You are on page 1of 8

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.

2, April 2013

Application of Taguchi Experiment Design for Decrease of Cogging Torque in Permanent Magnet motors
A.Noori Shirazi1, B. Yousefi2, S. Asghar Gholamian3* and S. Rashidaee3
1 2

Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University-Nour Branch,Nour , Iran.


abdoreza.noori@gmail.com

Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University-Nour Branch,Nour , Iran.


borzoyou@yahoo.com
3

Babol University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Babol, Iran * Corresponding author: S. Asghar Gholamian

ABSTRACT:
GENICHI TAGUCHI developed statistical methods for quality improvement of engineering products, marketing, etc. This method is called Taguchi method that more recently applied to engineering and applied science. The Taguchi experiment design method for optimal design to mitigate cogging torque of a surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor is used in this article. In this paper, an efficient algorithm to the solutions for shape of PM is proposed and applied to optimize the shape of PMs in a surface-mounted PM motor to reduce the cogging torque. Finally, Simulation results are presented that indicates the reduction of magnitude of cogging torque.

KEYWORD:
TAGUCHI METHOD, PM MOTOR, PERMANENT MAGNET POLE

LIST OF SYMBOLS PM Permanent Magnet FEA finite element analysis MMF magnetomotive force SPM Surface-mounted permanent magnet A the ratio of magnet pole arc to pole pitch B the distance from motor centre C the slot opening height D the slot opening width E the air gap length DOE design of experiments ANOM analysis of means ANOVA analysis of variance f converter frequency p machine pole pairs

DOI:10.5121/ijcsa.2013.3204

31

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

1. INTRODUCTION
Recently, because of high reliability, high efficiency and improvement of the torque density, surface permanent magnet motors (SPM) are used in industrial applications. [1]-[4]. However, cogging torque problem is one of the main restrictions in usage development in this type of motors. The interaction of the stator teeth with magnets produced cogging torque that causes the increasing the noise, vibration and ultimately reduces efficiency of SPM motor. The stator slots shape and permanent magnet pole configuration in SPM motors is the main cause of cogging torque production. Many methods have been proposed to reduction tion of a cogging torque in SPM motors. Some of these techniques are to modify the permanent magnet poles configuration [8]-[11] and some of the other methods are to modify the shape of stator teeth [12], [13]. Surface permanent magnet motor with four poles, due to reduced consumption of copper and easy manufacturing process, now widely used in air conditioning compressors compresso [5]. Some optimization techniques, such as genetic algorithm [15], [16], rosenbrocks method [18], [19] and [17] is used for improvement of cogging torque in SPM motors. But, the Taguchi method has been proven useful in applied science especially in engineering engi process to improve best quality. The Taguchi method does not require using additional programming algorithms aside from finite element method analysis (FEM). ). Hence, effects of many factors on cogging torque reduction can be investigated in this method [20].

2. SURFACE PM MOTOR MODEL


Surface-mounted mounted permanent magnet (SPM) motors are widely used in industry. An important problem in SPM motors is the cogging torque and it affects the performance, produces noise and results in mechanical vibration, therefore it is necessary ecessary and important to reduction of the cogging torque in SPM motors. In this paper, the 2D view of SPM motor shown in Figure1 and the main parameters are shown in Table1. This kind of stator and rotor configuration cannot produce symmetrical trical magnetomotive force or flux density under the PM rotor poles, and harmonics exist in the air gap between stator and rotor, , which will increase the ripple and noise in torque. Calculation of The torque (cogging torque) with variations in stator and PM shapes has been computed using finite element method analysis (FEM), in this paper.

Figure1. SPM motor 32

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table1. Main parameters of the SPM motor

Rated power Stator outer diameter Stator inner diameter Lamination length PM thickness Air gap length Stator and rotor core material PM material

30 Hp 120 mm 60 mm 70 mm 1.7 mm 0.5 mm DW360-50 NdFeB 30SH

2. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
Experimental design or design of experiments (DOE) is the design of any information where variation is present, whether under the full control or not. DOE often used in evaluating applied physic, engineering and material science. The Taguchi method extremely reduced the number of experiments by using orthogonal array tables. This array is selected the special features among the total number of experiments [6],[7]. In this paper, the design factors and their respective levels are given in Table2. Where, A is the ratio of PM Pole arc to pole pitch B is the distance from motor centre used as the centre of circle for PM (mm) C is the slot opening height (mm) D is the slot opening width (mm) E is the air gap length (mm)
Table2. Design Factors

Factors A B [mm] C [mm] D [mm] E [mm]

Level 1 0.78 0 0.8 1.7 0.3

Level 2 0.82 0.15 0.9 1.8 0.4

Level 3 0.86 0.3 1 1.9 0.5

Level 4 0.9 0.45 1.1 2 0.6

The orthogonal array L-16 selected for the matrix experiments based on standard Taguchi is shown in table 3. As shown in Table3, there are 16 experiments required to determine the optimum combination of the levels of these factors. If there are 5 variable each at 4 levels, full factorial approach needs 4 5 or 1024 experiments. To 2D FEM analysis is conducted to obtain the average values of torque and cogging torque for each case. Table4 shows the results of simulation results.

