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Welcome to the in company Elementary Wordlist!

Elemtentary

What information does the in company Elementary Wordlist give you? a summary of key words and phrases from each unit of in company Elementary Students Book pronunciation of keywords and phrases sample sentences showing the words and phrases in context common collocations, expressions and idioms using the key words also included are opposites and American English equivalents Abbreviations used in the Wordlist
(v) (adj) (n) verb adjective noun (phr v) phrasal verb (n pl) plural noun (adv) adverb (conj) sb sth conjunction somebody something (Am E) American English (Br E) British English

in company

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS


/I/ /i/ /U/ /u/ /e/ // // /O/ // // big fish green beans should look blue moon ten eggs about mother learn words short talk fat cat must come /bIg fIS/ /grin binz/ /SUd lUk/ /blu mun/ /ten egz/ /baUt mD(r)/ /ln wdz/ /SOt tOk/ /ft kt/ /mst km/ /A/ / / /I/ /eI/ /U/ /OI/ /U/ /e/ /aI/ /aU/ calm start hot spot ear face pure boy nose hair eye mouth /kAm stAt/ /ht spt/ /I(r)/ /feIs/ /pjU(r)/ /bOI(r)/ /nUz/ /he(r)/ /aI/ /maU/

CONSONANTS
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tS/ /dZ/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ // /D/ pen bad tea dog church jazz cost girl far voice thin then /pen/ /bd/ /ti/ /dg/ /tStS/ /dZz/ /kst/ /gl/ / fa(r)/ /vOIs/ /In/ /Den/ /s/ /z/ /S/ /Z/ /m/ /n/ /N/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ snake noise shop measure make nine sing house leg red wet yes /sneIk/ /nOIz/ /Sp/ /meZ(r)/ /meIk/ /naIn/ /sIN/ /haUs/ /leg/ /red/ /wet/ /jes/

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in company
Unit 1
headword advertising (n) agreement (n) bargain (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Real Madrids marketing deals are worth 70 million a year in advertising. A business agreement is a deal between two companies or organizations. Many people consider Ronaldo a bargain because of the publicity and income he brings to his club.

\"dvtaIzIN\ \"grimnt\ \"bAgIn\

big in be big in plastics/software/ mobile phones etc

\"bIgIn\ \bi bIgIn plstIks\sftwe\ mUbaIl fUnz\ \bOd\ \bI bOdIN t geIt "sevn\pltfOm "Tri\ \"bOdIN pAs\ \"bIzns\ \bIljndl\mltI mIljn paUnd "bIzns\ \tSek "In\ \tSek smTIN "In\ \"kmpnI\ \dil\

CMG is a company that is big in plastics.

board (v) be boarding at Gate 7/ Platform 3 etc boarding pass (n) business (n) billion-dollar/multi-million pound business (n) check in (phr v) check sth in (phr v) company (n) deal (n)

Flight BA372 will be boarding at Gate 23 in ten minutes.

You need to show your passport and ticket to get a boarding pass.

Nowadays football is a billion-dollar international business.

Try to check in around two hours before your plane departs. Do you have anything to check in? Just one piece of hand baggage. Coca-Cola is a multinational drinks company. Teams such as AC Milan and Juventus earn millions of euros in deals with their sponsors. Over 250 delegates attended the conference.

delegate (n)

\"delgt\

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in company
Unit 1
headword dollar ($) (n) euro () (n) flight (n) free (adj) be free to do sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The deal is thought to be worth 3 billion dollars ($3 billion). Fifty-five million euros ( 55 million) is a lot of money. Are you tired after your flight? A little, but Im fine.

\"dl\ \"jUrU\ \flaIt\ \fri\ \bI fri t "du smTIN\ \glUbl\ \glUbl "OdIns\"bIzns\ I"knmI\ \haU d j "du\ \"ImIdZ\ \"INkm\ \"lUgU\ \kmpnI "lUgU\ \"mAktIN\ \"mAktIN dil\ \mbi"eI\ \mltI"nSnl\

Are you free to join me? Yes, I am. Thank you.

global (adj) global audience/ business/economy etc

The Euro 2004 championships attracted a global TV audience.

How do you do? image (n) income (n) logo (n) company logo (n) marketing (n) marketing deal (n) MBA (n) multinational (n)

Im Saskia Slater. How do you do? Pleased to meet you. Im Matt Jensen. Beckham, Figo, Ronaldo and Zidane give the club an international image. Income from sponsors is worth over 70 million a year.

Manchester United players wear the Vodafone company logo on their shirts.

Marketing deals are worth a lot of money to the top European clubs. MBA is an abbreviation for Master of Business Administration. Multinationals such as Opel and Siemens market their products all over the world.

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in company
Unit 1
headword organiser (n) partner (n) be partners in (doing) sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Are you one of the organisers? No, Im not. Im a delegate, like you. Area Banca is FC Bolognas major business partner. Over 200 companies are partners in marketing deals with Real Madrid.

\"OgnaIz\ \"pAtn\ \bI "pAtnz In duIN smTIN\ \"pAspOt\ \plizd t "mit ju\ \p"blIstI\

passport (n) Pleased to meet you. publicity (n)

Businessmen from the UK need a passport in order to travel abroad. Im Saskia Slater. How do you do? Pleased to meet you. Im Matt Jensen. Players such as Beckham and Del Piero are worth millions of euros in publicity to their clubs. Rui Costas salary is 4.7 million a year.

salary (n) sponsor (n) main sponsor (n) ticket (n) trademark (n) Youre welcome. worldwide (adj) be worth 6m /$2 billion/1.5 million

\"slrI\ \"spns\ \meIn "spns\ \"tIkt\ \"treIdmAk\ \jUr "welkm\ \"wldwaId\ \bI wT sIks mIljn "jUrUz\tu bIljn "dlz\wn pOInt faIv mIljn "paUndz\

Whos the clubs main sponsor? Its Siemens. Tickets are not issued for Internet reservations. Ronaldos smile is his trademark and is recognised throughout the world. Youre in Room 303. Heres your key. Thank you. Youre welcome. A worldwide TV audience watched the Euro 2004 championships. Marketing deals alone are worth 70 million a year to the club.

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in company
Unit 2
headword alarm clock (n) answer (v) answer a call answer the phone bore (n) mobile phone bore (n) business (n) business opportunity (n) calculator (n) call (n) answer a call incoming call (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Many mobile phones have added features such as an alarm clock, calculator etc.

\"lAm klk\ \"Ans\ \Ans "kOl\ \Ans D "fUn\ \bO\ \mUbaIl "fUn bO\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns ptjuntI\ \"klkjleIt\ \kOl\ \Ans "kOl\ \InkmIN "kOl\

Some people only use their mobiles to answer incoming calls. I hate it when people answer the phone in restaurants or theatres.

Mobile phone bores are people who leave their phone on all the time and have private conversations in public. Do you agree that mobile phones increase business opportunities? Features such as personal organisers and calculators are available on most mobile phones nowadays. When Im at the gym I only answer important calls. People use their mobiles in different ways and some people only use them to receive incoming calls. I made a quick call home on the train to say what time I would be arriving. How do you use your mobile for making or receiving calls, or both? My wife called me from the supermarket to ask what I wanted for dinner. Alan, Im in a restaurant. Can I call you back later? Theres nothing worse than sitting on a train and having to listen to somebody elses annoying mobile phone chatter.

make a call receive a call call (v) call (sb) back (phr v) chatter (n)

\meIk "kOl\ \rIsiv "kOl\ \kOl\ \kOl smbdI "bk\ \"tSt\

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in company
Unit 2
headword communication (n) confidential (adj) connect (to) (v) connection (n) connection to the Internet/a PC contact (v) contact sb on their mobile conversation (n) have a (long) conversation cover (n) download (v) download ring-tones/icons etc easy to use (adj) (opposite = hard to use) etiquette (n) mobile phone etiquette (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Young people use their mobiles for entertainment as well as communication. Talking about confidential matters in public is bad mobile phone etiquette. Business people need to be able to connect to their company computers through their mobile phone. People who use their mobile phone as a work tool see connection to a PC as a vital feature.

\kmjun"keISn\ \knf"denSl\ \k"nekt tu\ \k"nekSn\ \knekSn t Di "Intnet\ pi"si\ \"kntkt\ \kntkt smbdI n De "mUbaIl\ \knv"seISn\ \hv lN knv"seISn\ \"kv\ \daUn"lUd\ \daUnlUd "rINtUnz\"aIknz\ \izI t "juz\

If Im not at home when you call, you can contact me on my mobile.

Having long conversations on your mobile can be extremely annoying for other people. How often do you change your mobile phone cover?

Downloading ring-tones and icons is an important feature of a mobile for many young people. The most important thing about a mobile phone for me is that its easy to use.

\"etIket\ \"mUbaIl fUn "etIket\ \Ig"zekjtIv\

Leaving your phone on all the time and talking loudly in public are two examples of bad mobile phone etiquette. Executives and salespeople see their mobile phone as a work tool.

executive (n)

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in company
Unit 2
headword extras (n pl)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Features such as a note pad, a personal organiser and connection to a PC are known as extras. What features does your mobile phone have? It is now compulsory in Britain to use a hands-free phone in your car. Icons are small pictures or symbols that you can attach to text messages. In general, fellow travellers do not want to share intimate details of your personal life. Remember dont leave your phone on when youre at the cinema!

\"ekstrz\

feature (n) hands-free phone (n) icon (n) intimate (adj) leave your phone on/off market (n) on the market mobile phone (n) mobile phone bore (n)

\"fitS\ \hndz fri "fUn\ \"aIkn\ \"IntImt\ \liv j fUn "n\"f\ \"mAkt\ \n D "mAkt\ \mUbaIl "fUn\ \mUbaIl "fUn bO\

This latest model is one of the slimmest, sexiest phones on the market. Men tend to like smaller mobile phones while women prefer larger ones. Mobile phone bores leave their phones on all the time and use loud and annoying ring-tones. Mobile phone etiquette involves using your mobile phone in a way that does not annoy other people. Other peoples bad mobile manners are driving me mad! Being a smart mobile phone user means using a hands-free phone in the car, speaking quietly in public etc. Do you keep changing your mobile phone in order to have the latest model? Business people typically use medium-sized models with a large screen to read information. 3

mobile phone etiquette (n) mobile (phone) habits/manners (n pl) mobile phone user (n)

\mUbaIl "fUn etiket\ \mUbaIl "fUn hbIts\mnz\ \mUbaIl "fUn juz\

model (n) small/medium-sized/ large model (n)

\"mdl\ \smOl\midImsaIzd\ lAdZ "mdl\

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in company
Unit 2
headword note pad (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A note pad is a mobile phone extra that allows you to write notes and reminders to yourself. A personal organiser allows you to store the names and phone numbers of people you contact often. Pre-paid cards are more suitable for people who dont often use their phones to make calls. If you want to be a smart mobile phone user, dont discuss confidential matters in public. Loud ring-tones can be really annoying if youre on a crowded train. Download our latest ring-tones for only 1.50 per minute. Remember to set your ring-tone at low if youre in a public place.

\"nUt pd\

personal organiser (n)

\psnl "OgnaIz\

pre-paid card (n) public (n) in public

\pripeId "kAd\ \pblIk\ \In "pblIk\

ring-tone (n) download ring-tones set the ring-tone at low/high salespeople (n pl)

\"rINtUn\ \daUnlUd "rINtUnz\ \set D rINtUn t "lU\"haI\ \"seIlzpipl\

Salespeople and executives often use their mobiles to connect to their company computers. Its easier to read information on a large screen. Sexy is a term used to describe the latest, slimmest mobile phone models. Is size important to you when choosing a mobile phone? Their latest model is the slimmest and most sophisticated on the market.

screen (n) sexy (adj) size (n) slim (adj)

\skrin\ \"seksI\ \saIz\ \slIm\

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in company
Unit 2
headword SMS text message (n) send an SMS text message

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\esemes tekst "mesIdZ\ \send n esemes tekst "mesIdZ\ \s"fIstIkeItd\

The majority of young people use their phones for sending SMS text messages.

sophisticated (adj) (opposite = unsophisticated) switch off (phr v) (opposite = switch on) switched off (opposite = switched on) text (v) text sth to sb/text sb sth

I love my mobile phone its slim, sexy and sophisticated!

\swItS "f\

Spectators are asked to switch their mobile phones off during the match.

\swItSt "f\

I always leave my phone switched off in meetings.

\tekst\ \tekst smTIN t "smbdI\tekst smbdI "smTIN\ \"tekst mesIdZ\ \"send\rIsiv tekst "mesIdZ\ \tn "f\

Could you text me Mr Hockliffes address in Paris?

text message (n) send/receive a text message turn off (phr v) (opposite = turn on) user (n) work tool (n)

Young people spend a lot of time sending and receiving text messages.

When the phone rang she turned it off without answering.

\"juz\ \"wk tul\

According to the ITU at the end of 2002 there were 1.390 million mobile phone users. Executives and salespeople see their mobile mainly as a work tool.

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in company
Unit 3
headword alarm (n) the alarm goes off always (adv) (opposite = never) call (n) take a call client (n) go out with a client visit a client

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"lAm\ \Di lAm gUz "f\ \"OlweIz\

My day starts at 7.15 when the alarm goes off. Frank always arrives at work at 9.00.

\kOl\ \teIk "kOl\ \"klaInt\ \gU aUt wID "klaInt\ \vIzIt "klaInt\

Could you ask my secretary to take the call, please?

The morning usually involves taking calls from clients and dealing with e-mails. Sometimes I have lunch at my desk but sometimes I go out with a client. Shes usually out of the office in the afternoon, visiting clients.

colleague (n) computer (n) turn on the/ your computer costs (n pl) cut/reduce costs daily routine (n) desk (n) at your desk clear your desk

\"klig\ \km"pjut\ \tn n D\jO km"pjut\ \ksts\ \kt\rIdjus "ksts\ \deIlI ru"tin\ \desk\ \t j "desk\ \klI j "desk\

Do you ever see your colleagues socially outside work?

As soon as she gets to the office she turns on the computer and reads her e-mail.

Many companies claim that sharing desks reduces costs. Always, never and often are useful words for describing your daily routine.

I usually have lunch at my desk but sometimes I go out with clients. Employees clear their desks at the end of the day, leaving them free for colleagues to use.

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in company
Unit 3
headword share desks desk-sharing (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence 60 per cent of staff at IBM hot-desk or share their desks. Many workers find desk-sharing more stressful than traditional office organisation. Do you have your own coffee cup? Oh no, we have disposable plastic ones.

\Se "desks\ \"deskSerIN\

disposable (adj) e-mail (n) deal with e-mail(s) read your e-mail(s) employee (n) flexible (adj) flexible hours (n pl) work flexible hours

\dI"spUzbl\ \"imeIl\ \dil wID "imeIlz\ \rid jr "imeIlz\ \Im"plOIi; emplOI"i\ \"fleksbl\ \fleksbl "aUz\ \wk fleksbl "aUz\

I usually start my working day by dealing with e-mails. As soon as she gets to work she turns the computer on and reads her e-mail. In many companies employees share office space and work flexible hours. Desk-sharing can be more flexible but it also leads to arguments with colleagues.

In theory we work flexible hours, but if you want a decent place to work you arrive early. Do you work flexitime? No, I dont. Its a nine-to-five job. The alarm goes off at 7.15 but she doesnt often get up straightaway.

flexitime (n) get up (phr v) (opposite = go to bed) go to bed (opposite = get up) hot-desk (v) hot desking (n)

\"fleksItaIm\ \get "p\

\gU t "bed\

I usually go to bed between 11 and midnight and sometimes feel very tired.

\ht"desk\ \ht "deskIN\

Nowadays, more and more employees hot-desk. Hot desking is a system in which employees share desks with their colleagues.

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in company
Unit 3
headword internet-based (adj) involve (v) laptop (n) managing director (n) meeting (n) department meeting (n) evening/lunchtime meeting (n) mess up (phr v)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Roundpeg.com is an internet-based recruitment agency. Mornings tend to involve meetings, taking calls and dealing with e-mail. Laptops are useful for people who work out of the office a lot. Jodie Lawson is managing director of roundpeg.com. I seem to spend most of my days in meetings. The next department meeting will be on Wednesday 12 May at 11.00. She finishes work at 7.00 but quite often goes to an evening meeting.

\"IntnetbeIst\ \In"vlv\ \"lptp\ \"mnIdZIN d"rekt\ \"mitIN\ \dIpAtmnt "mitIN\ \ivnIN\lntStaIm "mitIN\ \mes "p\

We often have arguments about space and someone always messes up the computer. He never goes home before half past six in the evening.

never (adv) (opposite = always) office (n) get to the office leave the office (opposite = arrive at the office) office equipment (n) office organisation (n)

\"nev\

\"fIs\ \get t Di "fIs\ \liv Di "fIs\

What time do you usually get to the office? Employees have to clear their desks before leaving the office at the end of the day.

\"fIs IkwIpmnt\ \fIs OgnaI"zeISn\

Office equipment includes furniture and things such as computers, fax machines etc. Many people prefer traditional office organisation to hot desking.

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in company
Unit 3
headword office ritual (n) office space (n) office worker (n) work/be out of the office

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Office rituals help to create a happy working atmosphere. Office Angels, a recruitment agency, did a survey about the use of office space. Hot desking makes some office workers less productive. He works out of the office a lot and has his own laptop.

\fIs "rItSUl\ \"fIs speIs\ \"fIs wk\ \wk\bi aUt v Di "fIs\ \"fn\ \Un\ \jr Un "kfI kp\ I"kwIpmnt\ psnl "speIs\ \psnl\ \psnl "desk\"fIs IkwIpmnt\ \psnl "speIs\ \"psnlaIz\ \prezn"teISn\ \meIk prezn"teISn\ \pr"dktIv\

often (adv) own (adj) your own coffee cup/equipment/personal space etc personal (adj) personal desk/office equipment (n) personal space (n) personalise (v) presentation (n) make a presentation

I leave work at 7.00 but often have to go to an evening meeting.

Many people feel uncomfortable about sharing and prefer to have their own desk.

Some people like to put their name on personal office equipment.

Do you feel happy sharing or do you prefer to have your own personal space? Workers often like personalising their work space, e.g. by putting their name on personal office equipment. I get very nervous before making presentations.

productive (adj) (opposite = unproductive) recruitment agency/firm (n)

Hot desking can make employees less productive and can lead to arguments about space. Office Angels, the recruitment agency, decided to do a survey about the use of office space. 4

\rI"krutmnt eIdZnsI\fm\

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in company
Unit 3
headword sometimes (adv) space (n) save space staff (n) stressful (adj) (opposite = relaxing) study (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Desk-sharing can sometimes cause arguments between colleagues.

\"smtaImz\ \speIs\ \seIv "speIs\ \stAf\ \"stresfl\

One of the advantages of hot desking is that companies can save space. 60 per cent of IBMs staff hot-desk or share desks. Companies say that the new systems are more flexible but employees often find them stressful. A recent study claims that daily routine and office rituals create a happy working atmosphere. Were currently doing a survey about the use of office space. Hot desking is a relatively new system aimed at saving space and cutting costs. Frank usually has lunch at work.

\"stdI\

survey (n) system (n) usually (adv) work (n) get to work (opposite = leave work) leave work (opposite = get to work) start work (opposite = finish work) work space (n) personalised work space

\"sveI\ \"sIstm\ \"juZUlI\ \wk\ \get t "wk\

She doesnt have breakfast at home; she has a bowl of cereal when she gets to work. I try to leave work no later than 5.30.

\liv "wk\

\stAt "wk\

Because we share office space you have to start work early if you want to find a decent desk.

\"wk speIs\ \psnlaIzd "wk speIs\

Office workers often find regular working hours and a personalised work space more productive.

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in company
Unit 3
headword reserve work space

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence In some companies, employees reserve their work space for the next day.

\rIzv "wk speIs\ \"wk\

worker (n)

For our survey we interviewed workers about which system they preferred: hot desking or a personalised work space. Do you agree that office rituals help to create a happy working atmosphere?

working atmosphere (n)

\wkIN "tmsfI\ \wkIN "aUz\

working hours (n pl)

Do you work flexitime? No, I do regular working hours.

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in company
Unit 4
headword arrange (v) attach (v) attach a file

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Arranging a business trip involves things like booking flights and organising the equipment you need. There was a problem with the file you sent. Could you attach a new file in Acrobat format? I am sending you the information you requested as an attached file. Please send a copy of your CV as an attachment. Im afraid I couldnt open your attachment. The company is based in Sacramento, California.

\"reIndZ\ \"ttS\ \ttS "faIl\

attached file(s) (n) attachment (n) open an attachment be based in book (v) book a flight/ticket booking reference (n) brochure (n) business (n) do business

\ttSt "faIlz\ \"ttSmnt\ \Upn n "ttSmnt\ \bI "beIst In\ \bUk\ \bUk "flaIt\"tIkIt\ \"bUkIN refrns\ \"brUS\ \"bIzns\ \du "bIzns\

Go ahead and book the flights. The flights are booked. Your booking reference is YE8GXC. Weve had 2,000 copies of the new brochure printed it looks great!

Thank you for forwarding the information I requested. I hope we can do business together. Corporate gifts are presents that companies give to their clients.

corporate gift (n) correspondence (n) end the correspondence

\"kOprt gIft\ \krI"spndns\ \end D krI"spndns\

The problem with e-mail is that people dont always know when to end the correspondence. There are often delays at the airport. Is there an earlier flight?

delay (n)

\dI"leI\

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in company
Unit 4
headword details (n pl) details to follow e-mail (n) get/receive (an) e-mail reply to (an) e-mail send (an) e-mail equipment (n) digital photography /safety/sports etc equipment fax (n) get a fax send a fax file (n) attach a file attached file(s) (n) flight (n) outward flight (n) (opposite = inbound flight)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Here are the details of your flight: depart Bilbao 10.00; arrive Berlin 12.20. The hotel is the same as last year. Is that all right? Details to follow. E-mail is a very fast and easy form of communication. How many e-mails do you get a day? I dont have time to reply to all my e-mails. Theyre sending me an e-mail to confirm the time of the meeting. Please send further information about your digital photography equipment.

\"diteIlz\ \diteIlz t "flU\ \"imeIl\ \get\rIsiv n "imeIl\ \rIplaI tu n "imeIl\ \send n "imeIl\ \I"kwIpmnt\ \didZItl ftgrfI\seIftI\spOts I"kwIpmnt\ \fks\ \get "fks\ \send "fks\ \faIl\ \ttS "faIl\ \ttst "faIlz\ \flaIt\ \aUtwd "flaIt\

Ive just got a fax from Head Office. Well send a fax to confirm the flight booking. My apologies for the problem with the file I sent. Please attach a new file in Acrobat format. Thank you for your e-mail with the attached file for the brochure.

There is a problem with the outward flight. It arrives at 12.30 and the presentation is at 13.30.

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in company
Unit 4
headword fly (v) fly in (opposite = fly out) fly out (from/of) (opposite = fly in(to)) format (n) in Acrobat/JPEG etc format get back to (phr v) get back to sb

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\flaI\ \flaI "in\

Well be flying in and out of Berlin on the same day.

\flaI "aUt frm\v\

If you fly out from Bilbao at 10.00, you should arrive in Berlin at 12.20.

\"fOmt\ \In krbt\ dZeIpeg "fOmt\ \get "bk tu\ \get "bk t smbdI\ \lOntS\ \D"lOntS v\ \let mI "nU\ \"let\ \raIt "let\ \bi lU"keItd In\ \"Upen\ \Upn n "ttSmnt\"faIl\ \"OgnaIz\ \pIk "p\

I couldnt read your attachment. Could you send it to me again in Acrobat format?

Thanks for getting back to me so quickly.

launch (n) the launch of let me know letter (n) write a letter be located (in) open (v) open an attachment/a file

Is everything ready for the launch of the new corporate gift range? Let me know as soon as possible if there are any problems.

How many letters do you write a week? Where are you located? On your webpage this is not clear.

Be careful when opening attachments as they can contain viruses.

organise (v) pick up (phr v)

Theres always a lot to organise when youre giving a presentation. The flights are booked. Pick up the tickets at the airport.

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in company
Unit 4
headword product (n) product range (n) projector (n) range (n) corporate gift/product range (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Thank you for your interest in our products. Please find attached information about our latest product range. For the presentation Ill need a projector to connect to my laptop.

\"prdkt\ \"prdkt reIndZ\ \pr"dZekt\ \reIndZ\ \kOprt "gIft\"prdkt\ reIndZ\ \rI"kwest\ \ rIkwest fr Inf"meISn\ \"telI"fUn kOl\ \meIk "fUn kOl\ \trIp\ \hv gUd "trIp\ \p"deIt\ \pdeIt "webpeIdZ\"websaIt\ \"webpeIdZ\ \raIt "bk\ \raIt "bk t smbdI\

Were always looking to expand our product range.

request (n) a request for information

Jorgen Bild e-mailed the company with a request for information about their digital photography equipment.

(tele)phone call (n) make a phone call trip (n) Have a good trip update (v) update a webpage/ website etc webpage (n) write back (phr v) write back to sb

Some people think that making phone calls is quicker than sending e-mails.

Im enclosing your booking reference number and ticket. Have a good trip.

Youre right about our webpage we are currently updating it.

Where are you located? On your webpage this is not clear.

Jorgen wrote back to Michele to thank her for re-sending the attachment.

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in company
Unit 5
headword acquaintance (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence During a business lunch, dont get up to say hello to other acquaintances in the restaurant. Lets have a bottle of wine. Order some for yourself. I dont drink alcohol, you see.

\"kweIntns\

alcohol (n) allergic (adj) be allergic to bill (n) ask for the bill book (v) book a table business lunch (n) coffee (n) coffee and a liqueur coldness (n) (opposite = warmth) credit card (n) pay with a credit card

\"lkhl\ \"ldZIk\ \bi "ldZIk tu\ \bIl\ \Ask f D "bIl\ \bUk\ \bUk "teIbl\ \"bIzns lntS\ \"kfI\ \kfI n lI"kjU\ \"kUldns\

I dont eat fish. Im afraid Im allergic to it.

Signal the end of the meal by asking for the bill.

Book a table in a quiet part of the restaurant. A successful business lunch requires careful organisation.

Skip the dessert and order coffee and a liqueur. Try not to be too formal it creates distance and coldness.

\"kredIt kAd\ \peI wID "kredIt kAd\ \dil\ \meIk "dIl\ \dI"lISs\ \dI"zt\

Its quicker and easier to pay the bill with a credit card.

deal (n) make a deal delicious (adj) dessert (n)

Good deals are often made during business lunches. Mines delicious. Hows yours? Well, actually the steaks a bit tough. Would you like a dessert after the main course?

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in company
Unit 5
headword distance (n) (opposite = closeness) eat out (phr v) (opposite = eat in) formality (n) (opposite = informality) full (adj) guest (n) host (n) idea (n) not like the idea of name (n) in the name of order (v) order sb sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Too much formality creates distance.

\"dIstns\

\it "aUt\

Eating out is an expression meaning to eat in a restaurant rather than at work or at home. Too much formality isnt good for business try to relax.

\fO"mltI\

\fUl\ \gest\ \hUst\ \aI"dI\ \nt laIk Di aI"dI v\ \neIm\ \In D "neIm v\ \"Od\ \Od smbdI "smTIN\ \"psnl mtz\ \pleIs\ \Its naIs "pleIs\ \pln\ \pln t "du smTIN\

What about a dessert? No thanks. Im full. Try to relax during the lunch so that your guests will feel comfortable. Its your duty as host to make your guests feel relaxed.

The guest doesnt like the idea of squid.

Good afternoon. I have a reservation in the name of Cruyff.

Can I order you coffee and a liqueur? That would be wonderful, thank you.

personal matters (n pl) place (n) its a nice place plan (v) plan to do sth

Dont talk about personal matters with your guests unless you know them very well.

This is one of my favourite restaurants. Yes, its a nice place.

Book a table between 14.30 and 15.00 and plan to finish within two hours.

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in company
Unit 5
headword quiet (adj) (opposite = noisy) reservation (n) have a reservation (in the name of) second course (n) share (v) signal (v) skip (v) skip the starter/ dessert/coffee space (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Try to get a table in a quiet part of the restaurant with well-separated tables.

\"kwaIt\

\rez"veISn\ \hv rez"veISn In D neIm v\ \seknd "kOs\ \Se\ \"sIgnl\ \SkIp\ \skIp D "stAt\dI"zt\"kfI\ \SpeIs\

Good afternoon. I have a reservation in the name of Cruyff.

The menu: ask for different starters, followed by a light second course. Its a good idea to have different starters that you can share. Signal the end of the meal by asking for the bill.

Skip the dessert and order coffee.

A quiet part of the restaurant surrounded by space is an ideal location for a business lunch. This is one of my favourite restaurants their speciality is fish. The squid in black sauce is a local speciality. No starter for me, thanks. Ill just have the main course. Ill take your coats. This way, gentlemen.

speciality (n) a local speciality starter (n) This way tough (adj) the steak/meat is a bit tough (opposite = tender)

\speSI"ltI\ \lUkl speSI"ltI\ \"stAt\ \DIs "weI\ \tf\ \D steIk\mit Iz bIt "tf\

Hows yours? Well, actually the steaks a bit tough.

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in company
Unit 5
headword vegetarian (n) well-separated (adj) well-separated tables

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence They do an excellent steak here. Er .. Im afraid I dont eat meat. Im a vegetarian. Look for a quiet part of the restaurant with well-separated tables.

\vedZ"terIn\ \wel"sepreItd\ \welsepretd "teIblz\

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in company
Unit 6
headword accommodation (n) atmosphere (n) bath (n) a full-sized bath business centre (n) computer (n) computer screen (n) conference (n) conference equipment/ facilities/needs/services

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A good conference centre should offer comfortable, modern accommodation. Engsholm Castle is a beautiful place with a relaxing atmosphere.

\km"deISn\ \"tmsfI\ \bAT\ \ fUlsaIzd "bAT\ \"bIzns sent\ \km"pjut\ \km"pjut skrin\ \"knfrns\ \"knfrns IkwIpmnt\fsIltIz\ svIsz\ \"knfrns sent\

All the rooms have an en suite bathroom with a full-sized bath. Our business centre is equipped with computers and Internet connections.

The computer screen is covered with Post-it notes.

Engsholm Castles excellent facilities make it an ideal place for your conference needs.

conference centre (n)

In your opinion, what are the three most important features of a good conference centre? The dining facilities include a restaurant with seating for 100 people.

dining (n) en suite (adj) en suite bathroom

\"daInIN\ \n swit\ \n swit bATrum\

Our luxury accommodation includes rooms with en suite bathroom, a mini-bar and satellite TV. Entertainment facilities include pool tables and TV with satellite channels.

entertainment (n) excursion (n) outdoor excursions (n pl) facilities (n pl)

\ent"teInmnt\ \Ik"skSn\ \aUtdO Ik"skSnz\ \f"sIltIz\

Rubber boots and raincoats are available for outdoor excursions. The hotel is situated in beautiful surroundings and offers a range of excellent facilities. 1

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in company
Unit 6
headword dining/leisure facilities

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Were currently upgrading our dining facilities to meet the criteria of the IACC.

\"daInIN\"leZ fsIltIz\ \faIl\

file (n)

A file is a set of papers or documents about a particular subject, or the box that they are kept in. A filing cabinet is a tall piece of office furniture with drawers for keeping files in.

filing cabinet (n) floor (n) ground/upper floor (n)

\"faIlIN kbInt\ \flO\ \graUnd\p "flO\

Our luxury dining room is on the upper floor while on the ground floor there is a bar and pool tables. A folder is a thin flat piece of cardboard used for keeping papers and documents together. What about accommodation? There are 241 guest rooms. Leisure facilities include a spa, health centre, swimming pool and jacuzzi. The IACCs internet site provides information about conference centres, with links to members homepages. Computers with internet connections are provided for the use of guests. Visit the IACCs internet site for information about the worlds leading conference centres. Be careful not to spill your drink on the keyboard!

folder (n)

\"fUld\

guest room (n) health centre (n) homepage (n) internet (n) internet connection (n) internet site (n)

\"gest rum\ \"helT sent\ \"hUmpeIdZ\ \"Intnet\ \"Intnet knekSn\ \"Intnet saIt\

keyboard (n) link (n) a link to location (n)

\"kibOd\ \lINk\ \ "lINk tu\ \lU"keISn\

There are links to members home pages on our website. In my view, location and facilities are the two most important features of a conference centre. 2

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in company
Unit 6
headword lounge (n) luxury (adj) luxury accommodation/ dining room/facilities/ food and drink

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The hotel has two lounges with open fires and views over the Baltic Sea.

\laUndZ\ \"lkSrI\ \lkSrI km"deISn\"daInIN rum\f"sIltIz\fud n "drINk\ \"mitIN rum\ \"mInIbA\ \maUs\ \"maUs mt\ \"nUtpd\ \"nUtIs bOd\

Our luxury accommodation includes rooms with en suite bathroom, a mini-bar and satellite TV.

meeting room (n) mini-bar (n) mouse (n) mouse mat (n) notepad (n) notice board (n)

The largest meeting room can accommodate 30 to 45 participants. Drinks from the mini-bar are usually fairly expensive. The mouse is the small object that you move to do things on a computer screen. The mouse mat is the piece of soft material that the mouse rests on. He quickly wrote down Dieters phone number on the notepad. Dont forget to check the notice board for further details of next months conference. The meeting rooms are equipped with overhead projectors, video and Internet connections. Many of our guest rooms have balconies overlooking the sea. Papers, files and folders covered the desk. How many participants are expected to attend the conference? Posters of exotic locations covered the walls of the office. Post-it notes had been stuck around the edges of the computer screen. 3

overhead projector (n)

\Uvhed pr"dZekt\

overlook (v) papers (n pl) participant (n) poster (n) Post-it note (n)

\Uv"lUk\ \"peIpz\ \pA"tIsIpnt\ \"pUst\ \pUstIt "nUt\

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in company
Unit 6
headword relaxing (adj) (opposite = stressful) resort (n) room (n) single/double room

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Engsholm Castle dates from 1310 and has a charming and relaxing atmosphere.

\rI"lksIN\

\rI"zOt\ \rum\ \"sINgl\"dbl "rum\

Hundreds of hotels and resorts add the words conference centre to their name but only just over 300 meet the criteria of the IACC. The castle offers modern accommodation there are 48 single rooms and 5 double rooms. TV with satellite channels is available in all rooms.

satellite channel (n) seat (v) it seats 45/60/100 etc people

\"stlaIt tSnl\ \sit\ \It sits fOtI faIv\"sIkstI\ hndrd "pipl\ \"sitIN reIndZmnt\ \sv\ \sv "milz\"fud\ \"sItSueItId\ \bI "sItSueItIdt\ In\n\ \s"raUndINz\ \In "bjutfl\wndfl s"raUndINz\ \tp"klAs\ \tpklAs km"deISn\ f"sIltIz\"fud\

Our luxury dining room seats 60 people.

seating arrangement (n) serve (v) serve meals/food situated (adj) be situated at/in/on etc

The largest room is suitable for 30 to 45 participants, depending on the seating arrangement. We have a reputation for serving top-class food.

Engsholm is situated on the coast, 65 km from Stockholm and 113 km from Alanda International Airport.

surroundings (n pl) in beautiful/wonderful etc surroundings top-class (adj) top-class accommodation/ facilities/food etc

The castle is situated on the coast in beautiful surroundings.

Enjoy top-class food in our luxury restaurant.

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in company
Unit 6
headword view (n) a view over well-equipped (adj) (opposite = badly-equipped)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Both lounges have views over the Baltic Sea.

\vju\ \"vju Uv\ \welI"kwIpt\

Our well-equipped meeting rooms have a range of facilities including video monitors, overhead projectors and internet connections.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 7
headword access (v) apply for apply for a post/job

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence You need a special password to access your bank account.

\"kses\ \"plaI fO \ \ plaI fO pUst\"dZb\ \"bNk kaUnt\ \"bIzns\ \bIg "bIzns\

Youre applying for a post as an office assistant. Yes, thats right.

bank account (n) business (n) big business (n)

Can you access your bank account on the Internet?

Young people have more faith in the honesty of big business bosses than any other age group. The survey showed that two out of three people dont trust what business leaders say.

business leader (n) computer (n) computer file/program (n)

\"bIzns lid\ \km"pjut\ \km"pjut faIl\prUgrm\ \km"pjut skIlz\ \"kOprt\ \kOprt "skndl\ \kri"eIt\ \krieIt "dkjmnts\ prezn"teISnz\ \d"rekt; daI"rekt\ \"dkjmnt\ \Im"plOI\

Experts think that its impossible to stop people sharing computer files illegally.

computer skills (n pl) corporate (adj) corporate scandal create (v) create documents/ presentations director (n) document (n) employer (n)

What are your computer skills? Well, I can use all the usual Office programs.

Corporate scandals like those at Enron, Tyco and WorldCom have received worldwide publicity. This is a piece of software used specifically for creating presentations.

Do you believe that the directors of large companies earn too much? Using this program, creating a financial document is fast and easy. Nowadays many people believe you cant trust your employer to pay your pension when you retire. 1

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in company
Unit 7
headword executive (n) executive earnings (n pl) fat cat (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\Ig"zekjtIv\ \IgzekjtIv "nINz\ \"ft kt\

What do you think about the high executive earnings of the fat cats? Fat cat is an informal term meaning a big company boss who earns a lot of money. The RIAA says that file-sharing costs the music industry millions of dollars every year.

file-sharing (n) findings (n pl) the findings (of)

\"faIlSerIN\ \"faIndINz\ \D "faIndINz v\

The findings of the fat cat survey show the impact of corporate scandals such as Enron and Tyco. A golden handshake is a large sum of money given to an executive when he or she leaves a company. The physical and electronic parts of a computer are known as hardware.

golden handshake (n)

\gUldn "hndSeIk\

hardware (n) impact (n) the impact of Internet (n) over the Internet legal action (n) take legal action (against)

\"hAdwe\ \"Impkt\ \Di "Impkt v\ \"Intnet\ \Uv Di "Intnet\ \ligl "kSn\ \teIk "ligl kSn genst\ \"lgIdZ\ \liv j "lgIdZ\

The findings of the survey show the impact of major corporate scandals.

Net pirates use special software to exchange music and films over the Internet.

The RIAA now takes legal action against people in the USA who swap music over the Internet.

luggage (n) leave your luggage

The symbol with the suitcase and the key indicates that you can leave your luggage in a safe place. The music industry is losing millions of dollars each year because of file-sharing.

music industry (n)

\"mjuzIk IndstrI\

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in company
Unit 7
headword net pirate (n) pension (n) pay sbs pension

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Net pirates use special software to swap music and films over the Internet.

\"net paIrt\ \"penSn\ \peI smbdIz "penSn\ \"paIrsI\ \paIrsI n D "net\ \pUst\ \d "pUst v\ \"prUgrm\ \rI"taI\ \"slrI\ \haI "slrI\ \"skndl\ \"sel jself\

Do you trust your employer to pay your pension when you retire?

piracy (n) piracy on the net post (n) the post of program (n) retire (v) salary (n) high salary (n) scandal (n) sell yourself (v refl.) (opposite = undersell yourself) software (n) stay (v) be here to stay take (v) take a bus/taxi/train

Piracy on the net involves exchanging files illegally with other Internet users.

Sally Bale is applying for the post of office assistant. The right candidate will be familiar with all the usual Office programs. Many people are no longer confident they will get a pension when they retire.

Why do companies pay their top executives such high salaries? You cant always trust the senior managers. Look at all those scandals like Enron. In order to succeed at a job interview, you need to be able to sell yourself.

\"sftwe\ \steI\ \bI hI t "steI\ \teIk\ \teIk "bs\"tksI\"treIn\

Software is another term for computer programs.

Experts think that software like Kazaa and E-donkey for exchanging music is here to stay. The bus symbol means that you can take a bus to the city.

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in company
Unit 7
headword top (adj) top boss/executive etc

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\tp\ \tp bs\ Ig"zekjtIv\ \"ttS taIp\

A lot of people think that companies pay their top bosses too much. Do you agree? Can you touch type? No, I cant actually, but I can type all right with two fingers. I can type all right with two fingers but I cant touch type.

touch type (v)

type (v) webpage (n) design a webpage

\taIp\ \"webpeIdZ\ \dIzaIn "webpeIdz\

You need special software in order to design webpages.

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in company
Unit 8
headword branch (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Starbucks Coffee House is world famous, with over 6,000 branches in more than 32 countries. A brand is the name or image of a product. Starbucks is a recognized and respected brand.

