahulu sampai kepada kefahaman orang yang ada sedikit iman di dalam hatinya ialah at-tanzih at-tam (penyucian yang sempurna) dari sebarang penyerupaan sifat hawadith (makhluk). Ini kerana dengan semata-mata penisbahan sifat itu kepadaNya Jalla Waala, akan terlintas kepada kefahaman bahawa tidak ada kesesuaian antara sifat yang disifatkan pada Al-Khaliq itu dengan sebarang sifat makhluk. Si jahil pembohong yang menganggap zahir ayat-ayat sifat itu tidak layak dengan (kebesaran) Allah kerana (kononnya) ia adalah suatu kekufuran dan tasybih, sebenarnya dia telah didorong

kepada yang demikian itu oleh kenajisan hatinya dengan kotoran tasybih antara Al-Khaliq dan makhluk, maka kesialan tasybih itulah yang mendorongnya untuk menafikan sifat-sifat Allah Jalla Waala dan juga untuk tidak beriman dengannya. Sedangkan Dialah Jalla Waala yang menyifatkan diriNya dengannya. Maka, si jahil itu pada mulanya dia seorang musyabbih (penyerupa sifat Allah dengan makhluk) dan kemudian dia menjadi seorang muattil (penafi sifat Allah). Justeru dia telah melakukan perkara yang tidak layak bagi Allah di awal dan di akhir. Sedangkan jika hatinya mengenal Allah dan mengagungkanNya sebagaimana yang sepatutnya, (dan jika hatinya) bersih daripada kotoran tasybih, nescaya yang terlintas dan yang terlebih dahulu sampai kepada kefahamannya ialah bahawa kesempurnaan dan keagungan penyifatan Allah Jalla Waala telah sampai ke tahap memutuskan segala imaginasi penyerupaan antara sifatNya dan sifat makhluk. Maka jadilah hatinya bersedia untuk beriman dengan sifat-sifat kesempurnaan dan keagungan yang tetap bagi Allah dalam Al-Quran dan As-Sunnah yang sahih beserta at-tanzih at-tam (penyucian yang sempurna) dari sebarang penyerupaan sifat makhluk, sebagaimana firmanNya (yang bermaksud): Tiada sesuatupun yang sebanding dengan (Zat, Sifat-Sifat dan pentadbiran) Nya, dan Dialah yang Maha Mendengar lagi Maha Melihat[20]. Berdasarkan kaedah-kaedah di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahawa orang yang beriman dan yang menetapkan makna nas-nas sifat sebagaimana yang disebut oleh Al-Quran dan As-Sunnah, tidak sekali-kali akan terpalit dengan kotoran tasybih. Sebaliknya orang yang mentakwilkan nas-nas sifat itulah sebenarnya yang benar-benar bergelumang bahkan lemas dalam lopak najis tasybih itu.

Keempat:

Ibn al-Qayyim Juga Menolak Fahaman Tajsim Dan Tasybih.

Sebagaimana Ibn Taimiyyah, muridnya Ibn Al-Qayyim juga tidak pernah mengungkapkan kata-kata yang menunjukkan bahawa beliau berpegang dengan fahaman tajsim dan tasybih, bahkan keseluruhan kenyataan beliau berkenaan sifat-sifat Allah Subhanahu wa Taala dalam kitab As-Sawaiq Al-Mursalah itu juga menjurus kepada penolakan keduadua fahaman tajsim dan tatil. Dalam konteks ini, beliau berkata:

... ...
Maksudnya: Maka Al-Muattil (orang yang menafikan sifat Tuhan) itu ialah orang yang menolak kesempurnaan (Tuhan) Yang disembah dan Al-Mumaththil (orang yang mengumpamakan Tuhan dengan sesuatu) itu pula ialah yang menyerupakanNya dengan hamba, manakala Al-Muwahhid (orang yang mentauhidkan Tuhan) itu ialah yang menerangkan hakikat nama-namaNya dan juga hakikat kesempurnaan sifat-sifatNya. Yang demikian itu adalah pusat kisaran tauhid. Justeru AlMu attil (seolah-olah) menyembah yang tiada dan Al-Mumaththil (seolah-olah) menyembah berhala, Manakala Al-Muwahhid itulah yang menyembah Tuhan yang tidak sebanding dengan sesuatu apapun[21].

Berdasarkan kata-kata di atas, ternyata bahawa Ibn Al-Qayyim juga sama seperti gurunya Ibn Taimiyyah cuba menjelaskan kesederhanaan pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang berada antara dua jenis fahaman sesat yang melampau, iaitu fahaman tajsim (atau tasybih) dan fahaman tatil. Penjelasan ini juga sudah tentu dilihat sebagai akuan dan penetapan beliau terhadap kebenaran pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah yang sederhana itu, dan bukan sebagai akuan terhadap fahaman tajsim. Tidak dapat digambarkan betapa kotornya jiwa orang yang tergamak menuduh Ibn Taimiyyah dan Ibn Al-Qayyim dengan fahaman tajsim, sedangkan kedua-duanya adalah pejuang Sunnah yang paling tegas menolak fahaman tersebut.

Kelima:

Kata-Kata Sebenar Ibn Taimiyyah Dalam Kitab AtTasis Fi Ar-Radd Ala Asas At-Taqdis.

Kitab At-Tasis Fi Ar-Radd Ala Asas At-Taqdis yang dinisbahkan kepada Ibn Taimiyyah itu, juga dikenali dengan judul Bayan Talbis AlJahmiyyah Fi Tasis Bidaihim Al-Kalamiyyah. Walaupun pembohongan dan pengkhianatan Al-Ghari ke atas Ibn Taimiyyah dan para ulama telah terbukti sebelum ini, namun untuk menambahkan lagi bukti kezaliman dan pengkhianatannya, diperturunkan di sini petikan kata-kata Ibn Taimiyyah daripada kitab At-Tasis Fi Ar-Radd Ala Asas At-Taqdis yang didakwa oleh AlGhari sebagai menyeleweng. Kata Ibn Taimiyyah:

: : : .
Maksudnya: Kemudian, ketika Al-Mutakallimun (ahli kalam) dari kalangan ahli ithbat (penetap sifat) berdebat dengan puak Muktazilah dalam masalah lafaz-lafaz istilah, maka ada satu kaum (AlMutakallimun) berkata: Sifat Ilmu, Qudrah (Kuasa) dan yang seumpamanya tidak boleh jadi melainkan dalam bentuk aradh (lawan kepada jauhar) dan sifat sebagaimana sedia, maka Ilmu Allah dan KekuasaanNya adalah aradh.

Mereka (Al-Mutakallimun) juga berkata: Sesungguhnya sifat Tangan dan sifat Wajah tidak boleh jadi melainkan dalam bentuk jisim, maka Allah Subhanahu wa Taala ialah jisim yang tidak seperti jisimjisim lain. Mereka (Al-Mutakallimun) berkata: Dan ini dari apa yang tidak mungkin dipertikaikan padanya, sekiranya difahami makna yang dimaksudkan itu, tetapi apa salahnya pada yang demikian itu, sedangkan tidak ada (nas) dalam Kitab (Al-Quran), Sunnah RasulNya dan tidak juga ada kata-kata seorang pun dari kalangan salaf umat ini dan para imamnya bahawa Dia bukan jisim dan bahawa sifat-sifatNya bukan jisim dan bukan aradharadh. Justeru penafian makna-makna yang thabit dengan (nas) syara dan akal dengan (cara) menafikan lafaz-lafaz yang tidak dinafikan maknanya oleh akal dan juga (nas) syara, adalah satu kejahilan dan kesesatan[22]. Berdasarkan kata-kata ini, dapat disimpulkan tiga perkara berikut: I. Ibn Taimiyyah hanya memetik hujah akal ahli kalam ketika mereka berdebat dengan puak Muktazilah dalam persoalan nas-nas sifat. Ini bermakna kata-kata itu sebenarnya bukanlah kata-kata Ibn Taimiyyah. II. Golongan Mutakallimun dari kalangan penetap sifat terpaksa mengemukakan hujah akal yang sedemikian kerana semata-mata ingin mematahkan hujah akal puak Muktazilah yang mentakwilkan makna nas-nas sifat tersebut. Ini bermakna, pendekatan mentakwilkan nas-nas sifat itu adalah pendekatan puak Muktazilah, sebagaimana ia juga merupakan pendekatan puak al-Jahmiyyah, seperti yang telah dijelaskan sebelum ini. tidak mengkritik akidah tajsim dan tasybih jelas suatu pembohongan kerana ia bercanggah dengan kata-kata Ibn Taimiyyah, seperti yang telah dipetik dalam penulisan ini. Oleh kerana telah terbukti bahawa Ibn Taimiyyah menolak akidah tajsim dan tasybih, maka semua katakata ulama yang dipetik oleh Al-Ghari dalam (Menjawab Kritikan Terhadap Fahaman Wahabiyah Di Malaysia, Hal: 7) bagi membuktikan

III. Tuduhan Al-Ghari bahawa Ibn Taimiyyah menyatakan ulama salaf

kritikan salaf terhadap akidah berkenaan, tidak ada kena mengena langsung dengan akidah Ibn Taimiyyah.

Tohmahan Kedua: Ibn Taimiyyah Menolak Konsep Takwil

[1] [2]

Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, meninggal pada tahun 728H. Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Ayyub Az-Zari, meninggal pada tahun 751H.

[3] Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah, Pembongkaran Jenayah Ilmiah Buku Salafiyah Wahhabiyah, Perniagaan Jahabersa, Johor Bahru, 2003, Hal: 33. [4] Muhammad Ibn Idris Ibn Al-Munzir Ar-Razi, Asl As-Sunnah Wa Itiqad Ad-Din, Dalam: Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah, Pembongkaran Jenayah Ilmiah Buku Salafiyah Wahhabiyah, Perniagaan Jahabersa, Johor Bahru, 2003, Hal: 34. [5] Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Khalaf Al-Barbahari, Syarh As-Sunnah, Tahqiq: Muhammad Said Salim Al-Qahtani, Dar Ibn Al-Qayyim, Dammam, Arab Saudi, 1408H, Hal: 52. [6] Ismail Ibn Abd Ar-Rahman Ibn Ahmad, Aqidah As-Salaf Wa Ashab Al-Hadith, Dalam: Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah, Pembongkaran Jenayah Ilmiah Buku Salafiyah Wahhabiyah, Perniagaan Jahabersa, Johor Bahru, 2003, Hal: 35. [7] Al-Hujurat, 49: 6.

[8] Tafsir Pimpinan Ar-Rahman, Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam Jabatan Perdana Menteri, 1995, tafsiran ayat 46, surah An-Nisa, Hal: 196. [9] Asy-Syura 42: 11.

[10] Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah, Tahqiq: Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Aziz Ibn Mani, Ar-Riasah Al-Ammah Li Al-Ifta, Riyadh, Arab Saudi, 1412H, Hal: 5-7. [11] Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Al-Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah, Tahqiq: Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Aziz Ibn Mani, Ar-Riasah Al-Ammah Li Al-Ifta, Riyadh, Arab Saudi, 1412H, Hal: 23-24. [12] Disebabkan kesederhanaan pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wa Al-Jamaah itu, maka beliau judulkan kitabnya dengan judul Al-Wasitiyah yang bermaksud sederhana. [13] Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Ar-Risalah at-Tadmuriyyah, Hal: 30. Dipetik daripada Said Ibn Ali al-Qahtani 1411H, Syarh Asma Allah al-Husna Fi Dau al-Kitab Wa as-Sunnah, Wazarah al-Ilam, Riyadh, Arab Saudi, Hal: 64. [14] Said Ibn Ali al-Qahtani, Syarh Asma Allah al-Husna Fi Dau al-Kitab Wa asSunnah, Wazarah al-Ilam, Riyadh, Arab Saudi, 1411H, Hal: 51. [15] Asy-Syura 42: 11.

[16] Umar Ibn Sulaiman Al-Asyqar, Al-Aqidah Fillah, Maktabah Al-Falah, Kuwait, 1984, Hal: 217. [17] Umar Ibn Sulaiman Al-Asyqar, Al-Aqidah Fillah, Maktabah Al-Falah, Kuwait, 1984, Hal: 216. [18] Az-Zuhaili, Wahbah Az-Zuhaili, Usul Al-Fiqh Al-Islami, Dar Al-Fikr, Damsyik, Syria, 1986, 1:332. [19] Al-Ghari dalam bukunya Salafiyah Wahabiyah Satu Penilaian telah mengemukakan beberapa riwayat bahawa kononnya para sahabat telah melakukan takwil terhadap nas sifat. Riwayat-riwayat tersebut telah ditolak oleh Hafiz Firdaus Abdullah dalam bukunya Pembongkaran Jenayah Ilmiah Buku Salafiyah Wahhabiyah, Perniagaan Jahabersa, Johor Bahru, 2003. [20] Muhammad Amin Ibn Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Al-Jakni Asy-Syanqiti, Adwa AlBayan Fi Idah Al-Quran Bi Al-Quran, 2: 319-320. [21] Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Az-Zari, As-Sawaiq Al-Mursalah Fi Ar-Rad Ala AlJahmiyyah Wa Al-Mu attilah, Tahqiq: Ali Ibn Muhammad Ad-Dakhil, Dar Al-Asimah, Riyadh, Arab Saudi, 1988, 1: 147-148.