33

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table3. L-16 Orthogonal Array

Experiment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

A 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4

B 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

C 1 2 3 4 2 1 4 3 3 4 1 2 4 3 2 1

D 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 4 3 2 1 2 1 4 3

E 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 2 1 4 3 3 4 1 2

Table4. Motor Simulation Results

Experiment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Tc (N.m)
0.7962 0.7319 0.6747 0.6224 0.6575 0.7259 0.6583 0.7259 0.8352 0.8336 0.5350 0.5203 0.6698 0.5225 0.8063 0.6443

Tavg (N.m) 4.0747 3.9830 3.8827 3.7778 3.7331 3.7976 3.8723 3.9454 3.9486 4.0242 3.7297 3.7985 4.0220 3.9133 4.1448 4.0304

3. ANALYSIS OF SIMULATION RESULTS


After obtaining all the simulation results from the matrix experiment and, ANOM (analysis of means) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) are carried out to estimation of the four design parameters and determination of the relative importance of each design variable [21]. The means of all simulation results can be calculated by Equation1.

m =

1 16

16

i=1

Ti (1)
34

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

Table5 tabulates the results.


Table5. Analysis of Means

Tc (N.m) 0.6850

Tavg (N.m) 3.9174

3.1. Average Effect


The average torque of variable A at level 3 is calculated by Equation2. (2) As shown in table3, the factor A is set to in experiments 9, 10, 11, 12 at level 3. Similar way can be used for computing of Average torque of all variables. Table 6 shows the results. A plot of main factors effects is illustrated in Figure2 It is seen that the factor-level combination (A4, B1, C4, D2, and E1) contributes to maximization of average torque.
Table6. Average torque for all levels of all factors

mA3 (Tavg ) =

1 (Tavg (9) + Tavg (10) + Tavg (11) + Tavg (12)) 4

i 1 2 3 4
4.05 4.02 3.99 3.96

Ai 3.8371

Bi 3.929

Ci

Di

Ei

3.9296 3.9496 3.9081 3.9147 4.0473 3.9148 3.9200 3.9586 3.92 3.9176 3.8752 3.780 3.8753 3.9074

4.0276 3.8880 3.9241 3.9172

Tavg (N.m)

3.93 3.9 3.87 3.84 3.81 3.78 3.75 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 D3 D4 E1 E2 E3 E4

setting of factors

Figure2. Main factor effects on average torque

The peak to peak value of cogging torque for all levels of factors is shown in Table7. Main factor effect on the peak to peak value of cogging torque is shown in Figure3

35

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table7. Peak to peak value of cogging torque for all levels of all factors

i 1 2 3 4
0.198 0.194 0.19 0.186 0.182 0.178 0.174 0.17 0.166 0.162 0.158 0.154 0.15

Ai

Bi

Ci

Di

Ei

0.1794 0.1874 0.1724 0.1590 0.1953 0.1803 0.1789 0.1728 0.1694 0.1813 0.1747 0.1704 0.1757 0.1792 0.1671 0.1636 0.1614 0.1771 0.1905 0.1544

Tc (N.m)

A1 A2 A3 A4

B1 B2 B3 B4

C1 C2 C3 C4

D1 D2 D3 D4

E1 E2 E3 E4

setting of factors

Figure3. Main factor effects on peak to peak value of cogging torque

3.2. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)


To conduct Analysis Of Variance is calculated the sum of squares. It is measure of the deviation of simulation data from the mean value of the data. The sum of squares (SSFA) due to various factors can be calculated as:
4

SSFA = 4 ( mAi m) 2
i =1

(3)

SSFB, SSFC, SSFD and SSFE can be obtained in the same way. Table8 is shown the data of the machine among the initial, Taguchi parameter designs and simulation results. It can be seen that average torque increases from the initial design of 3.8276 Nm to Taguchi parameter design of 4.1118 Nm, and to simulation result of 4.10 Nm. The cogging torque value decreases from 0.7315 Nm to 0.6390 Nm in Taguchi parameter design, and to 0.6400 Nm in simulation result.
Table 8. Comparison Results

Tavg. (N.m) Initial Taguchi results Simulation results 3.8276 4.1118 4.10

Tc (N.m) 0.7315 0.6390 0.640

36

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

4. CONCLUSION
The Taguchi method applied to design optimization of SPM motor for the reduction of cogging torque value. The peak to peak value of cogging torque decreases before and after optimization by Taguchi method. The peak to peak value of cogging torque decreases from 0.7315 Nm to 0.6390 Nm in Taguchi parameter design, and to 0.6400 Nm in simulation result. Proposed method for solving this problem is significantly reduced the peak to peak value of cogging torque of SPM motor.