\brAntS\

brand (n) a recognized/ respected brand business (n) business consultancy (n) business trip (n)

\brnd\ \ rekgnaIzd\ rIspektId "brnd\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns knsltnsI\ \"bIzns trIp\

Nowadays Mitnick has a business consultancy called Defensive Thinking and advises companies on computer security. During a business trip to Milan, Schultz decided to copy the Italian-style coffee bars in Seattle. A chain is a group of shops, restaurants, hotels etc that all belong to the same person or company. Carrefour is a big chain of hypermarkets.

chain (n)

\tSeIn\

a chain of shops/ supermarkets/ hypermarkets etc hypermarket/ supermarket etc chain computer computer expert (n)

\ tSeIn v "Sps\"supmAkIts\ "haIpmakIts\ \"haIpmAkIt\ "supmAkIt tSeIn\ \km"pjut\ \km"pjut ekspt\

In 1973 Carrefour started the Pryca hypermarket chain in Spain.

Mitnick made a big mistake when he hacked into the home computer of Japanese computer expert, Tsutomu Shimomura. Computer hackers take information illegally from other computer systems, causing problems and widespread damage. A computer manual contains instructions on how to operate a computer.

computer hacker (n)

\km"pjut hk\

computer manual (n)

\km"pjut mnjUl\

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in company
Unit 8
headword computer security (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Companies will spend thousands of dollars on computer security to prevent hackers such as Mitnick accessing their data. By the age of 17 Mitnick was an expert in telephone and computer systems.

\km"pjut sIkjUrtI\ \km"pjut sIstm\ \"dmIdZ\ \estImeIt D dmIdZ t bi eItI mIljn "dlz\ hndrd n twentI faIv mIljn "paUndz\ \mIljnz v dlz\TaUzndz v paUndz v "dmIdZ\ \"deIt\ \IlektrnIk dI"vaIsz\ \"er\ \"estImeIt\ \"estImeIt smTIN t bi\ \"fud riteIlIN\ \"fud riteIlIN grup\

computer system (n) damage (n) estimate the damage to be $80 million /125 million etc

Damage to the systems of major companies was estimated to be $80 million.

millions of dollars/ thousands of pounds etc of damage data (n) electronic devices (n pl)

He hacked into the computers of some well-known multinationals causing thousands of dollars of damage.

Businesses that are victims of hacking can lose important data. Mitnick was a genius with electronic devices and computers soon attracted his attention. Mitnicks biggest error was hacking into the home computer of a Japanese computer expert. Some reports estimated the damage to computer systems to be over $80 million.

error (n) estimate (v) estimate sth to be

food retailing (n) food retailing group (n)

When Carrefour and Promods merged they formed the largest food retailing group in Europe. Suppliers provide goods for other businesses. 2

goods (n pl)

\gUdz\

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in company
Unit 8
headword group (n) join the group hack (v) hack into computers/ systems/companies

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Can you remember three facts about the history of the Carrefour group? In 1998 Mammouth hypermarkets joined the group.

\grup\ \dZOIn D "grup\ \hk\ \hk Int km"pjutz\ "sIstmz\"kmpnIz\ \"hk\

Mitnick hacked into computers at Pacific Bell, Motorola, Nokia and Sun Microsystems.

hacker (n)

Hackers access data illegally and, in some cases, rob large amounts of money from organizations. Hacking causes a lot of problems for companies often thousands of dollars of damage. Tsutomu Shimomura was very angry when Mitnick hacked into his home computer. A hypermarket is a very large supermarket, usually outside a town, selling a wide range of goods. Do you prefer shopping in small local shops or large shopping centres? Howard Schultz joined Starbucks as marketing director in 1982. Carrefour and Promods merged to form the biggest food retailing group in Europe. In 2000 Carrefour, Sears and Oracle created the first online market in the world.

hacking (n)

\"hkIN\

home computer (n)

\hUm km"pjut\

hypermarket (n)

\"haIpmakIt\

local (adj) marketing director (n) merge (v) online market (n) out-of-town (adj) out-of-town shopping centre

\"lUkl\ \"mAkItIN drekt\ \mdZ\ \nlaIn "mAkIt\ \aUtv"taUn\ \aUtvtaUn "SpIN sent\

Large out-of-town shopping centres are becoming increasingly popular.

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in company
Unit 8
headword prohibit (v) prohibit sb from doing sth (opposite = allow (sb to do sth)) restrictions (n pl) restrictions on (doing) sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\prU"hIbIt\ \prUhIbIt smbdI frm "duIN smTIN\

The judge prohibited Mitnick from using computers on his release from prison in 2000.

\rI"strIkSnz\ \rIstrIkSnz n "duIN smTIN\ \"SpIN\ \"SpIN sent\ \"SpIN ekspdISn\ \"sftwe paIrsI\

The restrictions on Mitnick using computers lasted until January 2003.

shopping shopping centre (n) shopping expedition (n) software piracy (n)

There are plans to build a new out-of-town shopping centre. Do you enjoy shopping expeditions with your family? The BSA (Business Software Alliance) organises conferences dedicated to the fight against software piracy. My company supplies other companies with goods and services. As a teenager Mitnick became an expert in computer and telephone systems.

supply (v) telephone system (n)

\s"plaI\ \"telIfUn sIstm\

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in company
Unit 9
headword arrest (v) arrive (v) arrive on time away (adv) bags (n pl) search sbs bags

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence When the plane returned to the terminal police arrested Mr Barghi.

\"rest\ \"raIv\ \raIv n "taIm\ \"weI\ \bgz\ \stS smbdIz "bgz\ \dIleI\ \dIleI D "flaIt\ \In"dZOI\ \IndZOI D "flaIt\"trIp\ \flaI\ \"flaI frm ... tu ...\ \flaI "n tu ...\ \get "bk\ \get "bk frm\tu\ \get smTIN "bk\ \gU "aUt\ \gU aUt f "lntS\ \"hnd lgIdZ\

My train was late so I didnt arrive on time for work. Hi Jeff. Where were you last week? Oh hello, John. I was away.

Police searched Mr Barghis bags inside the airport terminal.

delay (v) delay the flight enjoy (v) enjoy the flight/trip etc fly (v) fly from to fly on to get back (phr v) get back (from/to) get sth back (phr v) go out (phr v) go out for lunch hand luggage (n)

After having his bags searched Mr Barghi was charged with delaying the flight.

Did you enjoy the trip? Well, it was okay but a bit tiring.

On his way to Halifax in Canada, Mr Barghi flew from Azerbaijan to Frankfurt. He then flew on to Montreal without problems.

I only got back from Frankfurt on Saturday. On Monday he finally got his passport and money back.

We went out for lunch to a nice Italian restaurant. A stewardess asked Mr Barghi to put his hand luggage in an overhead locker.

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in company
Unit 9
headword have (v) have breakfast/lunch/ a shower/a bath

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\hv\ \hv "brekfst\ "lntS\ "SaUv\ "bAT\ \"haI\ \haI "ka\ \haU\ \haU "lN\ \last\ \"lOj\ \"lk\ \Uvhed "lk\ \"mitIN\ \hv "mitIN wID\ \"mnI\ \"fISl\ \p"zeSnz\ \"prIzn OTrtIz\

As soon as I get up I have a shower.

hire (v) hire a car How? How long ? last (v) lawyer (n) locker (n) overhead locker (n) meeting (n) have a meeting (with) money (n) official (n) possessions (n pl) prison authorities (n pl)

She flew to Heathrow and then she hired a car. How did you travel? I flew to Paris Charles de Gaulle airport. How long were you away? Five days. The trip lasted just under a week. Mr Barghi expected someone to find a lawyer for him but nothing happened.

Please put all hand luggage in the overhead lockers.

We had a meeting with the boss yesterday. He didnt have any money all his money was in the prison office and it was closed. Officials took all his possessions and his passport. Your possessions are all the things that you are carrying with you or that you own. Mr Barghi wanted the prison authorities to find him a lawyer.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 9
headword release (n) organise sbs release

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\rI"lis\ \OgnaIz smbdIz rI"lis\ \rI"lis\

The lawyer spent a week organising his release.

release (v) (opposite = detain) search (v) search sbs bags

He was released on a Friday evening but didnt have any money.

\stS\ \stS smbdIz "bgz\ \steI\ \"steI "t\In\ \stju"des\ \sk"sesfl\

Of course, when they searched his bags they didnt find a bomb.

stay (v) stay at/in etc stewardess (n) successful (adj) (opposite = unsuccessful) terminal (n) tiring (adj) travel (v) travel trouble (n) on your way on your way to London/Tokyo/ Frankfurt etc work (v) work late

Where did you stay when you were away? I stayed in a hotel in the centre. A stewardess asked him to put his hand luggage in the overhead locker. Was it a successful trip? Yes, it was. It all went very well.

\"tmInl\ \"taIrIN\ \"trvl\ \"trvl trbl\ \n j"weI\ \n j weI tu "lndn\"tUkju\ "frNkft\ \wk\ \wk "leIt\

The plane returned to the terminal where police arrested Mr Barghi. Long business trips can be very tiring. When you go away on business for your firm, how do you usually travel? Travel trouble can include all sorts of things including delayed flights, lost luggage etc. On his way to Halifax in Canada, he flew from Azerbaijan to Frankfurt, and then on to Montreal.

I had a bad day yesterday and had to work late. 3

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in company
Unit 10
headword air conditioning (n) bedside light (n) bill (n) unpaid bill (n) breakfast (n) buffet-style/ continental-style/cooked breakfast (n) eat (a good) breakfast broken (adj) (opposite = working) buffet-style (adj) buffet-style breakfast (n) cell phone (n) (AmE) (BrE = mobile phone) cell phone charger (n) (AmE) (BrE = mobile phone charger) cereal (n) whole-grain cereal (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Air conditioning is essential in a warm climate. The bedside lights not working it needs a new bulb. The bill for parking was $20 a day! The receptionist asked the man about his unpaid bill.

\"e kndISnIN\ \bedsaId "laIt\ \bIl\ \npeId "bIl\ \"brekfst\ \bUfeIstaIl\kntInentl staIl\kUkt "brekfst\

Would you like the continental-style or the cooked breakfast, sir?

\it gUd "brekfst\ \"brUkn\

People who dont eat breakfast have lower energy levels than people who do. She phoned reception to complain that the air conditioning was broken.

\"bUfeIstaIl\ \bUfeIstaIl "brekfst\ \"sel fUn\

A lot of hotels do a buffet-style breakfast in which you serve yourself. Where can I plug in the charger for my cell phone?

\"sel fUn tSAdZ\

I usually travel with a computer, a cell phone charger and an iron all of which I need to plug in.

\"sirIl\ \hUlgreIn "sirIl\

A bowl of whole-grain cereal is good for you and provides you with plenty of energy.

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in company
Unit 10
headword close (v) concentrate (v) continental-style (adj) continental-style breakfast (n) cooked (adj) cooked breakfast (n) data connection (n) demands (n pl) meet the demands of directly (adv) invoice sb directly

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The window onto the balcony doesnt close properly. If you dont eat properly, you have less ability to think and concentrate.

\klUz\ \"knsntreIt\ \kntI"nentlstaIl\ \kntInentlstaIl "brekfst\ \kUkt\ \kUkt "brekfst\ \"deIt knekSn\ \dI"mAndz\ \mit D dImAndz v\ \dI"rektlI; daI"rektlI\ \InvOIs smbdI dI"rektlI\ \"daUntaUn\

A continental-style breakfast usually includes bread and butter, croissants and pastries, and tea or coffee.

The cooked breakfast consists of bacon, sausages, scrambled eggs and tomatoes. The plug for the data connection is broken.

Eating a good breakfast helps you meet the demands of a busy day.

What about your bill, sir? You normally invoice my company directly.

downtown (adj) (AmE) (BrE = city-centre/ town-centre) e-mail (n) check your e-mail energy level (n) hair product (n)

We pay super-high rates for downtown hotels in major cities.

\"imeIl\ \tSek jO "imeIl\ \"endZI levl\ \"he prdkt\

I dont want to look at a wall every time I check my e-mail. Eating a good breakfast gives you high energy levels. Hotels nearly always provide shower gel and hair products such as shampoo and conditioner.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 10
headword heating (n) instructions (n pl) invoice (v) invoice sb directly

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Its too hot in the room. Can I adjust the heating? You normally invoice my company directly. Im sorry, but I dont have those instructions. When business people stay at the hotel we normally invoice their company directly.

\"hitIN\ \In"strkSnz\ \"InvOIs\ \InvOIs smbdI dI"rektlI\ \IrIt"bIltI\ \lkt\

irritability (n) locked (adj) (opposite = unlocked) next-door room (n) noisy (adj) (opposite = quiet) nutrients (n pl) parking (n) perfumed (adj)

Not eating breakfast leads to stress and irritability. The door of the bathroom is locked I cant get in!

\neksdO "rum\ \"nOIzI\

The people in the next-door room were making a lot of noise and I couldnt sleep. He complained to reception about the noisy guests in the room next door.

\"njutrInts\ \"pAkIN\ \"pfjumd\

A well-balanced breakfast provides the nutrients that the body needs. Hotels in big cities often charge daily parking prices of $20, $25 or even $30! There was the usual range of gels, creams and perfumed hair products in the bathroom. If there arent enough pillows, just phone reception and ask them to send more. The plugs broken. Could you send someone up to fix it? Why are there never enough electrical sockets to plug everything in?

pillow (n) plug (n) plug sth in (phr v)

\"pIlU\ \plg\ \plg smTIN "In\

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in company
Unit 10
headword power strip (n) (AmE) (BrE = distribution socket) rate (n) report (n) write a report snack (n) eat snacks healthy snack (n) snack foods (n pl) socket (n) electrical socket (n) straight away (adv) stress (n) towel (n) unpaid (adj) unpaid bill (n) well-balanced (adj) work (n) physical/mental work (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Hotels should provide power strips in every room for plugging in electrical equipment. Parking rates at downtown hotels can be very high.

\"paU strIp\

\reIt\ \rI"pOt\ \raIt rI"pOt\ \snk\ \it "snks\ \helTI "snk\ \"snk fudz\ \"skIt\ \IlektrIkl "skIt\ \streIt "weI\ \stres\ \"taUl\ \n"peId\ \npeId "bIl\ \wel"blnst\ \wk\ \fIzIkl\mentl "wk\

I dont want to look at a wall when writing a report or checking my e-mail.

If you skip breakfast youre more likely to eat snacks. If you need to eat between meals, choose healthy snacks. Most snack foods contain a lot of calories.

There are never enough electrical sockets for all my equipment. My television isnt working. Ill ask someone to come up straight away, sir. Research has shown that people who dont eat breakfast suffer more from stress. One of the towels in the bathroom was dirty.

It was embarrassing when the receptionist asked me about my unpaid bill. A well-balanced breakfast provides you with the nutrients and energy you need.

Food provides energy for both physical and mental work.

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in company
Unit 10
headword work (v) It doesnt work. wrong (adj) the wrong hotel/room etc (opposite = right)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\wk\ \It dznt "wk\ \rN\ \D rN hU"tel\"rum\

Whats the matter? Its my television. It doesnt work.

Im sorry, you have the wrong hotel. The Holiday Inn is across the road.

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in company
Unit 11
headword after-work (adj) after-work social event (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\Aft"wk\ \Aftwk "sUSl Ivent\ \"brifkeIs\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns trvl\ \"bndl\ \"bndl rp\ \kr"sel\ \"krIn\ \kS\ \kZUl "klUDz\ \"tSekIn\ \OtmeItId tSekIn\ \"klUDIN\ \aItm v "klUDIN\ \km"baIn\ \k"nekSn\ \mIs k"nekSn\

A suit can look too formal for after-work social events.

briefcase (n) business (n) business traveller (n) bundle (n) bundle wrap (v) carousel (n) carry-on (adj) cash (n) casual clothes (n) check-in (n) automated check-in (n) clothing (n) item of clothing (n) combine (v) connection (n) miss a connection (opposite = get your connection)

She was carrying all her papers and documents in a smart leather briefcase.

Its important that the business traveller arrives at his or her destination looking good. Put the small bag on top of the clothes to form the centre of the bundle. The idea of bundle wrapping your clothes is to prevent them getting creased. Passengers were waiting at the carousel to pick up their luggage. Carry-on luggage is an expression meaning hand luggage. You can use a credit card in most places but its a good idea to take some cash. All business travellers need casual clothes for those after-work social events.

Use the automated check-in for your hand luggage.

Wrap the top item of clothing around the core of the bundle. Combine your clothes in different ways to make sure you look different every day.

Missing your connection can cause luggage problems.

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in company
Unit 11
headword crease (n) dark (adj) dark clothing/suit etc (opposite = light) destination (n) arrive at your destination

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Bundle wrapping means you can avoid having creases in your clothes.

\kris\ \dAk\ \dAk "klUDIN\"sut\ \destI"neISn\ \raIv t jO destI"neISn\ \fUld\ \fUld j "klUDz\"klUDIN\ \"dZnI\ \"dZnI taIm\ \ki\ \DUki tu\ \lUk "gUd\ \mIs\ \mIs D k"nekSn\ "flaIt\"treIn\

Where I work, were all expected to wear dark suits.

Its important to arrive at your destination looking good.

fold (v) fold your clothes/clothing (opposite = unfold) journey (n) journey time (n) key (n) the key to look good miss (v) miss the connection/ flight/train etc (opposite = get the connection/flight etc) off (adv) be off

Folding your clothes in the normal way means they end up with a lot of creases.

One of the advantages of travelling with hand luggage only is that you reduce your journey time. Good packing can be the key to a successful business trip. You look really good in that suit!

We arrived 40 minutes late in Amsterdam and I missed my connection to Singapore.

\f\ \bi "f\

So, when are you off? In about ten minutes.

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in company
Unit 11
headword office (n) office rule (n) outfit (n) pack (v) (opposite = unpack) packing (n) pair (n) a pair of socks/ shoes/trousers porter (n) practical (adj) its practical to do sth (opposite = impractical) raincoat (n) ready (adj) shoulder bag (n) suitcase (n) -sleeved (adj) short-/long-sleeved suit (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"fIs\ \fIs "rul\ \"aUtfIt\ \pk\

It s not very practical to wear a skirt but its the office rule. Its possible to make a big variety of outfits with just a small wardrobe. The number of creases in your clothes depends on how you pack them.

\"pkIN\ \pe\ \ per v "sks\"Suz\"traUzz\ \"pOt\ \"prktIkl\ \Its prktIkl t "du smTIN\ \"reInkUt\ \"redI\ \"SUld bg\ \"sutkeIs\ \slivd\ \"SOt\"lNslivd\ \sut\

Susana Jones is an expert on packing she has packed and unpacked over 4,000 times.

You can travel round the world on just three pairs of socks a pair to wear, a pair to wash and a spare pair when you dont have time to wash! A porter is someone whose job is to help people with their luggage.

I find its more practical to wear trousers when Im travelling.

It rains a lot in London at this time of year. Dont forget to pack a raincoat! All my bags are packed and ready. She carried her passport and ticket in a shoulder bag. The advantages of travelling with only carry-on luggage is that you dont have to worry about your suitcase getting lost! Dont forget to pack a long-sleeved shirt in case it gets cold. A suit can look too formal at an after-work social event.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 11
headword tip (v) tip the porter trolley (n) underwear (n) set of underwear unpack (v) (opposite = pack) weight limit (n) well dressed (adj) wrap (v)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\tIp\ \tIp D "pOt\ \"trlI\ \"ndwe\ \set v "ndwe\ \n"pk\

She tipped the hotel porter generously. We spent ages looking for a trolley for our luggage.

You can travel round the world on just three sets of underwear. Susana Jones has packed and unpacked over 4,000 times!

\"weIt lImIt\ \wel"drest\ \rp\

Whats the weight limit on hand luggage? Your image is important you need to arrive at a meeting looking well dressed. Start bundle wrapping by wrapping the top item of clothing around the centre of the bundle.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 12
headword advertising (n) Internet/TV advertising (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"dvtaIzIN\ \Intnet\tivi "dvtaIzIN\ \"grIkltS\ \"ses\ \ses D "rIsks\ \"trkSn\

TV advertising is more effective than Internet advertising.

agriculture (n) assess (v) assess the risks attraction (n)

Agriculture is one industry that depends heavily on the weather.

In countries where the climate is changeable, it is more difficult to assess the risks. Open-air terraces are an important attraction for customers in the summer months. It was boiling at Heathrow yesterday 37C!

boiling (adj) (opposite = freezing) business (n) business agreement (n) business district (n) changeable (adj) cold (adj) (opposite = hot) come into (phr v) company (n) company profits (n pl) compensation (n) receive compensation (for)

\"bOIlIN\

\"bIzns\ \"bIzns grimnt\ \"bIzns dIstrIkt\ \"tSeIndZbl\ \kUld\

A deal is another word for a business agreement. Thursday and Friday evening are peak drinking times in Londons business district. The climate nowadays is very changeable. Take some warm clothes to Helsinki. No, its not cold at this time of year.

\km "Intu\ \"kmpnI\ \kmpnI "prfIts\ \kmpn"seISn\ \rIsiv kmpn"seISn\

The money coming into a business is called revenue.

Bad weather can have an effect on company profits.

By taking out insurance, commercial airfields receive compensation on days when high winds stop them flying. 1

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in company
Unit 12
headword construction (n) cool (adj) (opposite = warm) costly (adj) (opposite = cheap) dry (adj) (opposite = wet) effective (adj) (opposite = ineffective) efficient (adj) (opposite = inefficient) energy (n) energy sector (n) entertaining (adj) (opposite = boring) face-to-face (adj) face-to-face meeting (n) farming (n) financial (adj)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Construction is another industry that can be affected by the weather. February is always quite cool in Frankfurt. Cool? Its freezing!

\kn"strkSn\ \kul\

\"kstlI\

Face-to-face meetings are more costly than video conferences.

\draI\

Obviously, more customers drink outside in dry, sunny weather.

\I"fektIv\

A phone call can sometimes be more effective than an e-mail message.

\I"fISnt\

In my opinion, working at home is a lot more efficient than working in an office.

\"endZI\ \"endZI sekt\ \ent"teInIN\

Energy is another example of an industry that is dependent on the weather. A mild winter reduces the demand for heating and affects the energy sector. TV advertising is more entertaining than advertising on the Internet.

\feIst"feIs\ \feIstfeIs "mitIN\ \"fAmIN\ \faI"nnSl\

Which do you prefer video conferences or face-to-face meetings? Extreme weather conditions can affect farming very badly. Insurance is financial protection against risks.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 12
headword foreign exchange rate (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Companies often have insurance against a fall in interest or foreign exchange rates.

\frIn Iks"tSeIndZ reIt\ \"frizIN\

freezing (adj) (opposite = boiling) hot (adj) (opposite = cold) industry (n) insurance (n) insurance against

Its freezing in Toronto in the winter.

\ht\

They say that its been the hottest summer on record in Britain this year.

\"IndstrI\ \In"SUrns\ \In"SUrns genst\

Agriculture, energy and leisure are three examples of industries that depend on the weather. In the USA the market for insurance against the weather is worth around $9 billion a year. Commercial airfields can take out insurance against high wind speeds.

take out insurance (against) insure (v) insure against interest rate (n) leisure (n)

\teIk aUt In"SUrns genst\ \In"SU\ \In"SU genst\ \"Intrst reIt\ \"leZ\

Insuring against bad weather is another form of risk management. Some companies insure themselves against negative changes in interest rates. The leisure industry can be badly affected by the weather people wont go skiing if theres no snow and there are fewer visitors to theme parks in a wet summer. Profits are the money earned by a business minus costs.

minus (prep) (opposite = plus) payout (n) receive a payout

\"maIns\

\"peIaUt\ \rIsiv "peIaUt\

The London wine bar chain, Corney and Barrow, receives a payout for every Thursday and Friday the temperature does not rise above 24C.

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in company
Unit 12
headword precaution (n) take precautions against

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\prI"kOSn\ \teIk prI"kOSnz genst\ \"reInfOl\ \vrIdZ "reInfOl\ \IntSz v "reInfOl\ \"revnju\ \ls v "revnju\

What precautions can businesses take against bad weather?

rainfall (n) average rainfall (n) inches of rainfall revenue (n) loss of revenue (n)

The average rainfall in Frankfurt in June is 73.7 mm. Weather insurance is based on specific measurements such as hours of sunshine, inches of rainfall etc. We receive compensation for loss of revenue when the weather conditions are extreme. Insurance is financial protection against risks. If the weather information isnt very reliable, its difficult to assess the risks. Insuring against bad weather is simply another form of risk management.

risk (n) assess the risks risk management (n) sector (n) the energy/construction/ publishing sector (n)

\rIsk\ \ses D "rIsks\ \"rIsk mnIdZmnt\ \"sekt\ \Di "endZI\ kn"strkSn\ "pblISIN sekt\ \"snSaIn\ \"temprItS\ \vrIdZ "temprItS\ \"tUrIzm\

A mild winter will reduce the demand for heating and therefore affect the energy sector.

sunshine (n) temperature (n) average temperature (n)

One advantage of weather insurance is that it is easy to measure the weather by specifying wind speed, hours of sunshine etc. Whats the average temperature in Helsinki in December?

tourism (n)

Tourism is badly affected in ski resorts when there is no snow.

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in company
Unit 12
headword video conference (n) warm (adj) (opposite = cool) wet (adj) (opposite = dry) wind (n) high winds (n pl)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Video conferences are often more convenient than face-to-face meetings. Finland is warmer than people think in July.

\"vIdIU knfrns\ \wOm\

\wet\

The number of visitors to a theme park like Disneyland falls in a wet summer.

\wInd\ \haI "wIndz\

On days when high winds stop them flying, commercial airfields can receive compensation. They take out insurance against the average wind speed exceeding a certain level.

wind speed (n)

\"wInd spid\

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in company
Unit 13
headword according to angry (adj) get angry anxiety (n) blood pressure (n) high blood pressure (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence According to some experts, regular commuters can suffer from high blood pressure, anxiety or even fatal heart conditions. Passengers on crowded trains get angry because they have to stand. Overcrowding on trains causes high blood pressure and anxiety.

\"kOdIN tu\ \"NgrI\ \get "NgrI\ \N"zaItI\ \"bld preS\ \haI "bld preS\

Regular commuters can suffer from high blood pressure or even fatal heart conditions. Dave commutes to the citys business district by tram.

by car/bus/train etc cancel (v) cancel a train/flight etc carriage (n) clockwork like clockwork combination (n) the combination of and commute (v) commute to commuter (n)

\baI "kA\"bs\"treIn\ \"knsl\ \knsl "treIn\"flaIt\ \"krIdZ\ \"klkwk\ \laIk "klkwk\ \kmbI"neISn\ \D kmbI"neISn v ... nd ...\ \k"mjut\ \k"mjut tu\ \k"mjut\

Trains are often delayed or cancelled without warning. Providing an extra carriage is not profitable for a train company.

In Melbourne the trams arrive like clockwork.

The combination of uncomfortable trains and unreliable services can cause high tension levels.

Dave Smith commutes to Melbournes central business district by tram. A study by the Rail Passenger Council measured the heart rate and blood pressure of commuters on overcrowded trains.

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in company
Unit 13
headword regular commuter commuting (n) company car (n) conditions (n pl) poor conditions (n pl)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Some regular commuters suffer from stress-related conditions The study suggests that commuting can be bad for you. I do a lot of driving in my job and have a company car.

\regjl k"mjut\ \k"mjutIN\ \kmpnI "kA\ \kn"dISnz\ \pO kn"dISnz\

As a result of the poor conditions of their journey to work, many commuters are stressed before they arrive at the office. Jane Stevens, an executive in a consulting company, prefers driving as it gives her time to plan her day. The alternative to driving is a 30-minute journey on a crowded train and then two tube rides. I cycle into work in Strasbourg and almost all the journey is on cycle paths so I dont have to worry about the traffic. One of the disadvantages of driving to work in London is the amount of traffic on the roads.

consulting company (n)

\kn"sltIN kmpnI\ \"kraUdId\

crowded (adj)

cycle path (n) disadvantage (n) the disadvantages of (opposite = the advantages of) drive (v) drive to work ecological (adj) financial penalty (n pl) fine (n) pay a fine

\"saIkl paT\ \dIsd"vAntIdZ\ \D dIsd"vAntIdZz v\

\draIv\ \draIv t "wk\ \ik"ldZIkl\ \faInnSl "penltI\ \faIn\ \peI "faIn\

She likes having time to plan her day as she drives. She drives to work every day from her home in southeast London. The bicycle is a far more ecological form of transport than the car. A fine is a word meaning a financial penalty.

For the rail companies it is cheaper to pay fines than to provide longer trains. 2

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in company
Unit 13
headword foot (n) go on foot frustration (n) get (v) get a bus/taxi/train/tram

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\fUt\ \gU n "fUt\ \fr"streISn\ \get\ \get "bs\"tksI\ "treIn\"trm\ \get "Intu\ \get Int D "kA\"tksI\"treIn\ \get "f\ \get f D "treIn\"bs\"trm\ \get "n\ \get n D "treIn\"bs\"trm\ \get "aUt v\ \get aUt v D "kA\ \D "gUd TIN\ \D "gUd TIN baUt\ \"helT prblm\ \"hAt kndISn\

If I go on foot to the office, its a half-hour walk. Passengers get angry because they have to stand and when the train stops for 20 minutes for no particular reason, this adds to their frustration. I usually get a bus to work.

get into (phr v) get into the car/taxi/train

I walk out of the house, get into the car and drive to the station.

get off (phr v) get off the train/bus/tram (opposite = get on) get on (phr v) get on the train/bus/tram (opposite = get off) get out of (phr v) get out of the car the good thing the good thing about ... health problem (n) heart condition (n)

She gets off the train at Lime Street and walks to work.

He gets on the train, sits down and tries to sleep.

After a ten-minute drive I get out of the car and walk into the station.

One of the good things about cycling to work is that its cheap. Overcrowded trains can cause health problems for passengers. As a result of the stress commuters can suffer from high blood pressure or even fatal heart conditions. Waiting for half an hour for a train is frustrating and inconvenient. 3

inconvenient (adj) (opposite = convenient)

\Inkn"vinInt\

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in company
Unit 13
headword loan (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Companies sometimes help employees to buy their season tickets by giving them loans. The study measured the heart rate and blood pressure of commuters on crowded trains. Travelling on overcrowded trains can cause a level of tension which is dangerous. Rail companies prefer to pay a small fine for overcrowding rather than provide an extra carriage. Passengers who have to stand on crowded trains often get angry. Putting on an extra carriage to make rail passengers more comfortable is not profitable. Commuters resent paying high prices for a poor service.

\lUn\

measure (v)

\"meZ\

overcrowded (adj) overcrowding (n)

\Uv"kraUdId\ \Uv"kraUdIN\

passenger (n) rail passenger (n) price (n) high prices (n pl) (opposite = low prices) profitable (adj) (opposite = unprofitable) public transport (n) punctual (adj) (opposite = unpunctual) rail rail company (n) rail passenger (n) rail travel (n)

\"psIndZ\ \"reIl psIndZ\ \praIs\ \haI "prAIsz\

\"prfItbl\

Putting on an extra carriage is not profitable for a train company.

\pblIk "trnspOt\ \""pNktSUl\

Public transport is unreliable in this country. The 6.45 train is usually very punctual.

\"reIl\ \"reIl kmpnI\ \"reIl psIndZ\ \"reIl trvl\

For rail companies it is cheaper to pay fines than to provide longer trains. Many rail passengers suffer health problems because of the poor conditions on trains. The disadvantages of rail travel is that it is expensive and often very unreliable. 4

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in company
Unit 13
headword result (n) as a result ride (v) ride a bike/motorbike

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\rI"zlt\ \z rI"zlt\ \raId\ \raId "baIk\ "mUtbaIk\ \"sizn tIkIt\ \"svIs\ \ pO\nrIlaIbl "svIs\ \slU\

Uncomfortable trains and unreliable services cause dangerous tension levels; as a result many rail passengers have health problems. In Holland a lot of people ride their bikes to work.

season ticket (n) service (n) a poor/unreliable service

A season ticket is a ticket that is valid for an extended period of time.

They pay high prices for a poor service and, logically, they resent this.

slow (adj) (opposite = fast) stressed (adj) subsidy (n) sweaty (adj) hot and sweaty take (v) take a bus/train/taxi/tram to work/the office

Commuting by car in London can be very slow.

\strest\ \"sbsdI\ \"swetI\ \ht n "swetI\ \teIk\ \teIk bs\ treIn\tksI\trm t "wk\Di "fIs\ \It "teIks\ \It teIks SmbdI hAf n "aU\fOtI "mInIts\tU "aUz\

Many commuters are stressed even before they arrive at the office. Employees often buy their season tickets with loans or subsidies from their company. She doesnt cycle fast because she wants to avoid getting hot and sweaty.

If Im late I take a taxi to the office.

It takes It takes sb half an hour/ 40 minutes/two hours etc

It takes him ten minutes to get to work by tram.

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in company
Unit 13
headword tension (n) level of tension traffic (n) tube (n) on the tube tube ride (n) underground (n) the underground valid (adj) be valid for walk (v) walk to work warning (n) without warning workplace (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"tenSn\ \levl v "tenSn\ \"trfIk\ \tjub\ \n D "tjub\ \"tjub raId\ \"ndgraUnd\ \Di "ndgraUnd\ \"vlId\ \bI "vlId fO\ \wOk\ \wOk t "wk\ \"wOnIN\ \wIDaUt "wOnIN\ \"wkpleIs\

Unreliable services and uncomfortable trains cause a dangerous level of tension. Cycling can be dangerous if theres a lot of traffic.

On the tube in the morning, no one really talks. My journey to work involves a 15-minute walk and two tube rides.

The worst thing about the underground is the dirt.

A season ticket is valid for an extended period of time.

Id love to be able to walk to work.

Trains are often delayed or cancelled without warning. The majority of Europeans live within 30 minutes of their workplace.

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in company
Unit 14
headword add (v) add sth to sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\d\ \d smTIN t "smTIN\ \bIltIn "kmr\

Mobile phone companies are now looking at adding video to their phones.

built-in camera (n)

Theyre trying to improve the quality of the built-in cameras many mobile phones feature. Trams are making a come-back to many city centres around the world.

city centre (n) come-back (n) make a come-back company rules (n pl) delivery (n) expect delivery develop (v) development (n)

\sItI "sent\ \"kmbk\ \meIk "kmbk\ \kmpnI "rulz\ \dI"lIvrI\ \Ikspekt dI"lIvrI\ \dI"velp\ \dI"velpmnt\

Trams are now making a come-back as a means of transport in city centres. We normally wear a dark suit and tie to work its company rules.

Im phoning about our special order. When can we expect delivery? Sanyo electric is developing a 3-D TV screen. Global Trends is a webpage with information about the latest trends and developments. Prices of digital cameras are falling. The dress code where I work is suits and ties. More car manufacturers are marketing environmentally-friendly vehicles that run on hydrogen. Many mobile phones now feature built-in cameras. Sonia, can you help me with these figures? Sorry, Im a bit busy right now.

digital camera (n) dress code (n)

\dIdZItl "kmr\ \"dres kUd\

environmentally-friendly (adj) \InvaIrmentlI

"frendlI\
feature (v) figures (n pl)

\"fitS\ \"fIgz\

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in company
Unit 14
headword filter (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A special filter fitted to the screen allows viewers to see solid-looking images without wearing glasses. According to the survey, 12% of adults are still enjoying free time at midnight. If you get back in contact in July, well probably have some vacancies then.

\"fIlt\

free time (n) get back in contact

\"fri "taIm\ \get bk In "kntkt\ \"haIdrdZnpaUd\

hydrogen-powered (adj)

Madrid is now using hydrogen-powered buses, which are more environmentallyfriendly. Picture quality on digital cameras is improving all the time. Do you have any job vacancies? No, Im sorry, were not recruiting at the moment. Car manufacturers are now making more and more environmentally-friendly vehicles. Robots that do the housework are now coming onto the market.

improve (v) job vacancy (n)

\Im"pruv\ \"dZb veIknsI\

manufacturer (n) market (n) come onto the market

\mnjU"fktSr\ \"mAkIt\ \km nt D "mAkIt\ \"mAkIt\ \"nUtIs\ \hnd In j "nUtIs\ \"Od\ \"Od refrns\ \speSl "Od\

market (v) notice (n) hand in your notice order (n) order reference (n) special order (n)

Pressure has been put on car manufacturers to market environmentally-friendly vehicles. Why are you wearing those old jeans and a T shirt? Im not working; I handed in my notice yesterday. The order reference number is 5948. Im phoning from Laiz Co-op about our special order. When can we expect delivery?

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in company
Unit 14
headword order despatch department (n) per cent (n) 55/60/87 etc per cent

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Order despatch department. Can I help you?

\Od "dIsptS dIpAtmnt\ \p "sent\ \fIftI faIv\ sIkstI\eItI sevn p "sent\ \fUn\ \fUn "baUt\ \"pIktS kwltI\ \praIs\ \praIsz r "fOlIN\

On weekdays 77 per cent of adults are awake and out of bed by 8 a.m.

phone (v) phone about picture quality (n) price (n) prices are falling (opposite = prices are rising/increasing) recruit (v) report (n) finish a report revolution (n) robot (n) run on (phr v)

Im phoning about our special order. Digital camera picture quality is improving all the time.

Prices of digital cameras are falling.

\rI"krut\ \rI"pOt\ \fInIS rI"pOt\ \rev"luSn\ \"rUbt\ \"rn n\

There are no job vacancies at the moment were not recruiting.

Im busy at the moment. Im finishing a report. The first paragraph on the webpage is all about the photographic revolution. Robots that do housework are coming onto the market. Theres an increase in the number of environmentally-friendly vehicles running on hydrogen. The statistics show the percentage of the population doing a particular activity each hour over a 24-hour period.

statistics (n pl)

\st"tIstIks\

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in company
Unit 14
headword stresses (n pl) relieve the stresses of sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"stresz\ \rIliv D "stresz v smTIN\ \tek"nldZI\ \teknldZI dI"velps\ \"tendnsI\

Yoga and meditation help to relieve the stresses of modern life.

technology (n) technology develops

Technology is developing at an amazing speed.

tendency (n)

The Global Trends webpage gives information about the latest tendencies and developments.

time (n) spend (your) time trend (n) global trend (n) a trend in business/ lifestyle/technology etc

\taIm\ \spend j "taIm\ \trend\ \glUbl "trend\ \ trend In "bIzns\"laIfstaIl\ tek"nldZI\ \"veIknsI\ \"dZb veIknsI\ \"vju\

The statistics show how people in the UK spend their time.

Theres a global trend towards using trams in city centres. Read about the latest trends in technology and business on our webpage.

vacancy (n) job vacancy (n) viewer (n)

We usually have vacancies in July. Im calling to ask if you have any job vacancies. With the help of a special filter, viewers can see solid-looking images without wearing special glasses. On weekdays the majority of adults are awake and out of bed by 8 a.m. Digital cameras now have new features such as powerful zoom lenses and video.

weekday (n) zoom lens (n)

\"wikdeI\ \zum "lenz\

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in company
Unit 15
headword accumulate (v) airline (n) airline information desk (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A lot of work accumulated during the strike and we now have a huge backlog. Some of the cheaper airlines sell more tickets for their flights than there are seats. Please approach the airline information desk for details of alternative flights.

\"kjumjleIt\ \"elaIn\ \elaIn Inf"meISn desk\ \e trfIk kn"trUl\ \"aIl sit\ \"naUns\ \"naUnsmnt\ \epOt "naUnsmnt\ \"naUnsmnt baUt\ \"prUtS\ \"bklg\ \ "bklg v\ \"bgIdZ\ \"bOdIN\ \"bUkIN sIstm\ \nlaIn "bUkIN sIstm\

air traffic controller (n)

The flight was cancelled due to a strike by air traffic controllers.

aisle seat (n) announce (v) announcement (n) airport announcement (n) announcement about approach (v) backlog (n) a backlog of baggage (n) boarding (n) booking system (n) on-line booking system (n)

Could I change to an aisle seat? I have a bad leg. British Airways regrets to announce the cancellation of flight BA146.

Listen carefully to the airport announcement. What is the problem? Excuse me. I didnt understand the announcement about flight BA123. Passengers should approach the airline information desk for further details.

Once weve dealt with the backlog of cancelled flights we will resume normal service. We all waited for our baggage at the carousel. We only hold reservation until 20 minutes before boarding.

Their on-line booking system doesnt seem to be working.

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in company
Unit 15
headword bump (v)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Do you mean youre bumping me? I can offer you a later flight, sir, or a refund. Thousands of passengers were stranded at Heathrow after flight cancellations. The Office of Aviation organises the complaints they receive into different categories. Airlines should inform passengers about any extra charges they might have to pay. When I arrived at check-in, they told me there were no more seats left on the plane. Youll have to go back to the check-in desk and check your bag in. Unfortunately my checked-in luggage got lost. Passenger complaints are organised into different categories. The flights are really cheap but the standard of customer service isnt that high. You can claim on your travel insurance if your luggage gets lost or damaged. Companies found guilty of discrimination can be fined heavily.