[22] Ibn Taimiyyah, Ahmad Ibn Abd Al-Halim Al-Harrani, Bayan Talbis Al-Jahmiyyah Fi Tasis Bidaihim Al-Kalamiyyah, Tahqiq: Muhammad Ibn Abd Ar-Rahman Ibn Qasim, Matbaah Al-Hukumah, Makkah, Arab Saudi, 1392H, Hal: 100-101.

Warsono Martono Tidak saya ragukan di antara Ulama yang saya kagumi sosoknya hingga kini adalah Buya Hamka. Nama beliau sebenarnya adalah Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah, disingkat HAMKA. Sebuah singkatan yang cerdas. (jauh mendahului singkatan zaman sekarang seperti "SBY"). Beliau dilahirkan 15 Februari 1908, artinya tepat 100 tahun yang lampau... Saya sangat menggemari hampir semua tulisan-tulisan beliau, mulai dari karya sastra, filsafat, apalagi masalah-masalah agama seperti aqidah, fikih, dan tasauf. Beliau adalah ulama yang ilmuan dan sekaligus ilmuwan yang ulama... (Lho bukannya ilmuwan dan ulama berasal dari kata yg sama? 'ilm' artinya ilmu, orang berilmu 'alim' jamaknya ulama. Ilmuwan juga orang berilmu? Ah, entahlah yang jelas dalam bahasa Indonesia memang keduanya bermakna beda...) Dua buah roman cinta karya beliau "Dibawah Lindungan Ka'bah", dan "Tenggelamnya kapal Van Der Vijk" pernah saya baca. Ceritanya yang berisi kisah cinta abadi, sungguh menyentuh dan mengharukan. Entah kenapa kisah cinta dalam karya2 beliau cenderung berakhir tragis. Sehingga menimbulkan rasa haru yang dalam. Yang menarik, karya2 beliau selalu menampilkan surat2 cinta itu secara panjang lebar, dengan bahasa yang indah... Buku2 beliau di bidang agama jangan ditanya lagi, namun saya harus menyebut karya monemuntal beliau "Tafsir Al-Azhar", yang barangkali merupakan tafsir Quran karya bangsa Indonesia yang pertama dalam bahasa Indonesia. Memang ada juga tafsir karya Ulama sebelumnya seperti Tafsir Al-Ibriz karya KH Bisri Mustafa (ayahanda KH Mustafa Bisri), namun karya ini menggunakan bahasa Jawa Pegon. Tafsir Al-Azhar ini memang lain dari yang lain, selain bercorak kontekstual, yaitu mengkaitkan dengan kejadian dalam konteks kekinian, juga sangat sastrawi. Bahasanya indah, dan sering menggunakan aspek2 sastra, seperti syair pepatah... Ada beberapa alasan yang menyebabkan penghormatan saya kepada beliau sangat tinggi. Pertama, ilmu beliau didapat secara otodidak. Namun, keilmuannya tidak dipungkiri melebihi, paling tidak setara, dengan yang diperoleh dari universitas. Gelas Doktor HC (dari Universitas Al-Azhar) dan profesornya menunjukkan diakuinya keilmuwan beliau. Ini mengajarkan kepada saya, untuk selalu belajar dari diri sendiri walau harus sendiri. Karena ilmu adalah milik kaum beriman, apa pun ilmu itu...

Kedua, kemampuan beliau untuk meletakkan agama secara proporsional.Beliau sering memberi jalan tengah atas berbagai kecenderungan. Misalnya antara kecenderungan rasionalis dan literalis atau anti dan pro tasauf. Beliau adalah ulama yang sangat rasional, namun selalu berpijak pada aspek2 tekstual. Terhadap tasauf, misalnya, beliau memberi jalan tengah antara kelompok anti tasauf, yang kebanyakan dari kalangan modernis, dan pro-tasauf, yang kebanyakan dari kaum tradisional. Beliau memberi nama itu sebagai "tasauf modern", sebagaimana judul buku yang saya gemari itu. Ketiga, kemampuan beliau meramu berbagai ilmu secara indah dalam Islam. Kalau kita membaca buku2 beliau, nampak sekali nuansa keluasan ilmu beliau dalam mengkaji sesuatu. Khusus terhadap ilmu sastra beliau adalah salah satu pelopor sastra Islami di Indonesia. Sesuatu yang tidak banyak dimiliki oleh ulama di Indonesia. Keempat, beliau adalah ulama yang sangat terbuka kepada semua pemikiran. Kalau kita baca Tafsir Al-Azhar, misalnya, beliau tidak ragu2 menyebut pendapat kalangan lain seperti Syiah, misalnya. Dan analisis beliau bukanlah dalam rangka menyesatkan mereka. Kelima, beliau adalah ulama yang konsisten terhadap pendapatnya, walau harus menerima akibatnya. Seperti ditahan oleh Presiden Sukarno... Atau yang terkenal, adalah memilih mengundurkan diri dari jabatan ketua MUI, ketika harus merubah fatwa tentang Natal Bersama. Ini menjadi simbol sikap istiqamah hingga kini... Keenam, sikap toleran beliau terhadap berbagai masalah khilafiah. Beliau adalah seorang ulama Muhamadiyah. Namun, kalau kita baca buku2 beliau, nampak bahwa beliau sangat terbuka dan toleran terhadap masalah khilafiah. Masalah qunut, lafal ushali, adzan dua kali dalam shalat jumat, segala macam, tidaklah menjadi tema bagi beliau untuk saling membid'ahkan, atau menyesatkan, seperti sebagian orang belakangan ini. Malah, kalau kita baca di tablod "Dialog Jumat" Republika tanggal 1502-08. Dalam salah satu kolom, terdapat beberapa kisah toleransi beliau. Di antaranya, ketika memimpin shalat shubuh, menanyakan dulu kepada jamaah mau pakai qunut atau tidak? Jika jamaah menginginkan pakai, beliau akan memakai qunut. Ketika beliau mengundang KH Abdullah Syafi'i (tokoh Nahdliyin) sebagai khatib, adzan jumat dilakukan dua kali... Karenanya, menurut saya, apa pun mazhab kita... Kita tetap bisa belajar dari ulama besar dari Minang ini, Buya Hamka... Semoga Allah merahmati beliau, dan menempatkan beliau di tempat yang mulia di sisi Allah SWT... Amien..

Anwar Ibrahim sering menceritakan kekagumannya yang tinggi terhadap Buya Hamka ( sini link ) hingga . Sebelum ini saya sendiri pernah mendengar kekeliruan fahaman Buya Hamka dan

hari ini saya sudah mendapat petunjuk dari blog sahabat siber bernama BankWahabi ( klik sini )..Yang menceritakan terperinci tentang siapa buya Hamka. Bahkan saya juga baru mendapat tahu bahawa Wahabi berasal dari Musailamah Al Kazzab hari ini juga. Dia dulu tinggal di Yalamlam, daerah antara Jedah dan Yaman. Dan dinasti Saudi dulu menamai istananya dengan Istana Yalamlam ( sumber klik sini ).Ia lokasi sebuah bukit di sebelah selatan 54 km dari Mekah, merupakan miqat bagi jamaah yang datang dari arah Yaman dan Asia ( klik sini ). Ketika Faishal menjadi raja, nama itu diubah menjadi Istana Riyadh. Anda bacalah sendiri lanjutan artikel blogger bankwahabi di bawah.Bukan untuk memecah belahkan umat tetapi untuk menyatukan mereka atas satu fahaman. Kerana fahaman bertentangan dengan ahli sunnah wal jamaah itulah PEMECAH BELAH PERPADUAN UMAT ISLAM. dan itulah yang dikehendaki MUSUH dan MUNAFIQ ISLAM. Hati-Hati Karangan Hamka
Kunjungan Diplomatik Ke Australia By Anwar Ibrahim 6 Comments Categories: Aktiviti and Antarabangsa

Alhamdulillah kunjungan 3 hari memenuhi undangan University of Sydney dan Australian National University, Canberra berakhir pagi 16 Nov lepas. SYDNEY: Acara di University of Sydney dimulakan dengan ucapan pengantar Duncan Ivison, Profesor Jabatan Falsafah dan dipengerusikan Assoc. Prof Lily Rahim. Pembicaraan saya atas judul yang ditetapkan penganjur agak rencam: Islam, quasi-secular state, reform.

Saya tegaskan agar kita tidak terperangkap dengan penghujahan konsep secara umum menurut tafsiran asing. Maka saya memilih untuk menjelaskan apa yang menjadi paksi pemerintahan sepertimana dalam muafakat Pakatan Rakyat.

Kerangka besarnya mencakup jaminan kebebasan dan keadilan semua rakyat berlandaskan prinsip pokok Perlembagaan Persekutuan mengenai kedudukan Islam dan kebebasan beragama; bahasa Melayu dan amalan lain bahasa; hak keistimewaan Melayu-bumiputra; Raja2 Melayu. Yang disanggah keras adalah pelanggaran prinsip murni tersebut termasuk terhakisnya keyakinan terhadap institusi

pemerintahan akibat rasuah dan campurtangan politik serta pemunggahan khazanah negara dan kekayaan olih segelintir di kalangan elit penguasa.

Jamuan makan malam Dine with Anwar diselenggara pendukung Keadilan Sydney dan dikenakan bayaran. Ada mahasiswa yang mengeluh juga kerana tempat terhad. Saya kupas agenda pembaharuan dan cabaran. Seterusnya melayani soalan mengenai kerjasama Pakatan Rakyat; penekanan konsep keMelayuan Umno dan isu Keadilan yang tidak putus menerima serangan dari pemerintah dan dalaman. Alhamdulillah, penerimaan mereka nyata sekali positif.

Imam, sarjana dan wakil badan Islam menganjurkan jamuan tengahari dan membincangkan pelbagai isu. Media Australia- ABC dan Skynews memberikan liputan meluas termasuk wawancara ekslusif di televisyen.

CANBERRA:

Sarjana dan wakil badan Islam Canberra meraikan saya dengan hidangan Turki disusuli dialog isu daawah, pendidikan dan kerjasama anatara kaum dan agama. Keesokan paginya saya minum pagi dengan wakil pelajar Msia. Majlis dipendekkan kerana pertemuan yang disusun awal dengan Menteri Luar Kevin Rudd. Saya terkesan dengan sikap peribadi beliau yang begitu prihatin dan berbicara panjang isu semasa. Saya kembali ke universiti (ANU) dalam majlis perbincangan dengan sarjana Fakulti Pengurusan, Ekonomi dan Asia Tenggara. Jamuan tengahari bersama Prof. Kent Anderson (Jabatan Falsafah), Prof. Tom. Kompas (ekonomi dan pengurusan), Graham Bradley (Majlis Perniagaan Australia) dan lain-lain. Saya kemudian ke Parlimen menemui sebahagian ahli Parlimen dan senat yang menulis menyatakan sokongan kepada saya awal tahun ini. Mereka termasuk Michael Danby, Malcolm Turnbull, Andrew Leigh dan lain-lain.

Pidato di Dewan Besar Universiti ANU dipengerusikan Prof. Kent Anderson dengan judul Social Justice. (teks pidato telah dimuatkan dalam blog terdahuulu). Prof. Kent Anderson kemudiannya mengundang beberapa sarjana utama untuk makan malam di rumah universiti.

Sebelum ke lapangan terbang untuk kembali ke tanah air saya berkunjung ke rumah Sarjana Kanan Prof. Emeritus AH. Johns.

ANWAR IBRAHIM 16 Nov Social Justice and Political Change: The Malaysian Experience By Anwar Ibrahim 19 Comments Categories: Agenda Baru, Aktiviti, Analisis, Antarabangsa, Anwar, Asia Tenggara, Demokrasi, Hebahan, Isu Semasa, KeADILan, Mahasiswa, Malaysia, Pakatan Rakyat, Parlimen, Penerbitan, Pilihanraya and Politik

Lecture by Anwar Ibrahim at the Australian National University, Canberra, Monday, 15th November 2010

I would like to take a moment to express our joy on the release of Aung San Su Kyi. As we all know, her right to political office was denied through the most repressive of means. But driven by her conviction for freedom and democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi soldiered on from strength to strength against all odds. This long overdue freedom will nevertheless give renewed hope for the people of Burma and she will continue to inspire freedom fighters and champions of democracy and justice throughout the world.

Speaking of democracy and justice, I see a clear nexus with the topic at hand. Here in Canberra, no doubt a shining symbol of democracy in Asia, it is apt that I begin my talk on social justice with a clear statement of what democracy entails. Apart from the fundamental requirements of freedom and the rule of law, democracy is also presumed to be defined by the conditions of a free market. And this is where the founding fathers of the French Revolution with their clarion call for liberty, equality and fraternity missed their mark.

This is because a free market is based on competition, and competition, being a zero-sum game has no truck with equality. On the contrary, free market engenders inequality so much so that even the bastions of capitalism such as America and Britain no longer ask whether states ought to intervene in order to reduce these inequities.

The question is to what extent? The invisible hand has remained invisible so often that governments in the free world have not only intervened but have in some cases staked out their territory in areas which were once considered totally off-limits.

Various explanations have been given. The most defensible at least in theory is social justice. According to one view, state intervention is advocated by a soft-hearted majority while a hard-boiled minority would willingly accept or even rejoice in the inequality.1 This seems to suggest that at least for a certain segment of society, inequality is not seen to be unjust. Defenders of the French Revolution claim that equality has less to do with wealth than with equal treatment before the law. But we all know that deprived of the basic necessities of living, the law is a luxury that the poor man cannot afford. Hence, the need for social justice.