REFERENCES
[1] S. RASHIDAEE and S. Asghar GHOLAMIAN;"REDUCTION OF COGGING TORQUE IN IPM MOTORS BY USING THE TAGUCHI AND FINITE ELEMENT METHOD", International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.2, No.2, 2011. S. Asghar Gholamian, S. Rashidaee;"Cogging Torque Reduction in Surface Permanent Magnet Motors Using Taguchi Experiment Design and Finite Element Method", I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2012, 11, 33-39. K. Ogasawara, T. Murata, J. Tamura, and T. Tsuchiya, High performance control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on magnetic energy model by sliding mode control, in 2005 Eur. Conf. Power Electronics and Applications, Sept. 2005, p. 10. B. Stumberger, G. Stumberger,M. Jesenik, V. Gorican, A. Hamler, and M. Trleps, Power capability and flux-weakening performance of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with multiple flux barriers, in Proc. 12th Biennial IEEE Conf. Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2006, p. 419. P. Zheng, J. Zhao, J. Han, J. Wang, Z. Yao, and R. Liu, Optimization of the Magnetic Pole Shape of a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor, in IEEE Trans. Magn.,vol. 43, no. 6, June 2007. C. Hwang, P. Li, F. C. Chuang, C. T. Liu, and K. H. Huang, Optimization for Reduction of Torque Ripple in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine, in IEEE Trans. Magn.,vol. 45, No. 3, march 2009. S. I. Kim, J. Y. Lee, Y. K. Kim, J. P. Hong, Y. Hur and Y. H. Jung, Optimization for Reduction of Torque Ripple in Interior Permanent Magnet Motor by Using the Taguchi Method, in IEEE Trans. Magn.,vol. 41, no. 5, may 2005. Y. Y. ang, X. Wang, R. Zhang, T. Ding, and R. Tang, The optimization of pole arc coefficient to reduce cogging torque in surface-mounted permanent magnet motors, in IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 42, no. 4, April 2006. . H. Kang, Y. D. Son, G. T. Kim, and J. Hur, A novel cogging torque reduction method for interior-type permanent-magnet motor, in IEEE Trans on Industry applications., vol. 45, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2009. K. Y. Hwang, S. B. Rhee, B. Y. Yang, B. Kwon, Rotor pole design in spoke-type brushless dc motor by response surface method, in IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 43, no. 4, April 2007. R. Islam, I. Husain, A. Fardoun, and K. McLaughlin, Permanent - magnet synchronous motor magnet designs with skewing for torque ripple and cogging torque reduction, in IEEE Trans on Industry applications., vol. 45, no. 1, Jan/Feb 2009. S. W. Youn, J. J. Lee, H. S. Yoon, and C. S. Koh, A new cogging-free permanent-magnet linear motor, in IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 44, no. 7, July 2008. S. W. Youn, J. J. Lee, H. S. Yoon, and C. S. Koh, Robust design of a spindle motor: a case study, in reliability engineering and system safety 75 (2002) 313-319. N. Bianchi and S. Bolognani, Design optimisation of electric motors by genetic algorithms, IEE Proc.Electr. Power Appl., vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 475483, Sep. 1998. M. Lukaniszyn, M. JagieLa, and R. Wrobel, Optimization of permanent magnet shape for minimum cogging torque using a genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 40, no. 2, pp.12281231, Mar. 2004. 37

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5] [6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10] [11]

[12] [13] [14] [15]

International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 [16] J. T. Li, Z. J. Liu, M. A. Jabbar, and X. K. Gao, Design optimization for cogging torque minimization using response surface methodology, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 1176 1179, Mar. 2004. [17] T. Ohnishi and N. Takahashi, Optimal design of efficient IPM motor using finite element method, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 35373539, Sep. 2000. [18] N. Takahashi, Optimal Design Using Finite Element Method for Magnetic Field Analysis. Tokyo, Japan: Morikita, 2001. [19] R. K. Roy, Design of Experiments Using the Taguchi Approach. NewYork: Wiley, 2001. [20] M. S. Phadke, Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Englewood Cliffs,NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1989.

38