\bmp\

cancellation (n) category (n) charges (n pl) extra charges (n pl) check-in (n) check-in desk (n) checked-in (adj) complaint (n) customer service (n) damaged (adj) discrimination (n) engaged (adj) the lines are engaged

\kns"leISn\ \"ktgrI\ \"tSAdZz\ \ekstr "tSAdZz\ \"tSekIn\ \"tSekIn desk\ \tSekt"In\ \km"pleInt\ \kstm "svIs\ \"dmIdZd\ \dIskrImI"neISn\ \In"geIdZd\ \D laInz r In"geIdZd\ \fe\ \flaIt\ \"flaIt reIndZmnt\

I tried phoning the airline but all their lines were engaged.

fare (n) flight (n) flight arrangement (n)

For more information about fares and payment methods, visit our website.

Details of alternative flight arrangements are available at our information desk.

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in company
Unit 15
headword flight attendant (n) in-flight (adj) full (adj) gauge (n) ground (n) on the ground

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Passengers complained that the flight attendants were unhelpful and rude. The in-flight food was pretty poor. Im afraid the flights full, sir. What do you mean? I have a reservation. You can weigh your own hand luggage by putting it in the gauge.

\"flaIt tendnt\ \"InflaIt\ \fUl\ \geIdZ\ \graUnd\ \n D "graUnd\

A strike on Friday and Saturday left thousands of passengers on the ground.

ground staff (n) hotel accommodation (n)

\"graUnd stAf\ \hU"tel kmdeISn\ \ls\ \ ls v Tri pOInt faIv mIljn "paUndz\ tu bIljn "dlz\ \nS"nltI\ \nOml "svIs\ \rIstO nOml "svIs\ \Uv"bUkIN\ \n"laIn\ \nlaIn "bUkIN sIstm\

BA ground staff called the strike because of proposed new working conditions. Many people were unable to find hotel accommodation and had to spend the night at the airport.

loss (n) a loss of 3.5 million/ $2 billion etc (opposite = profit) nationality (n) normal service (n) restore normal service overbooking (n) on-line (adj) on-line booking system (n)

The strike was estimated to have resulted in losses of over 10 million a day.

Unfair treatment on the grounds of race or nationality counts as discrimination.

The company hopes to restore normal service as soon as possible. Overbooking is sometimes a problem with cheaper airlines who sell more tickets than there are seats. Our on-line booking system is quick and easy to use.

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in company
Unit 15
headword phone line (n) the phone lines are engaged protest (n) a protest against publicity (n) queue (n) a queue forms race (n) refund (n) regulations (n pl) follow the regulations

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"fUn laIn\ \D fUn laInz r In"geIdZd\ \"prUtest\ \ prUtest "genst\ \pb"lIstI\ \kju\ \ "kju fOmz\ \reIs\ \"rifnd\ \regj"leISnz\ \flU D regj"leISnz\ \rez"veISn\ \hUld rez"veISn\ \rI"spns\ \rI"spns tu\ \rI"stO\ \rIstO nOml "svIs\ \bI SedZjuld t "du smTIN\

Its hard to speak to anyone directly as the phone lines always seem to be engaged.

BA staff called the strike as a protest against a change in working conditions. Some people have complained that information in the airlines publicity is untrue.

Long queues formed as passengers arrived for cancelled flights. Unfair treatment on the grounds of race or nationality counts as discrimination. The flights full, but we can offer you a later flight or a refund.

Im just doing my job. We have to follow the regulations.

reservation (n) hold a reservation response (n) response to restore (v) restore normal service be scheduled to do sth

We only hold reservations until 20 minutes before boarding.

Passengers criticised BAs response to the strike.

We are hoping to restore normal service as soon as possible. The strike also affected people scheduled to return to Heathrow from destinations all over Europe.

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in company
Unit 15
headword seat (n) senior manager (n) share (n) shares fell (by 1.2p/2% etc) (opposite = shares rose (by 1.2p/2% etc)) spokesperson (n) stock market (n) the New York/London/ Tokyo etc stock market

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Im afraid the flights full there are no more seats. Angry travellers asked why no senior managers were present.

\sit\ \sinI "mnIdZ\ \Se\ \Sez fel baI wn pOInt tu "pens\tu p "sent\ \"spUkspsn\ \"stk "mAkIt\ \D nju jOk\ lndn\tUkjU "stk mAkIt\ \"strndd\ \bI "strndd baI\ \straIk\ \"kOl "straIk\ \bi n "straIk\ \"teknIkl riznz\ \dju tu "teknIkl riznz\ \"taImteIbl\

Shares in the company fell by 3.9% on the London stock market.

A British Airways spokesperson said they were hoping to return to normal service as soon as possible. Shares fell on the London stock market by 3.9%.

stranded (adj) be stranded by strike (n) call a strike (v) be on strike technical reasons (n pl) due to technical reasons

Thousands of passengers were stranded by the strike. British Airways staff returned to work yesterday after a two-day strike. They called the strike because of proposed new working conditions. Flights were cancelled because air traffic controllers were on strike.

We regret to announce the cancellation of flight BA146 due to technical reasons.

timetable (n)

Something that is scheduled is part of a programme or timetable.

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in company
Unit 15
headword treat (v) treat sb badly

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The man claimed he was treated badly because of his race.

\trit\ \trit smbdI "bdlI\ \trIp\ \junjn reprI"zenttIv\ \"vaUtS\

trip (n) union representative (n)

The Condie family had saved for over a year for their trip to Spain. According to a union representative, the staff later returned to work as a gesture of goodwill. Airline companies sometimes offer their passengers vouchers for hotels when flights are cancelled. The strike was about proposed new working conditions.

voucher (n)

working conditions (n pl)

\"wkIN kndISnz\

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in company
Unit 16
headword absence (n) absence rate (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Whats your company policy on absence? The absence rate among public service employees is higher than that amongst private sector workers. Managers were asked to say what the top five causes of absence were. Long-term absence is responsible for 40 per cent of total working time lost.

\"bsns\ \"bsns reit\

causes of absence (n pl) long-/short-term absence

\kOzz v "bsns\ \ln\SO tm "bsns\ \bsn"tiIzm\ \rIdjus bsn"tiIzm\ \"pOIntmnt\ \bk\ \"bk "prblmz\ \"bUns skim\ \"bIld "p\ \kUld\ \k"mItmnt\ \kmpni "plsI\ \"kaUnslIN\ \nsaIt "kaUnslIN\

absenteeism (n) reduce absenteeism

Absenteeism is a major problem in business. How can employers take positive action to reduce absenteeism?

appointment (n) back (n) back problems (n pl) bonus scheme (n) build up (phr v) cold (n) commitment (n) company policy (n) counselling (n) on-site counselling (n)

Im going to phone the doctor for an appointment.

Back problems are common amongst workers doing hard physical jobs. Introducing bonus schemes can help motivate employees. If you stay at home, work starts building up for you in the office when you return. Colds and flu are two of the most common causes of absence. Some people feel that going into work when they feel ill shows commitment. Company policy on absenteeism can have a direct effect on the absence rate.

Do you think that on-site counselling is helpful for employees?

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in company
Unit 16
headword crche (n) workplace crches (n pl)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\kreS\ \wkpleIs "kreSz\

Workplace crches can be a good idea for workers with babies and young children. You need a doctors note if youre absent for longer than three days. David phoned in, saying he wasnt feeling well.

doctors note (n) feel well (opposite = feel ill/sick) fitness programme (n) flu (n) have got flu global capitalism (n)

\"dktz nUt\ \fil wel\

\"fItns prUgrm\ \flu\ \hv gt "flu\ \glUbl "kpItlIzm\ \gU "In\ \"Ilns\

Fitness programmes can help employees stay fit and healthy.

I think Ive got a bit of flu. World Phone in Sick Day was a day of protest against global capitalism.

go in (phr v) illness (n)

The decision about whether to go in or to stay at home can be a difficult one. According to a recent survey, British employees had an average of 7.8 days off work for illness last year. If you go into work when youre feeling ill, you risk infecting your workmates. Job swapping involves allowing one person to do another persons job. If youre not feeling well, go and lie down for a while. Managers suspect that low morale is often the real reason for a lot of absences from work. The massage service we introduced a year ago has proved very popular with employees. 2

infect (v) job swapping (n) lie down (phr v) low morale (n)

\In"fekt\ \"dZb swpIN\ \laI "daUn\ \lU m"rAl\

massage service (n)

\"msAZ svIs\

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in company
Unit 16
headword migraine (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A migraine is a very severe headache.

\"migreIn; "maIgreIn\ \mndeI mOnIN "bluz\ \nn"junjn\ \nnjunjn "wkz\ \fIs "gsIp\ \fUn In "sIk\ \pztIv "kSn\ \teIk pztIv "kSn\ \praIvt\ \praIvt "kmpnI\ \D "praIvt sekt\ \"prdkt lOntS\ \pblIk\ \pblIk "svIs\

Monday morning blues (n pl)

Monday morning blues is an expression meaning the sad, unhappy feeling some people have on Monday, the first day of the working week.

non-union (adj) non-union workers (n pl)

Trade union members report sick more often than non-union workers.

office gossip (n) phone in sick positive action (n) take positive action

My secretary tells me all the office gossip. Is John coming in today? No, hes just phoned in sick.

Flexible working hours and bonus schemes are just two examples of positive action employers can take to reduce absenteeism.

private (adj) private company (n)

Employees who work for private companies take less time off work than those working in public services. Absenteeism is lower in the private sector than in public services. We really need you tomorrow to help with the product launch.

the private sector (n) product launch (n) public (adj) public service (adj)

Public service workers take more time off than those working for private companies. Who takes more time off those working in the private sector or in public services?

public services (n pl)

\pblIk "svIsz\

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in company
Unit 16
headword relaxation areas (n pl)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence We provide special relaxation areas for employees to use during coffee breaks and their lunch break.

\rilk"seISn erIz\ \sIk\ \rIpOt "sIk\ \"sIk liv\ \"sIk "nUt\ \"sIkI\ \TrU "sIkI\

sick report sick sick leave (n) sick note (n) sickie (n) throw a sickie

Non-union workers report sick less often than trade union members. The average amount of sick leave taken by British employees in 2003 was 7.8 days. You need a sick note from the doctor for absences of longer than three days.

Throwing a sickie is an expression meaning to pretend to be ill and not go to work. Effective teamwork is an important part of this job.

teamwork (n) temperature (n) have a temperature

\"timwk\ \"temprItS\ \hv "temprItS\ \treId "junjn\ \treId "junjn membz\ \"trvl Ikspensz\ \"jujn\ \ju"tIltIz\ \"wk\ \"wkfOs\

My son has a temperature so Im taking him to the doctors.

trade union (n) trade union members (n pl)

Trade union members are more likely to report sick than non-union workers.

travel expenses (n pl) union (n) utilities (n pl) work workforce (n)

The company pays all my travel expenses. Who takes more time off work workers who belong to unions or workers who dont? The utilities are gas, water and electricity.

For the whole workforce in Britain, absenteeism represents a total of 10.7 billion in lost revenue. 4

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in company
Unit 16
headword working time (n) working week (n) workmate (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence In 2003 in Britain, 3.4 per cent of total working time was lost due to illness. In your opinion, would a shorter working week help to reduce absenteeism? If you go into work when youre ill, you risk infecting your workmates.

\wkIN "taIm\ \wkIN "wik\ \"wkmeIt\

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in company
Unit 17
headword advance (n) years/months/days etc in advance agreement (n) commercial agreement (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\d"vAns\ \jIz\mnTs\deIz In d"vAns\ \"grimnt\ \kmSl "grimnt\

Clothes makers usually produce their collections months in advance.

As part of a series of commercial agreements, the brand of vodka in the James Bond films has changed. Annual growth is the increase in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in one year. Clothes makers have to anticipate fashion trends. Production is in small batches, or quantities.

annual growth (n) anticipate (v) batch (n) borrow (v) borrow from a bank boss (n) the boss of business (n) business life (n) business school (n) on business set up a business clothes maker (n) collection (n)

\njul "grUT\ \n"tIsIpeIt\ \btS\ \"brU\ \brU frm "bNk\ \bs\ \D "bs v\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns laIf\ \"bIzns skul\ \n "bIzns\ \set p "bIzns\ \"klUDz meIk\ \k"lekSn\

Public debt is the amount of money the government owes because it borrows from banks. Amancio Ortega is the founder and boss of Zara and Inditex.

He started business life in a small clothes shop. Ortega gave talks in business schools around the world. Hes in Germany on business. Last year she set up her own Internet property selling business. Ortega is boss of one of the most successful clothes makers in the world. A collection is a term referring to the clothes that a manufacturer produces for sale at a particular time of year. 1

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in company
Unit 17
headword contact (n) be in daily contact (with)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kntkt\ \bi In deIlI "kntkt wID\ \kn"venSnl\

Inditex headquarters is in daily contact with its stores and knows what is selling.

conventional (adj) (opposite = unconventional) cost effective (adj) counter (n) over the counter

Product placement in films is cheaper than conventional advertising.

\"kst IfektIv\ \"kaUnt\ \Uv D "kaUnt\

Something that is cost effective produces a good profit in exchange for the amount of money spent. He started business life in a local clothes shop, selling over the counter to housewives. The lingerie business that Ortega set up with his wife did well.

do well (opposite = do badly) fashion (n) fashion director/ manufacturer/trend etc

\du "wel\

\"fSn\ \"fSn drekt\ mnjUfktSr\ trend\ \frIn "krnsI\ \frIn Iks"tSeIndZ rIzvz\ \faUnd\ \"faUnd\ \D "faUnd v\

Its essential that fashion manufacturers anticipate fashion trends.

foreign currency (n) foreign exchange reserves (n pl) found (v) founder (n) the founder of

What amount of money in foreign currencies does the government have? The foreign exchange reserves are the amount of money in foreign currencies that the government has. According to Piette, Ortega has founded possibly the most innovative and devastating retailer in the world. Amancio Ortega is the founder and boss of Zara and Inditex.

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in company
Unit 17
headword global awareness (n) create global awareness

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Product placement in films is a good way of creating global awareness of a product.

\glUbl "wens\ \krieIt glUbl "wens\ \"glUbl km"peIn\ \gU "p\

global campaign (n) go up (phr v) (opposite = go down) government spending (n)

Smaller companies cant afford the global campaigns of large multinationals. Prices are going up the fastest in Portugal and Germany.

\gvnmnt "spendIN\

Government spending is the amount of money the government spends on things like education, health and defence. The Inditex group is growing at a phenomenal rate.

grow (v) headquarters (n) Inditex/Microsoft etc headquarters

\grU\ \hed"kwOtz\ \IndIteks\ maIkrsft hed"kwOtz\ \"INkris\ \"INkris In\

Inditex headquarters is in contact with its stores on a daily basis.

increase (n) increase in (opposite = decrease in) inflation (n) in-house (adv) (opposite = out-of-house) innovative (adj)

The increase in the GDP in one year is known as annual growth.

\In"fleISn\ \In"haUs\

Annual inflation is the yearly increase in the price of services and things we buy. The group manufactures most of its clothes in-house.

\"InvtIv\

An innovative company is one that is not afraid to introduce new ideas, production methods etc. If an item doesnt sell in our shops, we stop making it.

item (n)

\"aItm\

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in company
Unit 17
headword labour cost (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Labour costs are much cheaper in parts of Asia and Eastern Europe than they are in the UK. Most of our clothes are manufactured in-house.

\"leIb kst\

manufacture (v) message (n) take a message money (n) make money over (prep) just over (opposite = under) overheads (n pl) owe (v) owe money president (n) (AmE) the president of (BrE = managing director) process (n) every stage of the process

\mnjU"fktS\ \"mesIdZ\ \teIk "mesIdz\ \"mnI\ \meIk "mnI\ \"Uv\ \dZst "Uv\

Mr Harpers not in the office. Can I take a message?

Ortega is an expert at making money.

In France GDP has increased by just over $3,000.

\"Uvhedz\ \U\ \U "mnI\ \"prezIdnt\ \D "prezIdnt v\

Overheads are the general costs of running a business rent, equipment, heating, lighting etc. Public debt is the amount of money the government owes.

The president and founder of Inditex is rich and successful.

\"prUses\ \evrI steIdZ v D "prUses\ \"prdkt\ \"prdkt prefrns\ \ reIndZ v "prdkts\

Inditex controls every stage of the process from production to sales.

product (n) product preference (n) a range of products (n)

The article To Shake Or To Stir? describes changes in Bonds product preferences. The makers of the Bond films have accepted $4045m to allow a range of products to appear on screen. 4

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in company
Unit 17
headword product placement (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Product placement is the use of a particular companys products during a film as a way of advertising. From production to sales we control every stage of the process. GDP per person is the total economic production of a country divided by the number of its people.

\"prdkt "pleIsmnt\ \pr"dkSn\ \iknmIk; eknmIk pr"dkSn\ \pblIk "det\

production (n) economic production (n)

public debt (n)

The amount of money that the government owes because it borrows from banks is called the public debt. The hourly rate of pay for the job is 7.50. Daniel Piette, a fashion director, described Inditex as possibly the most innovative retailer in the world. Aston Martin is hoping to increase sales from 1,500 to 5,000 vehicles a year worldwide. Have a seat. Would you like a coffee? If an item doesnt sell we stop making it.

rate of pay (n) retailer (n) sales (n pl) increase sales seat (n) Have a seat. sell (v) shares (n pl) have shares in stock (n) unsold stock store (n) open a store

\reIt v "peI\ \"riteIl\ \seIlz\ \INkris "seIlz\ \sIt\ \hv "sit\ \sel\ \Sez\ \hv "Sez In\ \stk\ \nsUld "stk\ \stO\ \Upn "stO\

Ortega has shares in football clubs.

The Inditex stores never have unsold stock.

Every 48 hours, somewhere in the world, the Inditex group opens a new store.

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in company
Unit 17
headword spokesman (n) under (prep) just under (opposite = over) unemployment rate (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence We want to create global awareness, said a spokesman for the car company.

\"spUksmn\ \"nd\ \"dZst "nd\

Just under 200 people attended the conference.

\nIm"plOImnt reIt\ \"jIlI\

The unemployment rate in Italy is currently 9.5%.

yearly (adj)

The yearly increase in services and the things we buy is known as annual inflation.

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in company
Unit 18
headword access (n) access speed (n) access to the Internet

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Access will be thousands of times faster in the future Laser technology will improve access speeds considerably. There are 500,000,000 people in the world with access to the Internet.

\"kses\ \"kses spid\ \kses t Di "Intnet\ \Aft"seIlz svIs\

after-sales service (n)

Were aiming to improve our after-sales service by responding to all e-mails within 24 hours. Do you think there will be an anti-technology revolution? ASDL is currently the fastest method of connecting a computer to the Internet.

anti-technology (adj) ASDL (n) browse (v) browse on the Net/ the Web/a mobile phone

\ntItek"nldZI\ \eIesdi"el\ \braUz\ \braUz n D "net\D "web\ mUbaIl "fUn\ \"baIIN\ \"klkjleIt\ \klkjleIt "fIgz\ \"ktS freIz\ \"tSeIndZz\ \tSeIndZz In tek"nldZI\"bIzns\ \"tSek n\

Do you think that people will want to browse on their mobile phones?

buying (n) calculate (v) calculate figures catch phrase (n) changes (n pl) changes in technology/ business etc check (on) (v)

People who do their buying on the Internet like to know what other consumers think about a product. I dont quite understand how you calculated these figures. Kiss, or keep it simple, stupid is the catch phrase in webpage design.

We need to anticipate how changes in technology will affect commerce.

I check on the stock market at least four times a day.

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in company
Unit 18
headword click (on) (v) code (n) line of code (n) commerce (n) commission (n) pay sb a commission

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence If you click on I accept the supplier can legally spy on you.

\"klIk n\ \kUd\ \laIn v "kUd\ \"kms\ \k"mISn\ \peI smbdI k"mISn\ \k"mjunIkeIt\ \kmpn"seISn\ \f kmpn"seISn\

From now on each line of new code will have the programmers name attached. It will be interesting to see how changes to the Internet will affect commerce in the future. They have a link to our page and we pay them a commission.

communicate (v) compensation (n) offer compensation

The Internet will probably become something we take for granted in order to get information and to communicate. You want the customer to come back, so if something has gone wrong offer compensation. As consumers, most of us have no choice when we buy programs for our PC. Problems of security affect the reputation of Microsoft with big corporations. A computer that crashes twice a day is not acceptable in a busy office like ours. In the interview John Bryce says that many customers are prepared to pay extra for a courier service. Having comments from customers on your web site is a good idea as customer involvement is an important part of selling online.

consumer (n) corporation (n) crash (v) courier service (n)

\kn"sjum\ \kOp"reISn\ \krS\ \"kUrI svIs\

customer involvement (n)

\kstm In"vlvmnt\ \dI"lIv\ \dI"lIv D "gUdz\\

deliver (v) deliver the goods

If you dont deliver the goods on time, you lose customers.

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in company
Unit 18
headword delivery method (n) double (v) download (n) enquiries (n) make enquiries

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence You need to be able to offer customers a choice of delivery methods. The number of companies trading on the Internet doubles each year. Some of the most popular downloads on the Net include secret programs or spyware. Currently most customers prefer to make their enquiries by phone, but this is expensive. The article predicts that laser technology will replace copper and fibre optic lines. Spyware can scan files on your hard disk and modify them. Do you think that online shopping will replace high-street stores? Computer programs have holes in them which make them open to attacks by viruses and hackers. The virus infected thousands of computers using Microsoft software.

\dI"lIvrI meTd\ \"dbl\ \"daUnlUd\ \In"kwaIrIz\ \meIk In"kwaIrIz\

fibre optic lines (n pl) hard disk (n) high-street store (n) hole (n)

\faIb ptIk "laInz\ \hAd "dIsk\ \haIstrit "stO\ \hUl\

infect (v) install (v) install a program (opposite = uninstall a program) Internet (adj) Internet services (n pl) invest (v) invest $80,000/ 500,000 etc in sth

\In"fekt\ \In"stOl\ \InstOl "prUgrm\

Read the licence agreement the next time you install a program.

\"Intnet\ \"Intnet svIsz\ \In"vest\ \Invest eItI TaUznd "dlz\faIv hndrd TaUznd "paUndz\

The writer predicts that the new Internet services on mobiles will be a failure.

Bill Gates invested $200 million in his products to make them more secure.

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in company
Unit 18
headword laser technology (n) licence agreement (n) marketer (n) marketing (adj) marketing expert/ information/tool etc monitor (v) multimedia (n) the Net (n) on the Net online (adj) online content (n) online form/ shopping/store (n) operating system (n) use an operating system

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Laser technology will replace copper and fibre optic lines. Most people dont read licence agreements because they are long and technical. The job of marketers is to collect information about us.

\"leIz teknldZI\ \"laIsns grimnt\ \"mAkIt\ \"mAkItIN\ \"mAkItIN ekspt\ InfmeISn\tul\ \"mnIt\ \mltI"midI\ \D "net\ \n D "net\ \n"laIn\ \nlaIn "kntent\ \nlaIn "fOm\"SpIN\"stO\ \"preItIN sIstm\ \juz n "preItIN sIstm\ \bi aUt"deItId\

The Internet is a very effective marketing tool.

Spyware can monitor the keys you press when you work at your PC. Multimedia is the use of video, sound and other methods of communication in computers. I think we will buy a lot of things on the Net but will go to a shop for others. Voting will be online and we will vote on more issues. At the moment about 75% of online content is in English. We often fill out online forms with our choices and preferences.

Which operating system do you use: Windows, Macintosh or something else?

be outdated

The Internet is changing so fast that the things we talk about today are outdated by tomorrow. Page design is very important on a website it needs to be simple so that everyone can use it. 4

page design (n)

\"peIdZ dIzaIn\'

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in company
Unit 18
headword palmtop (n) pay rise (n) PC (n) prediction (n) make predictions program (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A palmtop is a very small computer that you can hold in your hand. A pay rise in my company is always a big surprise! When installing a new program on your PC, you should read the licence agreement. The advantages to making a lot of predictions is that some of them will come true! From now on if there is a problem with a program, it will be easy to see who made the mistake. Each new line of code will now have the programmers name attached to it.

\"pAmtp\ \"peI raIz\ \pi"si\ \prI"dIkSn\ \meIk prI"dIkSnz\ \"prUgrm\

programmer (n) scan (v) scan a file search engine (n)

\"prUgrm\ \skn\ \skn "faIl\ \"stS endZIn\

These secret programs or spyware can scan files on your hard disk and modify them. Search engines such as Google are a fast and efficient way of finding the information you need. Microsoft has invested millions of dollars in order to make its software more secure. Computer security has become a big issue for Microsoft. Security problems could affect sales of Microsoft products.

secure (adj)

\sI"kjU\

security (n) security problem (n)

\sI"kjUrtI\ \sI"kjUrtI prblm\ \"setIcz\ \psnl "setINz\

settings (n pl) personal settings (n pl)

Spyware can change your homepage and other personal settings.

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in company
Unit 18
headword small print (n) read the small print

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"smOl prInt\ \rid D "smOl prInt\

Reading the small print of a licence agreement could prevent you from having problems with spyware. Software engineers will need to be careful as their name will be attached to each line of new code. Access speeds should improve thanks to laser technology.

software engineer (n)

\"sftwe "endZInI\

speed (n) surf (v) surf the Internet take sth for granted

\spid\ \sf\ \sf Di "Inbtnet\ \teIk smTIN f "grAntd\ \treId\ \taIp "In\ \vIdIU"knfrnsIN\

How much time each day do you spend surfing the Internet? We are now starting to take the Internet for granted as a means of communication and getting information. The number of companies trading on the Internet doubles each year. Type in the name of the thing you are searching for and press return. Do you agree that videoconferencing will finally replace face-to-face business meetings? Currently, programs are open to attacks by viruses and hackers.

trade (v) type in (phr v) videoconferencing (n)

virus (n) website (n) visit a website

\"vaIrs\ \"websaIt\ \vIzIt "websaIt\

Secret programs exist that can monitor which websites you visit and how often.

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in company
Unit 19
headword call (n) get a call put through a call call (v) call sb about sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\kOl\ \get "kOl\ \pUt Tru "kOl\ \kOl\ \kOl smbdI baUt "smTIN\ \huz "kOlIN\ \"kl\

Maria gets over 500 calls a day. Just a minute, Ill try to put your call through.

What do people usually call you about at work?

Whos calling? caller (n)

Whos calling, please? George Miller from Bryce and Watts. The telephone often interrupts what were doing and sometimes the caller is someone we dont want to talk to! Maria Cabreras workspace is a cubicle with a computer and a telephone exchange. If you dial extension 4012, its a direct line. Do you have a direct line or an extension?

cubicle (n) dial (v) direct line (n)

\"kjubIkl\ \"daIl\ \dIrekt; daIrekt "laIn\ \dIsk"nekt\ \dIsknekt D "fUn\ \Ik"stenSn\ \get Tru t "smbdI\ \gIv smTIN "p\ \gIv j "dZb p\

disconnect (v) disconnect the phone extension (n) get through (to sb)(phr v)

I sometimes feel like disconnecting the phone but my husband needs it for his work.

My extension is 3474. After phoning several times I finally got through to her.

give sth up (phr v) give your job up

Its awful I think Ill give my job up.

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in company
Unit 19
headword handset (n) replace the handset hang up (phr v) hang up on sb

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"hndset\ \rIpleIs D "hndset\ \hN "p\ \hN "p n smbdI\ \"hedset\ \help\ \haU kn aI "help ju\ \hUk\ \"teIk D fUn f D "hUk\ \Ig"nO\ \In"trud Intu\ \laIn\ \aIl traI D "laIn\ \"nmb\ \kOl "nmb\

Have you ever interrupted a phone call by replacing the handset? Some people are awful but the problem is in my job that I cant just hang up. Only 6% of those interviewed told researchers they never hung up on people.

headset (n) help (v) How can I help you? hook (n) take the phone off the hook ignore (v) intrude (into) (v) line (n) Ill try the line. number (n) call a number

My phone has a headset so that my hands are free.

Hello, is that Alphatech Research? Yes, how can I help you?

Sometimes at home when Im feeling really tired, I take the phone off the hook.

Its difficult to ignore a ringing phone. Because we cant ignore the phone it intrudes into our lives.

One moment, Ill try her line.

A researcher called the number of several public phones in stations and airports and someone nearly always answered. Can I speak to Ana Courtelle, please? One moment, Ill try her number.

try sbs number

\traI smbdIz "nmb\ \fUn\ \Ans D "fUn\

phone (n) answer the phone

I tried calling but no one answered the phone. 2

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in company
Unit 19
headword replace (v) replace the handset

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\rI"pleIs\ \rIpleIs D "hndset\ \rIN\ \D "fUn rINz\ \seI\ \dId ju "seI\ \stres\ \kOz "stres\ \sf frm "stres\ \strest\

Replacing the handset will interrupt a call.

ring (v) the phone rings say (v) did you say? stress (n) cause stress suffer from stress stressed (adj) (opposite = relaxed) supplier (n) telephone (n) telephone exchange (n)

When the phone is ringing in someone elses office, do you answer it?

This is Mr Olot from Pharmatech SA. Im sorry. Who did you say?

Does the phone cause stress in your work? In the end she thinks shell give up her job because she suffers from stress. Maria gets really stressed at work because she has to answer so many calls.

\s"plaI\ \"telIfUn\ \telIfUn Ik"steIndZ\

I often get calls from suppliers about orders and deliveries.

The only things in my workspace are a chair, a computer and a telephone exchange. In a survey on telephone use, 51% of people said they would answer a phone ringing in someone elses office. Maria Cabrera works as a telephonist in a shopping centre.

telephone use (n)

\"telIfUn jus\

telephonist (n)

\t"lefnIst\

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in company
Unit 20
headword abbreviation (n) abrupt (adj) ad (n) advertised (adj) advertised in/on aim (for) (v) answerphone (n) leave a message on sbs answerphone application (n) an application for consider sbs application

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Using abbreviations when you send text messages save time. The tone used in your e-mail needs to be businesslike but not too abrupt. Ad is a shortened and informal form of the word advertisement.

\brivI"ISn\ \"brpt\ \d\ \"dvtaIzd\ \"dvtaIzd In\n\ \"eIm fO\ \"AnsfUn\ \liv mesIdZ n smbdIz "AnsfUn\ \plI"keISn\ \n plI"keISn fO\ \knsId smbdIz plI"keISn\ \ttSt "dkjmnt\ \"bdlI\ \bdlIeks"prest\ bdlI"rItn\ \bn\ \bn D "jus v\ \bIn\ \gU streIt Int D "bIn\

Id like to apply for the post of sales representative advertised on your website. Aim for short simple sentences in your e-mails.

Janet wasnt in so I left a message on her answerphone.

Thank you for your application for the post of sales representative. I am unable to consider your application as I am afraid you do not have the necessary experience. Please find my CV as an attached document.

attached document (n) badly (adv) badly-expressed/ badly-written (adj) ban (v) ban the use of bin (n) go straight into the bin

Badly-written e-mails are difficult to read and understand.

One company took the unusual step of banning the use of internal e-mail.

Overfamiliar messages from people I dont know well go straight into the bin!

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in company
Unit 20
headword business (n) business communication/ correspondence (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"bIzns\ \"bIzns kmjunIkeISn\ krIspndns\ \"bIznslaIk\ \"btn\ \t D ttS v "btn\ \hIt "btn\

The object of modern business communication is to be fast and efficient.

businesslike (adj) button (n) at the touch of a button

Your e-mails should sound businesslike and efficient.

One of the dangers of e-mail is that the reader can send your message to hundreds of other people at the touch of a button. Its easy to write an e-mail you type it onto a computer screen, hit a button and off it goes. E-mails are not as confidential and secure as most people think, so be careful what you write. E-mail is an efficient and easy way for people to keep in contact. I dont like messages with no spaces between paragraphs they look so cramped and, after all, space isnt a problem. Please find my CV as an attached file. A disclaimer is a written paragraph at the end of an e-mail stating that a company does not take responsibility for things such as viruses etc. A lot of e-mails seem disorganised and this only adds to the stress of peoples jobs.

hit a button

confidential (adj) contact (n) keep in contact cramped (adj) (opposite = spaced out) CV (n) disclaimer (n)

\knfI"denSl\ \"kntkt\ \kip In "kntkt\ \krmpt\

\si"vi\ \dIs"kleIm\

disorganised (adj) (opposite = organised) e-mail (n) external/internal e-mail

\dIs"OgnaIzd\

\"imeIl\ \ekstnl\Intnl "imeIl\

Do you think it is a good idea for companies to ban internal e-mail?

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in company
Unit 20
headword error (n) spelling/typing etc error experience (n) have sufficient experience

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"er\ \"spelIN\"taIpIN er\ \Ik"spIrIns\ \hv sfISnt Ik"spIrIns\ \faIl\ \n "faIl\ \fnt\ \"fD tu\

E-mail messages are often full of spelling and typing errors.

I am afraid that you do not have the necessary qualifications or sufficient experience.

file (n) on file font (n) further to

Remember that an offensive e-mail can stay on file for years. A font is the style of printed letters as they appear on a page, e.g. Times Roman. Further to our previous correspondence, please find the attached document with information about my referees. Writers often use a cheerful, informal tone that is inappropriate in a business e-mail.

inappropriate (adj) (opposite = appropriate) information (n) process information

\In"prUprIt\

\Inf"meISn\ \prUses Inf"meISn\ \In"tnl\ \Intnl kmjunI"keISn\ \Intnl "imeIl\

When you write an e-mail, think about ways to help the reader process information as quickly as possible.

internal (adj) internal communication (n)

Nowadays most companies use e-mail for their internal communication needs.

internal e-mail (n) (opposite = external e-mail) line break (n)

One American company banned internal e-mail in favour of face-to-face communication.

\"laIn breIk\

Space is not limited in an e-mail so use extra line breaks to separate text into paragraphs.

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in company
Unit 20
headword look forward to (phr v) I look forward to hearing from you. manager (n)

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\lUk "fOwd tu\ \aI lUk fOwd t "hIrIN frm ju\ \"mnIdZ\

I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Ana Hudson

Managers nowadays have to read enormous quantities of e-mail so badly-written messages add to the stress of their jobs. Badly-expressed ideas can cause expensive misunderstandings.

misunderstanding (n) offend (v) be offended by organisation (n)

\mIsnd"stndIN\ \"fend\ \bi "fendId baI\ \OgnaI"zeISn\

Have you ever been offended by an e-mail? One American multinational banned internal-mail and went back to promoting face-to-face communication within the organisation. Use extra line breaks to separate text into paragraphs. Please find my CV as an attached document. In this organisation we prefer to promote face-to-face communication. Correct punctuation and spelling is easier to read. Do you think you have the necessary qualifications to apply for the job? One of the dangers of e-mail is that the reader can easily re-distribute e-mails which reflect badly on the writer and the company represented. Please supply me with the names and e-mail addresses of two referees who can supply references for you.

paragraph (n) Please find promote (v) punctuation (n) qualifications (n pl) re-distribute (v)

\"prgrAf\ \pliz "faInd\ \pr"mUt\ \pNktSu"eISn\ \kwlIfI"keISnz\ \ridI"strIbjut\

referee (n)

\ref"ri\

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in company
Unit 20
headword reference (n) provide an up-to-date reference for sb

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"refrns\ \prvaId n ptdeIt "refrns f smbdI\ \rI"flekt\ \rIflekt "bdlI n\

Please let me have the names and addresses of two people who can provide an up-to-date reference for you.

reflect (v) reflect badly on (opposite = reflect well on) with regard to

Its easy for a reader to re-distribute e-mails that reflect badly on the writer and the company represented. With regard to your request for work, I regret that I am unable to consider your application. Regarding our previous correspondence, please find my CV as an attached document.

\wID rI"gAd tu\

Regarding

\rI"gAdIN\

regret (v) I regret to say that sales rep (n) security measure (n)

\rI"gret\ \aI rIgret t "seI Dt\ \"seIlz rep\ \sI"kjUrtI meZ\

I regret to say that I am unable to consider your application. Sales rep is an informal way of saying or writing sales representative. A disclaimer at the end of an e-mail is a security measure that companies use to say that they do not take responsibility for something. Aim for short, simple sentences in your e-mails. Use a standard font in a size which is not too small and not too big. Typing is one of the most useful skills you can have in business. Space out the text youre not wasting paper!

sentence (n) size (n) skill (n) space (out) (v)

\"sentns\ \saIz\ \skIl\ \speIs "aUt\

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in company
Unit 20
headword step (n) take the (unusual) step of doing sth

Elementary

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\step\ \teIk Di njuZUl step v duIN smTIN\ \stk\ \In "stk\

One American multinational recently took the unusual step of banning internal e-mail.

stock (n) in stock

We only have one or two of that model in stock so let me know as soon as possible if youre interested.

supply (v) supply sb with sth

\s"plaI\ \splaI smbdi wID "smTIN\ \tekst\ \vieI"ti\ \INkludIN\nt INkludIN vieI"ti\

Please supply me with the names of two referees.

text (n) VAT (n) including/ not including VAT

Remember to separate your text into paragraphs.

The price of the new XTR3 is 1,355, not including VAT.

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Pre-intermediate

Welcome to the in company Pre-intermediate Wordlist!


What information does the in company Pre-intermediate Wordlist give you? a summary of key words and phrases from each unit of in company Pre-intermediate Students Book pronunciation of keywords and phrases sample sentences showing the words and phrases in context common collocations, expressions and idioms using the key words also included are opposites and American English equivalents Abbreviations used in the Wordlist
(v) (adj) (n) verb adjective noun (phr v) phrasal verb (n pl) plural noun (adv) adverb (conj) sb sth conjunction somebody something (Am E) American English (Br E) British English

in company

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS


/I/ /i/ /U/ /u/ /e/ // // /O/ // // big fish green beans should look blue moon ten eggs about mother learn words short talk fat cat must come /bIg fIS/ /gri:n bi:nz/ /SUd lUk/ /blu: mu:n/ /ten egz/ /baUt mD(r)/ /l:n w:dz/ /SO:t tO:k/ /ft kt/ /mst km/ /A/ / / /I/ /eI/ /U/ /OI/ /U/ /e/ /aI/ /aU/ calm start hot spot ear face pure boy nose hair eye mouth /kA:m stA:t/ /ht spt/ /I(r)/ /feIs/ /pjU(r)/ /bOI(r)/ /nUz/ /he(r)/ /aI/ /maU/

CONSONANTS
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tS/ /dZ/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ // /D/ pen bad tea dog church jazz cost girl far voice thin then /pen/ /bd/ /ti:/ /dg/ /tS:tS/ /dZz/ /kst/ /g:l/ / fa:(r)/ /vOIs/ /In/ /Den/ /s/ /z/ /S/ /Z/ /m/ /n/ /N/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ snake noise shop measure make nine sing house leg red wet yes /sneIk/ /nOIz/ /Sp/ /meZ(r)/ /meIk/ /naIn/ /sIN/ /haUs/ /leg/ /red/ /wet/ /jes/

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in company
Unit 9
headword chain (n) decline (n) decline in demand (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \tSeIn\ \dI"klaIn\

translation/notes

example sentence Fashion group, Inditex, owns six different clothing chains. The decline in interest rates has made borrowing easier.

\dI"mAnd\

As demand has grown for the worms, weve tried feeding them using other food sources. Next year we hope to double production from ten to twenty tons of worms. The worms recycle the waste, meaning that the business is also ecological. Economic growth is slow in times of war.

double (v) ecological (adj) economic growth (n)

\"dbl\ \ik"ldZIkl\ \iknmIk "grUT; eknmIk "grUT\ \fOl\

fall (v) (opposite = rise) flexibility (n) (opposite = inflexibility) go down (phr v) (opposite = go up) go up (phr v) (opposite = go down) group (n) grow (v)

The value of stocks and shares has fallen dramatically in recent times.

\fleks"bIltI\

Our ability to adapt to new situations our flexibility has been a key factor in our success. Unemployment figures went down last month.

\gU "daUn\

\gU "p\

The average price of a house in London has gone up by almost 25%.

\grup\ \grU\

Inditex is one of the worlds largest fashion groups. Its been a tremendous success story the group has grown enormously.