But this begs the question: is there an objective standard of social justice? Philosophers have locked horns on this and I dont intend to reinvent the wheel here. Nevertheless, to put the issue in proper perspective, from John Locke we are told that every man has by nature the right to possess property as his own. We may therefore reasonably deduce that social justice is not in the equation here. John Rawls talks about justice as fairness and advocates the notion of distributive justice. Libertarians such as Robert Nozick contend that justice can only be attained through a minimalist state. In other words, there is no room for distributive justice let alone social justice.

In Christianity, particularly under Catholic social teaching, life and dignity of the human person is predicated on the belief that the state must play a moral role to ensure social justice. This is not far from the essence of Menciuss teachings in advocating that actions are to be judged by their moral correctness, not mere economic benefit. And Islam enjoins that while society may pursue commerce to its fullest, justice and fairness in dealings must remain the chief criterion. Social justice is enjoined in order to establish a humane economy. The point is that advocates of social justice today are in good company and need not feel that they have to be unshaven Bohemian leftists or disgruntled antiglobalization activists to show that they are genuine.

However, you cant be calling for social justice without expecting political change. Inequalities of wealth, power and status are certainly not the privilege of nations practicing free markets though it is true that in theory socialist states have more egalitarian policies. Thats only the theory because reality bites hard and we know the enormous price that people under socialist regimes have had to pay for the so-called egalitarian lifestyle. To be equally poor is of no consolation. As Martin Luther Jr. once said: The curse of poverty has no justification.

Political change is therefore a condition precedent to attaining social justice if it is shown that a society is heading down the road to greater social perdition under its present government. There must be political will to change its socio-economic policies. In this regard, the Economic Transformation Program that was recently unveiled by the Najib administration bears analysis. The numbers are impressive, if not altogether mindboggling. All told, we are looking at more than RM1 trillion in so-called expansionary development and projects calculated at transforming a middle-income economy to a high-income economy.

On closer analysis, however, we are unable to connect the dots to see that critical mass in poverty reduction programs that would be needed to narrow the current gap between the rich and the poor. To seriously address the growing GINI coefficient, general and vague expressions of targeting for higher per capita income simply wont do. We dont see concrete plans to address the housing problems of the poor and a blue print for universal free education. We dont see any comprehensive health care for those who cant afford private medication and hospitals. Continue reading Social Justice and Political Change: The Malaysian Experience

Palestine is a conventional name used, among others, to describe a geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.

As a geographic term, Palestine can refer to "ancient Palestine," an area that today includes Israel and the Palestinian territories, as well as parts of Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. In classical or contemporary terms, it is also the common name for the area west of the Jordan River. The boundaries of two new states were laid down within the territory of the British Mandate, Palestine and Transjordan. Other terms for the same area include Canaan, Zion, the Land of Israel, and the Holy Land. Origin of name

The name "Palestine" is the cognate of an ancient word meaning "Philistines" or "Land of the Philistines". In keeping with the Greek culture of the day, it has also been suggested that it may also be a play on the word Palaistes (Greek for wrestler) and a reference to Jacob, later called Israel, the founder of the ancient Israeli nation. [iklan] Buku "110 Mutiara Kata Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat sepanjang 2010" boleh dibeli dengan cara POS : Jihad Kalutee singing Imam al-Haddad's poem Qad Kafani 'Ilmu Rabbi (My Lord's Knowledge has sufficed me) My Lords knowledge has sufficed me from asking or choosing For my dua and my agonizing supplication is a witness to my poverty. For this secret I make supplication in times of ease and ti

1. Harga : RM13 termasuk belanja pos(Semenanjung + Sabah & Sarawak). Sila buat pembayaran seperti berikut:

Nombor akaun: 03102010001545 (Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB)) Penama akaun : UKMB RESOURCES

2. Hantar email bertajuk "KATA MUTIARA" ke iklan@ukmb.my dengan menyertakan sekali bukti pembayaran dan alamat.

3. Bagi yang ingin membeli secara terus, sila dapatkan di Kedai Kita, Bangunan PAS Kelantan, Jalan Dato Pati, 15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

4. Segala permasalahan boleh diemailkan ke iklan@ukmb.my @ PM inbox Iklan UKMB di Facebook

Harap maklum.

Iktibar Dari Dua Festival Filem Antarabangsa Posted on November 24, 2010 by samadsaid

DUA bulan ini sebenarnya saya menjadi kaki wayangbenar-benar kaki wayang. Saya menonton kesemua 9 filem dalam Festival Filem Amerika Latin (dalam Oktober) dan 15 daripada 18 filem dalam Festival Filem European Union (dalam November). Saya menghayati kehidupan, memahami masalah dan mengesan aspirasi mereka. Saya tidak menonton kerana mengingini hiburan.

Setiap kali saya masuk panggung saya mengharapkan sesuatukewarasan daripada kehidupan yang disalin ke dalam filem. Sebenarnya saya ingin menangguk sesuatuhemah dan hikmah daripada filem-filem tersebut. Biarpun, memanglah filem tidak dapat atau sempat menyalin kehidupan setulennya , tapi ia masih dapat mengimbaskan kehidupan sesebuah masyarakat. Berisi atau kosong.

Daripada kelompok filem Amerika Latin, saya sangat tertarik kepada filem Popes Toilet yang dalam kelucuannya sempat memaparkan kepiluan. Sebuah keluarga desa mengharapkan rezeki melalui sebuah tandas yang diyakini bakal ramai pengguna kerana lawatan Pope. Malang, ketua agama itu tidak lalu ke desa itu, menjadikan segala persiapan berniaga tersia-sia.

Menonton filem saya lebih gemar menekuni kisah kehidupan orang tua. Maka itu, filem My Nikifor (filem Poland) yang mengisahkan tentang pelukis nyanyuk; filem The Only One (filem Belgium) yang menekuni tabii orang tua pelupa tapi bervisi; dan filem John Rabe (filem Jerman) yang merakam perjuangan insani seorang ahli korporatketiga-tiga karya seni ini sempat memperkaya kemanusiaan saya.

Fesival filem antarabangsa biasanya memungkinkan kita menjengah kehidupan, masalah dan aspirasi bangsa lain. Melaluinya kita sempat menafsir dan mencecap inti pesanan filem-filem tersebut. Kita dibantu untuk cepat dewasa dan tulus berseni.

Kita diajak menjadi manusia berimbangberbudaya.

Ghairah menonton filem-filem asing, tidak pula bererti saya melupakan filem tempatan. Saya menonton hampir kesemua filem Melayu terkini dengan sentiasa penuh mengerti. Dan, selalunya memang takut memandang ke belakang.
Jurisprudence (al-fiqhi wa isulihi): {?????? ?? ??????} Alwasit fi al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the [Jurispredunial] school -a work on fiqh, one of the five major works in Shafi'i school jurisprudence) published. [M:4; A:4; GAL I, 424] o dirasah wa-tahqiq wata`liq `Ali Muhyi alDin `Ali al-Qarah Daghi; tunsharu liawwal marrah `al `ashr nusakh fi ghayat al-qidam wa-al-

ahammiyah. ([Cairo] : Dar al-I`tisam, 1984. 2 v. (879 p.) ; 24 cm.). Claims to have used: "10 old and important Mss" in preparing this edition. o edited by Abi `Amr al-Husayni ibn `Umar ibn `Abd al-Rahim (Beriut: Dar alKutub al`Ilmiyah, 2001. 4 v. ; 25 cm). o editing by Ahmad Mahmud Ibrahim, published with alNawawi's commentary (alTanqih fi sharh alWasit) and 3 other minor commentaries by dar al-salam Cairo, 1997. al-Basit [M:3, A:3, GAL no 48]. {?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????}Al-wajiz fi fiqh alimam al-shafi'i. 2 vol. ed. Ali Ma'wad and 'Adil Abdelmujud, Dar alarqam: Beiruit, 1997. (a shorter work on fiqh, includes contrary opinions of Malik, Abu Hanifa al-Muzni) (an extract: intro pp.1-69 PDF) [M:5?, 36; A:36; GAL I, 424; K:14191] o This book was then expanded upon (sharh) by abul-Qasem alRafi'ai called Sharh al-wajiz which in turn was summarized by al-Nawawi in a book called rawdat al-talibin (link) (???????? ?? ??? ??????) al-

Mustasfa fi 'ilm al-isul. The most famous work of al-Ghazali on Usul alFiqh (Methods of Muslim Jurisprudence). (Arabic link). . [This work is considered one of four works that all isul work revolve around and they are: 1. The mu'tazalite 'Abd al-Jabar (d. 415) al-Qadi's al-'umad; 2. abu al-Husain (d. 473) al-Basri's almu'tamad (commentary on al'umad); 3. al-Imam al-Harmian abu al-Ma'ali (d. 478) Juywani's al-Burhan and 4. this book. (See Hito's introduction to almankhul below p.9 ;27)] [M:59 ; A:63; gal,S. I. 754, no 51; K:11936] o Vol. 1 was translated in: ABU HAMID ALGHAZALI'S JURISTIC DOCTRINE IN 'AL-MUSTASFA MIN 'ILM ALUSUL' WITH A TRANSLATION OF VOLUME ONE OF 'ALMUSTASFA MIN 'ILM AL-USUL'. HAMMAD, AHMAD ZAKI, PHD. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, 1987. (T-30177) (part1-PDF) is a study of al-Ghazali's contribution to Usul one of the first in the English language. (part 2: translation of volume 1-PDF). o Complete version (Arabic word) Seems complete with original page numbers. (zipped) {??????? ?? ?????? ??????} al-

Mankhul min taliqat al-isul. edited by M. H. Hito. ND/NP [Damascus?, 1970?(intro. p.48)] 48pp+541pp. [Haqqaqahu wa-kharraja nassahu wa-allaqa alayhi Muhammad Hasan Hitu. Yunsharu li-awwal marrah an thalath nusakh makhtutah.] (PDF) courtesy of KG. Also available zipped word file of text only. [M:2; A:2; GAL. no 52; K:11936] {????????} al-Ta'liqa (a commentary on alJuwani's Usul al-fiqh work) This work would be superseded by the above two works a case of discipulus potior magistro. [M:1; A:1] {???? ??????} Asas al-Qiyas (foundation of Analogical [reasoning]) edited by Fahd ibn Muhammad al-Sadhan (alRiyad : Maktabat al-`Ubaykan, 1993). [M:67; A:61]

Sufism

Sufism: {????? ???? ?????} Ihya' 'ulum al-din (click here) - [M:28; A:28; GAL, I, 422, S., I, 748]- Badawi's Biographical entry (complete in word format) {????? ????? ???? ????? / ???? ????? ???? ?????} Mukhtasr ihya' ulum al-din (most likely by Abu Hamid al-Ghazali's brother Ahmad) also called (lubab Ihya' 'ulum al-din) According to Badawi it was printed on the margin of Nuzhat al-nazarin Cairo 1308, 1328. Mss are in Princeton 1482, Berlin 1708/9, Bodleian 1:324, Jar Allah 1482, Escorial 2: 731. Recently it has been printed by mu'asat al-kutub al-thaqifia (Beirut, 1990) 286pp. (Summary of the Ihya') (PDF) Note that the publisher claims that it is by al-Ghazali! [M:219, 220; A:93] {???????? ?? ???? ?????} al-'Arabin fi isul al-din (the Forty fundamentals of religion) [M:38, 95; A:38; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746] Originally written as part of Jawahir al-Qur'an and permission was given for it to be a separate work. o M. S. Kurdi edition (Cairo, 1328 and 1344)

edited by 'Abdullah A.H. 'Arawni, dar alqalam (Damascus, 2003) 303pp. An edition based on Kurdi's published edition and Mss from al-zaytuna, Tunisia. (PDF) Nicely produced volume. o Partial translation was completed as an MA thesis in AUC. {????? ?????} Alchemy of Happiness Kimiya-ye Saadah. [M:45; A:45] o Introduction by E. Daniels. (PDF) o Arabic Translation (not a complete translation it was originally written in Persian) Arabic pdf [M:223; A:45] o Italian translation of the above Arabic version in: by Prof. M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL'AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 351-370. ISBN: 8802060746. o Kazi publications is publishing a full English translation of the Persian Original by M. N. Abdelsalam. Currently there are 24 of the 44 books published. Plan is to also publish in two volumes all 44 books sometime in 2005. o There is a another English translation by Muhammad Asim Bilal and revised by Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal, Kazi publications, Lahore: 2001. {????? ?????} Mizan al-'amal, (Criterion of Action) Arabic Html. [M:21; A:21] o Also available Edited by S. Dunya in Arabic (pdf) o English Translation of a two sample chapters from Dunya's edition. o An article on its Hebrew translation (Arabic PDF) o Italian translation by Prof. M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL'AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 97-274 with extensive introduction in 96 pp. ISBN: 8802060746. {?????? ?? ??????} al-Munqidh min aldalal (Deliverance from Error). E-textEnglish Translation. [M:56; A:56] o Arabic HTML. Also in word format edited from Farid Jabre's Arabic

o o

and Ahmad Shamsaldin's editions (see below) with note by M. Hozien. Edited with an introduction by J. Saliba and K. Ayyad 7th edition. (Arabic PDF) (near critical edition!) Edited with an introduction by A. Shamsaldin. (Arabic PDF) M. Bejou's edition (Damascus: 1992) with notes, introduction (mini study of the influence of alGhazali's methodical doubt on Descartes). (Arabic PDF) A Modern updated translation. (Etext) (Translation notes not included) courtesy of CUA. Watt's Translation. (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1967) Also Available in (PDF) McCarthy, R. J. Freedom and fulfillment : an annotated translation of Al-Ghazalis alMunqidh min al-dalal and other relevant works of al-Ghazali by Richard Joseph McCarthy. (Boston:Twayne Publishers, c1980). (one of these days!) I'traifat Ghazzali motarjim zainaldin Ki'ya' Nazad. A Persian Translation. (pdf) El-Munkizu Miin-Ad-Dalal. By Hilmi Gungor, a Turkish Translation. (pdf) Khair al-maqal fi tarjamat almunqidh min al-dalal. Translation and commentary by Muwalwi Syed Mumtaz Ali (Urdu, PDF) Ghazl, Ab-Hmid Muhammad ibn-Muhammad al-: Der Erretter aus dem Irrtum (Al-Munqidh min ad-dall). Aus d. Arab. bers., mit e. Einl., mit Anm. u. Indices hrsg. v. 'Ab Elhamd Elschazl. Hamburg: Meiner 1988 (Philosophische Bibliothek; Bd. 389). (German pdf) Erreur et Dlivrance, Traducion Franasise avec introduction et notes par Farid Jabre. (Deuxime dition) A dual language edition French Translation/Arabic. Commision Libanaise Pour La