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in company
Unit 9
headword headquarters (n pl)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \hed"kwOtz\

translation/notes

example sentence Inditexs activities are controlled from La Corua, where the group recently moved into new headquarters. House prices in Britain are higher than in many other countries in Europe. Inflation has steadily been increasing over the past twelve months.

house prices (n pl) increase (v) (opposite = decrease) innovation (n)

\"haUs praIsz\ \In"kris\

\InU"veISn\

Innovation the ability to use new and original ideas is vital in todays business world. The decline in interest rates has made borrowing money easier. This year net revenues reached a level of $3,249 million.

interest rates (n pl) level (n) reach a level management management method (n) operate (v) production (n) rate of inflation (n) risk (n) take a risk stable (adj) remain stable (opposite = unstable)

\"Intrst reIts\ \"levl\

\"mnIdZmnt\

Inditexs unique management methods are based on flexibility and innovation.

\"preIt\ \pr"dkSn\ \reIt v In"fleISn\ \rIsk\

The group now operates in 39 countries. Were hoping to double production next year to 20 tons. Whats the rate of inflation in your country? The investment was too big and I didnt want to take a risk.

\"steIbl\

Economists predict that interest rates will remain stable over the next twelve months.

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in company
Unit 9
headword staff (n) number of staff start-up costs (n pl)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \stAf\

translation/notes

example sentence The higher the number of staff, the higher your wage bills.

\"stAtp ksts\

Why did you decide to set up a worm farm? The start-up costs were relatively low. Taxes in Canada are much higher but the standard of their public services is much better. Unemployment went down last month to 2.7% of the population. Several members of staff have been made redundant yet the amount of work has doubled!

taxes (n pl)

\"tksIz\

unemployment (n) work (n) amount of work

\nIm"plOImnt\ \wk\

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in company
Unit 10
headword according to

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"kOdIN tu\

translation/notes

example sentence According to the article, half of lost working days are caused by stress-related illness. Trying to reduce stress makes good business sense its better for profits and better for staff morale. The chief executive is the person responsible for running a company. Poor communication is one of the main causes of stress at work.

business (n) business sense (n) chief executive (n) communication (n) good/poor communication internal communication (n)

\bIzns\

\tSif Ig"zekjUtIv\ \kmjunI"keISn\

\Intnl kmjunI"keISn\ \In kn"kluZn\

Employees complained that the level of internal communication at the firm was poor. In conclusion, reducing stress at work brings many benefits, including better health and increased performance. Middle managers are required to solve day-to-day problems at work.

in conclusion

day-to-day (adj) day-to-day problems/ decisions/tasks etc deadline (n) meet deadlines decision (n) take a decision linked to

\deIt"deI\

\"dedlaIn\

Meeting difficult deadlines puts a lot of pressure on employees.

\dI"sIZn\

Chief executives are responsible for taking strategic decisions.

\lINkt tu\

The negative impact of stress is linked to many different illnesses and medical conditions. Lawyers tend to work very long hours.

long hours (n pl) work long hours

\lN "aUz\

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in company
Unit 10
headword management (n) bad management (n) management technique (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"mnIdZmnt\ \bd "mnIdZmnt\ \"mnIdZmnt teknik\ \mIdl "mnIdZ\ \m"rAl\

translation/notes

example sentence

Bad management and overwork are two of the major causes of stress. A lot of modern management techniques put pressure on workers and make them feel stressed. A middle manager is responsible for a department within an organisation. When the new boss arrived staff morale was very low and nobody was motivated.

middle manager (n) morale (n) staff morale (n) motivate (v) (opposite = demotivate) overwork (n) performance-related pay (n)

\"mUtIveIt\

A good manager knows how to motivate his workers.

\Uv"wk\ \pfOmnsrIleItId "peI\ \"preS\ \pr"mUt\

Work-related stress is often caused by overwork and bad management. Performance-related pay increases when you get good results and decreases when you do not. A lot of workers cant cope with the pressure that their bosses put on them. He had worked for the firm for five years but had never been promoted.

pressure (n) promote (v) (opposite = demote) with regard to repetitive (adj) (opposite = varied) the root cause of

\wID rI"gAd tu\ \rI"pettIv\

With regard to training, the situation is not very satisfactory. A lot of factory workers do boring repetitive tasks, which can also be stressful.

\D rut "kOz v\

The survey showed that the root causes of stress at work were bad management and overwork.

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in company
Unit 10
headword staff (n) staff morale (n) staff turnover (n) strategic (adj) strategic decision (n) stress (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \stAf\ \"stAf m"rAl\ \stAf "tnUv\ \str"tidZIk\

translation/notes

example sentence

After the redundancies staff morale was very low. Improving working conditions is a way of reducing staff turnover. Chief executives are responsible for taking strategic decisions.

\stres\

A little bit of stress can bring out the best in people but too much stress is a negative thing. To reduce the level of stress the company should try to reduce working hours. Do you suffer from stress? Not at work, I find being at home more stressful. Doctors told her that her headaches were stress-related. Do you know any techniques for avoiding getting stressed?

level of stress suffer from stress stress-related (adj) stressed (adj) get stressed stressful (adj) sum of money (n) task (n) technology (n) new technology (n) training (n)

\levl v "stres\ \sf frm "stres\ \"stresrIleItId\ \strest\

\"stresfl\ \sm v "mnI\ \tAsk\ \tek"nldZI\

A lot of teachers find their jobs very stressful. Company directors have to deal with large sums of money in their day-to-day work. Doing repetitive tasks all day is very stressful. Learning to use new technology can be stressful.

\"treInIN\

Firms should provide their employees with adequate training.

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in company
Unit 10
headword turnover (n) staff turnover work (n) be off work (with stress/depression etc)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"tnUv\

translation/notes

example sentence One of the benefits to firms of reducing stress is lower staff turnover.

\wk\

One of the people interviewed was off work with stress.

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in company
Unit 11
headword business manager (n) chairman (n) in charge of

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"bIzns mnIdZ\ \"tSemn\ \In "tSAdZ v\

translation/notes

example sentence Ballmer became Microsofts first business manager 20 years ago. Bill Gates has retained some power as chairman of the company. Over the last 20 years Ballmer has been in charge of the operations, marketing and sales and support divisions. The Shimano Iron Works was founded to manufacture bicycle components. The managing director was dismissed after the financial scandal. In 1972 Shimano entered the market for fishing equipment.

components (n pl) dismiss (v) enter (v) enter the market found (v) incorporate (v)

\km"pUnnts\ \dIz"mIs\ \"ent\

\faUnd\ \In"kOpreIt\

The company was founded in 1921. In 1997 they incorporated Action Sports Division to produce new products for snowboarding. Management consultants search for and recruit top business managers for companies.

management (n) \"mnIdZmnt\ management consultants (n) \"mnIdZmnt knsltnts\ management control (n) \mnIdZmnt kntrUl\ \"mAkIt\

Steve Ballmer has now assumed full management control of Microsoft.

market (n) enter the computer games/fishing/golf market

What made you decide to enter the computer games market?

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in company
Unit 11
headword open (v) open a factory (opposite = close) resign (v) schedule (n) behind schedule step down (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"Upn\

translation/notes

example sentence Were hoping to open a new factory in the autumn.

\rI"zaIn\ \"Sedjul\

The managing director resigned after the financial scandal. Bill Gates reportedly threatened to sack Ballmer because the project was behind schedule. The company wasnt doing very well and the CEO decided it was time to step down.

\step "daUn\

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in company
Unit 12
headword arrange (v) arrange to do sth break the ice

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"reIndZ\

translation/notes

example sentence Sorry, Ill have to go. I arranged to meet someone at the bar five minutes ago.

\breIk Di "aIs\

Talking about sport or the weather is often a good way of breaking the ice with people you dont know well. My names Allan. Im here on a business trip.

business (n) on a business trip by the way catch (v) catch sb later check sth out (phr v) console (n)

\"bIzns\

\baI D "weI\ \ktS\

My names Nadine, by the way. Im from Xanadu Electronics. Sorry, I have a call on my mobile. Ill catch you later.

\tSek smTIN "aUt\ \"knsUl\

Could I have a look at your newspaper? Theres something I want to check out. Individual consoles allow customers to see who else is in the bar or to send messages to another stranger. Asking someone if you can borrow their newspaper is one way of starting a conversation with them.

conversation (n) start a conversation with sb cut sb off (phr v) dont mention it Dont mention it. finish with sth (phr v) go ahead (phr v) good luck (with sth)

\knv"seISn\

\kt smbdI "f\

Sorry to cut you off, but Ive just seen someone I need to talk to.

\dUnt "menSn It\ \"fInIS wID smTIN\ \gU "hed\ \gUd "lk wID smTIN\

Thanks very much for lending me your paper. Dont mention it. Would you mind if I had a look at your newspaper? Er no, Ive finished with it. Could I borrow your newspaper? Go ahead. Thanks for the drink and good luck with your meeting. 1

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in company
Unit 12
headword hand be an old hand (at sth) handset (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \hnd\

translation/notes

example sentence This is the fourth conference Ive been to here. Oh, right, so youre an old hand. People who receive messages can choose to continue the conversation by using the telephone handset. Hang on a minute, I wont be long. Im Bill Smart from Silicon Technologies. Right, how do you do? Im Kazuo Yamada from Lexico. How long have you been here? Since Saturday. How long are you staying? Another four or five days. Well, its getting late. I have to be off. Nice to meet you, Sean. Right, it was nice talking to you too.

\"hndset\

hang on (phr v) How do you do?

\hN "n\ \haU d jU "du\

How long ?

\haU "lN\

I(ll) have to be off. (It was) nice to meet you.

\aIl hv t bi "f\ \It wz naIs t "mit ju\ \lUkl "trkSnz\

local attractions (n pl)

Talking about the local attractions can be a good way of starting a conversation with people you dont know at a conference. Would you mind if I had a quick look at your newspaper?

look (n) have a (quick) look at sth machinery (n) No problem.

\lUk\

\m"SinrI\ \nU "prblm\

Are you here on business? Yes, Im here to buy some machinery. Would you mind lending me your mobile phone? No problem.

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in company
Unit 12
headword Pleased to meet you. See you later. Thats very kind (of you).

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \plizd t "mit ju\ \si ju "leIt\ \Dtz veri "kaInd v ju\ \teIk j "taIm\ \"vIdIU skrin\

translation/notes

example sentence Im Boris. Im David. Pleased to meet you. I think the meetings about to start. See you later. Can I lend you my mobile? Thats very kind, but I was expecting a call on this number. Could I have a look at your newspaper? Go ahead, take your time. Video screens in the bar enable customers to look at one another.

Take your time. video screen (n)

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in company
Unit 13
headword in advance air by air air rage (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \In d"vAns\ \e\ \bai "e\ \"e reIdZ\

translation/notes

example sentence If you book months in advance, youll be too early for a seat assignment.

What sort of problems can you have when you travel by air? Air rage is an expression meaning violent or drunken behaviour by passengers during a flight. If youre sitting in an aisle seat, its easier to get up and go to the toilet. The person sitting in the middle seat should try to dominate the armrests. Ill show you the available seats on the seating plan. Where would you prefer to sit at the front of the plane or at the back?

aisle seat (n) armrest (n) available (adj) back (n) the back (of) (opposite = the front of) board (v) board a flight/plane boarding pass (n) book (v) business (n) business traveller (n) check in (phr v) check-in (n) check-in attendant/staff

\"aIl sit\ \"Amrest\ \"veIlbl\ \bk\

\bOd\

Passengers should board the flight at Gate 23.

\"bOdIN pAs\ \bUk\ \"bIzns\

Youll need to show your boarding pass and passport before getting on the flight. Booking early is a good idea it means you can choose your seat. Even experienced business travellers sometimes end up sitting in the middle seat.

\tSek"In\ \"tSekIn\

Where do I check in for flight BA 264? Passengers who are rude to check-in staff risk being banned from boarding their plane!

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in company
Unit 13
headword claustrophobic (adj) deal (n) Its a deal! exit (n) flight (n) board a flight book a flight catch a flight (opposite = miss a flight) connecting flight (n) miss a flight (opposite = catch a flight) frequent flier (n) front (n) the front (of) (opposite = the back of) get off (phr v) get off a flight/plane (opposite = get on)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \klOstr"fUbIk\ \dil\

translation/notes

example sentence Sitting in the middle seat makes me feel claustrophobic. I can offer you 200 units at 5.5 euros a unit. Its a deal!

\"eksIt; "egzIt\ \flaIt\ \bOd "flaIt\ \bUk "flaIt\ \ktS "flaIt\

Many people feel safer in aeroplanes if theyre sitting near one of the exits. The clerk told us there were no seats on the flight due to overbooking. Difficult passengers can be prevented from boarding their flight. Try to book your flight early so that you get a good seat. Were catching our flight from City of London airport.

\k"nektIN flaIt\ \mIs "flaIt\

Our connecting flight leaves Amsterdam at 15.00. If the taxi doesnt come soon, Im going to miss my flight.

\"flaI\ \frnt\

Im a frequent flier and travel by air at least twice a month. I usually try to sit at the front of the plane so that I can get off faster.

\get "f\

Violent or drunken passengers should be forced to get off the plane.

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in company
Unit 13
headword get on (phr v) get on a flight/plane (opposite = get off) go higher (than) go lower (than) go with sth (phr v) ground staff (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \get "n\

translation/notes

example sentence All passengers must show their boarding pass and passport before getting on the plane.

\gU "haI Dn\ \gU "lU Dn\ \"gU wID smTIN\ \"graUnd stAf\

Im sorry, I wont go any higher than 6.5 euros a unit. If we go lower than 4.5 euros per unit, we wont make any profit. The price is 9 euros a unit. OK, Ill go with that. The new rules prohibit customers from boarding flights if they behave aggressively to ground staff or crew. Would you consider extending the guarantee to 18 months? Officially, passengers are only allowed one piece of hand luggage. Its forbidden to use electrical equipment such as laptops during the flight. We will lower the price for customers who pay within 30 days.

guarantee (n) hand luggage (n) laptop (n) lower (v) (opposite = raise) offer (n) best offer order (v) overbooking (n) pack (v) passport (n)

\grn"ti\ \"hnd lgIdZ\ \"lptp\ \"lU\

\"f\

Lets say 5.5 euros for 200 units or more. Thats my best offer.

\"Od\ \Uv"bUkIN\ \pk\ \"pAspOt\

I can offer a lower price if you order 200 units or more. I was informed that there was no seat for me on the flight due to overbooking. Did you pack your bags yourself, sir? Youll need to show your boarding pass and passport before getting on the flight.

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in company
Unit 13
headword payment (n) price (n) give sb a price refund (n) claim a refund give/offer a refund receive a refund rule (n) break a rule ignore a rule

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"peImnt\ \praIs\

translation/notes

example sentence What about payment? Payment is within 60 days. What sort of a price can you give me on an order of 300 units?

\"rifnd\ \kleIm "rifnd\ \gIv\f "rifnd\ \rIsiv "rifnd\ \rul\ \breIk "rul\ \IgnO "rul\

Customers can claim a refund for goods that dont work. BA will not offer a refund to passengers who are banned from their flights. You will not receive a refund if you are banned from boarding a BA flight.

Anyone guilty of breaking the rules will be punished. Passengers ignoring the rules concerning threatening or abusive behaviour risk being banned from boarding flights. BA have introduced new rules prohibiting customers who behave in an aggressive way from boarding flights. It is in passengers interests to obey the rules concerning threatening or abusive behaviour. Youll be able to choose your seat if you book early. I feel less claustrophobic sitting in an aisle seat. Sitting in a middle seat makes me feel very claustrophobic. You get a good view if you sit in the window seat.

introduce a rule

\Intrdjus "rul\

obey a rule

\beI "rul\

seat (n) aisle seat middle seat window seat

\sit\ \"aIl sit\ \"mIdl sit\ \"wIndU sit\

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in company
Unit 13
headword stretch (v) stretch your legs within (prep) within 21 days/a month

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \stretS\

translation/notes

example sentence Its a good idea to get up during the flight and stretch your legs.

\wID"In\

We offer a 5% discount for payment within 14 days.

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in company
Unit 14
headword assembly plant (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"semblI plAnt\

translation/notes

example sentence An assembly plant is the part of a factory where workers build machinery or equipment. Working as an SPC professional involved providing backup to salesmen throughout the company. We made a million-dollar bid to buy the company out.

backup (n) provide backup bid (n) make a bid blue-chip company (n) business (n) big business (n)

\"bkp\

\bId\

\"blutSIp kmpnI\ \"bIzns\ \bIg "bIzns\

A blue-chip company is very successful and makes a lot of money.

Do you agree that workers rights are more important than the interests of big business? Five years working for a multinational have given me a solid business background. The new industrial estate will provide space for approximately 15 business ventures. Part of Saras job was to produce reports and charts illustrating sales figures. His experience at several blue-chip companies means he is extremely commercially aware. We offer a base salary of $80K plus commission. A good manager needs to have excellent communication skills.

business background (n) business venture (n)

\bIzns "bkgraUnd\ \bIzns "ventS\

chart (n) commercially aware

\tSAt\ \k"mSlI we\

commission (n) communication (n) communication skills (n pl)

\k"mISn\ \kmjunI"keISn\

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in company
Unit 14
headword company (n) company secret (n) conference (n) organise a conference customer relations (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"kmpnI\

translation/notes

example sentence Workers who reveal company secrets will be sacked.

\"knfrns\

A large part of my job involves organising meetings and conferences.

\kstm rI"leISnz\

A job in customer relations involves dealing directly with clients and responding to complaints and queries. If you are interested in applying for the post, please send in a CV with covering letter. The number of orders began to decrease and the factory was finally forced to close. The bank has over 600 employees working in ten different countries. Skytronics, Nicola Williamss former employer, refused to be interviewed about the incident. The firm decided to terminate her employment for using a mobile phone in work hours.

CV (n) (BrE) (AmE = rsum) decrease (v) (opposite = increase) employee (n) employer (n)

\si"vi\

\di"kris\

\Im"plOIi; emplOI"i\ \Im"plOI\

employment (n) terminate sbs employment fire (v) fire sb for doing sth hire (v) incentive (n) industrial action (n)

\Im"plOImnt\

\"faI\

She was fired for using her mobile phone during work hours.

\"hai\ \In"sentIv\ \IndstrIl "kSn\

We had to hire temporary workers to cope with the increased workload. Money and security are the incentives in most peoples work. Industrial action is an expression that means the same as to go on strike.

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in company
Unit 14
headword industrial estate (n) interpersonal skills (n pl) issue (v) issue a statement job insecurity (n) (opposite = job security) labour (n) labour costs (n pl) labour laws (n pl) lay sb off (phr v) leadership (n) leadership qualities (n pl) logistical (adj) logistical planning the long-term unemployed (n pl) make up for (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \IndstrIl I"steIt\ \Intpsnl "skIlz\ \"ISu; "Isju\

translation/notes

example sentence The company has its premises on an industrial estate on the outskirts of the town. A good manager should have excellent interpersonal skills. The company later issued a statement supporting the action of their manager.

\dZb InsIkjUrtI\

Feelings of job insecurity are much more common now than 30 years ago.

\"leIb\ \"leIb ksts\ \"leIb lOz\ \leI smbdI "f\ \"lidSIp\

Labour costs tend to be lower in Eastern Europe. Flexible labour laws help to reduce the unemployment rate. As the number of orders decreased we had to start laying workers off. Were looking for someone with excellent leadership qualities to manage our sales team. The logistical planning of a department means the way in which it is organised on a day-to-day basis. The new reforms would mean that the long-term unemployed should take any job they are offered. Firms started recruiting temporary workers in an attempt to make up for the lack of skilled workers. We are looking for someone with previous managerial experience.

\l"dZIstIkl\

\D lNtm nIm"plOId\ \meIk "p fO\

managerial (adj) managerial experience

\mn"dZIrIl\

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in company
Unit 14
headword objective (n) meet an objective organisational skills (n pl)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \b"dZektIv\

translation/notes

example sentence We need to find ways of making it easier for team members to meet their objectives. The day-to-day running of the department helped to develop my organisational skills. Ford has several plants all over Europe. Feelings of job insecurity often lead to lower productivity. The pursuit of excellence is a formal phrase meaning doing things as well as possible. Many people lost their jobs during the recession.

\OgnaI"zeISnl skIlz\

plant (n) productivity (n) pursuit of excellence (n)

\plAnt\ \prdk"tIvtI\ \psjut v "ekslns\

recession (n) (opposite = boom) result (n) achieve a result rsum (n) (AmE) (BrE = CV) rise (v) (opposite = fall) sack (v) (BrE) sack sb for doing sth sacking (n) salary (n)

\rI"seSn\

\rI"zlt\

The financial rewards are great for all those who achieve results.

\"rezjumeI\

To apply for the post, please send rsum with cover letter.

\raIz\

Unemployment is rising and more and more workers are being laid off.

\sk\

Nicola Williams was sacked for using a mobile phone during work hours.

\"skIN\ \"slrI\

Do you think the sacking of Nicola Williams was justified? Salaries at management level are often negotiated individually.

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in company
Unit 14
headword sales (n) sales figures (n pl) sales manager (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \seIlz\ \"seIlz fIgz\ \"seIlz mnIdZ\

translation/notes

example sentence

The chart shows sales figures over the past twelve months. Multinational manufacturer seeking International Sales Manager to call on Europe and Latin America. As an SPC professional, my job was to offer support to our sales team. We offer support to salesmen from different sectors of the company. According to the survey, almost two-thirds of companies are experiencing a shortage of skilled workers. The electronics industry has been particularly affected by the shortage of skilled workers.

sales team (n) sector (n) shortage (n) (opposite = excess) skilled worker (n) (opposite = unskilled worker) staffing needs (n pl)

\"seIlz tim\ \"sekt\ \"SOtIdZ\

\skIld "wOk\

\"stAfIN nidz\

Providing training for our existing workforce is not enough to cover our staffing needs. The company issued a statement defending the action of their manager.

statement (n) issue a statement

\"steItmnt\ \ISu; Isju "steItmnt\ \straIk\ \gU n "straIk\ \su"pIrI\ \"supvaIz\ \tim "spIrIt\

strike (n) go on strike superior (n) supervisor (n) team spirit (n)

Workers have threatened to go on strike in reaction to the governments decision to cut unemployment benefits. Workers showing disrespect to superiors can be sacked. Nicola Williams had already received a warning from her supervisor. A strong team spirit helps to motivate workers.

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in company
Unit 14
headword temporary staff (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"temprrI stAf\

translation/notes

example sentence A lot of firms have increased their use of temporary staff due to the shortage of skilled workers. I called Ms Williams into my office and told her I had decided to terminate her employment.

terminate (v) terminate sbs employment unemployment (n) unemployment benefit (n)

\"tmIneIt\

\nIm"plOImnt\ \nIm"plOImnt benIfIt\ \nIm"plOImnt reIt\ \"wOnIN\

Unions have reacted angrily to the governments attempts to cut unemployment benefit. Our current unemployment rate of 11.3% is the highest in the European Union. On a further occasion, Ms Williams received a written warning.

unemployment rate (n) warning (n) written warning (n) work hours (n pl) workers rights (n pl) workforce (n)

\"wk aUz\ \wkz "raIts\ \"wkfOs\

Using mobile phones during work hours is against company rules. Unions say that the reforms are a direct attack on workers rights. One solution to the problem would be to provide training for your existing workforce.

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in company
Unit 15
headword administration (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \dmInI"streISn\

translation/notes

example sentence A well-organised manager should be able to devote more time to customer service than administration. The first step in time management is to analyse how you are using your time now. Analysing how you use your time requires a methodical approach.

analyse (v) approach (n) a methodical approach assign (v) assign tasks block of time (n)

\"nlaIz\ \"prUtS\

\"saIn\

Its important to learn to assign tasks to other people.

\blk v "taIm\

Try to organise your work so that you have large blocks of time for top priority tasks. The bottom line is that the work must be finished on time. At AOL they took away all the clocks at the UK headquarters and told everybody to carry on working as usual. A lot of employees are afraid of wasting time because they think they might get caught. As part of the experiment, workers were allowed to clock off as soon as theyd finished their work. An effective manager spends a lot of time dealing with customer service issues. Too much pressure at work means things can go wrong so try to set realistic deadlines. Never do work yourself that you can delegate to other people.

the bottom line (n) carry on (phr v)

\D btm "laIn\ \krI "n\

caught (adj) get caught clock off (phr v)

\kOt\

\klk "f\

customer service (n) deadline (n) set a deadline delegate (v)

\kstm "svIs\ \"dedlaIn\

\"delgeIt\

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in company
Unit 15
headword delicate balance (n) drop off (phr v) efficiency (n) efficiently (adv)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \delIkt "blns\ \drp "f\ \I"fISnsI\ \I"fISntlI\

translation/notes

example sentence There is a delicate balance between not doing any work and doing too much. Productivity tends to drop off after lunch. Efficiency at work tends to fall after lunch. Time management is all about using techniques which help you use your time more efficiently. Leave plenty of time for top priority tasks like forward planning. A lot of time and money has been invested in the project.

forward planning (n) invest (v) invest time/money lead to (phr v) mess (n) be in a mess misuse (v) organise (v)

\fOwd "plnIN\ \In"vest\

\"lid tu\ \mes\

One manager commented: An office without clocks leads to chaos. I know my desk is in a mess but I know where everything is.

\mIs"juz\ \"OgnaIz\

Do not misuse the company PC to surf the Internet. The third step in effective time management is to organise your time and your tasks. The idea of the experiment was to see how pressure of time can lead to stress. Leave plenty of time for top priority tasks like problem analysis. The second step in effective time management is to prioritise tasks by putting them in order of importance. Most workers are most productive before lunch.

pressure of time (n) problem analysis (n) prioritise (v)

\preS v "taIm\ \prblm "nlsIs\ \praI"rItaIz\

productive (adj) (opposite = unproductive)

\pr"dktIv\

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in company
Unit 15
headword productivity (n) priority (n) in order of priority

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \prdk"tIvtI\ \praI"rtI\ \In Odr v praI"rtI\ \tp praI"rtI\ \pUt "In\

translation/notes

example sentence Companies use time to measure productivity.

Put the tasks requiring your attention in order of priority.

top priority (adj) put in (phr v) put in time/hours record (v) research (n) resource (n) limited resource (n) routine (n) fixed routine (n) sales (n) sales prediction (n) save (v) save time (opposite = waste time) save money (opposite = waste money)

Leave plenty of time for top priority tasks. British workers put in the longest hours in Europe but are less productive than the French and the Germans. Record what you do in each period of the day. A good Internet connection is essential if your job involves a lot of research. Time is like money, people and equipment its a limited resource.

\rI"kOd\ \rI"stS\ \rI"zOs\

\ru"tin\

Do you agree that a fixed routine is better for productivity?

\seIlz\

Have you finished the sales predictions for next month yet?

\seIv\

If you prepare things well, you can save a lot of time.

Companies can save money by reducing the number of people working in their offices.

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in company
Unit 15
headword subordinate (n) supplier (n) surf (v) surf the web task (n) assign tasks technique (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \s"bOdInt\ \s"plaI\ \sf\

translation/notes

example sentence All correspondence can be delegated to subordinates. The suppliers have promised to deliver the goods next Tuesday. I only search the Internet for specific information. I dont have time to surf the web. A lot of day-to-day tasks can be assigned to other people.

\tAsk\

\tek"nik\

There are certain techniques you can learn to help you with effective time management. Meetings can last forever if you dont have a time limit. Time management is about making the best possible use of time. What time of day are you at your most productive? According to the Pareto Principle, most work time is unproductive.

time limit (n) time management (n) time of day unproductive (adj) (opposite = productive) waste (v) waste time (opposite = save time) waste money (opposite = save money) web search (n)

\"taIm lImIt\ \taIm "mnIdZmnt\ \taIm v "deI\ \npr"dktIv\

\weIst\

A lot of employees waste time playing games on the Internet.

The company wasted a lot of money buying equipment that wasnt suitable for the job. \"web stS\ Managers are watching for employees who waste time by doing web searches for MP3s and games. The idea of the experiment was to see how an environment without clocks would affect productivity and workflow. 4

workflow (n)

\"wkflU\

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in company
Unit 15
headword working day (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \wkIN "deI\

translation/notes

example sentence The human biological clock doesnt necessarily correspond to the standard 8-hour working day. Working hours in the UK are usually 9am5pm.

working hours (n pl)

\wkIN "aUz\

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in company
Unit 16
headword answer phone (n) appreciate (v) Id appreciate it if authorised (adj) be authorised to do sth business (n) business class (n) choice (n) not have much choice discount (n) offer a discount face on to (phr v) favour (n) ask sb a favour get sth back (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"Ans fUn\ \"priSieIt\

translation/notes

example sentence Leaving the answer phone on for a couple of hours creates a bad impression. Id appreciate it if you could look into the possibility of my having an upgrade to business class. Im afraid Im not authorised to offer you a discount on your room.

\"OTraIzd\

\"bIzns\

I was wondering if there was any chance of an upgrade to business class.

\tSOIs\

If you do it, Ill see it as a personal favour. I see, I dont really have much choice, do I? Im not authorised to offer you a discount on your room.

\"dIskaUnt\

\"feIs n tu\ \"feIv\

My room faces on to the road and its far too noisy. I wonder if I could ask you a favour? It depends what it is.

\get smTIN "bk\

Could I borrow your dictionary? Yes, as long as I get it back before the end of the afternoon. Could you lend me your pen? Ill give it back later. Leaving the answer phone on for long periods creates a bad impression.

give sth back (phr v) impression (n) create a bad impression (n) inconvenient (adj) (opposite = convenient)

\gIv smTIN "bk\ \Im"preSn\

\Inkn"vinInt\

I realise this is inconvenient but I need your help.

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in company
Unit 16
headword keen (adj) (not) be keen on sth lift (n) give sb a lift ready (adj) have sth ready renewal (n) be up for renewal time (n) take the time trouble (n) put sb to any trouble upgrade (n) an upgrade to worry (v) Not to worry. \kin\

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence My cars being repaired and I wondered if youd lend me yours. Well, actually, Im not very keen on the idea. Could you give me a lift? I need to be at the airport at five.

\lIft\

\"redI\

Could you post the letter for me? All right, as long as you have it ready by five oclock. If you do it, Ill see it as a personal favour, and remember your contracts up for renewal next month. I cant work from 2.00 to 4.00 its not my hours. I know, but you can take the time later on. Im sorry to put you to any trouble but Id really like an upgrade to business class.

\rI"njul\

\taIm\

\"trbl\

\"pgreId\

Id like an upgrade to business class.

\"wrI\

I dont feel happy about other people using my car. Oh, all right. Not to worry.

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in company
Unit 17
headword company (n) company car (n) company policy (n) company strategy (n) consultant (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"kmpnI\ \kmpnI "kA\ \kmpnI "plsI\ \kmpnI "strtdZI\ \kn"sltnt\

translation/notes

example sentence

The new job means a big increase in salary and a brand new company car. What do you think of the company policy on coffee breaks? Gossip is often the only way of finding out about company strategy. Somebody overheard one of the bosses talking to a management consultant about restructuring. Gossip can be very damaging to relations among work colleagues.

damaging (adj) be damaging to efficiency (n) drive for efficiency

\"dmIdZIN\

\I"fISnsI\

As part of the drive for efficiency many companies have removed the opportunity to socialise at work.

environment (n) \In"vaIrmnt\ professional environment (n) \prfeSnl In"vaIrmnt\ work environment (n) gossip (n) spread gossip gossip (v) \"wk InvaIrmnt\ \"gsIp\

The city council of Cascavel has banned gossip in the workplace, saying employees have the right to work in a professional environment. A friendly work environment makes employees happy. Public employees who spread gossip about their colleagues will face the sack.

\"gsIp\

Municipal employees in the city of Cascavel have been banned from gossiping during working hours. Im the new head of the eastern sales team. Congratulations!

head (n) head of human resources (n)

\hed\

\hjumn ri"zOsIz\

Many opportunities to socialise have disappeared and this is all part of the revolution in human resources. 1

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in company
Unit 17
headword individual (adj) individual performance /attitude insight (n) insight into involve (v) let people go

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \IndI"vIdZUl\

translation/notes

example sentence The employees future depends on their individual performance and attitude.

\"InsaIt\

Some of my biggest insights into problems at work have occurred while chatting by the coffee machine. How many people does the restructuring involve? One of the management consultants said we were overstaffed and that wed have to let some people go. Where I work, the management refuses to talk to most of the staff.

\In"vlv\ \let pipl "gU\

the management (n) office (n) office gossip (n) office politics (n) overstaffed (adj)

\D "mnIdZmnt\ \"fIs\ \fIs "gsIp\ \fIs "pltIks\ \Uv"stAft\

In your opinion, is office gossip a good or bad thing? Gossip is the only way to learn about office politics. The management consultant said that the firm was overstaffed in some areas and that we would have to let people go. In my place of work, gossip is the only way of finding out anything about company strategy. Have you finished last months production figures yet? Employees have been banned from spreading rumours about their colleagues.

place of work (n)

\pleIs v "wk\

production figures (n pl) rumours (n pl) spread rumours

\prdkSn "fIgz\ \"rumz\

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in company
Unit 17
headword sack (n) face the sack salary (n) be on a salary of 20,000/$80,000 workplace (n) \sk\

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Employees spreading rumours about their colleagues will face the sack.

\"slrI\

As head of the eastern sales team, hes on a salary of 60,000.

\"wkpleIs\

Gossip can be damaging to relations in the workplace.

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in company
Unit 18
headword access (v) access the network advertising (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"kses\

translation/notes

example sentence In future the consumer will be able to access the network from anywhere from home, the car or even from a pair of glasses. As far as the teenage Internet market is concerned, you can make money from advertising but not much from direct sales. In order to sell successfully to teenagers on the Internet, you need to clearly define your audience. Catalogue shopping works on the principle that consumers want convenience more than the best price. The Internet enables consumers to comparison shop without too much effort. Consumers want things to be simple, easy and fast and the Internet can provide all of this. In your opinion, is it ethical to target teenage consumers as a market? Providing teenagers with their own swipe card would enable websites to make more money from direct sales. E-commerce is the activity of buying and selling goods on the Internet. Do you think there will be an economic boom in the next five years?

\"dvtaIzIN\

audience (n)

\"OdIns\

catalogue shopping (n)

\"ktlg SpIN\

comparison shop (v) consumer (n)

\km"prIsn Sp\ \kn"sjum\

teenage consumers (n pl) direct sales (n)

\tineIdZ kn"sjumz\ \daIrekt "seIlz\

e-commerce (n) economic boom (n)

\i"kms\ \iknmIk; eknmIk "bum\ \"Intnet mAkItIN\ \"mAkIt\

Internet marketing (n) market (n) market studies (n pl)

What are the problems associated with teenagers and Internet marketing? Market studies have shown that retired people spend a lot of time surfing the Internet.

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in company
Unit 18
headword network (n) access the network online (adj) online (adv) option (n) a range of options site (n) spending power (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"netwk\

translation/notes

example sentence Consumers will be able to access the network from almost anywhere.

\"nlaIn\ \n"laIn\ \"pSn\

Artificial intelligence will provide a virtual shop assistant for every online shopper. Have you ever bought anything online? The advantage of shopping online is that the network can assemble a range of options from a variety of stores. Persuading teenagers to buy directly from your site could be a problem. One of the problems in marketing to teenagers is that their spending power is often limited because they dont have jobs. The swipe card would enable teenagers to buy suitable products online. A lot of teenage sites are trying to target an audience thats too wide. A high turnover is important but making good profits is another. A virtual shop assistant will be at the service of every online shopper. Do you enjoy being able to virtually shop without leaving home? Voice recognition may make the keyboard obsolete.

\saIt\ \"spendIN paU\

swipe card (n) target (v) turnover (n) virtual (adj) virtually shop (v) voice recognition (n)

\"swaIp kAd\ \"tAgIt\ \"tnUv\ \"vtSUl\ \vtSUlI "Sp\ \"vOIs rekgnISn\

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in company
Unit 19
headword business (n) business idea (n) city centre (n) city centre offices/rents close down (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"bIzns\

translation/notes

example sentence If I had more time to think, Id come up with a really great business idea.

\sItI "sent\

If our employees worked from home, we wouldnt need to pay expensive city centre rents. Wed be able to close down office buildings if more of our employees worked from home. I usually come up with my best business ideas when Im relaxing at home. One of the things I hate most about going out to work is the daily commuting. Id accept a cut in pay if I could return to work in the UK.

\klUz "daUn\

come up with (phr v) commuting (n) cut (n) a cut in pay/salary etc (opposite = increase) demonstrate (v)

\km "p wID\ \k"mjutIN\ \kt\

\"demnstreIt\

The company could certainly demonstrate the effectiveness of its telecommunications equipment by allowing its employees to work from home! Working from home, you miss out financially on perks like subsidised meals. The thing I like most about working from home is the flexibility.

financially (adv) flexibility (n) (opposite = inflexibility) get things/more done

\faI"nnSlI\ \fleks"bIltI\

\"get TINz\mO "dn\

Home workers get more done in a shorter time because there are fewer interruptions. You have to be very self-disciplined when you work from home. It can be difficult to get down to work. Home workers have more freedom and flexibility than people who work in an office. 1

get down to (phr v) get down to work home worker (n)

\get "daUn tu\

\"hUm wk\

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in company
Unit 19
headword investment (n) investment in leisure time (n) (opposite = work time) miss out on (phr v) office buildings (n pl) office hours (n pl)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \In"vestmnt\

translation/notes

example sentence If more employees worked from home, we could reduce our investment in new offices. One of the dangers of working at home is that theres no dividing line between work time and leisure time. Home workers miss out on things like office gossip and financial perks. City centre office buildings are expensive to rent. Some people prefer the discipline of working within office hours while other people prefer the flexibility of working from home. The unions are currently negotiating for a pay rise. Perks are things such as subsidised meals, not included in your salary. For a lot of workers, their level of productivity improves when they work from home. If I accept the promotion it will mean a lot more travelling and time away from home. What do you think of the companys proposal for home working? Do you think working from home would mean an improvement in your quality of life? City centre rents are very expensive. Companies could save on city centre rents by persuading their employees to work from home.

\"leZ taIm\

\mIs "aUt n\ \"fIs bIldINz\ \"fIs aUz\

pay rise (n) perk (n) productivity (n) level of productivity promotion (n) (opposite = demotion) proposal (n) quality of life (n)

\"peI raIz\ \pk\ \prdk"tIvtI\

\pr"mUSn\

\pr"pUzl\ \kwltI v "laIf\

rent (n) save on (phr v)

\rent\ \"seIv n\

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in company
Unit 19
headword self-disciplined (adj)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \self"dIsplInd\

translation/notes

example sentence You have to be self-disciplined to work from home it can be difficult to get down to work. Working in an office, you get perks such as subsidised refreshments or travel. The company is having talks with the unions about persuading employees to work from home. Technical problems can be difficult to solve if youre working from home. Employees can work productively from home thanks to the effectiveness of our telecommunications equipment.

subsidised (adj) talks (n pl) have talks with technical problem (n) telecommunications (n) telecommunications company/equipment teleworking (n)

\"sbsIdaIzd\ \tOks\

\"teknIkl prblm\ \telIkmjunI"keISnz\

\"teliwkIN\

Teleworking is a phrase that means working from home using a computer and other equipment. Working from home preserves the environment by reducing home to office travel.

travel (n) home to office travel union (n)

\"trvl\

\"junjn\

A union is an organisation that represents workers and tries to improve pay and conditions. In the evening I like to wind down by listening to music. What are the advantages and disadvantages of working from home?

wind down (phr v) work (v) work from/at home

\waInd "daUn\ \wk\

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in company
Unit 20
headword board (n) on the board business (n) get down to business competing (adj) competing companies/products cooked (adj) cooked with/in credibility (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \bOd\

translation/notes

example sentence The Managing Director or CEO is the person on the board who is responsible for the day to day running of the company. How did it go with Mr Tanaka? Everything went OK until we got down to business. The Japanese dont like it if you criticise competing products.

\"bIzns\

\km"pitIN\

\kUkt\

Paella is a seafood dish cooked with rice.

\kred"bIltI\

If you are not completely honest about your product, your credibility will be damaged. The hard sell, using aggressive sales techniques, is often considered offensive in Japan. You will lose influence if you are not completely honest about your product.

hard sell (n)

\hAd "sel\

influence (n) lose influence job title (n) long-term (adj) (opposite = short-term) low-key (adj) managing director (n) (BrE) (AmE = CEO)

\"Influns\

\"dZb taItl\ \lNtm\

Whats your job title, Neil? Im Product Development Director. The CEO is in charge of long-term strategy and planning.

\lU"ki\ \mnIdZIN daI"rekt\

In Japan, a low-key approach is preferable to the hard sell. The managing director is responsible for the day to day running of the company.