Traduction Des Chefs-D'uvre, Beyrouth: 1969. (pdf) o El salvador del error, Introduccin y notas del Emilio Tornero. A Spanish Translation. (pdf) o A TVELYGSBL KIVEZET T in Hungarian (Arabbl magyarra fordtotta / Translated from Arabic into Hungarian by : NMETH, Pl) o De redder uit de dwaling, Uit het Arabisch vertaald en tocgelicht door Prof. Dr J. H. Kramers. A Dutch (Holland/Netherlands) Translation. (pdf). o Hebrew translation by Hava Lazarus-Yafah. o Italian (?) {????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????} Bidayat al-hidayah published as Bidayat al-hidayah fi aladab wa-al-akhlaq wa-al-tasawwuf lil-Shaykh Zayn al-Din Hujjat al-Islam Abi Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazzali al-Tusi. Wa-yaliha alRisalah al-wa`ziyah, al-Maktabah al-Tijariyah alKubr (Cairo, N.D. 19??). [M:35; A:35] o Partially translated by W. M. Watt and fully by Muhammad Abul Qasem. o Dual language edition (Arabic/English) by M. Al-Allaf. (St. Louis, 2004) (more info)

Theology (ilm al-Kalam wa isul al-din): General note on Ghazali's works on Theology. The fact remains that he wrote very little on theology although in the Tahfut he mentioned that he planned to write a theological work he never did. {???????? ?? ????????} Median (lit. Economy) in Belief. (al-Iqtisad fil- Itiqad) [M:24; A:25] o Critical Edition: al-ghazzali's aliktisad fi'l-itikad edited by H. Atay and I. Cubkcu. Nur Matbaasi, Ankara 1962. (Arabic PDF) o Popluar edition: Arabic. (alIqtisad fil- Itiqad) word. Also Dr. Insaf Ramdan's edition (Arabic PDF) with explanatory notes. (Damascus: 2003) o Partial English translation: AlGhazali on Divine Predicates and their Properties: by A. Abu Zayd. (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1970).

Theology

(PDF) A complete Spanish translation by Miguel Asn Palacios El justo medio en la creencia, compendio de teologa dogmtica de Algazel (Madrid: Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan, 1929) {??????? ???????} al-risala al-qudsia The Jerusalem Epistle a dual language edition with English translation and commentary. [M:25; A:26, 133] -note that al-Ghazali included this a section in book 2 of the Ihya'- (PDF) o The Jerusalem Epistle. (link) o German translation: "Die Dogmatik Al-Gahzalis nach dem II. Buch seines Hauptwerkes" ( "Ihya") H.Bauer, Halle,1912. (link) {????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????} Iljam alawamm 'an ilm al-kalam (Warding off the Masses from Sciences of Theology) Source: Mujmat rasail al-imam alGhazali vol. p. (Beirut: 199?)(Arabic PDF) (new Arabic edition is in the works! more information forthcoming!) [M:63; A:71; GAL. S: I, pp.746-747 no 11 & 12; K:1129] {?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????} al-maqsad al-asna fi sharah asma' Allahu al-husna - Ninety-Nine Names of God: in Arabic with English Introduction. (Beirut: Dar al-Mashriq, 1982); edited by Fadlou Shehadh. (Arabic PDF) [M:33; A:33; K:7475, 12790] o Stade, Robert Charles, Ninety-Nine Names of God in Islam: A translation of the major portion of al-Ghazali's Al-Maqsad al-Asna, Daystar Press, Ibadan, 1970 (PDF). Thanks to Thilo! o English Translation by: D. Burrell and N. Daher (ITS description) Ninety-Nine Names of God. (Link) partial quote from above translation. o M. Bejou edition with notes, (Damascus, 1999); (Arabic PDF) o Note there is at least two editions of this book edited by al-Jafan and Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyah edited by A. Shamasuddin. o

Philosophy and Logic (falsafa wal mantiq): {????? ????????} (Maqasid al-falasifah : fi al-mantiq wa-al-hikmah al-ilahiyah waal-hikmah al-tabi`iyah) [M:17; A:16; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 755] o Best Available edition: (Misr: alMatba`ah al-Mahmudiyah alTijariyah bi-alAzhar, [Cairo]1936.) Muhyi al-Din Sabri Al-Kurdi Arabic Edition. (PDF). o M. Bejou has published (Damascus: 2000) the above edition in which he corrected printing errors (misplaced pages) with new typesetting, illustrations and explanatory notes. (Arabic PDF) o Aims of the Philosophers (Arabic E-text) with introduction and commentary by S. Dunya (PDF) Dar al-ma'arif (Cairo, 1965). With an introduction and annotation, textual variation is embedded in the text within brackets. o An old Latin translation. (PDF) the Complete edition. o Partial English Translation from A Hebrew translation: THE LOGICAL PART OF AL-GHAZALI'S MAQASID ALFALASIFA, IN AN ANONYMOUS HEBREW TRANSLATION WITH THE HEBREW COMMENTARY OF MOSES OF NARBONNE, EDITED AND TRANSLATED WITH NOTES AND AN INTRODUCTION AND TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH. CHERTOFF, GERSHON BARUCH, PHD. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1952. 408 pp. (0004166) (PDF) o Spanish Translation o Grapevine News: an English language Translation: Forthcoming (by David Burrell and Tony Street) from BYU Press -Utah. {????? ????????} Tahafut al-Falasifa (Incoherence of philosophers) His most famous philosophical work. [M:16; A:17; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 754] o Critical edition: (Tahafot alfalasifat / Algazel ; texte arabe etabli et accompagne d'un sommaire latin et d'index par

Philosophy and Logic

Maurice Bouyges.) (PDF) Text (with an introduction and notes by S. Dunya) (Arabic PDF) o Arabic E-text in word format partially proofread. o M. Bejou's Arabic edition. (Arabic PDF)! Could not resist this one I only have about 7 versions of the Tahafut in Arabic! This edition includes a lecture by Mahmoud Abbas al-'Aqad and a postscript by Dr. Hikmat Hashem, Dean of Philosophy department at Damascus University. (Damascus, 1994). o Book Review: General overview. (link) o Book Review: From Khasf azZunun By Hajji Khalifia (In Arabic) o English translation by S. A. Kamali (1963) (PDF) (word needs editing) o Second English Translation by a prof. of Islamic Theology: Marmura, Michael E. The incoherence of the philosophers: Tahafut al-falasifah: a parallel English-Arabic text (Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1997). Note Prof. Marmura did his PhD thesis on this book! o Abu Ridah, Muhammad 'Abd AlHadi. Al-Ghazali und Seine Widerlegung der griechischen Philosophie (Tahafut al-Falasifah) (Madrid: 1952). {????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????} Ma'arij al-Qudus fi madarij ma'rifat alNafs (on the soul) old printed edition from Cairo. (Arabic pdf) (could be pseudo ghazali see our page on the controversy) [M:76; A:76; GAL, I, 426 no 64a & 64g, S., I, 751] o English translation with an introduction, analysis and summary by Yusuf Easa Shammas, "Al-Ghazali's ascent to the Divine through the path of self-knowledge" (Ph.D. diss., Hartford Seminary, 1958) (PDF) {??????? ?? ??? ??? ????} al-Madnun: On the Soul. (could be pseudo ghazali see our page on the controversy). Also available on o

another link (iffy) [M:39; A:39; K:12214, 13243] o Prof. N. Pourjavady had discovered a manuscripts probably used at the Madrasa of Maragha (North-West Iran) during the 12th and 13th centuries. It contains a version of the text al-Madnun bihi ala ghayri ahlih" and attributed it to al-Ghazali. -This new text is equivalent to an extract of alGhazalis summary of philosophy Maqasid al-Falasifa Read his report. (PDF) See the manuscript of AlMaraghah manuscript. (Provided by Prof. N. Pourjavady) {??? ?????} Mihak al-Nazar (Ghazali's book on logic) Arabic Word file. [M:20; A:20] {????? ?????} Miyar al-Ilm (Criterion of Knowledge) his work on logic edited by S. Dunya (Cairo: Dar al-ma'arif, 1965) in (Arabic pdf). Dunya believes that this book is the introduction to the Tahafut al-falisifah, namely the philosophical trilogy: Logic (this book), Summary (the maqasid) and refutation (the tahafut). [M:18; A:18]

other works: {????? ?????? ?????} Jewels of the Qur'an (Jawahir al-Qur'an). [M:37; A:37; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746] o Arabic Original, edited by: Dr. Muhammad R. R. al-Qabani, Dar ihya' al-'ulum: Beirut, 1990) Based on the Cairo 1933 2nd ed. p.6. (Arabic PDF) o English translation by Muhammad Abul Quasem, Kuala Lumpur: 1977. Complete book (PDF) Part I (html) o Italian Translation: LE PERLE DEL CORANO, INTRODUZIONE, TRADUZIONE E NOTE DI MASSIMO CAMPANINI, TESTO ARABO A FRONTE, BUR CLASSICI. (Milan, 2000) ISBN: 8817173282. paperback 207pp. {????? ???????? ?????? ??????????} "al-

Other Works

Mustazhir"i or Fada'ih al-Batiniyya wa fada'il al-mutazhiriyya (Ghazali's answer to Isma'ili Shi'is of his time). [M:22; A:22; GAL, S., I, 747, no 23a] o al-Mustazhiri: Trans. R. McCarthy. (E-text) (PDF) Partial translation only. A study of this translation was completed as MA thesis and published as Al-Ghazali and Ismailis for more info. o Fada'ih al-Batiniyya (Infamies of the Batinies) In Arabic Ed. A. Badawi (E-text) (PDF) (This is the complete edition based on two manuscripts while the Goldziher edition doesn't have the full text. o Fada'ih al-Batiniyya. Note also that the Badawi edition has not been proofread. See introduction to the 2001 edition corrected and commented on by Muhammad 'Ali al-Qtub, al-maktaba al-'asriyya: Beirut, 2001 p.6). (Arabic PDF) o Streitschrift Des Gazali gegen die Batinijja-Sekte by Ignaz Goldziher. This is a part-edition of Fadaih al-batiniyya with German analysis based on the ms. at the British Library in London in Arabic with German Intro/Translation. (PDF) in Arabic with German Intro/Translation. Also see in German: "Die Streitschrift des Gazali gegen die Ibahiya", bersetzer : Otto Pretzl, 1933 Mnchen. o Damigh al-batil wa-hatf almunadil ta'lif `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Walid (d.1215) ; taqdim wa-tahqiq Mustafa Ghalib. Bayrut: Mu'assasat 'Izz al-Din, 1982. 2 vols. (an Isma'ili answer to the al-Ghazali's Mustazhiri from the 13th Century) (PDF) sample. Note: A. Badawi was looking for this work while preparing his edition of Fada'ih but was unable to secure a copy of it, see his introduction. { ??????? ????????} al-Qistas almustaqim (The Correct Balance) edited by M. Bejou, (improved edition). (Arabic PDF). [M:42; A:42; GAL, S., I, 749, no

28] edited by V. Chalhout 2nd edition. in Arabic PDF (Note: Qur'anic text not verified according to the Uthmani text) o al-Qistas al-mustaqim: The Correct Balance (Trans. R. McCarthy. (PDF) o The Just Balance (Another English translation: D .P. Brewster, Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1978) PDF o A study of this book was done by A. Neuwirth KleinKnecht. (Eine Ableitung Der Logik Aus Dem Koran) (German PDF) o Italian translation by by Prof. M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL'AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 275-350. ISBN: 8802060746. {?????? ?? ??????? ????} Al-hikmah fi makhluqat illah (Wisdom in God's Creation) ed. M. R. Qabani. (Arabic PDF: File size: 3200kb) [M:74; A:81; GAL no 43] {???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????} Fayasl al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-lzandaqa (The Criterium of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief) edited by M. Bejou (Damascus: 1993) (Arabic PDF) Also in word format. As well as Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyah edited by A. Shamasuddin(?). (Arabic PDF) [M:43; A:43; GAL, S., I, 747 no 13] o English: On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali's Faysal alTafriqa, Sherman A. Jackson (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2002). Reviewed D. Stewart (JAOS vol. 124.1 2004). o German: Uber Rechtglubigkeit und religiose Toleranz. Eine Ubersetzung der Schrift Das Kriterium der Unterscheidung zwischen Islam und Gottlosigkeit" (Faysal at-tafriqa bayna l-Islam wa-z-zandaqa), eingeleitet, ubersetzt und mit Erlauterungen versehen von Frank Griffel, Zurich: Spur Verlag 1998, 110 p. (introduction, German translation and commentary on al-Ghazalis Faysal alo

tafriqa). Muktabat imam ghazali [M:325] might be the same as {????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???????} Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat alIslam, a Persian collection of an unknown compiler, probably of the 12th cent. It is known also under title: Makatib-i Farsi-i Ghazzali. (Persian PDF) [M:346; A:346] o Letters of al-Ghazali. (26) translated from the Persian by 'Abdul Qyyum "Shafaq" Hazarvi, Kitab Bhavan: New Delhi, 1992. (English PDF) o German Translation of Faza'il al-anam min rasa'il Hujjat al-Islam, Dorothea Krawulsky. Briefe und Reden des Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Gazzali. Freiburg im Breisgau, K. Schwarz, 1971. {????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????} The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings. [M:47; A:47; GAL, I, 423 no 30 & S., I, 750] o al-tabr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk wa alwuzara wa al-wulat (MS:l72.2:G4ltbA), Quoting the site: "a manual of advice composed for rulers, ministers and governors on how they should govern their realms. The manuscript was probably produced in Egypt at the beginning of the fifteenth century. It is a fine example of a late Mamluk manuscript that can be seen in the quality of the colored paper, the beauty of the calligraphy and the contemporary brown morocco binding. The [Jafet] library of the American University of Beirut Archives and Special Collection. The entire manuscript is now online and in full color." (link) Now if only other libraries are this generous with their collections! o al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat almuluk. Arabic (html text minor proof reading) This is the Arabic translation of the book which was originally written in Persian as Nasihat al-Muluk (only the first part of this book was written by al-Ghazali, however. cf. P. Crone Did al-Ghazali Write a Mirror for Princes? in: Jerusalem Studies of Arabic and Islam 10 (1987) pp. 167-191.)

English Translation: Counsel for Kings. translated by F. R. C. Bagley, from the Persian text edited by Jalal Huma'i and the Bodleian Arabic text, edited by H. D. Isaacs, with introduction, notes, and biographical index (London : Oxford University Press, 1964) (PDF) {???? ????? ?????} Ayah al-Wald alMuahib (Al-Ghazali Letter to a Disciple) (Arabic PDF) [M:46; A:46; GAL, I, 423; K:6010] o Qadiriyah Library Manuscript # F 1432 and S 1418 ayuha al-walad al-muhib. Edited by Jamil Ibrahim Habib. (Arabic PDF) o English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, O Disciple. (Beirut: Catholic Press, 1951) also PDF. o My Dear Beloved Son. (A translation from the Urdu translation ) (word file). {????? ???????} Mishkat al-Anwar Qur'anic Hermeneutics of the chapter of Light. [M:52; A:52, 257, 258; GAL S., I, 751] o an edition of Cairo 1322 edited/published by Farj Allah Zaki al-Kurdi and Ahmad 'Azzat (PDF) o Edited by Abu al-'ala 'Afifi, Cairo: Dar al-Qawmiya lil-Tab'a wa alNashr, 1964. (PDF ) Still trying to get it, see below perhaps an improvement on 'afifi's editon. o edited by abdelaziz al-Sirawan, alam alkutub, 1986. Used many mss and print editions to prepare this one. (pdf) o info about a French Translation (link with summary) o Book review of David Buchman, Al-Ghazali, The Niche of Lights / Mishkat al-Anwar. A parallel English Arabic text Brigham Young University Press, 1999; by Prof. Frank Griffel. (PDF) o For more info and papers on this book see the following announcement on a panel discussion. {????? ???????} Qanun al-ta'wil (on Interpretation) Edited by M. Bejou Arabic PDF) note that page 26 is not clear on the edges some of the words are o

hard to make out. (Damascus: 1993)(Arabic PDF). [M:162; A:162] {??????? ?? ?????} al-Muntakhal fi al-jadal, alRiyad : Maktabat al-Malik Fahd al-Wataniyah, 2004. [M:7; A:7; K:13089] {?????? ????? ?????? ???????} Mujma't Rasil alImam al-Ghazali - This is a work that combines two previously published collections of the smaller works (treatises and epistles) as: o {??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????} alJawahir al-ghawali min rasa'il al-imam alGhazzali: tanbih hadhihi al-majmu`at tashtamil `al `ashara rasa'il min anfas rasa'il Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazzali, [Cairo] : Muhiy al-Din Sabri al-Kurdi, 1934. o {?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????} alQusur al-`awali min rasa'il al-Ghazzali, liHujjat al-Islam Abi Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazzali;. Misr : Maktabat al-Jindi, [1964].

Notes & Disclaimers

Ikhwah, di Nusantara wujud ramai pembela, penyokong, pengikut, pengkagum Wahhabi, terutama sekali mereka yang termakan dakyah mereka sewaktu derasnya duit minyak Saudi. Antara yang termakan dakyah Wahhabi dan Ibnu Taimiyyah ialah Dr. Hamka, Allahyarhamhu. Beberapa sahabat dari Seberang menyatakan di akhir umurnya, dia rujuk kembali kepada pendapat ulama Sunni Syafi`i sehingga penyokong-penyokongnya dari kalangan Muhammadiah menuduhnya sebagai nyanyuk. Dr. Hamka sendiri dalam Tafsir al-Azharnya menyatakan bahawa dia tidak berpegang dengan mana-mana mazhab, ertinya La mazhabiyyah (golongan

tidak bermazhab). Dalam bukunya Tasauf Perkembangan Dan Pemurniannya, dia menyambung fitnah Rasyid Redha yang dikaguminya terhadap Sayyidi Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan rhm. Pada mukasurat 226, dia menulis:

Jago yang berjasa besar membela Kerajaan Turki dan membusukkan Wahabi dan memfitnahkannya, sampai menuduh bahwa Muhammad bin Abdil Wahab itu adalah keturunan Musailamah al-Kazzab, sebab dia lahir di Wadi Yamamah di Nej adalah Syaikh dan Alim Syafi-iyah yang besar di Mekkah Syaikh Said (baca: Syed) Zaini Dahlan.

Jelas racun fitnah Wahhabiyyah telah ditelan bulat-bulat oleh Dr. Hamka sehingga dia menuduh Syaikh dan Alim Syafi-iyah yang besar di Mekkah adalah seorang tukang fitnah. Berfikirlah dengan rasional, adakah ini sifat Syaikh dan Alim Syafi-iyah yang besar ???? Bukankah ini tujuannya mendiscreditkan ulama kita. Benarkah Sayyidi Ahmad Zaini Dahlan benar-benar menyatakan bahawa Ibnu Abdul Wahhab itu keturunan Musailamah atau yang dikatakannya ialah kabilahnya sama dengan kabilah Musailamah al-Kadzdzab itu ??? Tuduhan yang dimuatkan oleh Dr. Hamka dalam buku tersebut yang dikarangnya tahun 1952. Tidak tahulah sama ada di akhir umurnya dia rujuk kembali daripada pendapatnya. Untuk makluman lanjut, seorang lagi ulama kita yang dimarahi oleh Dr. Hamka ialah Syaikh Yusuf bin Ismail an-Nabhani, sebabnya kerana polemik dan tentangannya terhadap Ibnu Taimiyyah, Wahhabi dan Muhammad Abduh. Membaca karangan-karangan Hamka, kita akan mengetahui bahawa dia adalah pengkagum Muhammad Abduh dan Rasyid Ridha. Oleh itu berhati-hatilah apabila membaca karangan-karangannya, jangan jadi Radio IKIM saban hari mengulang-ulang puisi Anisah Mai yang dipetik dari buku Tasauf Modern karangan Hamka, tidakkah mereka tahu bahawa Anisah Mai itu adalah seorang Kristian. Dr. Hamka sendiri menyatakan demikian dalam bukunya tersebut, ini mesti kes baca tak habis, main petikpetik je. Allahu . Allah. Mudah-mudahan Allah mengampuni ketergelinciran Buya Hamka. Nak hadiah Fatihah ke tidak, lupa pula apa pendapat Buya Hamka, kalau tak silap dia kata tak sampai. Kalau tak sampai tak payah hadiahlah. Sebelumnya sebagai orang Indonesia yang tinggal di bogor jawa barat,saya minta maaf,atas ucapan saudara saya yang mengatakan orang bodoh dan kekanakkanak..Sayapun heran siapakah yang bodoh dan kekanak-kanak..Adakah orang yang sangat alim dalam agama berani menghina orang?alangkah sombongnya dia berani berkata seperti itu..kalau tidak setuju,boleh saja silahkan kemukakan alasan,bukan dengan menghina orangTidaklah semua orang indonesia seperti dia..Mengenai buya hamka,marilah kita hormati beliau agar ada kemanfaatan dari ilmunyaApabila ada tulisannya yang tidak sesuai dengan mazhab sunni,kita tinggalkan sajaSayapun pengagum hamka..

Salafy Tobat
o o o o o o o o o o

*Imam adzahabi (ahlusunnah) membungkam Wahabi TANGAN DI ATAS DADA : SIFAT SHALAT WAHABI = SIFAT IBADAH YAHUDI (TALMUD) Kitab Inshof Imam Mardawi (Fiqh Madzab Hanbali) : fikih madzhab Hanbali melegalkan ziarah kubur- tabaruk dan tawasul. al Khathib al Baghdadi (w 463 H): Tabarruk Imam Syafii Ziarah di Makam Imam Abu Hanifah Qadli al Qudlat al Imam al Hafizh al Mufassir al Mujtahid Ali ibn Abdil Kafi as Subki (w756) Membongkar Kekufuran Ibnu Taimiyah Kaum Wahabi Di Atas Keyakinan Abu Jahal Dan Abu Lahab (Lihat bukti scan ini dari buku mereka sendiri!!!!) Pelajaran Penting: Mengenal Sebab Kesesatan Aqidah Tasybih; Dari Tulisan Imam Ibn al-Jauzi (Waspadai Ajaran Wahhabi, Sebarkan!!) Pemahaman Ahlussunnah Tentang Hadts an-Nuzl; Mewaspadai Akidah Tasybih Ajaran Wahabi [[[ Seri 1 ]]] DI ANTARA BUKTI KEBENARAN AQIDAH ASYARIYYAH (Mewaspadai Aqidah Sesat Wahabi) Imam Ibn al Jawzi (ulama besar Hambali) Menganjurkan Ziarah Ke Makam Orang2 Saleh & Keampuhan tabaruk

Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jamaah Raja Mukhlis As Syazuly


o o

Tradisi dan Falsafah Ilmu dalam Al-Qur'an Penjelasan Ringkas Tentang Perkataan Saidina Ibn Abbas r.a. Tobatnya Ayatullah `Uzma As Sayyid Abu Al Fadhl Al Burqu`i Siapakah Al Imam Ja`far Ash Shadiq? Abdullah bin Saba` Tokoh Fiktif? fatwa-fatwa sesat syiah rafidhoh fatwa-fatwa sesat syiah rafidhoh fatwa-fatwa sesat syiah rafidhoh Nahjul Balaghoh KAWIN KONTRAK TRADISI SYIAH TAQIYAH RITUAL KAUM SYI'AH SYI'AH = YAHUDI 'Adalatus shahabah PENGERTIAN RAFIDHAH DAN SYI'AH MENURUT ULAMA SUNNI Ritual Asyura Mengapa kita membedakan antara Sunni dan syiah, padahal kita memerlukan persatuan? Thinah Apakah Imam Benar-Benar Maksum? Ulama Syiah dan Al Quran Sejarah Syiah

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Blog Wahabi
o o

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

123 - Pemikiran Sayyid Qutub: Pencetus Ideologi Takfir dan Khawarij Moden 122 - Mazhab al-Muwazanah: Di Antara Kritikan Dan Menyebut Kebaikan, Sebuah Pencerahan Berdasarkan Perkataan Para Ulama Ahlus Sunnah walJamaah 121 - Isyarat Jari Telunjuk: Zamihan al-Ghari Berdusta Atas Nama Ulama! 120 - Tatacara Angkat Takbir: Zamihan al-Ghari Permainkan Tatacara Solat Umat Islam 119 - Solat Ultraman: Zamihan al-Ghari Memperlekeh Ulama! 118 - Tahukah Anda Hasan Nasrullah Itu Musuh Islam? 117 - Penjelasan Syaikh Muhammad B. Soleh al-Utsaimin Tentang al-Asyairah & al-Maturidiyah 116 - Hadis Ahad Yang Sahih Adalah Hujjah: Imam an-Nawawi Menyangkal Hizbut Tahrir 115 - Perkataan Ibnu Taimiyyah Berkaitan al-Asyairah 114 - Fatwa Ulama Masa Kini Terhadap Gerakkan Ikhwanul Muslimin 113 - Benarkah Ilmu Jarh wa at-Tadil Telah Pupus (Mati)? 112 - Sebuah Penjelasan Tentang al-Asya'irah 111 - Para Ustaz Ditangkap, Jangan Melenting! 110 - Manhaj dan Prinsip Ibnu Taimiyyah di Dalam Mentaati Pemerintah (Penguasa) 109 - Ibnu Taimiyyah Berkata Tentang Pemberontakkan & Menjatuhkan Pemerintah 108 - Koreksi Ke Atas Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradhawi: Bab Bermawaddah (Berkasihsayang) Dengan Yahudi! 107 - Benarkah Dengan Banyaknya Agama Memberi Banyak Faedah Kepada Masyarakat? 106 - Pujian Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradhawi Kepada Yahudi & Merendahkan Allah 105 - Jawaban Syaikh Ibn Utsaimin Terhadap Pembelaan Dr. Yusuf alQaradhawi Terhadap al-Asyairah 104 - Syaikh Utsaminin Toward Safar al-Hawali & Salman al-Audah