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in company
Unit 20
headword made with/from product (n) report to (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"meId wID\frm\ \"prdkt\ \rI"pOt tu\

translation/notes

example sentence Unagi is a dish made with eels and rice. Be honest about your products otherwise youll lose your credibility. As Product Development Director, Neil reports directly to Jeff Segram, the Managing Director. Sisi Albright, Director of Marketing, is responsible for marketing policy and the worldwide sales force. It is better to use a low-key sales pitch in Japan rather than the hard sell. The steak is served with vegetables and potatoes. Tagliatelle is a type of pasta.

responsible (adj) be responsible for sales pitch (n) served with type (n) a type of

\rI"spnsbl\

\"seIlz pItS\ \"svd wID\ \taIp\

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in company
Unit 1
headword business (n) business proposition (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"bIzns\ \"bIzns prpzISn\

translation/notes

example sentence

Their business proposition is simple they give you the dog then sell you the dog food! Good financial advice is important when setting up a business. A competitive advantage is the way in which your products are better than other peoples. Increasing labour costs have reduced our profit margins. We guarantee to deliver goods within three days of receiving your order. A direct mail campaign involves sending advertisements to peoples homes by post.

set up a business competitive advantage (n)

\set p "bIzns\ \kmpettIv d"vAntIdZ\ \ksts\ \dI"lIv\ \daIrekt "meIl kmpeIn\ \dt"km\ \daUn"lUd\

costs (n pl) deliver (v) direct mail campaign (n)

dot.com (n) download (v) download sth from sth employ (v) expansion (n) experience (n) have (previous) experience (of) finance (v) industry (n)

Dot.coms are companies that trade using the Internet. You can download lots of useful information from their website.

\Im"plOI\ \Ik"spnSn\ \Ik"spIrIns\

The company employs over 6,000 people worldwide. The pet market has great potential for expansion. Do you have previous experience of working in customer relations?

\faI"nns\ \"IndstrI\

They need between 2 and 3 million to finance marketing. Moonpig has revolutionised the greetings card industry.

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in company
Unit 1
headword investment (n) investor (n) management team (n) margin (n) marketing (n) pioneering (adj) pitch (n) potential market production (n) profit (n) make a profit (opposite = make a loss) profitable (adj) (opposite = non-profitable) run (v) run a company/a business running costs (n pl) set up (phr v) set up a business/a company/a website

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \In"vestmnt\ \In"vest\ \"mnIdZmnt tim\ \"mAdZIn\ \"makItIN\ \paI"nIrIN\ \pItS\ \p"tenSl mAkIt\ \pr"dkSn\ \"prfIt\

translation/notes

example sentence We need around $2 million of investment to expand the business. You need to have good ideas in order to convince your investors. We have a committed and experienced management team. They make a profit of 1.20 on each card sold a margin of 60%. How much money would you need to finance marketing? Pioneering companies are not afraid to risk doing something new. A pitch is a description of your company its achievements, aims etc. Your potential market means all the people you can sell to. We have increased production as the market has grown. Our investors are happy because we are making a profit.

\"prfItbl\

CEO, Nick Jenkins, says the company should be profitable within six months.

\rn\

Giovanni Bianchi runs a company in Milan, owned by his family.

\"rnIN ksts\ \set "p\

A lot of Internet companies have fairly low running costs. We decided to set up a website in order to sell our products online.

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in company
Unit 1
headword staff (n) hire staff start-up (n) stock (n) success (n) be a success (opposite = be a failure) sustain (v) turnover (n) unrivalled (adj) venture capitalist (n) website (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \staf\

translation/notes

example sentence We hire a lot of our staff through recruiting agencies.

\"stAtp\ \stk\ \sk"ses\

A lot of dot.com start-ups go bankrupt within their first six months. All the goods that a shop or business has for sale are called stock. Moonpig has been a great success so far.

\s"steIn\ \"tnUv\ \n"raIvld\ \"ventS kpItlIst\ \"websaIt\

Once you have a competitive advantage, its important to be able to sustain it. Turnover is increasing by 50% a month. Our management team has unrivalled experience. Venture capitalists are companies who put money into new businesses. We sell a lot of products online via our website.

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in company
Unit 2
headword Board of Directors (n) CEO (n) (AmE) (BrE = Managing Director) exercise (n) experience (n) field (n) involve (v) marketing (n) marketing strategy (n) multinational (n) position (n) qualifications (n pl) ratio (n) responsibilities (n pl)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \bOd v d"rektz\ \sii"U\

translation/notes

example sentence The Board of Directors is the group of senior managers who run a company. The CEO of a company is the person in charge of it.

\"ekssaIz\ \Ik"spIrIns\ \fild\ \In"vlv\ \"mAkItIN\

Professor Axt believes that moderate exercise is better than strenuous activity. Most companies are more interested in experience than qualifications. What is the female to male ratio in your field? Does your job involve a lot of travel? One of the things I enjoy most about my job is developing new marketing strategies. A multinational is a company that has offices in different countries. He has a responsible position working as Marketing Director for a multinational. Qualifications are often less important than experience. The ratio of men to women is roughly 60% male, 40% female. My responsibilities include managing our website and liasing with international offices. Only 12.5% of senior managers in the Fortune 500 are women. Professor Axt recommends avoiding strenuous activity like aerobics or working out at the gym.

\mltI"nSnl\ \p"zISn\ \kwlIfI"keISnz\ \"reISIU\ \rIspns"bIltIz\

senior manager (n) strenuous activity (n)

\sinI "mnIdZ\ \"strenjus ktIvItI\

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in company
Unit 2
headword stress (n) technology-related (adj)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \stres\ \tek"nldZIrIleItId\

translation/notes

example sentence Do you think that exercise is a good solution for stress? Careers&Women.com is a website aimed at women interested in technology-related jobs. Many of the UKs top earners are sports stars. Its a good idea to get work experience while youre a student.

top earner (n) work experience (n)

\tp "n\ \"wk IkspIrins\

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in company
Unit 3
headword call (n) place/put a call on hold

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \kOl\ \pleIsl\pt kOl n "hUld\ \rItn "kOl\ \trnsf "kOl\ \kmpnI "ImIdZ\

translation/notes

example sentence

The line is engaged. Can I place your call on hold?

return a call transfer a call company image (n)

I hate it when people dont return my calls. Youve got the wrong extension; Im going to transfer your call. The company image we wish to project is one of friendliness, efficiency and professionalism. Failure to answer a telephone call promptly could result in losing business to the competition. Ill ask Mr Davis to get in contact with you as soon as hes back.

the competition (n)

\D kmp"tISn\

contact (n) get in contact (with sb) cut off (phr v) get cut off engaged (adj) (BrE) (AmE = busy) factor (n) major factor function (n) go over (phr v) hold on hold

\"kntkt\

\kt "f\

I hate it when I get cut off in the middle of a call.

\In"geIdZd\

Sorry, the lines engaged. Will you hold?

\"fkt\

The quality of a firms response to phone calls is a major factor in the type of company image it projects. Do you know how to use all your phones functions? I didnt hear that. Could you go over it again? Would you like to ring back or should I put you on hold?

\"fNkSn\ \gU "Uv\ \hUld\

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in company
Unit 3
headword landline (n) meeting room (n) message leave a message take a message mobile (phone) (n) (BrE) (AmE = cell (phone)) personnel (n) product performance (n) professionalism (n) put sb through (phr v) revenue (n) sales enquiry (n) service (n) switchboard (n) terminal (n) voicemail system (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"lndlaIn\ \"mitIN rum\ \"mesIdZ\ \liv "mesIdZ\ \teIk "mesIdZ\ \"mUbaIl fUn\

translation/notes

example sentence Landlines are cheaper than mobile phones. Ive asked my secretary to book the meeting room.

Could I leave a message for Mr Wilson, please? Mr Wilsons not here. Can I take a message? If Im not in the office, call me on my mobile.

\ps"nel\ \"prdkt pfOmns\ \pr"feSnlIzm\ \pUt smbdI "Tru\ \"revnju\ \"seIlz InkwaIrI\ \"svIs\ \"swItSbOd\ \"tmInl\ \"vOIsmeIl "sIstm\

Its important for personnel to be trained in telephone skills. Poor service and poor product performance can both lead to loss of business. Efficient handling of phone calls helps to create an image of professionalism. Just one moment. Im just putting you through. Bad telephone behaviour can result in millions of dollars in lost revenue. 90% of all sales enquiries begin on the telephone. Poor service often leads to loss of business. The switchboard has been busy all morning weve had hundreds of calls! Which terminal does the flight arrive at? Customers dont like getting put through to a voicemail system.

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in company
Unit 4
headword be based a bore (n) bump into sb (phr v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \bI "beIst\ \ "bO\ \bmp "Intu smbdI\

translation/notes

example sentence Where is your company based? Our offices are in Berlin. He always talks about himself hes a bit of a bore. Do you know Jan Novacki? Yes, Ive bumped into him a couple of times at conferences.

business (n) business development (n) line of business conference (n) sales conference contact (n) have contact with sb be a good laugh gossip (n) the latest gossip networking (n)

\"bIzns\ \"bIzns dIvelpmnt\ \laIn v "bIzns\ \"knfrns\

He has an important position at Guinness as Director of Business Development. What line of business are you in? Im a sales manager for a clothing firm. This year, our annual sales conference is taking place in Madrid.

\kntkt\

Do you still have contact with Jan in your work?

\bi gUd "lAf\ \"gsIp\

I like Cathy shes a really good laugh. Conferences provide a good opportunity for catching up on the latest gossip.

\"netwkIN\

Networking is the activity of talking to people in order to exchange information and ideas. A Public Relations Manager is responsible for developing a good relationship between a company and its customers. We have 50 clothing stores throughout the country.

public relations (n)

\pblIk rI"leISnz\

store (n) (AmE) (BrE = shop/outlet)

\stO\

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in company
Unit 5
headword begin begin work on sth best-selling (adj) breakthrough (adj) browser (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \bI"gIn\

translation/notes

example sentence In 1969 the Advanced Research Projects Agency began work on a system to connect computers. GameBoy is the worlds best-selling video game system. Pokemon was a breakthrough game concept for GameBoy. A browser is a computer program that allows you to search for information on the Internet. How often do you travel on business?

\best"selIN\ \"breIkTru\ \"braUz\

business (n) on business celebrate (v) complaint (n) deal with a complaint concept (n) connect (v) corporate headquarters (n)

\"bIzns\

\sel"breIt\ \km"pleInt\

In 1995 the company celebrated the sale of the one billionth game pack. The customer service department deals with client complaints.

\"knsept\ \k"nekt\ \kOprt hed"kwOtz\ \kOs\

Pokemon was an entirely new concept in video games. Kleinrock connected the first two computers in 1969. In 1970 Nintendo decided to enlarge its corporate headquarters.

course (n) go on a course crash (v)

We encourage staff to go on courses in order to develop their skills.

\krS\

Its important to save your work in case the computer crashes.

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in company
Unit 5
headword deal (n) negotiate a deal deal with (phr v) deal with a problem/complaint develop (v) discussion group (n) \dil\

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Weve just negotiated an important deal with a Japanese firm.

\"dil wID\

Customer Services deal with client complaints.

\dI"velp\ \dI"skSn grup\

The original video game system was developed in 1975. Internet discussion groups exist for users to exchange their views on various subjects. When we increased production we had to enlarge our existing warehouses.

enlarge (v) (opposite = scale down) establish (v) expand (v) found (v) franchise (n) hand-held (adj) hardware (n) host (n) interactive (adj) interactive games/entertainment

\In"lAdZ\

\I"stblIS\ \Ik"spnd\ \faUnd\ \"frntSaIz\ \"hndheld\ \"hAdwe\ \hUst\ \Intr"ktIv\

Our US subsidiary was established in 1980. The franchise was so successful, we decided to expand it. When was the company founded? In 1933. The franchise allowed Nintendo to use the Pokemon characters. GameBoy is a hand-held portable game system you can use anywhere. The company manufactures both hardware and software for the game systems. A host is a computer providing Internet services. Nintendo is the worldwide leader in interactive entertainment.

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in company
Unit 5
headword interchangeable (adj) the Internet (n) Internet browser (n) interview (n) have an interview launch (n) launch (v) launch a product/system leader (n) worldwide leader link (v) manufacture (v) market (n) hit the market market (v) microprocessor (n) negotiate (v) negotiate a deal network (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \Int"tSeIndZbl\ \Di "Intnet\ \Intnet "braUz\ \"Intvju\

translation/notes

example sentence One of the great advantages of GameBoy is the interchangeable game packs. The first message was sent on the Internet in 1969. Internet browsers allow you to search for information. When was the last time you had a job interview?

\lOntS\ \lOntS\

The US launch of Game Cube smashed previous sales records. The product was first launched in 1989.

\"lid\

Nintendo is the worldwide leader in interactive entertainment.

\lINk\ \mnj"fktS\ \"mAkIt\

In January ARPANET linked computers in four different American universities. We manufacture around 50,000 games a week. GameBoy Advanced hit the market in 2001 with record sales.

\"mAkIt\ \maIkrU"prUses\ \nI"gUSIeIt\

We market all our own hardware and software. The microprocessor was first used in a video game system in 1976. We want to recruit someone with the necessary skills for negotiating difficult deals. The World Wide Web is a network connecting millions of computers throughout the world. 3

\"netwk\

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in company
Unit 5
headword newsgroup (n) offices (n pl) pack (n) portable (adj) reconstruct (v) release (v) release a product/system sale (n) the sale of sales record (n) smash (v) smash a record software (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"njuzgrup\ \"fIsz\ \pk\ \"pOtbl\ \rikn"strkt\ \rI"lis\

translation/notes

example sentence Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups. Weve just opened new offices in Berlin. The sale of the one billionth game pack was celebrated in 1995. Its a portable game system you can play anywhere. The old site had to be reconstructed for development. The new version of the system will be released next month.

\seIl\

The company celebrated the sale of the billionth game pack.

\"seIlz rekOd\ \smS\

The launch of Game Cube smashed all previous sales records. Game Cube smashed all previous US sales records.

\"sftwe\

The programs and games used on computers and game systems are called software. Nintendos US subsidiary is called Nintendo of America Inc. GameBoy is the worlds most popular video game system. Computer users from all over the world have joined USENET newsgroups. The company manufactures the worlds most popular video game systems.

subsidiary (n) system (n) user (n) video game (n) video game system

\sb"sIdIrI\ \"sIstm\ \"juz\ \"vIdIUgeIm\

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in company
Unit 5
headword worldwide (adj) worldwide corporation/leader

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \wld"waId\

translation/notes

example sentence Theyre the worldwide leader in the manufacture of computer operating systems.

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in company
Unit 6
headword book (v) business do business with certificate (n) communicate (v) confidential (adj) convenient (adj) (opposite = inconvenient) correspondence (n) business correspondence courier (n) by courier customs (n) delivery (n) delivery date (n) details (n pl) take down (the) details \bUk\

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence We book most of our flight tickets on the Internet. Many bosses said they would not do business with companies whose correspondence had mistakes in it. Could you fax me a copy of the certificate for customs? A lot of people see e-mail as an informal way of communicating. E-mail isnt as confidential a method of communicating as many people think. Internal mail is a convenient way of sending things to people who work in the same organisation as you. Grammar and spelling mistakes in business correspondence can lose your firm valuable business. Sending things by courier is fast but expensive.

\"bIzns\

\s"tIfIkt\ \k"mjunIkeIt\ \knfI"denSl\ \kn"vinInt\

\kri"spndns\

\"kUrI\

\"kstmz\ \dI"lIvrI\

Customs require a copy of the certificate before the goods can be sent. Theres been a mistake in the delivery date we need the order to arrive by June 22nd. Ill send you details of the order by e-mail. Just a minute, Ill get a pen and take down the details.

\"diteIlz\ \teIk daUn D "diteIlz\ \daUn\

down (adj, adv)

We cant send any e-mails this morning the intranets down.

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in company
Unit 6
headword e-mail (n) by e-mail e-mail system look at your e-mail error (n) fax (v) figures (n pl) flight (n) go through (phr v) handwriting (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"imeIl\ \baI "imeIl\ \"imeIl sIstm\ \lUk t jO "imeIl\ \"er\ \fks\ \"fIgz\ \flaIt\ \gU "Tru\ \"hndraItIN\

translation/notes

example sentence Do you agree that e-mail is an informal way of communicating? Please send confirmation by e-mail. Our e-mail system isnt working. Ill fax the details to you instead. Ive been so busy I havent had time to look at my e-mail. Errors in business correspondence can make your firm look unprofessional. Some people prefer to fax documents that need a signature. If you dont understand the figures, I can explain them to you. The flight from Heathrow Airport was delayed by three hours. Could you go through the report and correct any errors? Shed made several corrections to the document but I couldnt read her handwriting. Mistakes in business letters are bad for a companys image. If the printer doesnt seem to be working, try changing the ink cartridge. People use internal mail to send things from one part of a company or organisation to another. An intranet is a computer network connecting people who work for the same organisation.

image (n) ink cartridge (n) internal mail (n)

\ImIdZ\ \"INk kAtrIdZ\ \Intnl "meIl\

intranet (n)

\"Intrnet\

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in company
Unit 6
headword

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Our e-mail systems not working wed better call the IT technician.

IT (information technology) (n) \aI"ti\ \InfmeISn tek"nldZI\ IT technician/support look up (phr v) overcharge (v) (opposite = undercharge) print out (phr v) production department (n) \lUk "p\ \Uv"tSAdZ\

Whats SAGs telephone number? Ill look it up for you. Surprisingly, many bosses thought spelling and grammar mistakes were worse than overcharging. Could you print out three copies of the proposal, please? Ill speak to the production department and see if they can meet the delivery date.

\prInt "aUt\ \pr"dkSn dIpAtmnt\ \pr"pUzl\ \rI"laIbl\

proposal (n) reliable (adj) (opposite = unreliable) take down (phr v)

Hes presenting the new proposal to the Board of Directors tomorrow. Our courier service is usually very reliable.

\teIk "daUn\

Ill take down the details of your order and ask John to contact you.

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in company
Unit 7
headword afford (v)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"fOd\

translation/notes

example sentence Independent operators cant afford to employ as many staff as the big hotel chains. You should call room service and ask them to fix the air conditioning. US clients are more used to brand name hotels such as Holiday Inn. After wed checked in at reception we were offered refreshments by the hotels staff. Some hotel chains have databases for recording client preferences.

air conditioning (n) brand name (n) check in (phr v) (opposite = check out) client (n) client preference (n) dry-clean (v) early morning call (n) economical (adj) (opposite = uneconomical) exercise facilities (n pl)

\"e kndISnIN\ \"brnd neIm\ \tSek "In\

\"klaInt\

\draI"klin\ \lI mOnIN "kOl\ \ik"nmIkl; ek"nmIkl\ \"ekssaIz fsIltIz\

The hotel can arrange for you to have suits, ties, skirts etc, dry-cleaned. Call Room Service to arrange an early morning call. The Chevrolet Corvette is more economical in its petrol consumption.

Most multinational hotel chains provide exercise facilities such as a swimming pool and a gym. Fitness rooms are rooms equipped with facilities for doing exercise. The hotel industry is becoming more and more globalised. Many of our business customers want a room with high-speed Internet connections. Hotel chains are more common in the US than in Europe.

fitness rooms (n pl) globalise (v) high-speed (adj)

\"fItns rumz\ \"glUblaIz\ \"haIspid\

hotel chain (n)

\hU"tel tSeIn\

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in company
Unit 7
headword Internet (n) Internet connection (n) jetlag (n) location (n) a convenient location long-haul flight (n) multinational (adj) option (n) powerful (adj) prosper (v) records (n pl) keep records reservation (n) revenue (n) room service (n) surroundings (n pl) time zone (n) widescreen television (n)

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"Intnet\

translation/notes

example sentence International business travellers expect to have a room with equipment for Internet connections. Flying from one time zone to another often results in jetlag. Our hotel is in a convenient location ten minutes from the city centre.

\"dZetlg\ \lU"keISn\

\lNhOl "flaIt\ \mltI"nSnl\ \"pSn\ \"paUfl\ \"prsp\ \"rekOdz\

Businessmen getting off long-haul flights often suffer from jetlag. Multinational hotel chains are more common in the US than in Europe. We looked at several options for the site of the new hotel. The Maserati is more powerful than the Chevrolet Corvette. The agricultural industry prospers because of the good climate. We keep worldwide records of client preferences.

\rez"veISn\ \"revnju\ \"rum svIs\ \s"raUndINz\ \"taIm zUn\ \waIdskrin "telIvIZn\

Good afternoon. I have a reservation in the name of Wallace. Between a third and half of hotels revenue comes from food and drink. Please call room service if you have any problems or requests. The hotel is located in beautiful surroundings overlooking the bay. Britain and the United States are in different time zones. More and more people now are buying widescreen televisions.

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in company
Unit 8
headword basis on a temporary /permanent basis do (v) do an exam/a qualification job (n) get a job success (n) make a success of

Pre-intermediate

pronunciation \"beIsIs\

translation/notes

example sentence Shes been working on a temporary basis for a firm of solicitors.

\du\

Where did you do your Masters? At Harvard Business School.

\dZb\

Congratulations! Youve got the job.

\sk"ses\

They worked hard to make a success of the business.

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in company Intermediate

Welcome to the in company Intermediate Wordlist!


What information does the in company Intermediate Wordlist give you? a summary of key words and phrases from each unit of in company Intermediate Students Book pronunciation of keywords and phrases sample sentences showing the words and phrases in context common collocations, expressions and idioms using the key words also included are opposites and American English equivalents Abbreviations used in the Wordlist
(v) (adj) (n) verb adjective noun (phr v) phrasal verb (n pl) plural noun (adv) adverb (conj) sb sth conjunction somebody something (Am E) American English (Br E) British English

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS


/I/ /i:/ /U/ /u:/ /e/ // /:/ /O:/ // // big fish green beans should look blue moon ten eggs about mother learn words short talk fat cat must come /bIg fIS/ /gri:n bi:nz/ /SUd lUk/ /blu: mu:n/ /ten egz/ /baUt mD(r)/ /l:n w:dz/ /SO:t tO:k/ /ft kt/ /mst km/ /A:/ / / /I/ /eI/ /U/ /OI/ /U/ /e/ /aI/ /aU/ calm start hot spot ear face pure boy nose hair eye mouth /kA:m stA:t/ /ht spt/ /I(r)/ /feIs/ /pjU(r)/ /bOI(r)/ /nUz/ /he(r)/ /aI/ /maU/

CONSONANTS
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tS/ /dZ/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ // /D/ pen bad tea dog church jazz cost girl far voice thin then /pen/ /bd/ /ti:/ /dg/ /tS:tS/ /dZz/ /kst/ /g:l/ / fa:(r)/ /vOIs/ /In/ /Den/ /s/ /z/ /S/ /Z/ /m/ /n/ /N/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ snake noise shop measure make nine sing house leg red wet yes /sneIk/ /nOIz/ /Sp/ /meZ(r)/ /meIk/ /naIn/ /sIN/ /haUs/ /leg/ /red/ /wet/ /jes/

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in company Intermediate
Unit 1
headword accelerate (v) advertising (n) asset (n) be an asset to attitude (n) sbs attitude to sb/sth business (n) big business business community (n) pronunciation \k"selreIt\ \"dvtaIziN\ \"set\ translation/notes example sentence Has big business accelerated the advance of the English language? English words and phrases are widely used in advertising. Employees who speak English are an asset to their company.

\"tItjud\

How would you describe your own attitude to learning English?

\"bIzns\ \bIg "bIzns\ \"bIzns kmjuntI\

English is becoming the international language of business. A knowledge of English is essential for people working in big business. The French Ministry of Finance surprised the international business community by banning words like Internet and e-mail. Some business people dont speak any English. We do a lot of business on the phone. If you dont speak English you risk losing business. He spends a lot of time travelling on business. I often socialise with my clients. All our Dutch colleagues speak fluent English. English has become the language of global communication.

business people (n pl) do business lose business travel on business client (n) colleague (n) communication (n) global communication

\"bIzns pipl\ \du "bIzns\ \luz "bIzns\ \trvl n "bIzns\ \"klaInt\ \"klig\ \kmjunI"keISn\ \"krItIsaIz\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 1
headword criticise (v) criticise sb for sthg e-mail (n) effort (n) fashionable (adj) pronunciation \"krItIsaIz\ translation/notes example sentence The French President was criticised for not defending the French language.

\"imeIl\ \"eft\ \"fSnbl\

We also do business using e-mail. Learning English is a real effort for people from non-European countries. English words and phrases are very fashionable in countries like Germany and the Netherlands. For better or worse, English is the language of international communication. Some people learn foreign languages more quickly than others. English is essential for global communication. Spending three months in Britain helped me improve my English. Having English lessons is a good investment for my future career. We hear lots of English words in the media. I want to learn English so that I can take part in business meetings.

for better or worse foreign language (n) global (adj) improve (v) investment (n) media (n) meeting (n) take part in a meeting mistake make mistakes necessity (n) opportunity (n) take the opportunity of doing sth

\f bet O "ws\ \frIn "lNgwIdZ\ \"glUbl\ \Im"pruv\ \In"vestmnt\ \"midI\ \"mitIN\

\mI"steIk\

Everyone makes mistakes when they start learning a language.

\n"sestI\ \p"tjuntI\

Learning English is a necessity for a lot of business people. I took the opportunity of going to the USA to improve my English.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 1
headword overstate (v) (opposite = understate) presentation (n) make a presentation product description (n) socialise (v) socialise with software (n) start-up company (n) pronunciation \Uv"steIt\ translation/notes example sentence Does the article English Inc. overstate the importance of learning English?

\prezn"teISn\

Shes feeling nervous she has to make a presentation this afternoon.

\"prdkt dIskrIpSn\ \"sUSlaIz\

Most product descriptions are written in English. Do you enjoy socialising with clients?

\"sftwe\ \"stAtp kmpnI\

A lot of software programs are written in English. The President was criticised for referring to start-up companies as les start-upistes. In a recent survey, 69% of Europeans said they thought everyone should speak English. Modern technology has made English even more popular.

survey (n)

\"sveI\

technology (n)

\tek"nldZI\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 2
headword access (n) Internet access business (n) business card (n) line of business car-rental service (n) catch up on (phr v) checkout (n) express checkout (n) conference (n) conference facilities (n pl) conference organiser (n) pronunciation \"kses\ translation/notes example sentence All our conference rooms have laptops with Internet access.

\"bIzns kad\ \laIn v "bIzns\ \karentl "svIs\ \ktS "p n\ \"tSekaUt\

Ill give you my business card so that you can contact me. What line of business are you in? Im in engineering. Take advantage of the hotels car-rental service to explore the surrounding area. Conferences are a good way of catching up on all the latest gossip. The hotel has an express checkout enabling customers to leave at short notice.

\"knfrns\ \"knfrns fsIltIz\ \"knfrns OgnaIz\

This year the firms annual conference will take place in Cancun. The hotel has full conference facilities on the 27th floor. Conference organisers work hard to ensure that our corporate clients have all the facilities they need. Dubai Airport has flight connections to all the major cities in the world.

connection (n) flight connection (n) convention centre (n)

\k"nekSn\

\kn"vensn sent\

Disneyland Pariss convention centre has 95 meeting rooms and 3,000 square metres of exhibition space. Good customer relations are vital to success in business. Carla had a row with her boss and ended up getting a demotion.

customer relations (n pl) demotion (n) (opposite = promotion)

\kstm rI"leISnz\ \dI"mUSn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 2
headword executive burnout (n) exhibition (n) exhibition space (n) expenses (n pl) on expenses fix (up) (v) human resources (n) pronunciation \IgzekjUtIv "bnaUt\ \eksI"bISn\ translation/notes example sentence Executive burnout is a condition caused by stress and long working hours. The hotel at Disneyland, Paris is ideal for corporate clients requiring large amounts of exhibition space. All meals and drinks at the conference are on expenses.

\Ik"spensz\

\fIks p\ \hjumn rI"zOsz\

Lets fix (up) a time to chat about these ideas over a drink. Pietro Bianco works in human resources and is responsible for training and recruitment. Janes job is very important shes in charge of sales in Europe.

in charge be in charge of interviewing skills (n pl) keep (sthg) going keep the conversation going merger (n) mingle (v)

\In "tSadZ\

\"IntvjuIN skIlz\ \kip "gUIN\

Pietro works in human resources and will be giving a talk on interviewing skills. Its important to be able to keep the conversation going when socialising with people for the first time.

\"mdZ\ \"mINgl\

Mergers can be difficult and often involve job losses. When you mingle at a social event, you meet and talk to a lot of people for the first time. Negotiating skills and the ability to communicate well are vital in making new business deals. Human resources is the division within a company responsible for the recruiting of new staff.

negotiating skills (n pl)

\nI"gUSIeItIN skIlz\

recruiting (n) the recruiting of

\rI"krutIN\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 2
headword responsible be responsible for room service (n) session (n) do a session on sth stress management (n) pronunciation \rI"spnsbl\ translation/notes example sentence Hes head of human resources and is responsible for training and recruitment.

\"rum svIs\ \"seSn\

All rooms in the hotel have 24-hour room service. Shes our human resources manager and will be doing a session on interviewing skills. Courses on stress management can help employees cope with the demands of working long hours. Team-building activities help people to know and understand each other better.

\"stres mnIdZmnt\

team-building (n) team-building activities videoconferencing (n)

\"timbIldIN\

\vIdIU"knfrnsIN\

The problem with videoconferencing is that you dont get to meet people face to face.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 3
headword accounts department (n) business (n) business class business trip call (n) give sb a call make a call (to) return a call take a call call back (phr v) consignment (n) a consignment of contract (n) deadline (n) pronunciation \"kaUnts dIpAtmnt\ translation/notes example sentence Id like to speak to someone in the accounts department about an invoice I received. Whenever we travel abroad on business we always fly business class. Tim is European Sales Director and often away on business trips.

\"bIzns klAs\ \"bIzns trIp\ \kOl\

Give me a call as soon as you get back to the office. \"meIk kOl tu\ \"retn kOl\ \"teIk kOl\ \kOl "bk\ \kn"saInmnt\ Would you excuse me for five minutes? I need to make a call to head office. Ill ask Mrs Wright to return your call when she gets back to the office. Have you ever pretended you were out of the office to avoid taking a call? Please call me back as soon as possible. A consignment of goods has just arrived from Venezuela.

\"kntrkt\ \"dedlaIn\

Good news! Weve just won a big contract in Malaysia. The deadline for Phase One is in two weeks time so were all working hard to finish it. The stock control manager told me the goods were despatched a week ago. The estimate for transportation costs is approximately $30,000. Its often easier talking to people face to face rather than on the phone.

despatch (v) estimate (n) face to face

\dI"sptS\ \"estImt\ \feIs t "feIs\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 3
headword feasibility study (n) figures (n pl) pronunciation \fiz"bIltI stdI\ \"fIgz\ translation/notes example sentence The feasibility study showed that the site wasnt really suitable for development. Hello. This is Cheryl in accounts. Just to say that Ive corrected those figures you faxed to me. Ill get back to you with the necessary information as soon as possible. Giving your audience too many handouts can distract them from what youre saying.

get back to sb handout (n)

\get "bk t\ \"hndaUt\

head (n) head of (marketing /sales etc) head office (n) invoice (n) lose track of (opposite = keep track of) order (n) place an order packing department (n)

\"hed v\

Jonathan Powell has just been promoted to head of marketing.

\hed "fIs\ \"InvOIs\ \luz "trk v\

Head office is in Beijing but the bank has branches throughout South East Asia. Id like to speak to someone in accounts about an unpaid invoice. Have you ever lost track of the conversation when speaking to someone on the phone? Theyve just placed an order for new machinery worth over 350,000.

\"Od\

\"pkIN dIpAtmnt\

The packing department is the place where goods are packed before being despatched. Giving a presentation to 500 people requires a lot of planning.

presentation (n) give a presentation processing plant (n)

\prezn"teISn\

\"prUsesIN plAnt\

The processing plant is where we prepare our meat prior to despatch.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 3
headword put off (phr v) put through (phr v) pronunciation \pUt "f\ \pUt "Tru\ translation/notes example sentence I kept putting off phoning the client because my English wasnt very good. Id like to speak to someone in accounts. Thank you, Mr Berenger. Putting you through now. Which do you think is most important experience or qualifications? High standards of quality control are extremely important in the food industry. Hello, Mr Carter, this is just a quick reminder to give me a call about the contract we discussed two weeks ago. Its important in business to have as much information about your clients requirements as possible. Someone in stock control will be able to tell you whether or not the goods have been despatched. Sorry I cant take your call right now; please leave a message after the tone.

qualification (n) quality control (n) reminder (n)

\kwlIfI"keISn\ \"kwlti kntrUl\ \rI"maInd\

requirement (n)

\rI"kwaImnt\

stock control (n)

\"stk kntrUl\

tone (n) after the tone visual (n)

\tUn\

\"vIZUl\

Visuals will help to make your presentation more attractive and easier to understand. If Im not in, just leave a message on my voicemail. Voicemail messages should be as clear and as brief as possible.

voicemail (n) voicemail message (n)

\"vOIsmeIl\ \"vOIsmeIl mesIdZ\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 4
headword advertising slogan (n) pronunciation \"dvtaIzIN slUgn\ translation/notes example sentence An advertising slogan is a short phrase used for advertising something, for example Budweiser: the King of Beers. American Budweiser is the worlds bestselling brand of beer. Clever advertising has helped make Budweiser the worlds most successful brand of beer. The meeting is scheduled for next Wednesday but Janet White will brief you before then. All members of the project team are expected to attend the briefing. Business procedures in Japan are different from those in Europe. Budweiser sells twice as much beer as its nearest competitor, Heineken.

bestselling (adj) brand (n) brand of brief (v)

\"bestselIN\ \brnd\

\brif\

briefing (n) business procedures (n pl) competitor (n) corporate (adj) corporate finance corporate loan (n) go over (phr v) manufacturer (n) market (v) mergers and acquisitions (n)

\"brifIN\ \"bIzns prsidZz\ \km"petIt\

\kOprt "faInns\ \kOprt "lUn\ \gU "Uv\ \mnjU"fktSr\ \"mAkIt\ \mdZz n kwI"zISnz\ \nIgUSI"eISnz\

Daniel Cash has a very responsible job hes Vice President for corporate finance. As head of the corporate loan department, Sharon reports directly to Daniel Cash. I didnt understand that. Could you go over it again, please? Microsoft is the worlds leading computer hardware manufacturer. Czech Budweiser markets its products in over 40 countries. Mergers and acquisitions specialists give advice to companies during takeover bids.

negotiations (n pl) lead (the) negotiations

Wed like you to lead the negotiations with Sapporo Bank, Matt.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 4
headword output (n) resources (n pl) pronunciation \"aUtpUt\ \rI"zOsz\ translation/notes example sentence Budweisers output is 50% greater than that of its nearest competitor, Heineken. Czech Budweiser has far fewer resources than American Budweiser but still markets its product in more than 40 countries. I dont follow. Could you run through that again? We are pleased to report that sales are up by 4% on the same period last year. The company needs a dramatic increase in sales figures if it is to survive. The meeting with Sapporo Bank is scheduled to take place in two weeks time. Youre speaking too quickly. People will understand more easily if you slow down.

run through (phr v) sales (n pl) sales figures schedule (v) slow down (phr v) (opposite = speed up) take part (in)

\rn "Tru\ \seIlz\ \"seIlz fIgz\ \"Sedjul\ \slU "daUn\

\teIk "pAt In\

I dont always find it easy to understand people when I take part in meetings in English. More than 100 people lost their jobs as a result of the takeover. Matt was asked to lead the negotiations during the takeover bid. The firm has an excellent track record for making products that are both reliable and economical. Which of the following has the highest global turnover: the electric light or the personal computer?

takeover (n) takeover bid track record (n)

\"teIkUv\ \"teIkUv bId\ \trk "rekOd\

turnover (n)

\"tnUv\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 5
headword access (n) have access to according to pronunciation \"kses\ translation/notes example sentence All firms have access to the same technology so theyre competing with each other on how fast they can develop and manufacture products. According to a recent survey, US executives work 25% harder now than they did in the 1970s. Branding is very important in business people pay a lot of money to have the right name on their new DVD or Walkman. If customers dont like our products, theyll take their business elsewhere.

\"kOdIN tu\

branding (n)

\"brndIN\

business (n) take your business somewhere else /elsewhere catch up (with) (phr v)

\"bIzns\

\ktS "p wID\

It would be nice to have an extra hour in the day to catch up with all the jobs Ive been too busy to do. The price of computer components is coming down at the rate of 1% a week. Dont rely on customer loyalty if people dont like your latest products, theyll buy from your competitors. The ability to delegate tasks to other people is essential in good time management. Its a good idea to keep a diary of how long each task takes.

component (n) customer loyalty (n)

\km"pUnnt\ \kstm "lOIltI\

delegate (v)

\"delgeIt\

diary (n) keep a diary differentiate (v)

\"daIrI\

\dIf"renSIeIt\

In business, its important to try to differentiate your product from the competition. One thing you can beat your competitors on is little extras such as electric mirrors.

extra (n)

\"ekstr\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 5
headword innovate (v) interruption (n) pronunciation \"InveIt\ \Int"rpSn\ translation/notes example sentence Being successful in the electronics business depends on how fast you can innovate. The survey revealed that the average manager had only nine 30-minute periods without interruption per month. Inventory means the goods or products a company has for sale in its stores or warehouses. Product lead time is the amount of time between thinking up a new product and starting to sell it. Sony is a very successful company a major player in the electronics business. Things change so fast in the computer industry that its disastrous for companies to have product piling up in their warehouses. Its vital to plan ahead in order to manage your time successfully.

inventory (n)

\"InvntrI\

lead time (n)

\"lid taIm\

major player (n) pile up (phr v)

\meIdZ "pleI\ \paIl "p\

plan (v) plan ahead pressured (adj) feel pressured (opposite = relaxed) record (n) keep a record of sth research-led (adj)

\pln\

\"preSd\

Planning ahead and delegating can help to make you feel less pressured at work.

\"rekOd\

If you keep a record of how long each task takes, it will help you manage your time more successfully. If an industry is research-led, it depends on the quality of the ideas its researchers come up with. Our researchers are constantly working to think up new ideas for products.

\rI"stSled; "ristSled\ \rI"stS; "ristS\

researcher (n)

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in company Intermediate
Unit 5
headword schedule (n) screen (v) pronunciation \"Sedjul\ \skrin\ translation/notes example sentence Its important to take breaks even if you have a very busy schedule. Screen phone calls so that you dont waste time speaking to people about things that are unimportant. What strategies do you use for managing your time? Listening to music helps me to switch off at the end of a busy working day. Time management is the ability to use your time effectively in order to do the things you need to. Many people find that having a hot bath helps them unwind at the end of the day. After a stressful day, I like to go to the gym and work out for an hour. Bill Gates confesses to being a workaholic who works 14 hours a day.

strategy (n) switch off (phr v) time management (n)

\"strtdZI\ \swItS "f\ \"taIm mnIdZmnt\

unwind (v)

\n"waInd\

work out (phr v) workaholic (n)

\wk "aUt\ \wk"hlIk\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 6
headword alarm call (n) pronunciation \"lAm kOl\ translation/notes example sentence If youre worried about not waking up on time, phone reception and book an alarm call. A man was standing in the arrivals area holding up a large piece of card with my name written on it. Flight BA761 to Buenos Aires is now ready for boarding. Would all passengers have their passports and boarding cards ready for inspection? What do you dislike most about business travel? Advertising, accountancy and management consultancy are all boom industries. Liberty Street is quite a few blocks from here. Can I call you a cab?

arrivals (n) (opposite = departures) boarding (n) boarding card (n) business (n) business travel boom industry (n) cab (n) (AmE) (BrE = taxi) cabin crew (n)

\"raIvlz\

\"bOdIN\ \"bOdIN kAd\

\"bIzns trvl\ \"bum IndstrI\ \kb\

\"kbIn kru\

All the flight attendants who look after passengers during a flight are called the cabin crew. Excuse me, is there a cart I could use for my baggage?

cart (n) (AmE) (BrE = trolley) cashpoint (n) check-in (n)

\kAt\

\"kSpOInt\ \"tSekIn\

Could you lend me some money until I can find a cashpoint? Passengers are requested to arrive at check-in at least an hour before their flight departs. I was stopped in customs and had my bags searched. Id like a day return to the City, please.

customs (n) day return (n)

\"kstmz\ \deI rI"tn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 6
headword delay (n) departure lounge (n) departures (n) (opposite = arrivals) divert (v) pronunciation \dI"leI\ \dI"pAtS laUndZ\ \dI"pAtSz\ translation/notes example sentence The traffic was terrible and there were long delays getting into the city. Several flights were delayed and the departure lounge was crowded. Our flight was cancelled and we had to wait over eight hours in departures!

\daI"vt\

This is your captain speaking. Due to bad weather over Zurich, weve been diverted to Geneva. We wanted to fly KLM but there were only economy class seats left. An eight-lane freeway runs around the city of Los Angeles. After a long exhausting flight, it was nice to get to the hotel and freshen up. Passengers are allowed a maximum of six kilos of hand luggage. The use of mobile phones on aircraft is prohibited and in-flight phones are only available in business class. A long-haul flight is one that covers a long distance. A one-way ticket to Central Station, please.

economy class (n) freeway (n) (AmE) freshen up (phr v) hand luggage (n) in-flight phone (n)

\I"knmI "klAs\ \"friweI\ \freSn "p\ \"hnd lgIdZ\ \InflaIt "fUn\

long-haul flight (n) one-way (adj) (opposite = return (BrE) round trip (AmE) ) relocate (to) (v) schedule (n)

\"lNhOl flaIt\ \"wnweI\

\rilU"keIt\ \"Sedjul\

If you had to relocate to Britain or the United States, which would you choose? The flight has been delayed by one hour; we will keep you informed of any further changes to our schedule.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 6
headword terminal (n) turbulence (n) upgrade (v) pronunciation \"tmInl\ \"tbjUlns\ \p"greId\ translation/notes example sentence All flights for Europe leave from Terminal 2. There was a lot of turbulence during the flight due to strong winds. We were upgraded from economy to business class.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 7
headword answerphone (n) pronunciation \"AnsfUn\ translation/notes example sentence If Im busy, I sometimes switch on the answerphone instead of answering the phone. By blocking incoming phone calls for just one hour a week, productivity rose by 23%. He was calling from a mobile but I couldnt hear him very well because the signal was breaking up. There was a total communication breakdown she didnt speak English and I cant speak French! Can you give me a contact number? Yes, Im staying at the Mirador. Its 548 8950. Ill ask my secretary to get on to our suppliers and find out whats happened to our order. By blocking all incoming calls, the company found that productivity rose by 23%. There was a misunderstanding: we arrived for the meeting on Wednesday morning, but the receptionist told us it was scheduled for Thursday afternoon. Ill just put you on hold while I see if I can find Mr Evans.

block (v)

\blk\

break up (phr v)

\breIk "p\

communication breakdown (n)

\kmjunI"keISn breIkdaUn\ \"kntkt nmb\

contact number (n)

get on to sb (phr v)

\get "n tu\

incoming call (n) misunderstanding (n)

\InkmIN "kOl\ \mIsnd"stndIN\

on hold put sb on hold phone (n) get sb off the phone

\n "hUld\

\get f D "fUn\

I thought shed never stop talking. It took me 20 minutes to get her off the phone! How long does it take you on average to pick up the phone when it rings? If you give me 10 minutes, Ill see if I can reach Karl on his cellphone. 1

pick up the phone mobile (phone)/cellphone

\pIk p D "fUn\ \mUbaIlfUn \"selfUn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 7
headword productivity (n) quote (n) pronunciation \"prdk"tIvtI\ \kwUt\ translation/notes example sentence Productivity is the rate at which goods are produced. Joaqun, its Geoff White. Im just calling with a quote for those machines you were interested in buying. My boss has asked me to set up a meeting with all the heads of department.

set up (phr v) set up a meeting /an appointment sort out (phr v)

\set "p\

\sOt "aUt\

Could you make the necessary arrangements? Yes, Ill sort something out. Research shows that managers underestimate the amount of time they spend on the phone by 50%. Sometimes when Im having a crisis at work I unplug the phone! Research showed that 21% of phone calls were a complete waste of time.

underestimate (v) (opposite = overestimate) unplug (v) a (complete) waste of time

\ndr"estImeIt\

\n"plg\ \ kmplit weIst v "taIm\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 8
headword agreement (n) reach agreement (opposite = disagreement) at stake pronunciation \"grimnt\ translation/notes example sentence If we cant reach agreement I suggest we break off here.

\at steIk\

The choice of a new actor as James Bond is a huge decision with so much money at stake. Brand awareness is very important people will pay a lot to have the right name on the products they buy. Its been a long meeting; I think its time to break off.

brand (n) brand awareness break off (phr v) (opposite = carry on; continue) collaborate (with)(v)

\brnd\

\breIk "f\

\k"lbreIt\

In response to falling sales, Swiss watchmaking companies decided to collaborate with the Japanese. Could we come back to this point later? The James Bond films have been a huge commercial success, with a turnover of more than $6 billion. Hariezon made a bad decision when he sold his land to a South African mining conglomerate. Market researchers can use data analysis to find out if a product is likely to be successful. Ive got to finish the report by this evening the deadlines tomorrow. Having a clear idea of what you hope to achieve is the first stage in the decisionmaking process.

come back to (phr v) commercial success (n)

\km "bk tu\ \kmSl sk"ses\

conglomerate (n)

\kn"glmrt\

data analysis (n)

\deIt "nlsIs\

deadline (n) decision-making decision-making process

\"dedlaIn\ \dI"sIZnmeIkIN\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 8
headword earnings (n pl) combined earnings expand (v) feedback (n) get down to business go ahead (with) (phr v) high street store (n) pronunciation \"nINz\ translation/notes example sentence The combined earnings of the James Bond movies are over $6 billion.

\Ik"spnd\ \"fidbk\ \get daUn t "bIzns\ \gv "hed wID\ \haI strit "stO\

In 1991 Dell computers decided to expand by selling through high street stores. Client feedback on our new range has been very positive so far. Lets get down to business is a useful way of opening a meeting. Eventually we reached agreement and decided to go ahead with the project. Dell stopped selling through high street stores and returned to selling PCs direct to consumers. Once youve made up your mind, you shouldnt hesitate too long before implementing your decision. In your opinion, what has been the key factor in the companys success?

implement (v) implement a decision key (adj) key factor license (v) license products logistic (adj) market (n) market research (n) market share (n)

\"ImplIment\

\ki\

\"laIsns\

Apple refused to license its products to other manufacturers and so lost out to Microsoft. The decision to relocate to the UK makes good logistic sense 70% of our market is in that country. Detailed market research is one option but it takes time and money. The company has had a worrying time recently, with market share falling from 30% to just 9%. The films enjoy 30% profit margins, not including merchandising.

\l"dZIstIk\

\mAkIt "ristS\ \mAkIt "Se\

merchandising (n)

\"mtSndaIsIN\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 8
headword monitor (v) monitor the effects of move on (phr v) pronunciation \"mnIt\ translation/notes example sentence Stress management consultants were asked to monitor the effects of long working hours on employees. Lets move on is a useful expression when you want to change the subject being discussed. In any decision-making process, its vital to define your objectives clearly. Its important to consider all the options before making your decision.

\muv "n\

objective (n) option (n) consider the options output (n) daily/weekly/annual output outsell (v) outsell the competition ownership (n) retain ownership of profit (n) profit margin (n) profit share (n) relocation (n)

\b"dZektIv\ \"pSn\

\"aUtpUt\

Coca-Colas daily output is one billion bottles!

\aUt"sel\

Barbie continues to outsell the competition in the toy industry.

\"UnSIp\

If Shuster and Siegel had retained ownership of the rights to Superman, they would have made a fortune.

\"prfIt mAdZIn\ \"prfIt Se\ \rilU"keISn\

The James Bond films make 30% profit margins. Offering employees profit share is one way of encouraging them to stay on. Relocation to the UK seems a sensible decision, given that 70% of our market is there. Candlers best business decision was buying the rights to Coca-Cola; his worst was selling the rights for just $1!

rights (n pl) buy/sell the rights (to sth)

\raIts\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 8
headword royalties (n pl) pronunciation \"rOIltIz\ translation/notes example sentence When Sam Phillips sold the contract with Presley he lost the royalties to over a billion record sales. Hariezons mining land went on to produce a million kilos of gold a year 70% of the gold supply to the Western world. The decision was made to offer the service on a trial basis for six months.

supply (n)

\s"plaI\

trial basis (n) on a trial basis

\"traIl beIsIs\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 9
headword assets (n pl) boss (n) be your own boss business go out of business career structure (n) pronunciation \"sets\ \bs\ translation/notes example sentence A companys assets are all the things it owns that make money. Working for a small company, you have more autonomy its like being your own boss.

\gU aUt v "bIzns\ \k"rI strktS\

Roughly half of new companies go out of business in the first two years. I prefer working for a large company because theres more of a career structure and therefore more opportunity for promotion. A "corporate dinosaur" is a derogatory term, meaning a large old-fashioned company. Do you agree that national frontiers will become less important as cross-border trade increases? Once the digital age arrived, many people thought that small entrepreneurial companies would kill off the corporate dinosaurs Dotcoms are companies that trade using the Internet. E-commerce enables specialist companies employing only 20 or 30 people to sell their products all over the world. People working for large companies get fringe benefits like pensions and health insurance. Do you agree that companies have to get big in order to survive? Most people agree that globalisation is the direct result of companies getting bigger and bigger.

corporate dinosaur (n)

\kOprt "daInsO\

cross-border trade (n)

\krsbOd "treId\

digital age (n)

\"dIdZItl eIdZ\

dotcom (n) e-commerce (n)

\dt"km\ \i"kms\

fringe benefit (n)

\"frIndZ benIfIt\

get big globalisation (n)

\get "bIg\ \glUblAI"zeISn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 9
headword hi-tech (adj) (opposite = low-tech) job satisfaction (n) marketing strategy (n) pronunciation \haI"tek\ translation/notes example sentence Hi-tech companies use the most modern or advanced technology available.

\"dZb stIs"fkSn\ \"mAkItIN strtdZI\

I think theres more variety, more job satisfaction working for a small enterprise. An aggressive marketing strategy is needed to go from innovation to mass production quickly and efficiently. The process of producing large quantities of the same product is called mass production.

mass production (n)

\"ms pr"dkSn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 10
headword conduct (v) conduct a meeting /the negotiations culturally (adv) culturally aware demonstration (n) give a demonstration (of) join in (phr v) pronunciation \kn"dkt\ translation/notes example sentence I was invited to conduct the final stages of the meeting in the sauna!

\"kltSrlI\

Its important to be culturally aware when doing business with people from other countries. The British salesman told a lot of jokes while giving a demonstration of the new product. Although I didnt know anyone at the barbecue, I decided I ought to try and join in the fun. Sorry, Ill have to go, Im already running half an hour late.

\demn"streISn\

\dZOIn "In\

late (adj) be running late make your excuses slip away (phr v)

\leIt\

\meIk jO Ik"skjusz\ \"slIp "weI\

She didnt have time to stop and chat so she made her excuses and left. He finds it difficult to talk to people hes never met before so decided to slip away quietly. The book When Cultures Collide discusses the role of small talk in international business. In general, its a good idea to mingle with people from the opposing team rather than just sticking with your own people.

small talk (n)

\"smOl "tOk\

stick with (phr v)

\"stIk wID\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 11
headword attachment (n) e-mail attachment cheers (interjection) pronunciation \"ttSmnt\ translation/notes example sentence Sending an e-mail attachment is the same as enclosing something with a letter.

\tSIz\

Cheers is a common way of ending an e-mail and means the same as "best wishes". The downside to e-mail is that you cant stop people sending you endless messages.

downside (n) (opposite = upside) the downside to e-mail (n) e-mail (v) inbox (n) (opposite = outbox) instantaneous (adj)

\"daUnsaId\

\imeIl\ \imeIl\ \Inbks\

How many e-mails do you send and receive each day? Do you prefer e-mailing to picking up the phone? I try to check my inbox for new e-mail messages at least twice a day.

\Instn"teInIs\

The main advantage of e-mail is that its instantaneous the message arrives almost immediately at its destination. All you do to send an e-mail is key in your message and click send. If you put your signature at the end of an e-mail, it saves people scrolling down to see if theres more text. You cant always trust spell check; it cant tell the difference between words such as there and their. If you want people to read your e-mails, remember to key in an interesting subject line.

key in (phr v) scroll down (phr v)

\ki "In\ \skrUl "daUn\

spell check (n)

\"spel tSek\

subject line (n)

\"sbdZekt laIn\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 12
headword background (n) give sb the background to sth body language (n) pronunciation \"bkgraUnd\ translation/notes example sentence Id like to start off by giving you the background to the problem.

\"bdI lNgwIdZ\

Expressive use of body language helps to make your presentation more interesting. In Graph b the figures fluctuate for the first three months before falling sharply to bottom out at 10,000 trades a day. Emphasise what youre saying by using pairs of contrasting points such as: A bank designed to fit round you, which doesnt expect you to fit round it. Try to make regular eye contact with the audience during your presentation. In graphs b and c we see that the figure fluctuates over the first three months. Id like to go back for a minute to what I was saying previously. When the company first went online they got 250,000 hits per day; three months later they were getting just 60,000. Its a good idea to invite questions from your audience at the end of your talk.

bottom out (phr v)

\btm "aUt\

contrasting (adj)

\kn"trAstIN\

eye contact (n) fluctuate (v) go back (phr v) hit (n)

\"aI kntkt\ \"flktSueIt\ \gU "bk\ \hIt\

invite (v) invite questions level off (phr v) look (n) have a look miss (v) miss the point

\In"vaIt\

\levl "f\ \lUk\

We see the figures levelling off at the point marked g on the graph. Just have a quick look at this graph showing how sales have fallen over the past six months. Repetition where necessary will ensure that the audience doesnt miss the main points.

\mIs\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 12
headword move on (to) (phr v) pronunciation \muv "n tu\ translation/notes example sentence Dont talk about the same thing for too long. Try to judge when the times right to move on to the next point. Ive asked Gary Cale, our new head of e-business, to bring us up to date. Over to you, Gary. The point marked d on the graph shows where the sales figures peaked. Id like to point out one or two interesting things on the diagram. Try to start off in a way that will get your audiences attention. Before closing your presentation, try to sum up what you have said in a logical way. A creative use of visuals will help to make your presentation more interesting and attractive. Visual aids can make your presentation easier to understand. To succeed in any area of e-business you need a first-class website. Try to make your talk as logical and well-structured as possible.

over to you

\Uv t "ju\

peak (v) point out (phr v) start off (phr v) sum up (phr v)

\pik\ \"pOInt "aUt\ \stAt "f\ \sm "p\

visual (n)

\"vIZUl\

visual aid website (n) well-structured (adj)

\vIZUl "eId\ \"websaIt\ \wel"strktSd\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 13
headword artificial intelligence (n) pronunciation \AtIfISl In"telIdZns\ translation/notes example sentence Artificial intelligence is the use of computer technology to make computers and other machines "think" and do things. An electronic organiser is a gadget used for storing and organising information such as addresses and appointments. Sales of electronic gadgets such as mobile phones, laptops and camcorders have increased dramatically. These computers are capable of voice recognition and have been developed by some of the worlds leading scientists.

electronic organiser (n)

\IlektrnIk "OgnaIz\ \"gdZIt\

gadget (n)

leading (adj) leading scientist /researcher microchip (n)

\"lidIN\

\"maIkrUtSIp\

A microchip contains all the electronic connections needed to make a computer work. Microchip technology is now used widely in cars, video and stereo equipment etc.

microchip technology (n)

\"maIkrUtSIp tek"nldZi\ \"privju\ \su"pIrI tu\

preview (v) superior to (opposite = inferior to) technology (n)

The great advantage of digital cameras is that you can preview what you print. The electronic singing birthday card you can buy now is technically superior to all the computers on Earth in 1950 put together. Peoples lives now are far more dominated by technology than they were even 10 years ago. We live in the age of technology more people own and use computers and electronic equipment than ever before. A technophile is someone who loves computers and other gadgets.

\tek"nldZi\

the age of technology

\Di "eIdZ v tek"nldZi\

technophile (n) (opposite = technophobe)

\"teknUfaIl\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 13
headword technophobe (n) (opposite = technophile) pronunciation \"teknUfUb\ translation/notes example sentence A technophobe dislikes or does not trust gadgets such as computers and mobile phones.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 14
headword action plan (n) agenda (n) fixed agenda allocate (v) allocate time/resources to sth assertive (adj) be assertive back sth up (phr v) pronunciation \"kSn pln\ \"dZend\ translation/notes example sentence I left the meeting feeling confused, not really knowing what the action plan was. We have a lot to discuss in todays meeting and we need to stick to a fixed agenda. Sixty minutes have been allocated to the meeting so we need to be well prepared.

\"lkeIt\

\"stIv\

Sometimes you have to be assertive in meetings in order make your point.

\bk "p\

Your presentation will be more convincing if you have facts and figures to back up what you say. All directors meetings take place in the boardroom on the top floor.

boardroom (n) business (n) talk business

\"bOdrum\

\tOk "bIzns\

After 20 minutes talking about football and the weather we finally started talking business. Can I just come in here? Id like to make a point about marketing strategy. Both sides often have to make concessions in order to reach an agreement.

come in (phr v) concession (n) make concessions conflict (n) (opposite = agreement) cut in (phr v)

\km "In\ \kn"seSn\

\"knflIkt\

Dont interrupt too much it just creates conflict.

\kt "In\

People kept cutting in during the presentation to ask questions.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 14
headword delegation (n) pronunciation \del"geISn\ translation/notes example sentence Delegation of tasks to other team members is an important part of the managers role. It can be difficult to concentrate when several subjects are under discussion at once. Please! Let me finish before you all start interrupting!

discussion (n) be under discussion finish (v) let sb finish follow-up (n)

\dI"skSn\

\"fInIS\

\"flUp\

I always end up phoning people after our meetings to find out what we actually agreed the follow-up is never clear. There were one or two technical problems and it was half an hour before the speaker finally got going. Its always the same people who dominate our meetings nobody else can get a word in! Everyone was relieved when, after 18 months of negotiations, the deal finally went through. We couldnt agree on a price at first but after a lively haggling session we finally agreed terms. Just hang on a second and let me explain. Stop interrupting and hear me out, will you! A meeting can provide a safe environment in which to discuss important issues.

get going

\get "gUIN\

get a word in

\"get "wd In\

go through (phr v)

\gU "Tru\

haggling session (n)

\"hglIN seSn\

hang on (phr v) hear sb out (phr v) issue (n) discuss issues meeting (n) hold a meeting

\hN "n\ \hI "aUt\ \"ISu\

\"mitIN\

Holding meetings without chairs is a good way of speeding things up!

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in company Intermediate
Unit 14
headword objection (n) raise an objection /objections (to sth) overrun (v) pronunciation \b"dZekSn\ translation/notes example sentence The presentation didnt go very well, with people raising objections to nearly all our proposals.

\Uv"rn\

Its a bad idea to let meetings overrun people lose concentration when they go on too long A meeting is an ideal opportunity for colleagues to exchange points of view.

point of view exchange points of view progress (n) in progress push around (phr v) relationship-building schedule (v) schedule a meeting for 3 pm/next Tuesday etc score points

\pOInt v "vju\

\"prUgres\

Do not disturb. Meeting in progress.

\pUS "raUnd\ \rI"leISnSIp bIldIN\ \"Sedjul\

Be more assertive. Dont let people push you around. Relationship-building is vital when youre working in a team. Next weeks meeting has been scheduled for 9 am on Friday.

\skO "pOInts\

In our meetings, facts dont seem to matter; its all about scoring points over your colleagues. Make sure any equipment you need for the presentation is set up well before it starts. Try to stick to the point and not get sidetracked all the time.

set up (phr v)

\set "p\

sidetrack (v) get sidetracked stick to (phr v) stick to the point /agenda etc

\"saIdtrk\

\"stIk tu\

Weve only got an hour to discuss these issues its important that we stick to the agenda.

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in company Intermediate
Unit 14
headword terms (n pl) negotiate terms underway (adj) get/be underway venue (n) pronunciation \tmz\ translation/notes example sentence After a lively haggling session we finally managed to negotiate terms.

\nd"weI\

When the meeting finally got underway, the speaker faced constant interruptions from the audience. Most offices are unsuitable for long meetings its important to choose the right venue. "How did your presentation go?" "It went well, I think I won the audience over." Lets not worry too much about the details. Im sure we can work something out.

\"venju\

win over (phr v)

\wIn "Uv\

work out (phr v)

\wk "aUt\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 15
headword action immediate action circulate (v) circulate sth to sb contract (n) draft a contract draw up a contract enclose (v) expenses (n pl) fill in (phr v) fill in a form /questionnaire Further to Further to our telephone conversation/our meeting hot-desking (n) pronunciation \"kSn\ translation/notes example sentence We have had constant problems with the equipment you sold us and I am afraid I must now insist on immediate action. I used to circulate memos to other people in the department; now I just e-mail them.

\"skjUleIt\

\"drAft kntrkt\ \"drO p kntrkt\ \In"klUz\ \Ik"spensz\ \"fIl In\

Working in the legal department means I spend a lot of time drafting contracts. Some of our contracts are very complicated and take a long time to draw up. I enclose a copy of our latest catalogue and current price list. I have to keep a record of all expenses so I always ask for receipts. I hate filling in forms theres never enough space to write the answers!

\"fD tu\

Further to our meeting I am writing to confirm the decisions made.

\ht"deskIN\

"Hot-desking" is a method of working in which people do not have their own desk but use any desk that is available. All incoming mail is copied by means of an electronic scanner.

incoming mail (n) (opposite = outgoing mail) journal (n) trade journal

\InkmIN "meIl\

\dZnl\

Trade journals are essential reading if you want to keep up with whats going on in the industry. 1

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in company Intermediate
Unit 15
headword keep up (with) (phr v) (opposite = lose track of) look forward to (phr v) multi-tasking (n) paperwork (n) routine paperwork put together (phr v) put together a report /questionnaire record (n) keep a record of reference (n) with reference to refund (n) full refund pronunciation \kip "p wID\ translation/notes example sentence I try to read as many trade journals as possible in order to keep up with whats going on. I look forward to hearing from you soon. "Multi-tasking" means working on several things at once. Managers spend up to a third of their time in the office doing routine paperwork.

\lUk "fOwd tu\ \mltI"tAskIN\ \"peIpwk\

\pUt t"geD\

After doing the initial market research we then try to put together a questionnaire.

\"rekOd\

Remember to keep a record of all your expenses.

\"refrns\

With reference to your fax of June 3rd, I would like to confirm that the meeting will take place on Friday June 26th.

\fUl rifnd\

Due to the persistent problems we have had, I am writing to ask for a full refund of the purchase price. They sent a letter of apology offering a 20% refund or a free upgrade. I am writing with regard to our recent meeting in Frankfurt.

offer a refund regard (n) with regard to sort through (phr v) workstation (n) sit at a workstation

\f rifnd\ \rI"gAd\

\sOt "Tru\ \"wksteISn\

How long does it take you to sort through your mail? Rows of people sat at their workstations answering phones or typing on their keyboards 2

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in company Intermediate
Unit 16
headword aspect (n) an aspect to sth assign (v) assign sth to sb bankrupt (adj) go bankrupt break down (into) (phr v) brainstorm (v) brainstorm ideas /suggestions buy out (phr v) cashflow (n) cashflow problems competitive (adj) competitive advantage discount (n) at a discount keep down (phr v) keep costs/prices down labour (n) labour costs operational (adj) pronunciation \"spekt\ translation/notes example sentence I think there are three main aspects to the problem.

\"saIn\

Assign different tasks to different members of the team.

\"bNkrpt\

What would you do if your sole supplier was about to go bankrupt?

\breIk "daUn Intu\ \"breInstOm\

Its a good idea to break the problem down into parts. Staff were invited to brainstorm ideas during a team meeting.

\baI "aUt\ \"kSflU\

If we bought the company out wed also be taking on all their debts. Offering products on a sale or return basis can create cashflow problems.

\km"pettIv\

Anyone who passes on information about the company to competitors is destroying our competitive advantage. The problem with selling old stock off at a discount is that you risk making huge losses. Harley-Davidson found that it was unable to keep costs down without affecting quality. Labour costs are far higher in Europe than in South-East Asia.

\"dIskAUnt\

\kip "daUn\

\"leIb\

\p"reISnl\

How long do you think it would take to get an in-house production facility operational? 1

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in company Intermediate
Unit 16
headword outsource (v) outsource sth to sth/sb point-of-sale (n, adj) point-of-sale promotion (n) problem (n) problem reversal (n) problem-solving (n, adj) problem-solving meeting pronunciation \"aUtsOs\ translation/notes example sentence If the unions had accepted a lower pay offer, we wouldnt be outsourcing production to Asia. Point-of-sale promotions are offered at the place where customers physically buy a product such as supermarket checkouts.

\pOInt v "seIl\

\prblm rI"vsl\ \"prblmslvIN\ \"prblmslvIN mitIN\ \"prdkt\

Problem reversal simply means looking at a problem in a different way. How good are you at problem-solving? Problem-solving meetings should start with clear objectives and end with clear actions. If your product development cycle is short you can end up with old stock piling up in warehouses. It would take us about six months to get our own production plant up and running. You cant just ignore the technical side of production you need to improve your quality assurance techniques. The company was in serious trouble and Richard Teerlink had to come up with a rescue plan fast. If retail outlets wont stock our product, why dont we sell it direct online? We need a successful marketing campaign in order to reverse the decline in sales.

product (n) product development (n) production (n) production facility/plant (n) quality assurance (n)

\pr"dkSn\

\"kwltI SUrns\

rescue plan (n)

\"reskju pln\

retail outlet (n) reverse (v) reverse the decline in sth sale or return a sale or return basis

\"riteIl aUtlet\ \rI"vs\

\seIl O rI"tn\

"Why not offer the product on a sale or return basis?" "If we do that, it will create cashflow problems." 2

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in company Intermediate
Unit 17
headword consumer (n) consumer choice freely (adv) global (adj) global village (n) globalisation (n) globalise (v) pronunciation \kn"sjum\ translation/notes example sentence Do you think that the global companies are responsible for reducing consumer choice? Nowadays, capital, goods and labour move freely across borders.

\"frilI\

\glUbl "vIlIdZ\ \glUblaI"zeISn\ \"glUblaIz\

Do you agree that the concept of the "global village" is a product of the media? Globalisation means selling products and services to a world market. As business and the media globalise, we all start eating the same food, wearing the same clothes etc. MTV, the popular satellite music channel, is received in 400 million homes globally. Globalisation has resulted in new growth areas in Asia such as Laos and Thailand. Even in industrialised countries, there is a big difference between the rich and the poor.

globally (adv) growth area (n) industrialised (adj) industrialised country market (n) market economy (n) market reform (n) open up (phr v) (opposite = close down)

\"glUblI\ \"grUT erI\ \In"dstrIlaIzd\

\mkIt I"knmI\ \mAkIt rI"fOm\ \Upn "p\

Private businesses are an important part of any countrys market economy. The decision to speed up market reforms has had a big impact in South-East Asia. Do you agree that globalisation has the effect of opening up markets and cultures to everyone?

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in company Intermediate
Unit 18
headword business business lunch (n) main dish (n) pronunciation translation/notes example sentence

\"bIzns lntS\ \meIn "dIS\

Do you ever invite clients on business lunches? "What are you having as your main dish?" "Ill have roast chicken." "Are you having one of the specials?" "No, Ill stick to the standard menu." I tried the local speciality octopus served in its own ink.

special (n)

\"speSl\

speciality (n) local speciality (n) work through (phr v)

\speSI"ltI\

\wk "Tru\

Do you mind if we work through lunch and eat later?

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in company Intermediate
Unit 19
headword attachment (n) as an attachment breakdown (n) a detailed breakdown of business (n) business correspondence (n) business letter (n) pronunciation \"ttSmnt\ translation/notes example sentence Ill send the report to you as an attachment.

\"breIkdaUn\

We need a detailed breakdown of costs for the whole project.

\"bIzns krIspndns\ \"bIzns let\

Traditionally, business correspondence has always been very formal. If Im e-mailing someone I dont know, my e-mail looks pretty much like a standard business letter. E-mail is a more spontaneous medium of communication than the traditional business letter. The unified messaging service allows me to pick up all my messages through my electronic organiser. Do you keep your e-mails on file?

communication (n) medium of communication electronic organiser (n)

\kmjunI"keISn\

\IlektrnIk "OgnaIz\ \faIl\

file (n) keep sth on file inbox (n)

\"Inbks\

The unified messaging service directs all my e-mails, voice messages and faxes into a central inbox. All costs are fully itemised on the bill.

itemise (v) fully itemised laptop (n) management consultancy (n)

\"aItmaIz\

\"lptp\ \mnIdZmnt kn"sltnsI\ \"mesIdZIN\

I prepared the report on the laptop during the flight. They work for a top management consultancy in London and have lots of famous clients. For $25 per month, you can subscribe to a messaging service that sends all your messages to a central in-box. 1

messaging messaging service

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in company Intermediate
Unit 19
headword negotiate (v) negotiate on price /costs/fees point (n) get straight to the point proposal (n) put together a proposal response time (n) schedule (n) on schedule send on (phr v) server (n) think through (phr v) pronunciation \nI"gUSIeIt\ translation/notes example sentence Estimates would give us more room to negotiate on fees.

\pOInt\

The thing I like about e-mails is that theyre not too formal and you can get straight to the point. Two of our top consultants are putting together a proposal for a major new client.

\pr"pUzl\

\rI"spns taIm\ \"Sedjul\

The response time to many of my e-mails is today, not tomorrow or next week. Jonathan is under a lot of pressure from head office to get the proposal in on schedule. Im sending your e-mail on to head office. Sorry for the delay in getting back to you. The servers been down again. Some e-mails are really badly written you can tell that people are thinking through what they want to say as they write. E-mails and other forms of digitally transmitted data will soon become more common than phone calls.

\send "n\ \"sv\ \TINk "Tru\

transmit (v) digitally transmitted data voice (n) voice mail (n)

\trnz"mIt\

\"vOIs meIl\

In some ways, e-mail is similar to voice mail youre talking through a computer keyboard instead of a phone. The unified messaging service directs all my e-mails, voice messages and faxes into a central inbox.

voice message (n)

\"vOIs "mesIdZ\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 20
headword bargain (n) bargaining phase (n) bluechip company (n) pronunciation \"bAgn\ translation/notes example sentence Dont be tempted to enter the bargaining phase too soon.

\"blutSIp kmpnI\

Famous football clubs such as Manchester United and Real Madrid make profits many bluechip companies would envy. Dont make any concessions without asking for something in return.

concession (n) make concessions corporate image (n)

\kn"seSn\

\kOprt "ImIdZ\

Manchester United is a multinational corporation with a very strong corporate image. During the bargaining phase you can make your counter-proposals.

counter-proposal (n) make a counter-proposal fall-back position (n) market value (n) merchandising outlet (n)

\"kaUntprpUzl\

\"fOlbk p"zISn\ \"mAkIt vlju\ \"mtSndaIsIN aUtlet\

You need to know what your fall-back position is if you dont reach an agreement. The club has a market value of over 110 million. Manchester United merchandising outlets exist in places as far away as Hong Kong and Sydney. Football today is a huge money-making industry.

money-making industry (n) negotiate (v) negotiate terms

\"mnImeIkIn IndstrI\

\nI"gUSIeIt tmz\

The job of a players agent is to negotiate terms with clubs who want to buy that player. Its a good idea to decide in advance at what point you will walk away from the negotiating table. Dozens of books have been written on negotiation tactics.

negotiating table (n)

\nI"gUSIeItIN teIbl\

negotiation tactics (n pl)

\nI"gUSIeISn tktIkz\

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in company Intermediate
Unit 20
headword win-win negotiation pronunciation \"wIn-wIn nIgUSIeISn\ \nI"gUSIeIt\ translation/notes example sentence Win-win negotiation means that both sides get something out of the negotiation process. An experienced negotiator spends time getting to know the people he or she is dealing with. A common tactic in negotiations is to try and shock your opponent with your opening offer.

negotiator (n)

offer (n) opening offer (n) position (n) opening position (n) target position (n) walk-away position (n)

\"f\

\"UpnIN p"zISn\ \"tAget p"zISn\ \"wOk weI p"zISn\

Your opening position is your initial offer or price or whatever. Your target position is what youre realistically aiming for. Your walk-away position is the point at which you walk away from the negotiating table. Top football clubs can earn a lot of money through sponsorship deals. Manchester United had a successful stock market flotation in 1991.

sponsorship deal (n) stock market (n) stock market flotation

\"spnsSIp dil\ \"stk mAkIt\

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Upper intermediate

Welcome to the in company Upper intermediate Wordlist!


What information does the in company Upper intermediate Wordlist give you? a summary of key words and phrases from each unit of in company Upper intermediate Students Book pronunciation of keywords and phrases sample sentences showing the words and phrases in context common collocations, expressions and idioms using the key words also included are opposites and American English equivalents Abbreviations used in the Wordlist
(v) (adj) (n) verb adjective noun (phr v) phrasal verb (n pl) plural noun (adv) adverb (conj) sb sth conjunction somebody something (Am E) American English (Br E) British English

in company

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS


/I/ /i/ /U/ /u/ /e/ // // /O/ // // big fish green beans should look blue moon ten eggs about mother learn words short talk fat cat must come /bIg fIS/ /gri:n bi:nz/ /SUd lUk/ /blu: mu:n/ /ten egz/ /baUt mD(r)/ /l:n w:dz/ /SO:t tO:k/ /ft kt/ /mst km/ /A/ / / /I/ /eI/ /U/ /OI/ /U/ /e/ /aI/ /aU/ calm start hot spot ear face pure boy nose hair eye mouth /kA:m stA:t/ /ht spt/ /I(r)/ /feIs/ /pjU(r)/ /bOI(r)/ /nUz/ /he(r)/ /aI/ /maU/

CONSONANTS
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tS/ /dZ/ /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ // /D/ pen bad tea dog church jazz cost girl far voice thin then /pen/ /bd/ /ti:/ /dg/ /tS:tS/ /dZz/ /kst/ /g:l/ / fa:(r)/ /vOIs/ /In/ /Den/ /s/ /z/ /S/ /Z/ /m/ /n/ /N/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ snake noise shop measure make nine sing house leg red wet yes /sneIk/ /nOIz/ /Sp/ /meZ(r)/ /meIk/ /naIn/ /sIN/ /haUs/ /leg/ /red/ /wet/ /jes/

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in company
Unit 3
headword blow your chances (of)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence After the deal had fallen through, he knew hed blown his chances of a salary increase. His salary was 50,000 a year but his bonuses were triple that.

\blU j "tSAnsz v\ \"bUns\ \"bIzns\ \rn "bIzns\ \k"lps\ \D k"lps v\

bonus (n) business (n) run a business collapse (n) the collapse of

Running a business requires a lot of determination and hard work.

Nick Leeson was at the centre of the scandal surrounding the collapse of Barings Bank. After months of discussions the proposed merger finally came to nothing.

come to nothing debt (n) crippling debts (n pl)

\km t "nTIN\ \det\ \krIplIN "dets\

Burdened with crippling debts, Barings was finally bought by the Dutch IMNG Bank for the sum of one pound. Many students leave university with heavy debts. Leeson carefully hid his mounting debts in an account called Error Losses 88888. All outstanding debts should be paid off immediately. Do you think investment in environmentally friendly, less exploitative products makes the world a better place? Ethical investment is investment in products that are environmentally friendly and non-exploitative.

heavy debts (n pl) mounting debts (n pl) outstanding debts (n pl) environmentally friendly (adj) ethical investment (n)

\hevI "dets\ \maUntIN "dets\ \aUtstndIN "dets\ \InvaIrmentlI "frendlI\ \eTIkl In"vestmnt\

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in company
Unit 3
headword exploitative (adj) (opposite = non-exploitative) fall through (phr v) (opposite = go through) get on (phr v) go through (phr v) (opposite = fall through) investment (n) investment fund (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Exploitative businesses are those which make money by selling products such as cigarettes, alcohol and arms.

\Ik"splOIttIv\

\fOl "Tru\

The deal fell through after the government rejected the companys bid.

\get "n\ \gU "Tru\

How important is it to you to get on in your career? Negotiations seemed to be successful so were all hoping the deal will go through.

\In"vestmnt\ \In"vestmnt fnd\

Vice Fund is the first investment fund not afraid to describe itself as politically incorrect. The increasing value of property makes it a sound investment. Over the last few years many investors have lost a fortune on the stock exchange.

sound investment (n) investor (n) land (v) land a job lose (v) lose your touch

\saUnd In"vestmnt\ \In"vest\ \lnd\ \lnd "dZb\ \luz\ \luz j "ttS\

After leaving school, Leeson landed a job with Coutts bank in the City of London.

After the markets did a U-turn, Leeson seemed to lose his touch and the speculative losses built up. Microsoft have certainly made their mark in the computer software industry. Frankly as a business proposition, its a non-starter. Many green investments have paid off very well in the last ten years, often outperforming less ethically sound stocks. 2

make your mark (in) non-starter (n) pay off (phr v)

\meIk j "mAk In\ \nn"stAt\ \peI "f\

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in company
Unit 3
headword potential (n) potential for growth

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\p"tenSl\ \ptenSl f "grUT\

Companies are selected according to their financial soundness and potential for growth. We nearly managed to get the contract but just failed to pull it off. Sales of alcohol and cigarettes always increase in times of recession. A lot of the companies that people invest in derive a significant portion of their revenues from products considered socially irresponsible. My advice would be to invest your savings in property rather than in the stock exchange.

pull sth off (phr v) recession (n) revenues (n pl)

\pUl smTIN "f\ \rI"seSn\ \"revnjuz\

savings (n pl) soundness (n) (opposite = instability) financial soundness

\"seIvINz\ \"saUndns\ \fnnSl "saUndns\ \D "stk IkstSeIndZ\ \"jutn\ \"du jutn\ \wk\ \wk j weI "p frm\

Consider carefully the financial soundness of companies you are thinking of investing in. Many investors have lost a fortune on the stock exchange in recent years.

the stock exchange (n) U-turn (n) do a U-turn work (v) work your way up (from)

In 1994 the markets did a U-turn and Leeson seemed to lose his touch.

He worked his way up from the very bottom to become Barings top currency trader at the Singapore office.

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in company
Unit 4
headword attention (n) command attention

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"tenSn\ \kmAnd "tenSn\

Your appearance and the way you speak are important factors in commanding an audiences attention. Id particularly like to draw your attention to the chart on the screen.

draw (sbs) attention (to)

\drO smbdIz "tenSn tu\ \"tenSn spn\ \"OdIns\ \OdIns "memb\ \OdIns "rikOl\ \"bIzns OdIns\ \"bkgraUnd\ \gIv smbdI sm v D "bkgraUnd tu\ \"bdI lNgwIdZ\

attention span (n) audience (n) audience member (n) audience recall (n) business audience (n) background (n) give sb some of the background (to)

The attention span of the average audience member is 12.5 seconds.

The attention span of the average audience member is 12.5 seconds. Using visuals in your talk will improve audience recall by 400%. Cambridge Associates is a training company that helps people give presentations to business audiences. Id just like to give you some of the background to what Im about to say.

body language (n)

Your talk was excellent and your body language projected strength and confidence. Bullet-pointed lists can help you make your point effectively but using too many of them is boring. Miss this deadline and youll lose the biggest client this companys ever had. Your delivery, or the way you speak, is as important as the words themselves.

bullet-pointed (adj) deadline (n) miss a deadline delivery (n)

\"bUltpOIntd\ \"dedlaIn\ \mIs "dedlaIn\ \dI"lIvrI\

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in company
Unit 4
headword face-to-face (adj) face-to-face debate/ negotiation etc flipchart (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\feIst"feIs\ \feIstfeIs dI"beIt\nIgUSI"eISn\ \"flIptSAt\

The face-to-face presidential debate took place on television on September 26, 1960.

A flipchart consists of large sheets of paper, attached at the top, that you write things on when talking to a group of people. A fluent and confident speaker can easily command the attention of an audience.

fluent (adj) (opposite = hesitant) handout (n)

\"flunt\

\"hndaUt\

A good piece of advice is not to give your audience any handouts until youve finished speaking. Hesitant speakers fail to interest or convince their audience.

hesitant (adj) (opposite = fluent) impact (n) loss of impact (n) (be) neck and neck non-verbal (adj) (opposite = verbal) non-verbal body language/gestures overhead (n) personnel (n) sales personnel (n)

\"heztnt\

\"Impkt\ \ls v "Impkt\ \bI nek n "nek\ \nn"vbl\ \nnvbl "bdI lNgwIdZ\"dZestSz\ \"Uvhed\ \ps"nel\ \"seIlz psnel\

Too many visuals can result in a loss of impact. Nixon and Kennedy were neck and neck in the polls, with 47% of the vote each.

Remember that your use of non-verbal gestures has a big impact on your audience. An overhead is a picture or a piece of writing that you show to people using an overhead projector. Do you think sales personnel earn higher commission if theyre good-looking?

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in company
Unit 4
headword perspective (n) put sth into perspective

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\p"spektIv\ \pUt smTINInt p"spektIv\ \pOInt "aUt\

To put this into some kind of perspective for you, this is the first time weve failed to achieve our sales targets in two years.

point out (phr v) Id like to point out that PowerPoint (n) presence (n) natural presence (n) presentation (n) attend a presentation

Id like to point out that unemployment in the area has gone down in the last six months.