Blog Wahabi II
o o o o o o o o o o o

125 - Bagaimana Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaah Mentaati Pemerintah (Pemimpin Negara) 124 - Imam asy-Syafi'i: Allah Di Langit 123 - Sifat-sifat Syurga Di Dalam al-Quran 122 - Nasihat Imam Ibnul Jauzi Dalam Menghilangkan Kezaliman Pemerintah 121 - Imam al-Barbahari: Ilmu Itu Merehatkan Tubuh-Badan 120 - Syaikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyyah: Seruan Mengikuti Generasi Salaf (Generasi Awal Umat Islam) 119 - Jalan Kebaikkan - Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad B. Hussain al-Ajurry 118 - Perkataan Imam Abu Hatim al-Razi Dalam Mengikuti Salaf 117 - Arsy Allah Dan Kursi Allah 116 - Masa Tidak Termasuk Nama Allah 115 - Prinsip-prinsip Di Dalam Berinteraksi Dengan Orang-orang Kafir

o o o o o o o o o

114 - Imam at-Tirmidzi Menjelaskan Perbezaan Di Antara Ahlus Sunnah Dengan Jahmiyah Di Dalam Persoalan Tangan Allah (Yadullah) 113 - Jangan Ditanya Bagaimana Turunnya Allah Ke Langit Dunia 112 - Haram Beribadat Melainkan Dengan Dalil 111 - Perkataan Imam asy-Syafi'e Tentang Istiwa Allah 110 - Prinsip Imam asy-Syafi'e Dalam Menetapkan Sifat Bagi Allah 109 - Mazhab Salaf as-Soleh Dalam Soal Istawa Allah 108 - Imam asy-Syafi'e Berkata Tentang Sifat-sifat Allah 107 - Perkataan Imam al-'Auza'i Tentang Allah Beristiwa Di Arsy-Nya 106 - Nabi Pernah Melihat Malaikat Jibril

Feisal Abdul Rauf


Feisal Abdul Rauf

Pictured at the World Economic Forum in Cologny, Switzerland.

Born

1948 Kuwait

Nationality

American

Occupation

Imam, author, landlord

Known for

Sponsor of Park51, AKA Cordoba House

Feisal Abdul Rauf (Arabic: , born 1948) is an Egyptian-American Sufi[1] imam, author, and activist whose stated goal is to improve relations between the Muslim world and the West.[2] Since 1983, he has been Imam of Masjid al-Farah, a mosque in New York City.[3][4]

He has written three books on Islam and its place in contemporary Western society, including What's Right with Islam Is What's Right with America, and founded two non-profit organizations whose stated missions are to enhance the discourse on Islam in society. He has condemned the 9/11 attacks as un-Islamic and called on the U.S. government to reduce the threat of terrorism by altering its Middle Eastern foreign policy.[5][6] Author Karen Armstrong, among others, has praised him for his attempts to build bridges between the West and the Muslim world.[7] In 2010, Rauf received national attention for his plans to build Park51, an Islamic community center, two blocks (600 feet or 200 yards) away from Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan.

Contents
[hide]

1 Early life 2 Career 3 Sufi affiliation 4 Support 5 Controversies o 5.1 After 9/11 o 5.2 Hamas o 5.3 Proposed Islamic cultural center and Mosque o 5.4 Opinions o 5.5 Rental properties 6 Personal life 7 Selected bibliography o 7.1 Books o 7.2 Other writings 8 References 9 External links

Early life
Rauf was born in Kuwait. His father, Egyptian Imam and Sunni scholar Muhammad Abdul Rauf (19172004), moved with the younger Rauf to New York City in the 1960s. The elder Rauf assisted with efforts to create the multimillion dollar Islamic Cultural Center of New York, the first building designed as a mosque in New York City, which took 25 years to complete and opened in 1991.[8] Rauf earned bachelor's degree in physics from Columbia University[8] in the late 1960s, before earning a master's degree in plasma physics at Stevens University in Hoboken, New Jersey.[9]

Career

After his studies, Rauf focused on his religious aspirations, and became a popular leader of a New York City mosque.[9] He also held jobs in teaching, as a salesman and in real estate.[8] Rauf has written three books on Islam and its place in contemporary Western society, including What's Right with Islam, which was later printed in paperback with the changed title What's Right with Islam is What's Right with America.[10] Rauf has been imam of Masjid al-Farah at 245 West Broadway in New York City's Tribeca district since 1983.[2] Rauf worked to build bridges between American society, the American Muslim community and the wider Muslim world. In 1997, he founded the American Society for Muslim Advancement (originally named the American Sufi Muslim Association[11]), a civil society organization aimed at promoting positive engagement between American society and American Muslims. The organization is now headed by his wife.[2] He is a member of the Council of 100 Leaders (C-100) on West-Islamic World Dialogue at the World Economic Forum (WEF)[12][13] and has received both the Alliance for International Conflict Prevention and Resolutions[14] annual Alliance Peacebuilder Award and The Interfaith Center of New Yorks annual James Parks Morton Interfaith Award (2006).[15][16] He was a major speaker at the 2009 Parliament of the World's Religions in Melbourne, Australia.[17] In 2003, Rauf founded the Cordoba Initiative, another registered nonprofit organization with offices in both New York and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. As CEO of Cordoba Initiative, Rauf coordinates projects that emphasize the bonds that connect the Muslim world and the West.

Sufi affiliation
Rauf is a member of the Nur Ashki Jerrahi Sufi Order, and in 1983 was appointed prayer leader at their New York City mosque, Masjid al-Farah.[18] In 1997 he founded the American Sufi Muslim Society (ASMA),[19] which has since been renamed the American Society for Muslim Advancement.

Support
British author Karen Armstrong said in the introduction to Rauf's book: Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf ... is a bridge figure because he has deep roots in both worlds. He was educated in Egypt, England, Malaysia and the United States, and his mosque in New York City is only a few blocks away from the World Trade Center. After September 11, people often asked me, "Where are the moderate Muslims? why are they not speaking out?" In Imam Rauf, we have a Muslim who can speak to Western people in a way they can understand."[7] Fareed Zakaria praised Rauf for speaking of "the need for Muslims to live peacefully with all other religions", for emphasizing the commonalities among all faiths, for advocating equal rights for women and opposing laws that in any way punish non-Muslims.[20]

Walter Isaacson, head of The Aspen Institute, says Rauf "has participated at the Aspen Institute in Muslim-Christian-Jewish working groups looking at ways to promote greater religious tolerance. He has consistently denounced radical Islam and terrorism, and promoted a moderate and tolerant Islam."[21]

Controversies
After 9/11
Following the September 11 attacks, Rauf conducted training and speeches for the F.B.I. and U.S. State Department.[9] However, some U.S. politicians have voiced concerns about his views,[22][23][24][25] referring to comments Rauf made when interviewed by Ed Bradley on CBS 60 Minutes on September 30, 2001. Rauf's website says he was referring to the US CIA in the 1980s "financing Osama Bin Laden and strengthening the Taliban."[26] Columnist Jonathan Rauch wrote that Rauf gave a "mixed, muddled, muttered" message after 9/11.[27] Nineteen days after the attacks, he told CBS's 60 Minutes that fanaticism and terrorism have no place in Islam. Rauch said that the message was mixed, however, because when then asked if the U.S. deserved the attacks, Rauf answered, "I wouldn't say that the United States deserved what happened. But the United States' policies were an accessory to the crime that happened."[4][27][28][29] When the interviewer asked Rauf how he considered the U.S. to be an accessory, he replied, "because we have been accessory to a lot of innocent lives dying in the world. In fact, in the most direct sense, Osama bin Laden is made in the USA."[6][28][29] Although this CIA-Osama bin Laden controversy has been brought up by many others, Rudy Giuliani, Peter T. King, Rick Lazio, and Sarah Palin expressed concern about these remarks when discussing Rauf as the driving force behind the Park51 project.[28][30][31] As Daisy Khan, Rauf's wife, explained on August 15, 2010 on This Week with Christiane Amanpour:[32] KHAN: It was a longer interview, and in the longer interview, he talked about the CIA support specifically to Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. And... AMANPOUR: You mean that... KHAN: Yes, in the '80s. AMANPOUR: ... against the Soviet Union. KHAN: The Soviet Union. And how this was, you know, in CIA terms, a blowback of that. That's what he meant. At National Review, Dan Foster wrote: When you say that the United States was "an accessory to the crime" of 9/11, as he did, it tends to blunt my ability to pick up the subtleties of what comes after. That interview was equivocal at every turn, and when moral equivalences are trotted out re: 9/11, the tie goes to "you're either with us, or with the terrorists." In other words, we are perfectly entitled to suspect that the "accessories to the crime" bit represents the investment, while the "condemning terrorism" bit is merely the hedge.[33]

The editors of the magazine wrote "While he cannot quite bring himself to blame the terrorists for being terrorists, he finds it easy to blame the United States for being a victim of terrorism."[34] In 2004, he said the U.S. and the West must acknowledge the harm they have done to Muslims before terrorism can end. Speaking at his New York mosque, Rauf said: The Islamic method of waging war is not to kill innocent civilians. But it was Christians in World War II who bombed civilians in Dresden and Hiroshima, neither of which were military targets. He also said that there could be little progress in Western-Islamic relations until the U.S. acknowledged backing Middle East dictators, and the U.S. President gave an "American Culpa" speech to the Muslim world, because there are "an endless supply of angry young Muslim rebels prepared to die for their cause and there [is] no sign of the attacks ending unless there [is] a fundamental change in the world".[5]

Hamas
During an interview on New York WABC radio in June 2010, Rauf declined to say whether he agreed with the U.S. State Department's designation of Hamas as a terrorist organization. Responding to the question, Rauf said, "Look, I'm not a politician. The issue of terrorism is a very complex question... I am a peace builder. I will not allow anybody to put me in a position where I am seen by any party in the world as an adversary or as an enemy."[35] Sarah Palin and Lazio criticized his refusal to agree with the assessment of the United States that Hamas is a terrorist organization, and former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani alleged that Rauf had supported radical causes that sympathized with Islamic terrorism.[36][37][37][38][39] New York's Mayor Bloomberg was asked to comment on whether Rauf is a man of peace, given his background "where he's supposedly supported Hamas, [and] blamed the U.S. for 9/11 attacks".[40] Bloomberg responded: My job is not to vet clergy in this city.... Everybody has a right to their opinions. You don't have to worship there.... this country is not built around ... only those ... clergy people that we agree with. It's built around freedom. That's the wonderful thing about the First Amendmentyou can say anything you want.[40] However, when interviewed on CNN September 8, 2010, Imam had this to say about Hamas: I condemn everyone and anyone who commits acts of terrorism, and Hamas has committed acts of terrorism.[41]

Proposed Islamic cultural center and Mosque


See also: Park51 In 2009, The New York Times reported on the plans for an Islamic center to be established at 45 Park Place, two blocks from Ground Zero:

A presence so close to the World Trade Center, where a piece of the wreckage fell, said Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf, the cleric leading the project, sends the opposite statement to what happened on 9/11. We want to push back against the extremists, added Imam Feisal, 61..."The location is not designated a mosque, but rather an overflow prayer space for another mosque, Al Farah at 245 West Broadway in TriBeCa, where Imam Feisal is the spiritual leader." It was considered to be akin to the Chautauqua Institution, the 92 Street YMCA or the Jewish Community Center: Joy Levitt, executive director of the Jewish Community Center, said the group would be proud to be a model for Imam Feisal at ground zero. For the J.C.C. to have partners in the Muslim community that share our vision of pluralism and tolerance would be great, she said. Mr. ElGamal agreed. What happened that day, he said, was not Islam. Sharif El-Gamal, chairman and chief executive of Soho Properties, bought 45 Park Place in July, 2009. "Its really to provide a place of peace, a place of services and solutions for the community which is always looking for interfaith dialogue."[42] Later, the interfaith community center was named Cordoba House, after the Great Mosque of Crdoba, a mosque built in Spain during the Islamic occupation after being converted by the Umayyad Moors from the Visigothic Christian church. According to the September 8, 2010 statement by Park51:[43] Park51 is the name of the planned Muslim community center being built in lower Manhattan. Park51 is also the name of the 501(c)(3) nonprofit entity that has already been established, which will fund and oversee this initiative. Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf will be the spiritual leader of the Cordoba House which will be the interfaith and religious component of the center and will reside within Park51. About Park51: Park51 is a nonsectarian community, cultural and interfaith spiritual center along with a Muslim prayer area and a monument to honor all those we lost on 9/11. Plans for the project include a mosque which would accommodate 1,0002,000 Muslims in prayer. Rauf won support from the local Community Board, and received both support and opposition from some 9/11 families, politicians, organizations, academics, and others. The initiative was supported by some Muslim American leaders and organizations, including CAIR, and criticized by some other Muslims such as Sufi mystic Stephen Suleyman Schwartz, director of the Center for Islamic Pluralism in Washington.[44] Supporters of the project point out that two mosques already have firm roots in Lower Manhattan and that one of them was founded in 1970, pre-dating the World Trade Center.[45] Controversy over the location ensued, and in an interview with Larry King on September 8, 2010 Rauf was asked "...given what you know now, would you have said, listen, let's not do it there? Because it sounds like you're saying in retrospect wouldn't have done it." Rauf answered: If I knew this would happen, this would cause this kind of pain, I wouldn't have done it. My life has been devoted to peacemaking.[41]