\"paUpOInt\ \"prezns\ \ntSrl "prezns\ \prezn"teISn\ \tend prezn"teISn\ \gIv\meIk prezn"teISn\ \"prUses\ \pr"dZekt\ \prdZekt "knfdns\"streNT\ \pUl "hed\

PowerPoint is a piece of software enabling you to create your own visuals for meetings and presentations. Your appearance, body language and the way you speak are all part of your natural presence. Tinas boss attended her presentation in order to give her feedback on her performance. Were giving a presentation to a big Taiwanese client and its important that it goes well. The human brain processes images 400,000 times faster than text.

give/make a presentation

process (v) project (v) project confidence/ strength etc pull ahead (phr v) (opposite = fall back) slide (n)

Its important that your body language projects confidence and strength.

In the all-important opinion polls, Kennedy pulled ahead.

\slaId\

A slide is a small piece of film in a frame that you shine light through to show the image on a screen.

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in company
Unit 4
headword speaker (n) underline (v) be up (opposite = be down) verbal (adj)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Good speakers need to have self-belief, that is to say confidence and assurance. A word can be emphasized and a thought underlined by silence. Net profits are up 97% yes, 97%.

\"spik\ \nd"laIn\ \bi "p\

\"vbl\

How much of the impression that speakers make on their audience is verbal, as opposed to visual? Nixons verbal skills were superior to Kennedys but he lacked visual appeal.

verbal skills (n pl) visual (adj) visual appeal (n) visuals (n pl)

\"vbl skIlz\ \"vIZUl\ \vIZUl "pil\ \"vIZUlz\

The Nixon-Kennedy debate was the classic case of verbal skills versus visual appeal. Visuals, such as videos, overheads and PowerPoint, help to command the attention of your audience. 38% of the total impression speakers make on an audience is vocal (how they sound). Research has shown that people prefer low voices to high-pitched ones.

vocal (adj) voice (n) high-pitched/low voice

\"vUkl\ \vOIs\ \haIpItSt\lU "vOIs\

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in company
Unit 5
headword account (n) debit sbs account

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kaUnt\ \debIt smbdIz "kaUnt\ \Ol"tntIv\ \hv nU Ol"tntIv bt tu\ \"sIstns\ \bi v "sIstns t smbdI\ \"OTraIzd\ \nt bi "OTraIzd t du smTIN\ \"kOl\ \keIs\ \aI hUp DIs Iz nt D "keIs\ \"tSek wID\ \dIs"greIs\ \bi n t dIs"greIs\ \faUl "p\ \faUl TINz "p\ \get daUn t "bIzns\

I notice that you had no problem debiting our account for $15,000.

alternative (n) have no alternative but to

If we dont get delivery of the shirts within 48 hours, I shall have no alternative but to hand the matter over to our legal department.

assistance (n) be of assistance (to sb)

Glad to be of assistance. Is there anything else I can help you with?

authorised (adj) (not) be authorised to do sth

Were not authorised to give refunds, Im afraid.

caller (n) case (n) I hope this is not the case.

The article on p. 26 is about dealing with unwanted callers on the phone.

I realise you may not have made a start on the report yet but I hope this is not the case. Is there any chance of sending anyone else out here?Ill check with Liz and see if she can spare Kim for a few days. You havent even sent an email explaining why the orders taking so long to arrive. Its an utter disgrace. If you carry on fouling things up, your job could be in danger. Lets stop wasting time and get down to business.

check with (phr v) disgrace (n) be an utter disgrace foul up (phr v) foul things up get down to business

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in company
Unit 5
headword get hold of

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Can you get hold of the organisers and tell them well set the stand up tomorrow at 7am? Mobile phones make it possible to get in touch whenever you want, wherever you want. Ill let you get on is a polite way of telling someone you want to end a phone conversation. It might help to have a Polish interpreter. OK, Ill get on to that right away. Ive been too busy to get round to typing up the report. Some people can take a long time to get to the point when theyre chatting on the phone. Its been great talking to you. We must get together soon. If we dont receive the delivery within 48 hours, Ill be handing the matter over to our legal department. Do you happen to have a phone number for the promotions people? Ill have to go. Someones just this minute stepped into the office.

\get "hUld v\

get in touch

\get In "ttS\

get on (phr v)

\get "n\

get on to (phr v) get round to (phr v) get to the point

\get "n tu\ \get "raUnd tu\ \get t D "pOint\

get together (phr v) hand over (phr v) happen (v) happen to have/know etc just this minute keep (v) I mustnt keep you. logo (n) company logo (n) look into sth (phr v)

\get t"geD\ \hnd "Uv\ \"hpn\ \hpn t "hv\"nU\ \dZnst DIs "mInt\ \kip\ \aI msnt "kip ju\ \"lUgU\ \kmpnI "lUgU\ \lUk "Int smTIN\

I mustnt keep you is a polite way of letting someone know you want to end a phone conversation. We ordered 6,000 polo shirts with our company logo on. Did you order a reprint of the Polish brochures? Ill look into it the minute I get off the phone. 2

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in company
Unit 5
headword make yourself clear point (n) Is there any point (in) ? positive note (n) end sth on a positive note

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence I shall be contacting our legal department unless I hear from you within 48 hours. I hope Ive made myself clear. Is there any point in sending the Russian brochures?

\meIk jself "klI\ \pOInt\ \Iz De enI "pOInt\ \"pztIv nUt\ \end smTIN n "pztIv nUt\ \pr"beISnrI "pIrId\ \"prUgres\ \meIk "prUgres n\ \prmUSnl "prdkt\ \ritS\ \ritS smbdI n D "fUn\ \"rifnd\ \gIv smbdI "rifnd\ \"rum\ \Dez "rum gUIN baUt ...\ \stAt\ \meIk "stAt n\

Its important to try and end phone calls on a positive note.

probationary period (n) progress (n) make progress (on) promotional product (n)

A probationary period is the initial period that someone spends doing a job that shows whether they are suitable for the post. Are you making any progress on the Samsung report or not? A promotional product is one that advertises a company or organization and often has a logo or the name of the company printed on it.

reach (v) reach sb on the phone

Ive tried calling several times but unfortunately Ive been unable to reach him on the phone.

refund (n) give (sb) a refund

Were unable to give refunds, Im afraid, but we could send you a replacement.

rumour (n) Theres a rumour going about start (n) make a start (on)

Theres a rumour going about of a possible merger between the two companies.

Ive not even had time to make a start on the report yet.

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in company
Unit 5
headword state (v) state your business

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\steIt\ \steIt j "bIzns\

To avoid wasting time, try to state your business as soon as possible during the conversation. Which strategy do you normally use for ending a phone conversation when youre busy? Phone call termination can be difficult, especially with hardened chatterers!

strategy (n)

\"strtdZI\

termination (n) type up (phr v) type up a report/ paper/presentation

\tm"neISn\ \taIp "p\ \taIp p "rIpOt\"peIp\ "presnteISn\

How long do you think it will take to type up that report?

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in company
Unit 6
headword action plan (n) draw up/work out an action plan agenda (n) hidden agenda

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kSn pln\ \drO p\wk aUt n "kSn pln\ \"dZend\ \hIdn "dZend\

Its important to draw up an action plan so that we all know what were doing.

A hidden agenda is a secret reason for doing something because it will bring you an advantage. Its time we moved on to the next item on the agenda.

item on the agenda

\aItm n DI "dZend\ \set n "dZend\ \stIk tu n "dZend\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns pln\

set an agenda stick to an agenda business (n) business plan (n)

Once youve set an agenda for your meeting, try to stick to it. Meetings within our department tend to stick strictly to the agenda and are highly focused. Timeofyourlife.com is based on an interesting business plan ordinary people buying a kind of timeshare in luxury goods. Jeff is in charge of in-company training at a prestigious business school in the United States. People in business are highly geared towards capitalist values but they need to understand that there are other ways of seeing the world. Discuss the following topic: Does a meeting need a chairperson? Theres a rumour that the company is planning to check up on employees using PC monitoring software and CCTV. Well come back to this point later if weve got time.

business school (n) capitalist (adj) capitalist values (n pl)

\"bIzns skul\ \"kptlIst\ \kptlIst "vljuz\

chairperson (n) check up on (phr v)

\"tSepsn\ \tSek "p n\

come back to (phr v)

\km "bk tu\

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in company
Unit 6
headword communication (n) communication barrier (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\kmjunI"keISn\ \kmjunI"keISn brI\

Communication barriers are often caused by hierarchies in the workplace.

communication breakdown (n) \kmjunI"keISn

breIkdaUn\
computer surveillance (n)

Misunderstandings or communication breakdowns are especially common between people from different cultures. Computer surveillance could help to identify employees who access games and websites during company time. The meeting will take place in Conference Room 7 on the top floor.

\kmpjut s"veIlns\ \"knfrns rum\ \"knflIkt\ \erI v "knflIkt\ \kn"senss\ \ritS kn"senss\ \ktIN"edZ\

conference room (n) conflict (n) area of conflict (n) consensus (n) reach a consensus cutting-edge (adj) (opposite = old-fashioned) deliberate (over) (v) device (n) hand-held device

Try to anticipate and avoid areas of conflict during your meetings.

If a group of people reach a consensus about something, they all agree on it. Cutting-edge technology or procedures are the most modern and advanced available. If you deliberate over something, you think very carefully about it before making a decision. John Clarkson and his colleagues plan to develop a hand-held device that will produce results on DNA samples within minutes. Diplomacy involves listening to what other people are saying whether you agree with them or not. A good chairperson should not allow the same people to dominate the discussion all the time.

\dI"lIbreIt Uv\ \dI"vaIs\ \hndheld dI"vaIs\

diplomacy (n) dominate (v) dominate a discussion

\dI"plUmsI\ \"dmIneIt\ \dmIneIt dI"skSn\

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in company
Unit 6
headword electronic tagging device (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Some people are worried that electronic tagging devices or even implants could be used to monitor employee activity.

\IlektrnIk "tgIN dIvaIs\ \"ImeIl\ \trk "imeIlz\ \Im"plOIi\ \ImplOIi "mntrIN\ \Ig"zekjtIv\ \IgzekjtIv "treInIN\ \fIl smbdI "In n\ \"fUks n\ \flUp "tAsk\ \saIn flUp "tAsks\ \praIrtaIz flUp "tAsks\ \dZnetIk "prUfaIl\

e-mail (n) track e-mails employee (n) employee monitoring (n) executive (n) executive training (n) fill sb in (on) (phr v)

New software programmes make it possible for your boss to track e-mails on your company computer. Most employee monitoring in the workplace is perfectly legal and happens more often than you realize. Gay Haskins is head of executive training at London Business School. Luis is going to start by filling us in on some of the background.

focus on (phr v) follow-up task (n) assign follow-up tasks

Its important for us all to focus on the key issues.

Im going to assign a follow-up task to everyone present.

prioritise follow-up tasks genetic (adj) genetic profile (n)

We need to prioritise the follow-up tasks carefully.

Genetic profiles could be used to screen potential employees for health problems, but are they ethical? Are you for or against the idea of genetic screening for prospective employees? A technology is being developed that will allow employers to carry out genetic tests on job candidates. OK, lets get started, shall we? 3

genetic screening (n) genetic test/testing (n)

\dZnetIk "skrinIN\ \dZnetIk "test\"testIN\ \get "statd\

get started

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in company
Unit 6
headword go with (phr v) (opposite = reject) goal (n) establish/define goals

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence I liked your suggestion best, Jenny I think Im going to go with it.

\"gU wID\

\gUl\ \IstblIS\dIfaIn "gUlz\ \"grupTINk\

An effective chairperson should start by establishing the main goals of the meeting. Group-think is a term which describes the need for a group of people to agree at all costs. Electronic tagging devices or even implants could be used to monitor employee activity. Shes in charge of in-company training at one of the UKs leading business schools. Try to incorporate other peoples ideas into your own thinking.

group-think (n)

implant (n)

\"ImplAnt\

in-company training (n) incorporate (v) (opposite = exclude) issue (n) key issue (n) job (n) job prospect (n) leading authority (n) management (n) management skill (n) meeting (n) democratic meeting (n)

\InkmpnI "treInIN\ \In"kOpreIt\

\"ISu\ \ki "ISu\ \dZb\ \"dZb prspekt\ \lidIN O"TrtI\ \"mnIdZmnt\ \"mnIdZmnt skIl\ \mitIN\ \demkrtIk "mitIN\

Genetic screening is fast becoming a key issue in the recruitment of employees.

Should genetic tests decide job prospects? Michael Begeman is a leading authority on one of the worlds most universal rituals the meeting. Executives go to business school in order to improve their management skills.

Democratic meetings are ones in which all employees, from junior management upwards, get a chance to act as chairperson.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 6
headword lead a meeting mobile meeting (n) non-stop meeting (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The person who leads a meeting is called a chairperson. Mobile meetings can be held anywhere in the elevator or even in a local caf! A non-stop meeting is one in which people spend their whole day working around an enormous central table. A recreational meeting is one in which staff can meet in a park area in the middle of the building. In a virtual meeting people sit at work stations and communicate with each other using the latest software. Clarkson and his colleagues plan to miniaturise a device that will produce DNA results within 30 minutes. Businesses have a lot of good reasons for monitoring workers, including preventing workplace crime and protecting company secrets. Id like to speed things up bit in our meetings so that we can avoid overruns. A pager is a small portable piece of equipment that makes a noise when someone is trying to contact you. It might be useful at this stage to summarise the points of view weve heard so far. Point-scoring is the process of attempting to gain an advantage over your colleagues. Inadequate preparation for a meeting can result in a lot of wasted time.

\lid "mitIN\ \mUbaIl "mitIN\ \nnstp "mitIN\

recreational meeting (n)

\rekrIeISnl "mitIN\

virtual meeting (n)

\vtSUl "mitIN\

miniaturise (v)

\"mIntSraIz\

monitor (v)

\"mnt\

overrun (n) pager (n)

\"Uvrn\ \"peIdZ\

point of view (n) point-scoring (n) preparation (n) inadequate preparation

\pOInt v "vju\ \"pOIntskOrIN\ \prep"reISn\ \Indkwt prep"reISn\

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 6
headword privacy (n) invasion of privacy

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"prIvsI\ \InveIZn v "prIvsI\ \rNk\ \pUl "rNk\ \ri"ltI\

In your view, do some of the methods used to monitor employees constitute an invasion of privacy?

rank (n) pull rank reality (n) come close to reality recruiter (n) run sb through sth (phr v) scenario (n) scary/difficult etc scenario

When people pull rank they use their status to get what they want.

Use of DNA tests at interview is a scary scenario that is coming closer to reality.

\rI"krut\ \rn smbdI "Tru\ \s"nArIU\ \skerI\dIfIklt s"nArIU\ \"sitIN reIndZmnts\ \sIkjUrtI I"kwIpmnt\ \"saIdtrkt\ \get "saIdtrkt\ \spid "p\ \spid TINz "p\

Recruiters could be faced with difficult decisions in the event of poor DNA results. Im not sure Ive understood. Run me through that again.

Developments in the field of genetic testing mean that job recruiters could soon be facing a rather scary scenario. Seating arrangements have a powerful influence on what happens during meetings. A meeting was held to discuss the introduction of surveillance and electronic security equipment to check up on employees.

seating arrangements (n pl)

security equipment (n)

sidetracked (adj) (opposite = focused) get sidetracked speed up (phr v) (opposite = slow down) speed things up

We seem to be getting sidetracked lets try and focus on the key issues.

Perhaps we could speed things up a bit we are rather short of time.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 6
headword teamwork (n) time wasting (n) track (v) track e-mails/ phone calls etc troublemaker (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Teamwork involves working with a group of people to achieve something. Sending private e-mails and accessing websites are two of the biggest causes of time wasting in the UK. Employers can track everything from deleted e-mails to the exact computer keys a worker strikes. Troublemakers, in other words people who persistently cause problems in meetings, should be disciplined. How would you feel if you were turned down for a job because you failed a DNA test?

\"timwk\ \"taIm weIstIN\ \trk\ \trk "imeIlz\"fUn kOlz\ \"trblmeIk\

turn down (phr v) (opposite = accept) video camera (n) wireless video camera (n)

\tn "daUn\

\"vIdIU kmr\ \waIls "vIdIU kmr\ \"wkpleIs\ \In D "wkpleIs\

Wireless video cameras allow companies to track the movements of individual employees.

workplace (n) in the workplace

Employee monitoring in the workplace is much more common than most people realise.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 7
headword accounting (n) accounting consultancy (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kaUntIN\ \"kaUntIN knsltnsI\ \"kaUntIN sIstm\

Accounting consultancy Arthur Andersen, the company employed by Enron, was fined $500 million. Enrons accounting system had always been complex and obscure but no one suspected the company of dishonest practices. Creative accounting is another way of saying that a firm has been cooking the books.

accounting system (n)

creative accounting (n) boom (n) (opposite = slump, collapse) Internet/property/ oil boom (n) cash flow situation (n)

\krieItIv "kaUntIN\ \bum\

\Intnet\prptI\OIl "bum\ \"kS flU sItSueISn\ \kmpnI rI"pOt\

The Internet boom didnt last and on April 14th 2001 more than one trillion dollars in market capitalisation was lost. Creative accounting transformed the companys cash flow situation from a $154 million outflow to a $3 billion inflow. The latest company report shows a 16% increase in profits over the last 12 months. Stock market investors were unaware that the company had been cooking the books, inventing partner companies that did not exist to hide huge debts. Before its collapse Enron was the USAs seventh-largest corporation.

company report (n)

cook the books

\kUk D "bUks\

corporation (n) debatable (adj) Its debatable whether

\kOp"reISn\ \dI"beItbl\ \ItIz dI"beItbl weD\ \endvjI "kaUnts\

Its debatable whether global warming is caused by heavy industry.

end-of-year accounts (n pl)

End-of-year accounts show an unexpected drop in profits.

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in company
Unit 7
headword failure (n) (opposite = success) end in failure free market economics (n pl)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"feIlj\ \end In "feIlj\ \fri mAkt ek"nmIks\ \grUT\ \stedI "grUT\ \"gUru\ \mnIdZmnt "gUru\ \Inf"meISn\ \sOs v Inf"meISn\ \mAkt "ristS\ \net\ \net "INkm\"prfIt\ \"pInIn pUl\
In 2000 Enron reported a net income of $979 million. According to the latest opinion polls, the government is more popular than ever before. One trillion dollars of market capitalisation was lost in six and a half hours of panic selling. Accountants at Enron invented partner companies that did not exist in order to hide huge debts. People working in public relations often put out press releases that are little more than sales promotion. 2 Wall Street trusted the companys steady growth without asking many questions about how it was achieved. All the management gurus pointed to Enron as the model modern company. According to a recent study by KPMG, 83% of company mergers end in failure. Do you agree that free market economics bring prosperity to developing countries?

growth (n) (opposite = decline) steady growth (n) guru (n) management guru (n) information (n) source of information market research (n) net (adj) (opposite = gross) net income/profit etc opinion poll (n)

Is the Internet always a reliable source of information? Market research is a useful way of finding out more about client preferences but its not always 100% reliable.

panic selling (n)

\pnIk "selIN\

partner company (n) press release (n) put out a press release

\"pAtn kmpnI\ \"pres rIlis\ \pUt aUt pres rI"lis\

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in company
Unit 7
headword public relations (n) scandal (n) financial scandal (n) scandalous (adj) Its scandalous that speculator (n) spin doctor (n) staggering (adj) a staggering 1 million/ $3 billion etc

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence People in public relations have a vested interest in promoting the company or organization they work for. The company was damaged by a financial scandal in 2001.

\pblIk rI"leISnz\ \"skndl\ \fnnSl "skndl\ \"skndls\ \Its "skndls Dt\ \"spekjleIt\ \"spIn dkt\ \"stgrIN\ \ stgrIN wn mIljn "paUndz\Tri bIljn "dlz\ \s"pres\ \spres "dets\ \tks\ \"tks ls\ \"tks seIvINz\ \pt"deIt\ \"ventS\

Its scandalous that the richest 30% of the planet gets 90% of its income. Speculators loved Enron, especially when its share price reached a phenomenal $90. A spin doctor gives journalists information that makes people or organizations seem as good as possible. Arthur Andersen, the accounting consultancy employed by Enron, was fined a staggering $500 million.

suppress (v) suppress debts tax (n) tax loss (n) tax savings (n pl) up-to-date (adj) venture (n)

Enron suppressed their debts by inventing partner companies that did not actually exist. Some tax losses were claimed twice in order to increase tax savings. By using creative accounting Enron managed to make $2 billion in tax savings. Nowadays the Internet allows us easy access to the most up-to-date information. In addition to traditional businesses, Enron was also involved in several obscure e-commerce ventures.

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in company
Unit 7
headword vested interest (n) have a vested interest in (doing) wipe out (phr v)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\vestd "Intrst\ \hv vestd "Intrst In duIN\ \waIp "aUt\

In business, many specialists have a vested interest in presenting companies in a favourable light. Company profits have been wiped out by the recent slump in the economy.

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It is photocopiable, but all copies must be complete pages. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004.

in company
Unit 8
headword authorisation (n) bestselling (adj) bestselling product/service

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Were hoping that the Board of Directors will give us the authorisation we need to move on to the next stage. We really do believe that the Micro-GYM could be a bestselling product.

\OTraI"zeISn\ \best"selIN\ \bestselIN "prdkt\"svs\ \brnd\ \stretS "brnd\ \breIk "daUn\ \"breikdaUn\ \breIkdaUn v "ksts\"fIgz\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns aIdI\

brand (n) stretch a brand break down (phr v) breakdown (n) breakdown of costs/figures etc business (n) business idea (n)

Adding cosmetics to our range is an ideal opportunity to stretch our brand. Im always worried that the equipment will break down when Im giving a presentation. A complete breakdown of costs is included in the report.

Try to come up with an innovative business idea that could be developed by your company. Is it important in your line of business to be able to present your ideas professionally? Its important that the product you suggest meets a need that is not catered for at present.

line of business (n) cater for (phr v) cater for a demand/need

\laIn v "bIzns\ \"keIt fO\ \keIt fO dI"mAnd\"nid\ \"tSlndZ\ \set "tSlndZ\

challenge (n) set a challenge

One way of making your presentation more interesting is by setting your audience a challenge. The two firms have collaborated to produce an exciting new range of sportswear. The way in which you come across as a person is almost more important than the content of your presentation. 1

collaborate (v) come across (phr v)

\k"lbreIt\ \km "krs\

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in company
Unit 8
headword come up with (phr v) complement (v) corporate vision (n) share corporate vision cost (v) be fully costed departure (n) be a (completely) new departure for develop (v) develop a design/ prototype dry up (phr v) expectation (n) build up expectations

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Try to come up with an innovative idea for a product or service. The new product or service should complement the products or services currently on offer. We think youre going to be as excited about this product as we are is a way of sharing corporate vision with your audience. The Micro-GYM has been fully costed a breakdown is included in the report.

\km "p wID\ \"kmplment\ \kOprt "vIZn\ \Se kOprt "vIZn\ \kst\ \bI fUlI "kstd\ \dI"pAtS\ \bi kmplitlI nju dI"pAtS fO\ \dI"velp\ \dIvelp dI"zaIn\"prUttaIp\ \draI "p\ \ekspek"teISn\ \bIld p ekspek"teISnz\ \"faIndIN\ \meIn "faIndINz\ \"fUks grup\ \set p "fUks grup\ \glUbl I"knmI\

Selling mobile phones in-store is a completely new departure for us.

How long did it take to develop the prototype?

Im always frightened I wont know what to say next and that I might dry up completely. Building up an audiences expectations of a product is the best way of keeping their interest.

finding (n) main findings (n pl) focus group (n) set up a focus group

The chart below highlights our main findings.

They set up several focus groups to find out what consumers wanted.

global economy (n)

Do you think national stereotypes still hold true in an increasingly global economy? 2

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in company
Unit 8
headword go-ahead (n) give sb the go-ahead

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"gUhed\ \gIv smbdI D "gvhed\ \gU "blNk\ \smbdIz maInd gUz "blNk\ \gU "daUn\ \gU daUn "wel\ \gU "draI\ \smbdIz "maUT gUz draI\ \"gU fO\ \gU "fnI\ \gU "kwaIt\ \gU "rN\ \"hndzn\ \"haIlaIt\ \In"k\ \Ink "ksts\ \In"veISn\ \"aItmaIz\

We need the Board of Directors to give us the go-ahead before we move on to the next stage.

go blank sbs mind goes blank

My mind just went blank and I had no idea what to say next.

go down (phr v) go down well go dry sbs mouth goes dry

Jokes go down well in some countries but not in others.

When youre nervous your mouth tends to go dry.

go for (phr v) go funny go quiet go wrong hands-on (adj) highlight (v) incur (v) incur costs innovation (n) itemise (v)

American audiences tend to go for jokes and clever remarks. My microphone went funny and I sounded like Darth Vadar out of Star Wars! I hate that moment just before you start speaking when the audience goes quiet. The technology went wrong and ruined the whole presentation. Intrapreneurs are hands-on managers who make things happen. Our findings are highlighted in the chart below.

Selling the product online would incur extra costs initially. Innovation is essential to any good business. Costs of manufacturing, packaging and advertising are all itemised. 3

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in company
Unit 8
headword major player (n) marketing opportunity (n) presentation (n) presentation style (n) price (v) be priced at $100/ 650/2,500 etc product (n) product effort/ features/testing (n) project budget (n) prototype (n) provider (n) a leading provider of quote (v) quote figures/statistics

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Microsoft is a major player in the computer software industry. 122 million overweight people in the USA is a disgraceful statistic but it represents a wonderful marketing opportunity for us! Different countries are characterised by their different presentation styles.

\meIdZ "pleI\ \"mAktIN ptjuntI\ \prezn"teISn\ \prezn"teISn staIl\ \praIs\ \bI praIst t\

The Micro-GYM would probably be priced at around $35.

\"prdkt\ \"prdkt eft\fitSz\testIN\ \"prdZekt bdZt\ \"prUttaIp\ \pr"vaId\ \ lidIN pr"vaId v\ \kwUt\ \kwUt "fIgz\st"tIstIks\ \rn "aUt v\ \rn aUt v "taIm\"mnI\ \rn "Uv\ \rn Uv "skedjul\

Product testing is still being carried out.

40% of our project budget went into constructing the prototype. A prototype is a model of something, made before it is produced in large quantities. As one of the worlds leading providers of fitness training equipment, we pride ourselves on quality and reliability. You need to quote some statistics to make your presentation interesting but dont overdo it.

run out of (phr v) run out of time/ money etc run over (phr v) run over schedule

If you have too much material to present, you may find yourself running out of time.

Audiences hate it when speakers run over schedule.

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in company
Unit 8
headword selling point (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence During the development phase of a product its important to think about its main selling points.

\"selIN pOInt\

sideline (n) a sideline to structure (v) structure a talk/ presentation switch off (phr v)

\"saIdlaIn\ \ "saIdlaIn tu\ \"strktS\ \strktS "tOk\prezn"teISn\ \swItS "f\

The new range of products have been an enormously successful sideline to our main business. Writing the main points of your presentation on cards will help you to structure your talk. Your audience may switch off altogether if you dont make them laugh within the first five minutes. Be too techno and your audience may think youre showing off.

techno (adj) untapped (adj) an untapped market wrap up (phr v) to wrap things up

\"teknU\ \n"tpt\ \n ntpt "mAkt\ \rp "p\ \t rp TINz "p\

Theres obviously a largely untapped market for this type of workout system.

OK, to wrap things up, Id just like to add that the Micro-GYM has been fully costed and a breakdown is included in the report.

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in company
Unit 9
headword background (n) hover in the background

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"bkgraUnd\ \hv In D "bkgraUnd\ \breIk DI "aIs\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns kmjuntI\ \kndkt "bIzns\

Hovering in the background waiting to be introduced is not an effective way of networking. Cracking jokes is one way of breaking the ice when you meet new people.

break the ice business (n) business community (n) conduct business

Golf is becoming increasingly popular within the business community. Most executives seem as comfortable conducting business on the golf course as in the office. Come through to my office, please.

come through (to) (phr v) firm (adj) (opposite = limp) firm handshake first impression (n) create/make a good/ poor etc first impression job market (n) look sb in the eye

\km "Tru t\ \fm\ \fm "hndSeIk\ \fst Im"preSn\ \krieIt gUd\pO fst Im"preSn\ \"dZb mAkt\ \lUk smbdI In Di "aI\ \"mINgl\ \"netwk\ \IfektIv "netwk\

A firm handshake shows that you are confident and in control.

Creating a positive first impression is very important at a job interview.

In a competitive job market its essential to make a good first impression. When you meet people for the first time, you should look them in the eye and say hello. Mingling is a word meaning talking to and socialising with people.

mingle (v) networker (n) effective networker

You need to be confident and outgoing to be an effective networker.

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in company
Unit 9
headword networking (n) networking skills off-putting (adj) (opposite = appealing) preliminaries (n pl) cut the preliminaries

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"netwkIN\ \"netwkIN skIlz\ \"fptIN\

Good networking skills are essential in business. A limp handshake can be very off-putting.

\prI"lImnrIz\ \kt D prI"lImnrIz\ \rIleISnSIp"bIldIN\ \tOk "Sp\

Cutting the preliminaries and getting straight to the point can be too abrupt when youre dealing with a first-time client. Networking and relationship-building are vital to businesses. Talking shop with colleagues means talking about work and not relaxing and talking about other things.

relationship-building (n) talk shop

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in company
Unit 10
headword absence (n) in the absence of agreement (n) (opposite = disagreement) be in agreement anti-globalisation (n) anti-globalisation protest

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"bsns\ \In Di "bsns v\ \"grimnt\ \bi In "grimnt\ \ntIglUblaI"zeISn\ \ntIglUblaIzeISn "prUtest\ \bk "p\ \"bklg\ \bklg v "Odz\ \"bOIkt\

In the absence of proof of contamination, Coca-Cola could have appealed to have the ban lifted.

I take it were all in agreement that the first priority is the safety of our personnel.

Many large companies have been faced with anti-globalisation protests in recent years. Always remember to back your work up at the end of the day.

back up (phr v) backlog (n) backlog of orders boycott (n)

With the current backlog of orders a strikes the last thing we need! The firm was worried that rumours of contamination could lead to a widespread consumer boycott. McDonalds was ordered to pay the woman $200,000 in compensatory damages.

compensatory damages (n pl)

\kmpenseItrI "dmIdZz\ \kul"hedd\

cool-headed (adj)

Rafferty, the new CEO of the company, has a reputation as a cool-headed decision maker. Id like your input before committing us to a definite course of action.

course of action (n) crisis (n) a crisis unfolds

\kOs v "kSn\ \"kraIsIs\ \ kraIsIs n"fUldz\

A crisis unfolded when a customer spilt coffee on herself and suffered severe burns. Crisis management consultants help companies to deal with difficult situations.

crisis management (n)

\kraIsIs "mnIdZmnt\

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in company
Unit 10
headword financial/image etc crisis (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Buyers cancelled their orders after reading the report for Mercedes this was a financial as well as an image crisis. Are you a cool-headed decision maker or do you panic when youre under pressure? Its important to learn to delegate tasks when youre a manager.

\fnnSl\ImIdZ "kraIsIs\ \dI"sIZn meIk\ \"delgeIt\ \delgeIt "tAsks\"dZbz\"djutIz\ \dI"lIvrI\ \teIk "dIlIvrI v\ \dI"zAst\ \dIzAst "straIks\

decision maker (n) delegate (v) delegate tasks/jobs/ duties etc delivery (n) take delivery (of) disaster (n) disaster strikes

The company was hit hard when hundreds of buyers, waiting to take delivery, cancelled their orders. Disaster struck after the publication of an critical report in a Swedish auto magazine. Theres a rumour that the company is going to be downsized and people are worried about the threat of redundancy. The oil spillage from a tanker off the coast of Spain was an environmental disaster of major proportions.

downsize (n)

\"daUnsaIz\

environmental disaster (n)

\InvAIrmentl dI"zAst\ \frOd\ \kjzeISnz v "frOd\ \IndstrIl "dIspjut\

fraud (n) accusations of fraud

The US corporation, Enron, faced accusations of fraud after irregularities in their accounting methods were discovered. An industrial dispute between senior management and union leaders is threatening to disrupt production. Id appreciate the input of all team members before coming to any decision. One of the most famous cases of insider trading was that of Nick Leeson, which caused the collapse of Barings Bank. 2

industrial dispute (n)

input (n) insider trading (n)

\"InpUt\ \InsaId "treIdIN\

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in company
Unit 10
headword launch (n) lawsuit (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Disaster struck just before the December launch of the new A class model. The company was faced with an expensive lawsuit when customer Stella Liebeck decided to sue for damages. At the trial the jury found McDonalds liable and ordered them to pay over $2.7 million in damages. The markets directly involved in the crisis were France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The monopolies commission is an organisation aimed at preventing companies having total control of a market.

\lOntS\ \"lOsut\

liable (adj)

\"laIbl\

market (n)

\"mAkt\

monopolies commission (n)

\m"nplIz kmISn\ \b"dZekSn\ \b"dZekSn tu\ \"pSn\ \kip jr "pSnz Upn\ \aUtvkOt "setlmnt\ \Uv"lUk\

objection (n) objection to option (n) keep your options open

Whats the nature of your objection to the proposal?

Its more sensible to keep our options open at this stage.

out-of-court settlement (n)

Both parties in the McDonalds dispute eventually made an out-of-court settlement for an undisclosed sum. Can we really afford to overlook the fact that well be putting the local factory workers out of a job? I think we should authorise a total product recall while we conduct further tests. We need to think carefully before closing down our biggest production plant.

overlook (v)

product recall (n) production plant (n)

\"prdkt rikOl\ \pr"dkSn plAnt\

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in company
Unit 10
headword pros and cons (n pl) weigh up (all) the pros and the cons punitive damages (n pl)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\prUz n "knz\ \weI p Ol D prUz n "knz\ \pjuntIv "dmIdZz\ \pUt aU\De\jO "hedz tgeD\ \rI"dndnsI\ \ms rI"dndnsIz\

We need to weigh up all the pros and the cons before we reach a final decision.

McDonalds had to pay $2.7 million in punitive damages because of their unacceptably dismissive attitude. Lets put our heads together and see what ideas we can come up with.

put our/their/your heads together redundancy (n) mass redundancies (n pl)

Mass redundancies were announced by the firm yesterday following a 43% drop in profits. We mustnt rush into anything this issue requires long and careful consideration. Our first priority is to safeguard the well-being of our personnel. The union might consider taking industrial action. A strike? Its a possibility. When McDonalds refused to pay the womans medical bills, she went to an attorney and sued the company. Time is short the deadline for completion of the project is in just three weeks. The parties eventually made an out-of-court settlement for an undisclosed sum.

rush into sth (phr v) safeguard (v) strike (n) sue (v)

\rS "Int smTIN\ \"seIfgAd\ \straIk\ \su\

time is short an undisclosed sum (n)

\taIm Iz "SOt\ \n ndIsklUzd "sm\

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in company
Unit 11
headword adbuster (n) advertising budget (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Adbusters are people who try to stop big companies advertising their products. Multinationals such as Nike and Vodaphone spend a fortune on advertising their advertising budgets are huge. Anti-corporate activism refers to the attempts made to reduce the power and influence of large corporations. Kleins book, No Logo, represents the voice of the anti-corporation movement.

\"dbst\ \"dvtaIzIN bdZt\

anti-corporate activism (n)

\ntIkOprt "ktIvIzm\ \ntIkOpreISn "muvmnt\ \"bIlbOd\

anti-corporation movement

billboard (n) (especially AmE) (BrE = hoarding) brand (n) brand-aware (adj) brand awareness (n)

Billboards advertising products made by multinationals can be seen in most major cities.

\brnd\ \brnd"we\ \brnd "wens\

Most people today are more brand-aware than at any time in the past. There seem to be no limits to what the worlds biggest companies will do to raise brand awareness. Brand loyalty is a marketing term describing the tendency that customers have to stick to the names they trust. How many well-known brands are you wearing or carrying right now?

brand loyalty (n)

\brnd "lOIltI\

well-known/major brand

\welnUn\meIdZ "brnd\ \slebrtI In"dOsmnt\ \kn"smpSn\ \"kul hnt\

celebrity endorsement (adj)

Celebrity endorsement, e.g. Britney Spears advertising Pepsi or Michael Jordan advertising Nike, is a well-known form of advertising. Consumption in the USA is roughly 30 times greater than in India. Cool hunters report back to big companies on the latest trends among young people. 1

consumption (n) cool hunter (n)

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in company
Unit 11
headword corporate sponsorship (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Seeing the Vodaphone brand name on the side of Michael Schumachers Ferrari is an example of corporate sponsorship. Most people throw direct mail or junk mail straight in the garbage. Products that are downmarket are cheap or of low quality.

\kOprt "spnsSIp\ \daIrekt "meIl\ \daUn"mAkt\

direct mail (n) (= junk mail) downmarket (adj) (opposite = upmarket) endorse (v) expose (v) be exposed to free-trade zone (n)

\In"dOs\ \"ekspUz\ \bi ekspUz tu\ \fritreId "zUn\

Michael Jordan was paid more for endorsing the trainers than the entire 30,000-strong workforce was for making them! The average American is exposed to 274 advertisements a day! A lot of the products we buy are produced under terrible conditions in free-trade zones in poorer countries. Do you agree that poor countries are victims of global integration?

global integration (n) (= globalisation) globalisation (n) job security (n) junk mail (n) (= direct mail)

\glUbl Int"greISn\ \glUblaI"zeISn\ \"dZb sIkjUrtI\ \"dZNk meIl\

In her book No Logo Klein claims that globalisation has hit poor countries badly. Theres no job security its no work, no pay when orders dont come in. Theres been a marked increase in the amount of junk mail coming through our doors in recent years. Logos or company symbols have almost become an international language.

logo (n) market (n) marketplace (n)

\"lUgU\ \"mAkt\ \"mAktpleIs\

In a highly competitive marketplace thinking up distinctive names for new products is a specialist business. Market segmentation is the process of dividing up the market into sectors. 2

market segmentation (n)

\mAkt segmn"teISn\

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in company
Unit 11
headword target market (n) upmarket (adj) (opposite = downmarket) multinational (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Its essential to define your target market when youre marketing a product. Products that are upmarket are expensive or of good quality.

\"tAgIt mAkt\ \"pmAkt\

\mltI"nSnl\

Multinationals such as Nike, Microsoft and Starbucks try to be the chief communicators of all that is good in our culture. Klein has become a campaigner against a world that she sees as being overbranded. Overcapacity in which you produce more of something than you can sell is the norm in most businesses. In many of the factories used by the multinationals there is forced overtime but no job security. A PDA is a small palmtop computer used for storing names and addresses and for writing reports.

overbranded (adj)

\Uv"brndd\

overcapacity (n)

\Uvk"pstI\

overtime (n)

\"UvtaIm\

PDA (n) (= personal digital assistant) price sensitivity (n) product (n) product development (n)

\pidi"eI\

\"praIs senstIvtI\ \"prdkt\ \"prdkt dIvelpmnt\ \"prdkt lOntS\

Price sensitivity is an expression describing the tendency of some customers to buy the cheapest products available. A company such as Disney must spend billions on product development annually.

product launch (n)

The number of grocery product launches increased from 2,700 in 1981 to 20,000 in 1996. Product placement is the use of a companys product in a film or TV show as a way of advertising it.

product placement (n)

\"prdkt pleIsmnt\

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in company
Unit 11
headword product positioning (n) promotion (n) promotion of

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The process of deciding whether your product is up- or downmarket is called product positioning. Our advertising budget dictates how much we can spend on promotion of our products. Spam is a term describing unwanted email that is sent to large numbers of people using the Internet. A strategic alliance is formed when two or more rival companies work together in order to achieve something. Video games companies tend to target young males with their action-packed titles. Many of the multinationals exploit their workforces, denying them job security but forcing them to do overtime when necessary.

\"prdkt pzISnIN\ \pr"mUSn\ \pr"mUSn v\

spam (n)

\spm\

strategic alliance (n)

\strtidZIk "laIns\

target (v)

\"tAgt\

workforce (n)

\"wkfOs\

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in company
Unit 12
headword chief executive (n) computer (n) computer hardware (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence According to Owens, someone who sends messages with lots of spelling and grammar mistakes probably has the makings of a chief executive! Computer hardware is equipment such as the monitor, mouse and keyboard that you need to run computer programmes. One big company in the computer industry is considering banning e-mails in the afternoon in order to save time. A survey by MORI revealed that 75% of computer users suffer from computer rage and actually damage their hardware. The person to contact is called Margrethe Rasmussen and remember to copy me in on any correspondence.