On September 12, 2010 on This Week with Christiane Amanpour, Abdul Rauf repeated that if complaints had been raised in December 2009 when the project was front page news in The New York Times, he would have moved it, but at that time there was broad support for it, which did not change until May. He furthermore expressed concern that a move would be used by radicals internationally to claim that "Islam is under attack in the Western world".[46]

Opinions
Some have referred to Imam Feisal's statements about Sharia Law and the role of other religions in the Islamic communities as "radical", "worrying", "equivocal" and "deceptive". Ibn Warraq wrote in the National Review:

Rauf says one thing to Western audiences and another to Muslim audiences. He is quite capable of writing reassuring things, as in the New York Daily News earlier this year: "My colleagues and I are the anti-terrorists. We are the people who want to embolden the vast majority of Muslims who hate terrorism to stand up to the radical rhetoric. Our purpose is to interweave America's Muslim population into the mainstream society." But when presented with actual opportunities to "interweave Americas Muslim population into the mainstream society," Rauf and most of his fellow Muslims decline. Nearly ten years ago, I was the guest of the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies (PISAI) of Rome. PISAI is dedicated to interfaith dialogue between Christians and Muslims. But as the director at the time said to me, "There is no real dialogue, since Muslims never reciprocate the goodwill gestures made by the Christians. The result is we sit down together, and the Christians say what a wonderful religion Islam is, and the Muslims say what a wonderful religion Islam is." Rauf was invited to give a sermon in a church and did so, but he never reciprocated by inviting a Christian to give a sermon in a mosque. This, for Rauf and his ilk, would be unthinkable.[47]

Imam Rauf's opinions about the Sharia Law have been also a matter of discussion. Before President Barack Obama's planned visit to Turkey, Imam Feisal wrote in the Jordanian newspaper Al Ghad on March 31, 2009:

In the United States, when we have some complaint, we say, "Hey, this is not constitutional! There must be some law." The Declaration of Independence and the subsequent Bill of Rights are the core of what we believe in. But in the Middle East, when someone has some complaint, and says, "There must be a law," he completely knows what law he means. The only law a Muslim needs is in the Quran and Hadith. People asked me right after the 9/11 attacks as to why do movements with political agendas carry [Islamic] religious names? Why call it Muslim Brotherhood or Hezbollah (Party of Allah) or Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)? I answer them this that the trend towards Islamic law and justice begins in religious movements, because secularism has failed to deliver what the Muslim wants, which is

life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.[48][49][50]

Rental properties
Rauf owns several apartment buildings in Hudson County, New Jersey, including four in Union City, and the one in North Bergen in which he lives. By 2010, numerous residents of Rauf's properties in Union City had alleged that those properties have fallen into disrepair over the course of the prior several years, with some of the residents attributing this to time Rauf spends on his activities in Lower Manhattan. One resident in particular described Rauf's Central Avenue property as "horrible" and a "mess", describing a two-week period during the winter of 2009 in which the residents lacked hot water following the malfunction of the building's boiler. Residents have also cited rat and bed bug infestations, and have complained that such issues can take up to six months to be resolved. Union City spokesperson Mark Albiez confirmed that multiple health violations have been leveled against Rauf's properties. These allegations have added to the controversy over Park51.[9] On September 8, 2010, Union City Mayor Brian P. Stack, who criticized Rauf as a "slumlord", announced court actions to have a custodial receiver take over management of these properties,[51] and the creation of a Quality of Life Task Force to identify 15 apartment buildings in need of renovations, including Rauf's.[52] A September 15, 2010 hearing revealed that following a September 7 inspection that determined imminent hazards, police began monitoring two of Rauf's buildings, due to inoperable fire alarms and sprinklers, and failure on Rauf's part to hire a private fire patrol. Judge Thomas Olivieri gave Rauf's lawyers until September 23 to produce plans and evidence of efforts to address these violations, lest Rauf face loss of control over the buildings. Some Union City residents questioned why the timing of these actions against Rauf's properties did not become an issue in New York City and national media, and why the long-standing problems faced by these properties were not addressed until the larger controversy over Park51 came to light, particularly given that Stack became mayor in 2000.[53] According to 2010 reports by the Bergen Record, Rauf met with U.S. Senator Robert Menendez around 1991 when Menendez was Mayor of Union City, to request state funds to renovate three of his properties. As a result, Rauf received $80,000 in city funds, $384,000 from the Union City Community Development Agency, $1.3 million in construction loans from Hudson County's Affordable Housing Trust Fund, and $630,900 from the state. Rauf was also sued for fraud in 2008 by his one-time business partner, James Cockinos, over a $250,000 mortgage that Cockinos gave Rauf for his Central Avenue property, ownership of which Rauf then transferred to Sage Developments for a second $650,000 mortgage. Rauf and his wife, Daisy Khan, made payments to Cockinos for 11 years, but ceased after a fire damaged the property. The two parties settled out of court. The Record also reported that records beginning thirty years previous indicated that Rauf owned an apartment in North Bergen and in Palisades Park. Though records indicate Rauf owns a home on 78th Street in North Bergen, a neighbor indicated that Khan is there more often than the frequently-traveling Rauf, and it is unclear if he still owns the Palisades Park property.[9]

Personal life

Rauf's first wife was an American woman who converted to Islam. Rauf later married a Malaysian woman. Rauf has two children with each of his first two wives. He has been married to Daisy Khan since the late 1990s.[8] Khan, a native of Kashmir, India is a professional interior architect, but since 2005 has worked full-time for the two non-profit organizations founded by Rauf,[54] and at times functions as his spokesperson. They live in North Bergen, New Jersey.[9]

Selected bibliography
Books

Feisal Abdul Rauf, What's Right with Islam: a New Vision for Muslims and the West (HarperCollins, 2004) ISBN 978-0060582722, reissued as What's Right with Islam Is What's Right with America (HarperCollins, 2005) ISBN 9780060750626. (An Indonesian language edition was published in 2007, titled Seruan Azan Dari Puing WTC: Dakwah Islam di Jantung Amerika Pasca 9/11, which translates as A Call to Prayer from the WTC Rubble: Islamic Dawah from the Heart of America Post 911)[55][56] Feisal Abdul Rauf, Islam: A Sacred Law (Threshold Books, 2000) ISBN 9780939660704 Feisal Abdul Rauf, Islam: A Search for Meaning (Mazda Publishers, 1996) ISBN 9781568590370 Feisal Abdul Rauf and and Laleh Bakhtiar, Quran for Children (Kazi Publications, 1985) ISBN 978-0935782080

Other writings

"Building on Faith", The New York Times. September 7, 2010. "Need for some cultural sensitivity", The Star (Malaysia). May 12, 2010. "Using Qur'anic Narratives in Pursuit of Peace", Common Ground News Service, March 4, 2010. "Putting the faith back", The Star (Malaysia). December 30, 2009. "Religion must be part of the Afghanistan solution", The Star (Malaysia). October 12, 2009. "Sharing the core of our beliefs", Common Ground News Service, March 31, 2009. "Religious organisations are key to Mideast peace", Common Ground News Service, March 5, 2009. "Preventing Chaos", The Star (Malaysia). March 9, 2008. "Asceticism in Islam", Cross Currents. Winter, 2008, (vol. 57 No. 4) ed. by Pederson, Kusumita. "The Ideals We Share", Newsweek. July 31, 2007. with Khan, Daisy. "The End of Barbarism: The Phenomenon of Torture and the Search for Common Good", Pursuing the Global Common Good: Principle and Practice in US Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. 2007. with Schulz, William F., ed. by Steenland, Sally, et al. video "What is Sunni Islam?" in Voices of Islam: Voices of Tradition, vol. 1 of 3, ed. Cornell, Vincent J. Westport: Praeger. 2007.

"Al-Qaeda's Greatest Fear may be US Leaving Iraq". Aspen Times. October 11, 2006. with Bennett, John. "Arab Reform Final Report". New York: Council on Foreign Relations. 2005. with Albright, Madeleine, et al. "Bringing Muslim Nations into the Global Century", Fortune. October 18, 2004.

References
1. ^ Dalrymple, William (August 16, 2010). "The Muslims in the Middle". The New York Times: p. A27. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/opinion/17dalrymple.html. Retrieved August 19, 2010. 2. ^ a b c "People: Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf", American Society for Muslim Advancement, http://asmasociety.org/about/b_rauf.html, retrieved August 28, 2010 3. ^ Godtalk: travels in spiritual America Google Books. Books.google.com. June 23, 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=4aXXAAAAMAAJ&q=%22feisal+abdul+rauf%22&dq=%22 feisal+abdul+rauf%22&hl=en&ei=T6BfTM7cIIH6lwfAzrGYCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=res ult&resnum=66&ved=0CLEDEOgBMEE. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 4. ^ a b Eisenberg, Carol (June 8, 2004). "Man in the middle, Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf has devoted himself to rapprochement between the Islamic world and the West". Newsday. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/access/648292111.html?dids=648292111:648292111&FM T=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+08%2C+2004&author=CAROL+EISENBE RG.+STAFF+WRITER&pub=Newsday+(Combined+editions)&desc=Man+in+the+middle%2C +Since+the+9%2F11+terrorist+attacks%2C+Imam+Feisal+Abdul+Rauf+has+devoted+himself+t o+rapprochement+between+the+Islamic+world+and+the+West&pqatl=google. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 5. ^ a b Frank Walker (March 21, 2004). "West must act to end jihad: Imam". Herald Sun. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/03/21/1079789939987.html. 6. ^ a b "Prominent American Muslims denounce terror committed in the name of Islam". 60 Minutes. IslamForToday.com. September 30, 2001. http://www.islamfortoday.com/60minutes.htm. Retrieved July 22, 2010. 7. ^ a b "What's Right with Islam: A New Vision for Muslims and". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Whats-Right-Islam-VisionMuslims/dp/0060750626/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1281221181&sr=8-1. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 8. ^ a b c d Salazar,Cristian (August 28, 2010), Imam behind NYC mosque faces divisions over center, Newsvine, Associated Press 9. ^ a b c d e f Tirella, Tricia and Diaz, Lana Rose. "'Ground zero mosque' imam is NB resident, UC property owner" The Union City Reporter; September 5, 2010; Pages 3 and 8 10. ^ What's Right with Islam. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=RgFQ06W5UrkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=feisal+abdul+rau f&hl=en&ei=CeKITJSJGMP8AaQ0bXPAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepag e&q&f=false. Retrieved September 9, 2010. 11. ^ Godlas, Dr. Alan, Sufism, the West, and Modernity, University of Georgia. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 12. ^ (about the) Council of 100 Leaders (C-100) on West-Islamic World Dialogue, World Economic Forum

13. ^ Core Group and Members of the Council of 100 Leaders (C-100) on West-Islamic World Dialogue, World Economic Forum 14. ^ Alliance for International Conflict Prevention and Resolution 15. ^ 2006 Awards, Interfaith Center of New York 16. ^ RAuf Biography at Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 17. ^ 2009 Program, Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions 18. ^ Cristian Salazar (August 28, 2010). "Imam behind NYC mosque faces divisions over center". Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100828/ap_on_re_us/us_nyc_mosque_imam. Retrieved September 14, 2010. 19. ^ Godlas, Dr. Alan, Sufism, the West, and Modernity, University of Georgia. Retrieved September 14, 2010. 20. ^ by Fareed ZakariaAugust 06, 2010 (August 6, 2010). "Fareed Zakaria: Build the Ground Zero Mosque". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/2010/08/06/the-real-ground-zero.html. Retrieved August 16, 2010. 21. ^ "'Ground Zero Mosque' Imam Helped FBI With Counterterrorism Efforts". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/08/17/ground-zero-imam-helped-f_n_685071.html. 22. ^ Hernandez, Javier C. (July 13, 2010). "Planned Sign of Tolerance Bringing Division Instead". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/14/nyregion/14center.html. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 23. ^ Topousis, Tom (June 19, 2010). "Muslim Imam leading push to build a mosque near Ground Zero wavers on questions about Hamas as a terror group". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/manhattan/imam_terror_error_efmizkHuBUaVnfuQcrcabL #ixzz0rJTKPGE6. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 24. ^ Shafey, Mohammed Al (May 18, 2010). "Controversy Rages in NYC over Planned Mosque Near Ground Zero". Asharq Al-Awsat. http://aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=20990. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 25. ^ "Staff Bios". Cordoba Initiative. July 31, 2007. http://www.cordobainitiative.org/?q=content/staff-bios#Imam%20Feisal%20Abdul%20Rauf. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 26. ^ Frequently Asked Questions The Cordoba Initiative. Retrieved September 17, 2010. 27. ^ a b "Islam Has Been Hijacked, And Only Muslims Can Save It by Jonathan Rauch". Press.uchicago.edu. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/News/911rauch.html. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 28. ^ a b c Dean, Nick (September 30, 2001). "NY Congressman Calls for Probe of Funding for Mosque Near Ground Zero and Its Promoter". CNS News. http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/70234. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 29. ^ a b Comment (July 27, 2010). "Monument to Jihad; Ground Zero Mosque No Joke". Toronto Sun. http://www.torontosun.com/comment/2010/07/26/14835681.html. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 30. ^ Gershman, Jacob (August 2, 2010). "Sides Dig in Over Ground Zero Mosque". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704702304575403853604214846.html?. Retrieved August 2, 2010. 31. ^ Jeff Glor (July 20, 2010). "Proposed Mosque Near Ground Zero Stokes Debate". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/07/20/eveningnews/main6696724.shtml?tag=mncol;lst;2. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 32. ^ Transcript, This Week with Christiane Amanpour, August 15, 2010 33. ^ "Bloggingheads: The Mosque (and Rangel, and Socialism, and Christie) The Corner". National Review. August 6, 2010. http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/242680/bloggingheadsmosque-and-rangel-and-socialism-and-christie-daniel-foster. Retrieved August 10, 2010.

34. ^ The Editors (August 4, 2010). "Not at Ground Zero". National Review. http://article.nationalreview.com/438963/not-at-ground-zero/the-editors. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 35. ^ Tom Topousis (June 19, 2010). "Imam terror error". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/manhattan/imam_terror_error_efmizkHuBUaVnfuQcrcabL #ixzz0rJTKPGE6. 36. ^ Weaver, Carolyn (July 22, 2010). "Muslim Group Faces Opposition Near New York's Ground Zero". Voice of America. http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/religion/Muslim-GroupFaces-Opposition-Near-New-Yorks-Ground-Zero-99049124.html. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 37. ^ a b Baribeau, Simone; Levitt, David; Johnston, Nicholas; Servetah, Stacie; Schoifet, Mark (August 3, 2010). "Ground Zero Mosque Plans Move Forward After Key Vote". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2010/08/03/bloomberg1376L6KYQQ6VJ6RL01-0S5L40PLCGTPOD0RS64DV6DMFD.DTL. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 38. ^ Haberman, Maggie (August 2, 2010). "Rudy: GZ Mosque is a 'desecration,' 'decent Muslims' won't be offended". Politico. http://www.politico.com/blogs/maggiehaberman/0810/Rudy_Mosque_is_a_desecration_.html. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 39. ^ Matthews, Karen; Fouhy, Beth (August 3, 2010). "NYC panel clears way for mosque near ground zero". The Washington Post. Associated Press. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/08/03/AR2010080300351_2.html?hpid=moreheadlines. Retrieved August 4, 2010.[dead link] 40. ^ a b Katz, Celeste (August 3, 2010). "Mayor Bloomberg: Asking Mosque Developers To Move Project "Would Be Handing The Terrorists A Victory"". Daily News (New York). http://www.nydailynews.com/blogs/dailypolitics/2010/08/mayor-bloomberg-askingmosque.html. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 41. ^ a b "CNN.com Transcripts". CNN. September 8, 2010. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1009/08/lkl.01.html. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 42. ^ Muslim Prayers and Renewal Near Ground Zero, Ralph Blumenthal and Sharaf Mowjood, The New York Times, December 8, 2009 43. ^ Park51 Issues a Statement Regarding the Name of the Planned Muslim Community Center Being Built in Lower Manhattan, Park51, September 8, 2010 44. ^ A mosque at ground zero? 45. ^ Barnard, Anne (August 13, 2010). "In Lower Manhattan, 2 Mosques Have Firm Roots". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/14/nyregion/14mosque.html. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 46. ^ "Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf on Islam in America", This Week, ABC News; September 12, 2010 47. ^ Warraq, Ibn. "One Imam, Multiple Messages" National Review; September 13, 2010; Page 2 of 3 48. ^ Rauf, Feisal Abdul. "Sharing the core of our beliefs", Common Ground News Service, March 31, 2009 49. ^ Warraq, Ibn. "The Two Faces of Feisal Rauf" U.S. Copts Association; September 15, 2010 50. ^ Rauf, Feisal Abdul. "Sharing the Essence of Our Beliefs" Alghad.com 51. ^ David Lee Miller. NJ Mayor Blasts Ground Zero Imam. Fox News. September 14, 2010 [cited September 14, 2010]. 52. ^ Diaz, Lana Rose. "Stack puts landlords on notice" The Union City Reporter; September 12, 2010; Pages 3 and 7 53. ^ "UC sues landlord and 'Ground Zero Mosque' imam" The Union City Reporter; Pages 2 and 5 54. ^ "People: Daisy Khan", American Society for Muslim Advancement, http://asmasociety.org/about/b_dkhan.html, retrieved August 28, 2010 55. ^ Book Review: What's right with Islam IS What's Right with America by Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf

56. ^ "Seruan Azan Dari Puing WTC: Dakwah Islam di Jantung Amerika Pasca 9/11 Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf". Mizan.Com. http://www.mizan.com/index.php?fuseaction=buku_full&id=7114. Retrieved August 14, 2010.

External links

Anwar Ibrahim: Saya Ditemani Buya Hamka di Penjara


Selasa, 08 April 2008 | 17:02 WIB TEMPO Interaktif, Jakarta:Ketua Partai Keadilan Rakyat Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim menyatakan sangat mengagumi ulama besar Indonesia Profesor Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah alias Buya Hamka. Karya sastra berupa novel yang ditulis Hamka, sangat diminati. Buku Buya Hamka, Tafsir Al Azhar menemani saya selama dua kali di penjara, ujar dia dalam jumpa pers 100 tahun Buya Hamka di Jakarta, Selasa (8/4). Karena kekagumannya itu, mantan Deputi Perdana Menteri Malaysia itu menyarankan agar anak-anak sejak dini dikenalkan dengan karya-karya sastra Buya Hamka. Sastra itu baik, dan harus dimulai dari kecil. Rektor Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. Hamka, Suyatno menyatakan Buya Hamka merefleksikan sosok yang begitu kompleks. Ia bukan hanya sastrawan, tapi juga sejarawan, seniman, orator, politikus, dan pendidik. Meski tidak tamat sekolah dasar, Buya Hamka tidak pernah berhenti belajar selama hidupnya, ujar dia. Kelemahan sistem ajar saat ini yang mengharuskan peserta didik menelan semua kurikulum yang disediakan, tambah Suyatno, menyebabkan hilangnya sosok seperti Buya Hamka. Prinsip belajar orang Indonesia umumnya terhenti pada suatu masa, katanya. Motivasi belajar Buya Hamka, Suyatno melanjutkan, juga sulit ditemukan pada orang Indonesia kebanyakan. Meski fasiliras berlimpah, motivasi tidak lantas ikut-ikutan berlimpah. Buktinya siswa pasti senang kalau guru tidak masuk ngajar, katanya. Reh Atemalem Susanti
Wird al-Nawawi (RA) A compilation of athkaar (remembrances and praises of Allah) and supplications compiled by Imam al-Nawawi (Rahimahullah). Hizib Nawawi Melalui kerjasama antara PTS Fortuna dengan Wira Bukit Sdn. Bhd, karya tulisan sasterawan negara, Dato' A. Samad Said mampu tersebar luas kepada masyarakat luar sekaligus melestarikan dunia sastera di Malaysia.

Menurut pengurus Wira Bukit Sdn. Bhd, Tuan Helmy Samad, persepsi yang mengatakan buku sastera sukar dijual di pasaran tidak boleh diterima kerana buku-buku sasterawan di negara ini mempunyai pengikutnya yang tersendiri.

"Buku-buku sastera ini sendiri harus wujud dan nampak di pasaran agar ia dilihat oleh masyarakat. Di antara penulis dengan penerbit harus ada keserasian agar kepercayaan antara mereka kukuh," jelas Tuan Helmy.

Tuan Helmy yang juga anak kepada Dato' A. Samad Said berkata penerbit dan penulis di Malaysia harus bersatu agar karya yang dihasilkan sampai kepada masyarakat luar.

"PTS mampu menjaga penulisnya dan berkemampuan mengedarkan karya dengan lebih jauh daripada apa yang kita fikirkan," jelas beliau lanjut.

Bercerita permulaan kerjasama dengan PTS Fortuna, Tuan Helmy berkata matlamat mengambil kembali hak penerbitan buku-buku Pak Samad dan mencari penerbit yang sesuai bagi menerbitkan buku-buku Pak Samad adalah kerana mahu memelihara buku-buku tulisan Pak Samad.

Sejak tahun 2003, Wira Bukit menerbitkan 13 buah buku Pak Samad termasuklah buku-buku yang diambil kembali hak penerbitannya daripada penerbit sebelum ini. Dalam masa yang sama, Tuan Helmy juga mencari penerbit yang sesuai bagi menerbitkan dan mempromosikan buku-buku Pak Samad.

Beliau dalam pada itu melihat perkembangan PTS sejak dari awal penubuhannya hingga membesar menjadi sebuah syarikat penerbitan buku berbahasa Melayu pertama di Malaysia.

"Kami mencari penerbit yang kami percaya mampu memelihara dan meluaskan pasaran buku-buku Pak Samad," jelas Tuan Helmy lagi.

Walaupun hak penerbitan diberikan kepada PTS Fortuna, Tuan Helmy masih mengambil tangungjawab memantau buku-buku yang dikeluarkan terutama di bahagian kulit buku.

"Perlu ada perbezaan antara kulit buku biasa dengan kulit buku sastera. Kami melihat PTS berjaya menghasilkan perbezaan tersebut melalui kulit buku terbitan PTS," jelas beliau lagi.

Pada satu Oktober lalu tercatat sejarah apabila secara rasminya PTS Fortuna Sdn bhd menerbitkan semula karya hasil tulisan Pak Samad.

Wira Bukit Sdn. Bhd yang diuruskan oleh Anak Pak Samad sendiri iaitu Tuan Helmy Samad memberikan sepenuhnya hak penerbitan kepada PTS Fortuna bagi menerbitkan semua karya-karya hasil tulisan Pak Samad.

Nantikan buku-buku tulisan Pak Samad terbitan PTS yang bakal menemui peminat buku pada Januari 2011 ini. Professor Kent Anderson, BA (Middlebury), MA, JD (Washington U), MJur (Oxford) Director of the School of Culture, History and Language

Email: Kent.Anderson@anu.edu.au Biographical statement

Kent Anderson is a comparative lawyer specialising in Japan. He is the Director of the School of Culture, History and Language in the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific and holds a joint appointment with the ANU College of Law. Kent has an eclectic background, having completed tertiary studies in Japan, US, and UK, and working first as a marketing manager with a US regional airline, then as a practicing commercial lawyer in Hawaii, and, before joining ANU, as associate professor at Hokkaido University School of Law. He has also been a visiting professor at Waseda, Nagoya, and Chuo Universities in Japan. Outside of work, Kent enjoys brewing Ales, listening to the Blues, and playing with his Child - the ABCs of life. Research interests

In addition to private international law and insolvency, he teaches a variety of Japanese law courses including a cross-listed introductory course, an advanced seminar, a language course on reading Japanese legal materials, a moot arbitration and negotiation in Japan course, and an intensive graduate course in Kyoto. His research has focused on Japanese insolvency, conflict of laws, and recently the

introduction of Japan's new quasi-jury system (saiban-in seido). Burma votes 2010 - 3 - Trevor Wilson & Anwar Ibrahim discuss Aung San Suu Kyi Expo for ANU post-graduate research students

Opportunities, support & study available while completing HDR: What can you do now so that you stand out when you graduate? Expo will provide information and representatives to discuss options.

Tuesday 30th November, 4-6pm, at JCMSR From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

The Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand (FIANZ) was set up in April 1979 by Mazhar Krasniqi and other Muslim community leaders to draw together the regional Islam organisations of Auckland, Wellington and Canterbury into one centralised New Zealand-wide body. Origins

Following the creation of the Muslim Association of Canterbury, local Muslims in Christchurch initiated correspondence with other Muslim organisations in Auckland and Wellington, with an eye towards creating a national Muslim organisation and helping to develop the Halal meat trade. On 18 November 1978 the first preparatory meeting was held in Christchurch : Hajji Abbas Ali and Robert Abdul Salam Drake (architect of the Ponsonby mosque) came representing Auckland; whilst Hajji Salamat Khan, Dr Hajji Khalid Rashid Sandhu and Abdul Rahman Khan came from Wellington ; Palmerston North was represented by Ali Taal, a postgraduate student from Gambia. A consensus was reached and it was agreed to meet again for further talks and on 15 April 1979 the Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand (FIANZ) was formally established. Auckland resident Mazhar Krasniqi (an Albanian SS Goya refugee from Kosovo) was the inaugural president and Dr Hajji Hanif Quazi was the first SecretaryGeneral. The New Zealand University Bursary or Bursary was a former New Zealand secondary school qualification gained by Year 13 (Form 7) high school students.

To gain a Bursary, students had to gain an aggregate score of at least 250/500 out of the best five subjects.

An 'A' Bursary was awarded to candidates achieving a score higher than 300, 'B' Bursaries were awarded for scores between 250 and 300. To gain University Entrance, students were required to get a 'C' grade

or better in at least 3 subjects. Candidates who did not get an A or B Bursary had their Bursary scores count toward University Entrance provided their subjects scored at least 46%. Between 1989 and 2003, those coming in the top 3-4% of their subject also won a scholarship.

In 2004, the Bursary was replaced by the National Certificate of Educational Achievement at Level 3 and scholarships by the New Zealand Scholarship.

This qualification was awarded by the New Zealand Universities Entrance Board until 1990 and then was awarded by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority until Bursary's demise.