\tSif Ig"zekjtIv\ \km"pjut\ \km"pjut hAdwe\ \km"pjut IndstrI\

computer industry (n)

computer rage (n)

\km"pjut reIdZ\

copy sb in (on) (phr v)

\kpI smbdI "In n\ \kOprt "ld\ \D tp v D kOprt "ld\

corporate ladder (n) the top of the corporate ladder cost (n) cost breakdown (n) costing (n) earnings (n) lost earnings (n pl)

Mark Howarth reached the top of the corporate ladder in October 2002 when he was appointed managing director of the firm.

\"kst breIkdaUn\ \"kstIN\ \"nINz\ \lst "nINz\

I require a complete cost breakdown for the project as quickly as possible. Please give me an estimate of the costing for the project.

Outbursts of computer rage can cost companies up to 25,000 in lost earnings and damaged hardware! Cerner stock fell by 28% after emails which the CEO had sent to his staff found their way onto the Yahoo! website! Firing off an e-mail means writing it and sending it as quickly as possible.

fall (by) (v) (opposite = increase (by)) fire off (phr v)

\"fOl baI\

\faI "f\

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in company
Unit 12
headword forward (v) get back to sb (phr v)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Using office e-mail to forward jokes to colleagues is a bad idea! Id be grateful if you could have a quick look at the report and get back to me about it. I must get on to our suppliers about the delay with the order.

\"fOwd\ \get "bk t smbdI\ \get "n t smbdI\ \gU "daUn\ \gU daUn "wel\"bdlI\ \haI"steIts\

get on to sb (phr v) go down (phr v) go down well/badly etc

You did a good job. The product demonstration went down really well.

high-status (adj)

High-status people within a company tend to send messages that are shorter and more direct. Keep me in the loop on any important developments.

keep sb in the loop

\kip smbdI In D "lup\ \"meIkINz\ \hv Ol D "meIkINz v\ \mIdl "mnIdZmnt\

makings (n pl) have (all) the makings of

Shes a competent middle manager but I dont think she has the makings of a CEO.

middle management (n)

Long, overcomplicated e-mail messages tend to characterise those who will go no further than middle management. Generally speaking, a friendly but neutral style works best when youre emailing. Our people in marketing werent too happy with the packaging design. The audience was really impressed with the product demo.

neutral (adj) packaging design (n) product demo (n) (= product demonstration)

\"njutrl\ \pkIdZIn dI"zaIn\ \"prdkt demU\

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in company
Unit 12
headword respond (v) respond to rethink (n) have a rethink (about)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\rI"spnd\ \rI"spnd tu\ \"riTINk\ \hv "riTINk baUt\ \"send btn\ \pres D "send btn\ \saUnd smbdI "aUt n\ \"stres fkt\

How long does it generally take you to respond to your e-mails?

You need to have a rethink about the packaging design.

send button (n) press the send button

Sending an e-mail is so easy you just type your message and then press the send button. When you have a spare moment, Id like to sound you out on this new packaging idea. The survey showed that computers are among the top ten stress factors at work, with 75% of employees shouting and swearing at their machines. Ive too much to do at the moment Id be grateful if you could take the arrangements for the Milan meeting off my hands. Shes totally stressed out at work and feels she cant take on any more. Do you think e-mail is a time-saver or a time-waster? Out of 753 e-mails only ten were really useful the rest could all have been sent straight to the trash! Several of the people we interviewed admitted sending many of their e-mails to the trash unread. Can you update me on where you are with the Rome Expo arrangements.

sound sb out (on) (phr v)

stress factor (n)

take sth off sbs hands

\teIk smTIn f smbdIz "hndz\ \teIk "n\ \"taImseIv\ \trS\

take on (phr v) time-saver (n) trash (n)

unread (adj) update (v) update sb on sth

\n"red\ \p"deIt\

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in company
Unit 13
headword business presentation (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Its vital to start off any business presentation on the right note.

\"bIzns preznteISn\ \"kS flU\ \k"rIzm\ \eknmIk dI"velpmnt\ \frn In"vestmnt\ \get "krs\ \"Impkt\ \meIk n "Impkt n\ \"InfrstrktS\

cash flow (n) charisma (n) economic development (n)

Cash flow is the rate at which a business gets money and then pays it out again. The magic ingredient that many great presenters have is charisma. The programme of careful economic development has ensured that Bhutan has kept a balance between the needs of progress and those of conservation. Many of the current improvements in Bhutan are the result of foreign investment. One of the questions you should ask yourself before giving a presentation is: Whats the central message that Im trying to get across? Making an impact on your audience right at the beginning of a presentation is vitally important. The Progress Party wish to make improvements to the infrastructure of Bhutan and to speed up communications. One of the seven rules of rhetoric is to group key points in threes. Not one single company has ever outperformed us in this market. A rhetorical question is one that you ask without expecting or wanting an answer.

foreign investment (n) get across (phr v) impact (n) make an impact on

infrastructure (n)

key point (n) outperform (v) rhetorical question (n)

\ki "pOInt\ \aUtp"fOm\ \rItrIkl "kwestSn\

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in company
Unit 14
headword air traffic control (n) apology (n) make an apology

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence I looked out of the window and saw a fighter plane flying alongside us apparently air traffic control had lost radio contact with our plane. One way of starting a conversation with a stranger is to make an apology for example, about your childrens behaviour. There was a loud noise from outside the plane, and the strange thing was that the cabin crew just seemed to be ignoring it. I was flying from Malaga to Stansted in the UK this was around the time of the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. Offering assistance, for example by saying Let me help you with that is another way of starting conversation. Macon Learys advice to business travellers is to travel light. Anyway, to cut a long story short, the captain of the plane managed to keep everybody calm and we were able to continue our journey.

\e trfIk kn"trUl\ \"pldZI\ \meIk n "pldZI\

and the strange thing was

\nd D streIndZ TIN ws\ \raUnd D taIm v\ \"sIstns\ \f "sIstns\

around the time of assistance (n) offer assistance

business traveller (n) to cut a long story short

\"bIzns trvl\ \t kt lN stOrI "SOt\ \end "p\ \end p "duIN\

end up (phr v) end up doing

You wont believe this but I ended up sitting next to a guy with a snake in a basket! Incidentally, did I tell you I wont be in the office on Monday afternoon? He won back his job after an industrial tribunal ruled that he had been unfairly dismissed.

incidentally (adv) industrial tribunal (n)

\Ins"dentlI\ \IndstrIl traI"bjunl\ \"lgIdZ\ \lst "lgIdZ\

luggage (n) lost luggage (n)

Have you ever had any bad experiences with lost luggage?

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in company
Unit 14
headword observation (n) make an observation

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\bz"veISn\ \meIk n bz"veISn\ \rI"kwest\ \meIk rI"kwest\ \"sbdZekt\ \n D "sbdZekt v ...\ \t tSeIndZ D "sbdZekt\ \swp\ \swp "sits\"pleIsz\ \"tOkIN v ...\ \t tp It "Ol ...\ \trvl "laIt\ \nfelI dIs"mIst\

Making observations about the weather is another common way of starting a conversation.

request (n) make a request subject (n) On the subject of

Do you mind swapping seats? or Could you help me with my bag? are both examples of someone making a request. On the subject of politics, who do you think is going to win the presidential elections? To change the subject, have you heard whos just been appointed CEO?

To change the subject

swap (v) swap seats/places etc Talking of To top it all travel light unfairly dismissed (adj)

Would you mind swapping seats? I dont like sitting next to the window. Talking of holidays, one of the nicest places Ive ever visited is Bali. To top it all, I ended up sitting next to a guy with a snake in a basket! Travelling light means travelling without much luggage. The industrial tribunal ruled that she had been unfairly dismissed.

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in company
Unit 15
headword acquisition (n) grow by acquisition

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\kwI"zISn\ \grU baI kwI"zISn\ \ strim v kwI"zISnz\ \"bIzns\ \kO "bIzns\

Carly Fiorina, CEO of Hewlett-Packard, pursued a policy of growing by acquisition.

a stream of acquisitions

A stream of acquisitions permitted Amazon to expand into areas such as CDs and clothing.

business (n) core business (n)

We became the worlds No.1 mobile phone company by focusing on our core business. One of the ways to become a guru is to come up with a catchphrase or catchword such as synergy or glocalisation. Co-opetition is a catchword meaning to co-operate with the competition. Semler has chosen to ignore conventional wisdom in allowing his workers to choose and evaluate their bosses. Nokia has overtaken both Ericsson and Motorola in the notoriously cut-throat mobile phone market. The Dell Corporation is a direct-sale computer business that bypasses the middleman, i.e. the retail stores. Bezos, the founder of Amazon, has not been afraid to diversify into new businesses. Downsizing basically means cutting costs by making people redundant.

catchphrase (n)

\"ktSfreIz\

co-opetition (n) conventional wisdom (n)

\kUp"tISn\ \knvenSnl "wIzdm\ \"ktTrUt\

cut-throat (adj)

direct-sale (adj) diversify (v) diversify into

\drekt"seIl\ \daI"vsfaI\ \daI"vsfaI Intu\

downsizing (n) (opposite = expansion) emotional intelligence (n)

\"daUnsaIzIN\

\ImUSnl In"teldZns\

Someone with emotional intelligence knows how to deal with people.

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in company
Unit 15
headword empire (n) the Virgin/Dell/Microsoft etc empire empowerment (n) focused (adj) tightly focused founder (n) the founder of Amazon.com/Dell Corporation etc glass ceiling (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"empaI\ \DvdZIn\del\ maIkrsft "empaI\ \Im"paUmnt\ \"fUkst\ \taItlI "fUkst\ \"faUnd\ \D faUndr v "mzndtkm\ "del kOpreISn\ \glAs "silIN\

Richard Branson is head of the huge Virgin empire.

Empowerment has become a popular catchword meaning giving people control over what they do. Nokia sold off its non-core operations in order to become more tightly focused.

Dell is the founder and CEO of Dell Corporation.

The glass ceiling certainly exists where I work theres hardly a woman who gets promoted beyond unit manager. Glocalisation describes a business strategy in which you keep your business small and local but aim at the whole world as your market. In the mobile phone business its a case of innovate or die. JIT means manufacturing things just in time to meet customer demand.

glocalisation (n)

\glUklaI"zeISn\

innovate (v) JIT (= Just-in-Time) invest (v) invest time/money logistics (n pl) market (n) market leader (n)

\"InveIt\ \dZeIaI"ti\ \In"vest\ \Invest "taIm\"mnI\ \l"dZIstIks\

A lot of time and money has been invested in the project. The logistics of a situation are the practical arrangements that are necessary in order to organize or achieve something. Bransons company, Virgin, has earned a reputation for stealing business off complacent market leaders.

\mAkt "lid\

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in company
Unit 15
headword marketspace (n) merger (n) push through a merger

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence If you create your own marketspace, you break free of your competitors altogether.

\"mAktspeIs\ \"mdZ\ \pUS Tru "mdZ\

Shes a tough manager who pushed through a highly successful merger with PC giant Compaq. Retail stores act as the middlemen who sell the product. Under the guiding hand of Jorma Ollila, Nokia has overtaken rivals Motorola and Ericsson to become the No.1 mobile phone company.

middleman (n) overtake (v)

\"mIdlmn\ \Uv"teIk\

position (n) maintain your position

\p"zISn\ \meInteIn jO p"zISn\ \pOtfUlIU k"rI\ \pb"lIstI\ \dZenreIt pb"lIstI\ \riendZ"nIrIN\

In spite of the dot.com crash of 2001, Amazon has maintained its position as the worlds largest Internet retailer. What is this so-called portfolio career? Its the idea that you have to keep changing direction in your career every seven years. One of Bransons greatest skills is the ability to generate publicity for his company.

portfolio career (n) publicity (n) generate publicity

re-engineering (n)

Re-engineering was the big thing in the 90s all about improving efficiency and performance by sacking half your staff!

recession (n) ride out the recession

\rI"seSn\ \raId aUt D rI"seSn\ \self"pblsIst\

She rode out the recession to rise meteorically to become head of one of Silicon Valleys biggest companies. A skilled self-publicist, there is nothing Branson wouldnt do to promote the Virgin brand. Nokia decided to sell off its non-core operations and to focus exclusively on mobile phones. 3

self-publicist (n)

sell off (phr v)

\sel "f\

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in company
Unit 15
headword synergy (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Synergy is based on the principle that we are all more effective as individuals if we work as a team. TQM involves monitoring production, inventory, logistics etc and making sure that they are accurate.

\"sIndZI\

TQM (= Total Quality Management) (n) trend (n) buck the trend (opposite = follow the trend)

\tikju"em\

\trend\ \bk D "trend\

Amazon bucked the e-commerce trend by remaining the worlds largest Internet retailer.

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in company
Unit 16
headword advertising technique authorise (v) back up (phr v)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The use of celebrities to endorse products is a powerful advertising technique. A total shutdown of the Hamburg plant has been authorised. If we close the plant down, well have container lorries backed up from Hamburg to Lbeck! Geoconference has an impressive list of blue-chip clients, including IBM and Merrill Lynch. If you authorise a plant shutdown, well have a terrible production bottleneck.

\"dvtaIzIN teknik\ \"OTraIz\ \bk "p\

blue-chip client (n) bottleneck (n) production bottleneck (n) budget (n) budget overrun (n)

\blutSIp "klaInt\ \"btlnek\ \pr"dkSn btlnek\ \"bdZt\ \bdZt "Uvrn\

Unfortunately the rumours of a budget overrun on the Vivacity campaign turned out to be true. Im worried about the costs were running up on the ternelle account I think were in danger of exceeding our budget. With post-production costs, we could run 500,000700,000 over budget on this one.

exceed a budget

\Iksid "bdZt\

run over budget costs (n pl) run up costs delivery (n) delayed deliveries (n pl) endorse (v) endorse a product/brand

\rn Uv "bdZt\ \ksts\ \rn p "ksts\ \dI"lIvrI\ \dIleId dI"lIvrIz\ \In"dOs\ \IndOs "prdkt\"brnd\

The Chief Financial Officer is concerned about the costs RJK are running up on the ternelle account. A large number of delayed deliveries could harm the companys reputation.

The use of celebrities to endorse products is a powerful advertising technique.

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in company
Unit 16
headword fall (n) fall in productivity/ sales etc manhours (n pl) lost manhours (n pl) order (n) meet an order

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\fOl\ \fOl In prdk"tIvtI\"seIlz\ \"mnaUz\ \lst "mnaUz\ \"Od\ \mit n "Od\

A fall in productivity could seriously damage our position as market leader.

How many lost manhours do you estimate a plant shutdown would result in?

If we close down the plant for a few days, we wont be able to meet any of our current orders. Max Schiller is told to oversee and ensure completion of the repairs within three days. A total plant shutdown could generate a great deal of adverse publicity. We have insufficient reserve stocks to fully meet current orders.

oversee (v) publicity (n) adverse publicity (n) reserve stocks (n pl) safety (n) safety check (n) safety hazard (n) shutdown (n) smooth over (phr v) smooth things over

\Uv"si\ \pb"lIstI\ \dvs pb"lIstI\ \rIzv "stks\ \"seIftI\ \"seIftI tSek\ \"seIftI hzd\ \"StdaUn\ \smuD "Uv\ \smuD TINz "Uv\

The site must be evacuated in order to conduct safety checks. We have to shut the plant down at the moment its a safety hazard. The shutdown of the Hamburg plant has now been officially confirmed.

Somebody in after-sales will have to ring round our key customers and smooth things over with them. Teleconferencing allows people in different places to communicate using an electronic communications system, usually television.

teleconferencing (n)

\telI"knfrnsIN\

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in company
Unit 16
headword video (n) video phone (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"vIdIU fUn\

The advantage of videoconferencing is that you can hold meetings with people in other places using a video phone. Although there are many advantages to videoconferencing, it will never eliminate the need for a face-to-face meeting.

videoconferencing (n)

\"vIdIU"knfrnsIN\

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in company
Unit 17
headword acumen (n) financial acumen (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kjmn\ \fnnSl "kjmn\ \"grimnt\ \dZepdaIz n "grimnt\ \btm "laIn\ \bI smbdIz bslut btm "laIn\ \"bIzns\ \ rkslId "bIzns\ \"kmprmaIz\ \ritS "kmprmaIz\ \kn"seSn\ \bteIn kn"seSn\ \"dedlk\ \end In "dedlk\ \dI"mAnd\ \meIk dI"mAnd\

Someone who has financial acumen makes good financial decisions and judgments.

agreement (n) jeopardise an agreement bottom line (n) be sbs absolute bottom line business (n) a rock-solid business compromise (n) reach a compromise concession (n) obtain a concession deadlock (n) end in deadlock demand (n) make a demand

Some negotiators make a last-minute demand in the hope that his or her opponent will not want to jeopardise the agreement for one small detail. O-Zone is a unique product and Im afraid 4 a bottle is our absolute bottom line.

Firmly established rock group, the Stones, are also a rock-solid business generating millions of dollars a year. During negotiations you must often be prepared to reach some kind of compromise. Experienced negotiators know how to obtain concessions from their opponents without giving too much in return. Neither side was prepared to move and so the negotiation ended in deadlock.

Dont make all your demands at the start of negotiations make a small demand first and get agreement on it before proceeding. Emotional blackmail involves trying to make other people feel guilty in order to get what you want. Essentials are the things that it is very important for you to obtain during negotiations.

emotional blackmail (n)

\ImUSnl "blkmeIl\ \I"senSlz\

essentials (n pl)

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in company
Unit 17
headword gross revenues (n pl) halfway (adv) meet sb halfway

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The Stones have generated more than $1.5 billion in gross revenues since 1989.

\grUs "revnjuz\ \hAf"weI\ \mit smbdI hAf"weI\ \"hsl\ \nt bI wT D "hsl\ \hedn "knflIkt\

Maybe we could sort something out on price. Would you be willing to meet us halfway?

hassle (n) not be worth the hassle

Sometimes people give in to their opponent completely, deciding that prolonged negotiations are simply not worth the hassle. If neither person is prepared to compromise then the discussions may turn into a head-on conflict. Using high-pressure tactics involves using every strategy you can in order to get what you want. Ideals are the things you will fight to get but not if it costs you the deal. Music rights, not concerts, provide the steadiest income stream. Its not worth sacrificing a long-term relationship for the sake of winning a deal.

head-on conflict (n)

high-pressure tactics (n pl)

\haIpreS "tktIks\

ideals (n pl) income stream (n) long-term relationship (n) manoeuvre (n) room for manoeuvre (n) movement (n) movement on price negotiate (v) negotiable (adj)

\aI"dIlz\ \"In km strim\ \lNtm rI"leISnSIp\ \m"nuv\ \rum f m"nuv\ \"muvmnt\ \"muvmnt n "praIs\ \nI"gUSieIt\ \nI"gUSIbl\

The problem with getting involved in a single-issue negotiation is that you leave yourself little room for manoeuvre. Wed like to see a little more movement on price say, a 10% discount?

Pointing out to your opponent that some things are not negotiable is an example of the strictly off-limits ploy.

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in company
Unit 17
headword negotiating objective (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Your negotiating objectives are the things you want to achieve during negotiations. Experienced negotiators have a range of high-pressure tactics that they use to get what they want. The tactics that you use for negotiating a one-off deal are very different from those you use when theres a long-term relationship involved. The dead Elvis Presley started out-earning the live Elvis Presley in 1988! Mariah Carey was paid off to the tune of 19.5 million when Virgin Records decided they didnt want to record her at all! Which of the high-pressure tactics listed do you most often use to pressurise your opponents? Each time the Stones get airplay they collect 50% of the royalties. Lets set the price issue to one side for a moment, shall we? Tell me a bit more about the product. The problem with all single-issue negotiations is that there is very little room for manoeuvre for either party. The small print of a contract consists of the details printed in small letters that often limit your rights. We could offer you a 6% discount, free delivery and we could throw in free parts and service as well. A single-issue negotiation is one where only one topic is being discussed.

\nIgUSIeItIN b"dZektIv\ \nI"gUSIeIt\

negotiator (n)

one-off deal (n)

\wnf "dil\

out-earn (v) pay off (phr v)

\aUt"n\ \peI "f\

pressurise (v)

\"preSraIz\

royalties (n pl) set sth to one side

\"rOIltIz\ \set smTIN t wn "saId\ \sINglISu nI"gUSIeISn\ \smOl "prInt\

single-issue negotiation (n)

small print (n)

throw sth in (phr v)

\TrU smTIN "In\

topic (n)

\"tpIk\

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in company
Unit 17
headword tradeables (n pl) win (v) win at all costs win-win situation (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Tradeables are the things that you take if you can get them but that are not particularly important to you. Becoming hostile because you want to win at all costs is often a big mistake. By generating options you create a win-win situation where you both feel youve gained something.

\"treIdblz\

\win t Ol "ksts\ \wIn"wIn sItSueISn\

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in company
Unit 18
headword anti-ageing (adj) anti-ageing medical advances back office (n) back office staff (n pl)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\ntI"eIdZIN\ \ntIeIdZIN "medIkl dvAnsz\ \bk "fIs\ \bk "fIs stAf\

Do you think that anti-ageing medical advances are a good idea?

Many companies are already employing workers in countries such as India as back office staff. In my view, the era of robots who are mentally and physically superior to humans is still a long way off. Bowman thinks that western companies are bound to employ an increasing number of workers in the developing world. I believe we are on the brink of creating lifelike machines.

be a long way off

\bi lN weI f\

be bound to brink (n) be on the brink of doing sth commodity (n) precious commodity

\bI "baUnd tu\ \brINk\ \bi n D "brINk v duIN\ \k"mdtI\ \ preSs k"mdtI\ \dIzaIn "beIbI\ \dien"eI\ \dien"eI strktS\

Cochrane predicts that people will be willing to spend large sums of money saving our most precious commodity time. Designer babies have been the subject of much debate in recent times.

designer baby (n) DNA (n) DNA structure (n)

Humans are now beginning to be able to modify their DNA structure and become more artificial. Most of todays businesses grew up in a period of population explosion and rapid economic progress.

economic progress (n)

\eknmIk "prUgres\ \"Ir\ \ent n "ir v\

era (n) enter an era of

I think we may be about to enter an era of rapid population decline.

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in company
Unit 18
headword future (n) a bright future face a bleak future

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"fjutS\ \ braIt "fjutS\ \feIs blik "fjutS\

One industry that definitely has a bright future is the pharmaceuticals. Parts of Europe and the US could be facing a bleak future unless they find a way of solving the population problem. I dont see Dewdneys prediction of a different human species becoming a reality in the foreseeable future. Futurists are people who make predictions about what life will be like in the future. The world may end up being divided into people who can afford to be genetically enhanced and those who cant, leading to a new class of beings. As the global economy becomes more integrated and interdependent so the number of workers in developing countries will grow. Electronic immigrants may soon end up being employed in high-end technical fields such as engineering or IT. The high-tech, high-touch approach involves giving the latest technology a personal touch. Political change and economic change seems to be on the horizon in many countries.

the foreseeable future

\D fOsibl "fjutS\ \"fjutrIst\

futurist (n)

genetically enhanced (adj)

\dZnetIklI In"hAnst\ \glUbl I"knmI\ \haI\ \"haIend\

global economy (n) high (adj) high-end (adj)

high-tech, high-touch (n) horizon (n) be on the horizon

\haItek haI"ttS\ \h"raIzn\ \bi n D h"raIzn\ \Ind"keISn\ \Ol Di Ind"keISnz A ...\ \laI In "stO\

indication (n) All the indications are

At the present time all the indications are that the number of people working from home is set to grow. Its impossible to predict with 100% accuracy what lies in store for businesses in the future. 2

lie in store

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in company
Unit 18
headword lifelike (adj)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Ironically as humans are playing with their DNA structure and becoming more artificial, machines are becoming more lifelike. Which of the technologies listed do you think has the most marketing potential? Cochrane predicts that we will fit much more into the lives weve got by multitasking (=doing more than one thing at the same time) at work. In Bowmans opinion, in the networked world of the future where you live will have little effect on where you work. While some of the technologies mentioned will never be implemented, others will gradually come on stream and improve our lives. Gary Wright thinks that immigration will offset population decline to a certain extent in many Western countries. Many of todays businesses grew up in a period of population explosion.

\"laIflaIk\

marketing potential (n) multitasking (n)

\"mAktIN ptenSl\ \mltI"tAskIN\

networked (adj) on stream (adv) come on stream population (n) population decline (n)

\"netwkt\ \n "strim\ \km n "strim\ \ppj"leISn\ \ppjleISn dI"klaIn\ \ppjleISn Ik"splUZn\ \ps"bIltIz\ \Upn p ps"bIltIz\ \"prspekts\ \D lNtm "prspekts\ \smAt m"Sin\ \bI "tAgtd tu\

population explosion (n)

possibilities (n pl) open up possibilities

Recent developments in computing technology have opened up all kinds of exciting possibilities.

prospects (n pl) the long-term prospects (n pl) smart machine (n) be targeted to

In my opinion the long-term prospects for conventional medicine are limited.

Smart machines use computer technology to make them more effective. Hopefully technological advances will mean that products and services can be better targeted to the needs of the customer.

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in company
Unit 18
headword technological shift (n) technology (n) embrace technology

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Angell argues that every major technological shift creates winners and losers.

\teknldZIkl "SIft\ \tek"nldZI\ \ImbreIs tek"nldZI\ \rIdZekt tek"nldZI\

People will always rush to embrace technology that makes their life easier.

reject technology

Just as we embrace some forms of technology, we reject technology that makes us feel less alive, less human. A technophile is someone who appreciates advances in technology.

technophile (n) (opposite = technophobe) technophobe (n) (opposite = technophile) virtual reality (n) way (n) be a long way off

\"teknfaIl\

\"teknfUb\

A technophobe is someone who does not like or trust new forms of technology.

\vtSUl ri"ltI\ \weI\ \bi a lN weI f\

Virtual reality is the images and sounds generated by computers in order to simulate reality. In my view, the era of robots who are mentally and physically superior to humans is still a long way off.

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in company
Unit 1
headword be based in business (n) business function (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The company has relocated and is now based in Rotterdam.

\bI "beIst In\ \"bIzns\ \"bIzns fNkSn\

Business functions provide an opportunity both to socialize and to make new work contacts. Toms been invited to a private viewing at the Guggenheim. Is that for business or pleasure? Would you do business with a member of your own family? Hows business? I hear things are improving. Not really, economic recovery is still a long way off. Pieter Groenveld is the CEO of our biggest Dutch client.

business or pleasure?

\bIzns O "pleZ\

do business Hows business?

\du "bIzns\ \haUz "bIzns\

CEO (n) (AmE) (BrE = managing director) client (n) key client (n) compliment (n) pay sb a compliment

\sii"U\

\"klaInt\ \ki "klaInt\ \"kmplmnt\ \peI smbdI "kmplmnt\ \"kmplmnt\ \"kmplmnt smbdI n smTIN\ \kn"streInt\ \"kntrkt\ \nIgUSIeIt ... "kntrkt\

Corporate entertainment allows big companies to maintain relationships with key clients. Paying people personal compliments can be an important part of business culture.

compliment (v) compliment sb on sth

Complimenting your staff on good work helps to keep them motivated.

constraint (n) contract (n) negotiate a (3 million/ $900,000) contract

An evening at a corporate event contrasts with the pressures and constraints of the office environment. Were currently negotiating an $80 million contract with Chinese government officials. 1

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in company
Unit 1
headword corporate (adj) corporate event (n) corporate hospitality/ entertainment (n) 4-/5-course dinner/lunch (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"kOprt\ \kOprt I"vent\ \kOprt hsp"tltI\ ent"teInmnt\ \fO\faIv kOs "dIn\"lntS\ \dil\ \du "dil\

Corporate events range from international sporting events to nights at the opera. Corporate hospitality has become a boom industry in the past few years.

A 5-course dinner, plus a private box at the match, costs 900 per person.

deal (n) do a deal

Negotiations with Swedish Steel are ongoing and were hoping to do a deal very soon. A delegation of 12 Chinese government officials were invited for a day out at the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships. My names James McRae and I work for BP in their engineering division.

delegation (n) division (n) engineering/ pharmaceutical division etc

\del"geISn\ \dI"vIZn\ \endZnIrIN\ fAmsjutIkl dI"vIZn\ \hsp"tltI\ \"kOprt hsp"tltI\ \hsp"tltI tent\ \lUk strN\gUd\bd\ \"mdZ\ \bi Invlvd In "mdZ\

hospitality (n) corporate hospitality (n) hospitality tent (n) look strong/good/bad etc merger (n) be involved in a merger

The Japanese speak $40 billion on corporate hospitality. Food, drink and entertainment will be on offer at the firms hospitality tent. The Nikkeis looking strong at the moment, which is good news for Japanese companies. I believe your companys about to be involved in a merger.

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in company
Unit 1
headword money (n) put your money into sth negotiate (v) negotiate a (3 million /$900,000) contract

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"mnI\ \pUt j mnI Int "smTIN\ \nI"gUSIeIt\ \nIgUSIeIt ... "kntrkt\ \"fIs\ \fIs In"vaIrmnt\

Now that the economy is improving its a good time to put your money into the stock markets. A French construction company have successfully negotiated a 12 million contract to build the new company headquarters.

office (n) office environment (n)

Reward your star team members by offering them a unique experience far away from the pressures of the office environment. When was the last time you attended an office party? London Eye, tour of Tate Modern, dinner: 1,600 per party of 20. Staff need to escape from time to time from the pressures and constraints of the office. Weve just completed a successful two-year project with a Finnish engineering company. Enjoy a champagne reception with first-class service at the Paris Ritz.

office party (n) per person/per party pressures (n pl) project (n) complete a project reception (n) champagne reception (n) red carpet (n) roll out the red carpet (for sb) relationship (n) build and maintain a relationship

\fIs "pAtI\ \p "psn\p "pAtI\ \"preSz\ \"prdZekt\ \kmplit "prdZekt\ \rI"sepSn\ \SmpeIn rI"sepSn\ \red "kApt\ \rUl aUt D red "kApt f smbdI\ \rI"leISnSIp\ \bIld n meInteIn rI"leISnSIp\

Why not roll out the red carpet for your clients and invite them to a banquet on board the Royal Yacht Britannia?

Corporate events are an important way of building and maintaining relationships with clients.

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in company
Unit 1
headword sales rep (n) service (n) first-class service setting (n) ideal setting star (adj) star employee/team member etc stock market (n) surroundings (n pl) tasteful surroundings

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Each year we invite our top 50 sales reps and their partners to the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Book your corporate event with us and we guarantee the ideal setting and first-class service. The Royal Yacht Britannia provides the ideal setting for a unique and unforgettable evening. Reward your star team members with an evening of corporate entertainment.

\"seIlz rep\ \"svs\ \fst klAs "svs\ \"setIN\ \"aIdIl "setIN\ \stA\ \stA Im"plOIi\"tim memb\ \"stk mAkt\ \s"raUndINz\ \teIstfl s"raUndINz\ \tim\ \membr v "tim\

I see the stock markets are improving now is probably a good time to invest.

A superb dinner was served in the tasteful surroundings of the Level 2 Caf.

team (n) member of a team

Why not offer star members of your team front-row seats at the Metropolitan Opera in New York? VIP boxes are available from 800 per person.

VIP box (n)

\viaIpi "bks\

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in company
Unit 2
headword advertising campaign (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The new advertising campaign is reported to have cost over 3 million.

\"dvtaIzIN kmpeIn\ \Ol taIm "lU\ \"semblI plAnt\ \"bkIN\ \D fUl "bkIN v\ \"blns Sit\

all-time low (n) assembly plant (n) backing (n) (opposite = opposition) the full backing of balance sheet (n)

Our share price has fallen to an all-time low of just 85 cents. We may have to consider outsourcing production. Hold on, you mean our assembly plant may be closed down?

The proposed change got the full backing of everybody present. A balance sheet is a written statement showing the value of a company at a particular time. A ballpark figure is a rough estimate of how much something is worth or how much it will cost. We cant afford to introduce price cuts were barely breaking even on some of our product lines. Your suggestion is out of the question we cant afford that kind of capital outlay. By centralising distribution we could avoid the problems weve been having with overseas distributors. Do you think working in an open-plan office improves channels of communication between people? Former ITT chief, Harold Geneen, was a remorselessly driven workaholic.

ballpark figure (v) (AmE)

\"bOlpAk fIg\

break even capital (n) capital investment/ outlay (n) centralise (v) (opposite = decentralise) channels of communication (n pl) chief (n)

\breIk "ivn\ \"kptl\ \kptl In"vestmnt\"aUtleI\ \"sentrlaIz\

\tSnlz v kmjunI"keISn\ \tSif\

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in company
Unit 2
headword close down (phr v) (opposite = open up) consolidate (v) consumer (n) consumer confidence (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence Many firms couldnt keep up with their competitors in South East Asia and were forced to close down. Now is not the time to expand, but to consolidate.

\klUz "daUn\

\kn"sldeIt\ \kn"sjum\ \knsjum "knfdns\ \"kst ktIN\ \kstm rI"leISnz\ \det\ \slaId fD Int "det\ \dI"mAnd\ \stImjleIt dI"mAnd\ \dI"mUSn\ \strtidZIk dI"mUSn\ \dIstr"bjuSn tSnl\ \dI"strIbjt\ \Uvsiz dI"strIbjt\

When consumer confidence is low sales go down.

cost cutting (n) customer relations (n pl) debt (n) slide (further) into debt

Cost cutting often involves job losses so that a firms wage bill is reduced. Good customer relations are vital to the growth of any business.

Invest more money in R&D and well simply slide further into debt.

demand (n) stimulate demand demotion (n) (opposite = promotion) strategic demotion (n)

Cutting prices is one way of stimulating demand for a product.

Strategic demotion of men creates more opportunities for women.

distribution channel (n) distributor (n) overseas distributor (n)

Distribution channels are the different ways in which goods and materials are distributed. Centralising distribution would be one way of solving the problems weve been having with overseas distributors. The situation calls for drastic action. Its time for a major restructuring.

drastic action (n)

\drstIk "kSn\

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in company
Unit 2
headword executive (n) fall short of (opposite = exceed) fall short of targets/projections figures (n pl) finalise (v)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence The average executive spends half of his or her life in meetings.

\Ig"zekjtIv\ \fOl "SOt v\ \fOl SOt v "tAgts\pr"dZekSnz\ \"fIgz\ \"faInlaIz\

Unfortunately weve fallen short of our sales projections again.

Executives of ITT had four-day meetings in Brussels poring over figures. We wont be able to finalise anything today. You mean well have to hold another meeting? The company was acquired recently by a former competitor in a hostile takeover.

hostile takeover (n) implement (v) implement a change/ scheme etc inflated (adj) inflated prices information-sharing (n) information-sharing meeting (n) interdepartmental meeting (n)

\hstaIl "teIkUv\ \"ImplIment\ \ImplIment "tSeIndZ\"skIm\ \In"fleItd\ \InfleItd praIsz\ \Inf"meISnSerIN\ \InfmeISnSerIN "mitIN\ \IntdipAtmentl "mitIN\ \aI"ti spOt\ \"dZbSe skim\

Implementing changes takes time.

Selling old product at inflated prices is not good business.

An information-sharing meeting is one in which people exchange facts and information. An interdepartmental meeting is attended by people from the different departments within a company. Good IT support is vital to the efficiency of businesses nowadays. A job-share scheme is one in which two people share the work of a single job and work reduced hours.

IT support (n) job-share scheme (n)

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in company
Unit 2
headword last-in-first-out (LIFO) (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence A last-in-first-out procedure is one in which people who have started working for a firm most recently are the first to lose their jobs. Hundreds of workers could be affected by the layoffs. Feng-shui experts made recommendations for changes to the office layout.

\lAstInfst"aUt\

layoff (n) layout (n) lead (n) technological/ commercial lead etc loss (n) (opposite = profit) make a loss run at a loss market (n) come onto the market

\"leIf\ \"leIaUt\ \lid\ \teknldZIkl\ kmSl "lid\ \ls\ \meIk "ls\ \rn t "ls\ \"mAkt\ \km nt D "mAkt\ \mAkt "trend\ \"mAktdrIvn\ \p"zISn\ \mit wID p"zISn\ \"pSn\ \IksplO DI "pSnz\

In recent months many computer games companies in this country have lost their technological lead.

Running into negative profit is another way of saying making a loss. We may end up running at a loss if we cut prices now.

Better products are coming onto the market all the time.

market trend (n) market-driven (adj) opposition (n) (opposite = backing) meet with opposition option (n) explore the options

Market trends show the type of products that are popular at a particular time. Market-driven organisations are controlled by what and how much people want to buy.

Some of the proposed changes met with a certain amount of opposition.

Several options were explored including job-sharing and making some workers redundant.

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in company
Unit 2
headword outsource (v) outsource production overstaffed (adj) (opposite = understaffed) phase out (phr v) (opposite = bring in, introduce) pick up (phr v) (opposite = drop off, fall off) positive discrimination (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"aUtsOs\ \aUtsOs pra"dkSn\ \Uv"stAft\

We may have to consider outsourcing production in order to cut costs. The board feels that the company is overstaffed and has announced job losses.

\feIz "aUt\

Were barely breaking even on some of our product lines. Surely youre not saying its time to phase them out?

\pIk "p\

Unless things pick up next quarter we may have to rethink our pricing strategy.

\pztIv dIskrIm"neISn\ \"praIs setIN\ \"praIsIn strtdZI\ \"prdkt\ \"prdkt dIvelpmnt\ \"prdkt laIn\ \pr"dkSn\ \pr"dkSn kst\meTd\ \"prfIt mAdZn\

A policy of positive discrimination would lead to more women being appointed to management positions. There was a lot of disagreement in the meeting about price setting. We shall have to rethink our pricing strategy if our European sales figures dont improve. Were losing our technological lead and need to invest more money in product development. If profit margins are falling it may be time to phase out some product lines.

price setting (n) pricing strategy (n) product (n) product development (n)

product line (n) production (n) production cost/ method (n) profit margin (n)

We need to keep production costs down if we want to remain competitive.

Profit margins increased by 7% last quarter.

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in company
Unit 2
headword proposal (n) submit a proposal

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\pr"pUzl\ \sbmIt pr"pUzl\ \pr"vaIzU\ \wID D pr"vaIzU Dt ...\ \pUl "aUt v\ \kwltI kn"trUl\

Heads of department were asked to submit their proposals for change within the company.

proviso (n) with the proviso that

Job losses were approved with the proviso that people with the company for less than a year were laid off first. The firm is pulling out of the personal computer business. Quality control involves testing goods in a factory to make sure that they are good enough to sell. The European sales figures for last quarter are extremely disappointing. Theres often a lot of disagreement in meetings about recruitment processes.

pull out (of) (phr v) quality control (n)

quarter (n) recruitment process (n)

\"kwOt\ \rI"krutmnt prUses\ \"ridZn\ \In D "ridZn v\ \ri"strktSrIN\ \rU\ \In "rU\ \"slrI\ \"slrI rIvju\ \"seIlz prdZekSn\ \"SeIkp\

region (n) in the region of restructuring (n) row (n) in a row salary (n) salary review (n) sales projection (n) shake-up (n)

Her salary must be somewhere in the region of $100,000 a year. The situation calls for drastic action its time for a major restructuring.

This is the third quarter in a row weve missed our targets.

Each of our employees has an annual salary review. Sales projections forecast a considerable increase in sales in Eastern Europe. During the recent shake-up several members of the Board of Directors resigned.

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in company
Unit 2
headword share (n) share price (n) shareholder (n)

Upper intermediate

pronunciation

translation/notes

example sentence

\"se praIs\ \"SehUld\

Our share price has fallen to an all-time low of 85 cents. Shareholders were delighted when ITTs sales increased from $745 million to nearly $28 billion. Staff appraisals take place annually between employees and their line manager. The company is overstaffed I think some streamlining is necessary.

staff appraisal (n) streamlining (n) (opposite = expansion) supply chain (n) target (n) miss (your) targets team spirit (n) volatile (adj) volatile market (n) voluntary (adj) (opposite = compulsory) voluntary redundancy (n)

\stAf "preIzl\ \"strimlaInIN\

\s"plaI tSeIn\ \"tAgt\ \mIs j "tagts\ \tim "spIrt\ \"vltaIl\ \vltaIl "mAkt\ \"vlntrI\ \vlntrI rI"dndnsI\

Our supply chains have been disrupted by the recent rail strike.

This is the third quarter in a row that weve missed our targets. A good team spirit is vital for both efficiency and productivity.

A volatile market is one that develops and changes very quickly.

One answer to the problem of overstaffing would be voluntary redundancy.

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